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Introduction
Ever since civilization was capable of recording history, we were able to identify the type of
career paths that existed throughout history. Not much has changed over the centuries. But, as
an individual's career path is one of the most important choices that individual will make in
their entire life and it will affect the world, it is high time to think differently about one’s
pursuing career. As our country, Bangladesh, is developing day by day, it supposed to be
concerned on its peoples’ career future by utilizing its opportunities. Though Bangladesh is a
poverty country with its large unemployed people, it has many employment opportunities.
Utilization of these employment opportunities is important for poverty alleviation and
sustainable development for Bangladesh. There are many highly promising sector which
provides many career opportunities for our unemployment generation and these opportunities
face many challenges to sustain and to take part in the Bangladesh economy as well as the
world economy.

ICT(information communication technology)
The Information Communication Technology (ICT) program strives to educate students to
assume leadership roles where the application of information technology is concerned with the
ultimate goal of connecting people, organizations, and communities to enhance their ability to
succeed. The career opportunities in this sector are:
 Staff Technologist
 Computer Support Specialist
 Mobilization Specialist
 Government Technologist
 Information Assurance Analyst
 Database Analyst
 Privacy Coordinator Computer & Information Systems Manager
 Web Marketing Manager
 Information Security Analyst
 Digital Strategist

Bangladesh's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industry generates
approximately $300 million in annual revenue. The potential is huge, but the country is yet to
fully leverage ICT for development.
Bangladesh needs a significant higher ratio of female participation in the labor force to realize
its vision of reaching middle income status by 2021. ICT can play an important role in job
creation for women. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) can help create jobs for women
by integrating ICT in their development world.
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The challenges in ICT career are:
 Technical problems:
These are problems with the artefact, where it breaks down, does not work properly, is difficult
to use, is partly broken etc. Network technologies also can have problems with the
infrastructure not providing a good service. While this is not a fault in the technology, rather
in the service provision, it is appears to the user as a technical limit to use.

 Knowledge, skill, and the User interface problems :
Many technologies such as the computer place considerable demands on the users’ knowledge
and skill. Some people see their lack of knowledge as a problem in adoption or use, others will
work to overcome this by learning. However there is often the option to delegate learning to
others, and benefit from their knowledge. Knowledge and skill problems are often due to
difficulties with the user interface. Finding a way for people to interact with complex machines
and information systems, including ICTs has always been a problem, and, and generally relies
on users making a considerable effort how to control the system, navigate the information, to
learn the interface metaphors used, input data etc. Many users find interfaces confusing and
difficult to use (Norman, 1990). Designers should not always rely on devices being used on the
condition that they left the factory or in the way they were designed for either.

 Learning problems:
Although learning would at first sight seem to be a dimension of knowledge and skills, the
process of learning is also an activity that can be problem and sometimes a barrier. Learning
takes time and effort and often money. It can entail imposing on others for information and
support. Nonetheless, past experience and accumulated knowledge of various sorts including
technical knowledge, confidence with using ICTs and knowledge of how to adopt and learn
(what could be called technical knowledge capital) can be considerable benefit in learning a
new product, while those who never had to use ICTs before or have avoided them can find
themselves struggling
 Commercial Service Organizations and the marketplace:

We have to deal with many organizations and individual on a commercial or intra
organizational basis when we want to use or adopt a technical service. The market for ICTs can
be confusing, particularly over choice of supplier and product when we do not have much
knowledge of the product, and it can be difficult to assess the offerings and advice of
commercial organizations, be they a local provider like a retail outlet or large bureaucratic
organization such as a network provider. Commercial organizations often do not have the best
interests of the customer at heart, and may be reluctant or struggling to provide the level of
service that is required. As a result consumers encounter many difficulties with commercial
service providers, at the time of purchase, and though the ongoing process of service provision,
replacement, upgrading, and repair. In addition to experience of practical problems, this
increases uncertainty and lack of confidence in dealing with commercial suppliers and our
ability to trust their products and services.
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 Relationships and the Network: The adoption and presence of ICTs can cause problems
and disputes between friends, in families, among colleagues, and departments of an
organization. Reasons for disputes.

 Others are:

 Lack of training
 Number of computers are not available
 Few opportunity of higher study
 Lack of knowledge

HRM(Human Resource Management)
Human Resources is a field that offers multiple career opportunities to graduates now-a-
days. Human Resources jobs also offer the opportunity to make a significant income and to
contribute to business culture, business strategy, and the overall happiness and motivation of
employees. . Careers in HRM can be generalist or specialist depending on an organization’s
need. A variety of HRM careers is available in both the public and private sectors and across a
range of industries within those sectors.

The concept of HRM is relatively new in Bangladesh. It is only a decade since people in top
management in Bangladesh started realizing the need for a separate HRM department- a view
Khaled Mahmud et al. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR) Page
| 31 encouraged by the qualitative change in industrial sector in Bangladesh at late ‟80. But the
market is still quite slow in accommodating the fresh graduates. Only the multi-national
companies along with some of the giant local companies have successfully assimilated the
practice so far.

Human Resource Management (HRM) is a growing career in Bangladesh and most companies
are looking for HR professionals. But finding a good, skilled person in this line is a tough ask
and so most companies can’t hire the suitable candidates for their HR posts. Furthermore it is
also said that HR related jobs or HR related career cannot take one to the peak and the myth is
actually to some extent true. Though it is a very prospective trend in career, the major difference
of HR and other major areas of job like finance or marketing is that it is still difficult for HR
managers to work alone, independently.

As the time progresses HRM gains more recognition as an important player in developing and
executing organization strategies. The scope of HR services has also been expanding beyond
simply recruitment, payroll, benefits, compensation, etc. With all its limitations and with even
greater prospects HR profession in Bangladesh is heading to a bright future that without any
hesitation going to groom as a major job sector.
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But here also pointed out some HR related challenges in Bangladesh. Some of the problems
are such as:
 The Government of Bangladesh has no ministry for HR. Most organizations do not have
HR departments and thus HR practice lags far behind in Bangladesh.

 Lack of market driven HRM education in many universities that conflict with real life
situations. Also, educational institutions teaching HR mostly base their curriculum around
industrial management as it mostly focuses around labor laws.

 There is a lack of proper empowerment of HR persons in an organization. Mostly it is seen
that the HR department is carrying out orders of the management and there is no self-
involvement by these executives in any decision making.

 In most organizations, a HR person is not seen as a strategic business partner. Professionals
in this line do not want to take risks.

 The management has a tendency to discriminate HR professionals in terms of salary and
position.

 There is a lack of initiative in terms of personal and professional development from the HR
professionals part. They should regularly update their knowledge to be able to survive in
this fast track line.

 Most of the HR professionals have not been able to demonstrate the benefits or the bottom
line results being achieved from practicing modern HR concepts.

 Two alternative scenarios prevail in Bangladesh. Few people understand the differences
between genuine HRM tasks and administrative tasks of an organization.
Many incumbents of the HR department are observed to be performing generic tasks of
reporting to the higher authority rather than the core HR tasks of maintaining a healthy HR
force. There is also of a lack of strategic outlook of HRM considered essential for maintaining
a competitive stance in the globalized world. The reverse is also true: companies do not feel
the necessity of hiring specialized HRM graduates rather candidates from non-specialized
background are seen to perform the core HRM functions. No wonder many deserving
candidates get lost in the system. These organizations fail to realize the real worth of HR asset
and hence the need to harness a distinct and separate department responsible for supporting
their HR asset.

Social Work:
Social work is one of the more stable, recession-proof career fields in Bangladesh. At the
same time, current career prospects for professionals with an advanced degree are especially
strong because of two emerging trends: rapidly growing population is placing an increasing
demand for social services in that demographic.
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Careers in social work offer graduates some of the most diverse employment opportunities of
all professions. Social workers can be found in schools, private clinics, healthcare institutions,
welfare agencies, mental health facilities, retirement homes and many other settings.

Social work career opportunities include:
 Counselor  Life Skills Counselor
 Case Manager  Outpatient Health Specialist
 Community Coordinator  Mental Health Counselor
 Family Therapist  Social Worker
 Human Service Worker
 Public Health Manage

Social work as a profession continues to face many challenges in the 21st century as it strives
to promote well-being and enhance welfare in a socio-political climate driven by economics
and individualism. There are some social work career challenges:
 One of the most significant challenges is this concept about doing more with less. The range
of responsibilities for social workers continues to grow exponentially, but the number of
employees doesn’t grow. Each social worker has to be both a micro and a macro person.

 As the needs of our environments pull at us and really stretch our resources, it’s more and
more difficult for social workers to find good mentors.
 There’s been a national decline in caseloads. people confuse caseload with workload. It’s
not a one-to-one metric. Governments want to build a budget according to caseload decline.
The struggle of social workers is to put into words the work that needs to be done on cases.
People want to assign amount to the caseloads so that the [budget] amount declines as the
caseload declines. It’s important to have a conversation about workload versus caseload.

 Where does social work fit into helping manage populations and helping to create
accountable care organizations? There are some real national challenges when you’re trying
to deal with diminished resources.

 The work that social workers do is hard work because to interact with so much pain.
Whatever realm the social worker is in, they end up connecting with a lot of difficult
experiences. In order to keep people fresh and vibrant in this work, they need time to take
care of themselves; they need time to talk to others about what they’re experiencing.

 To adequately prepare the students for an ever-changing environment because there’re all
types of demands being placed on social workers is one of the important challenges.

 Everything is data-driven now, and it’s probably something all of us could relate to. It
impacts social workers, but it impacts all of our entities as well. We know that data drives
the budget. It drives billions of dollars. But for social workers, trying to translate it [into
helping clients] is what we struggle with the most. That’s a significant challenge.
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The others Grand Challenges for Social Work below:

 Ensure healthy development for all youth
 Close the health gap
 Stop family violence
 Advance long and productive lives
 Eradicate social isolation
 End homelessness
 Create social responses to a changing environment
 Harness technology for social good
 Promote smart decerebration
 Reduce extreme economic inequality
 Build financial capability for all
 Achieve equal opportunity and justice

Pharmacy
Pharmacy is a multi-disciplinary subject composed of all aspects of drugs including its
manufacturing, synthesis, quality control and quality assurance, marketing, handling, safety
matters, patients care, invention, and public awareness for the rational utilization of drugs, etc.
At present 6 public and 22 private universities provide Pharmacy education in Bangladesh. The
enhanced number of out coming graduate Pharmacists demands the need for opening the new
job arenas in Bangladesh, as many prospective fields of Pharmacy profession have not yet been
introduced in our country.
Overall career opportunities in pharmacists in Bangladesh

 Pharmaceutical industries (Finished medicines, Active Pharmaceutical
Ingredients/APIs, and Excipients Manufacturing industries): In Production, Quality
Control (QC), Quality Assurance (QA), Product Development(PD), cGMP Training,
Warehouse, Drug Research and Invention, and Technical Services Department (TSD).
 Pharmaceutical Marketing: Product Management Department (PMD), Medical Services
Department (MSD), Sales Promotion/Medical Promotion, Clinical Services, Training for
field forces, and International Marketing (IM) departments.
 Drug Regulatory Affairs
 Hospital Pharmacy (Govt. and Private Hospitals)*
 Academic positions(govt. and private universities)
 Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh Drug Administration (Directorate General of Drug
Administration of Bangladesh)
 Drug Testing Laboratories (Dhaka and Chittagong)
 Community Pharmacy
 Clinical Pharmacy
 Retail & Chain Pharmacy
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 Research & Development in Pharma industries, educational and research institutes
(Research for new drug molecules, Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Improved Healthcare,
Clinical aspects, etc.)

The main challenges of this sector for career opportunity generation are:
 Job crisis in the Pharmaceutical industries:
The pharmaceutical sector of Bangladesh has developed in the manufacturing of finished
pharmaceutical products; the API and Excipients based industries have not yet remarkably
advanced in this country. So, Bangladeshi Pharmacists have job scope limited to
pharmaceutical finished products manufacturing industries.

 Eligibility Problem of Bangladeshi Pharmacists in abroad:
The present Pharmacy education system of Bangladesh does not comply with the
international requirements for jobs and higher studies in many countries.

 Eligibility challenge of Pharmacists to work in APIs and Excipients manufacturing
industries:
Most of the Pharmacists are currently working in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical
finished drugs. As those industrial jobs have already been occupied, the new job scopes
may be created with the introduction of manufacturing operations in the API plants of
proposed API Park.

 Jobs of Pharmacists in abroad becoming tough day by day:
US Government opened the door of Pharmacists as immigrant in mid 1970s. Bangladeshi
Pharmacists were able to get direct registration for the practice of Pharmacy profession up
to late 1980s.

 WTO/TRIPS patent exemption for Bangladeshi Pharmaceuticals: suspension or
renewal- possible influence on Pharmacy profession:
Bangladesh has exempted patent exemption for products manufacturing up to 2016 to fulfill
the local demand and export to Least Developed Countries (LDCs). There is a possibility
to withdraw this exclusive opportunity after this period.

Employment Opportunities of Digital Marketing
Digital Marketing is a growing field across sectors today. While it comes with a plethora
of opportunities, there are also challenges that must be overcome in order to fully harness the
capabilities of this opportunity. The article talks of some of the most prominent challenges that
businesses today face when they align their business strategy (more specifically, their
marketing strategy) with digital marketing.
Many jobs are expected to be created in the digital marketing space within a couple of years as
more companies tap the internet and the social media platforms to bolster business. Bangladesh
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is emerging as a digital outsourcing hub for diverse services including online advertising, social
media, website design and development. By taking proper initiatives to train the digital media
professionals with various digital marketing skills, Bangladesh can earn huge foreign
currencies. The rising demand is also spurred by increased use of the internet and mobile
phones besides fast growing e-commerce businesses. With the launch of 3G in Bangladesh, the
possibilities of the digital marketing have taken a new direction. In recent years, employment
in digital marketing has grown up to 52 percent according to a survey report. Even many digital
marketing professionals are earning foreign currencies as independent freelancers. However,
the availability of talent is less than demand. Almost every single brand has put in place a
digital marketing strategy and is struggling to hire people to execute the same.

The challenges of digital marketing career are
 The biggest challenge lies in identifying the channel(s) which fit your business
requirements
 Another challenge of digital marketing is the pace at which it is evolving
 There are no perfect metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of digital marketing
 One must remember that going digital does not translate into completely doing away with
brick and mortar stores
 Line between innovation and adoption is thinning.

Bank and Financial Institution
Banking sector of Bangladesh is one of the major sectors, which contributes significantly
to the creation of career opportunities. The sector comprises a number of banks in various
categories. Considering ownership the sector can be classified in to four major categories -
such as Nationalized Commercial Banks (NCBs), Specialized Banks (SPBs), Private
Commercial Banks (PCBs), and Trans-National Banks (TNBs). The sector makes a positive
impact on the economic development by generating employment. In the year 1980 total number
of employees in this sector was 59,235 but within 15 years of time the figure shoot
approximately double to 101,444. The average growth rate of employment generation was
3.76%.Overall employment in the financial sector is about 0.10 million with the private sector
employment rising.

The main facilities one can enjoy in banking sector career are:

 Stable Job
 High social Status
 Advancement
 Smart Salary
 Credit Facilities
 Career Growth
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Public Sector
When Bangladesh became independent in 1972, the number of ministries was 21; but this
rose to 58 by 2017. During the same period, public employment grew at the annual
compounded rate of 3.6%.The career opportunities in public sector are generated by different
types of government own institutions. Such as –

 Ministry
 Defense and Security
 Educational Institutions
 Government Projects
 State own Banks and Financial Institutions
 Public Hospital

The main problems or challenges of this sector for career growth are:

 The equal opportunity in public sector employment for PWDs has not been ensured in
Bangladesh ,
 Politicians and senior officials show favoritism in awarding employment opportunities and
contracts.
 There are very few rewards for excellent performance
 Bad performance is seldom formally punished
 Staff are assigned tasks for which they were not recruited
 Control is not delegated sufficiently
 Class I officials are a well-organized interest group
 Public officials make more than their official salaries
 Budget management is weak.

Garments and EPZ (Export Processing Zone)
Globalization has hit the populations of the third world hard. Unemployment has risen as
established industries have been destroyed and poverty has deepened. Yet the organizations
that clear the way for Foreign Direct Investment do have something to be proud of in
Bangladesh – the rapid expansion of the garments industry, which now employs approximately
1.5 million people. However, for these workers the joy of having a job is marred by the harsh
conditions they endure in the workplace.
Bangladesh began creating Export Processing Zones (EPZs) in 1978 to attract foreign capital
and earn export dollars. In 1993 the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA)
was set up and a blanket ban on trade union activity imposed. This is obviously the most
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attractive feature for investors, on top of tax breaks and other incentives on offer. The EPZs
now employ 70,000 workers, mostly in the garment and shoe-making industries.
The Challenges of this sector are:
National labor laws do not apply in the EPZs, leaving BEPZA in full control over work
conditions, wages and benefits. However, BEPZA ignores not only national standards but its
own. The guaranteed minimum monthly wages of $US70, $US 40 and $US 25 for skilled,
unskilled and probationary workers respectively is a laughable fiction. As is the entitlement of
permanent workers to annual festival bonuses, medical coverage, and accommodation and
transportation allowance. The body has consistently refused to give out letters confirming
employment and does not hire any workers on a permanent basis. In reality, earnings average
about $20 per month – less than half the official rate – and workers do forced overtime under
threat of dismissal. The withholding of pay for months at a time – a practice common
throughout the private sector – is also the norm.
The situation in the garment industry at large is even worse. The nation’s top export earner
employs 1.5 million workers under conditions of super-exploitation. The majority are young
women from rural areas who have migrated to the urban centers in search of work. The
sweatshops are more like prisons than factories, with no fixed hours, regular breaks or days
off. Workers earn between $7 and $10 a month, for an average of 13 hours a day, up to 27 days
per month. This comes to an hourly rate of two or three cents! The bourgeois media reports
that the industry currently owes $ 300,000 in back pay, a staggering amount considering the
miserly wages.
Garment workers change jobs frequently because of wage arrears, lay-offs, ill health or
harassment from the bosses and their “security guards”. As the vast majority of employees are
girls and young women – most living apart from their families – there are many cases of
physical and sexual harassments

Conclusion
Now Bangladesh plays a “Role Model” for the developing country. It has been trying to
overcome the many challenges by utilizing its opportunities. As unemployment problem is the
most important socio-economic challenge for Bangladesh, it has been determined for a long
time to reduce the rate of unemployment. Moreover the above, there are many career
opportunities like nursing, SME sector, agriculture sector e.t.c by proper utilization of these
opportunities can contribute to reduce the unemployment rate.
Actually Career opportunities in Bangladesh are not low but the number of skilled man power
is very limited. When opportunities come, many challenges with these opportunity also come.
If our government develop these sectors which provides many career with lots of good sides,
then the day is not so far when “the opportunities will turn into strengths”