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NMR and MRI

Seppo Vahasalo
Philips Medical Systems MR Finland
2008-06-17

Contents

• Some local MRI history
• NMR and MRI Physics
• Magnet technology and electronics
• Recent trends in MRI and magnet technology
• Markets and players
• Magnetic fields. Safety, EMF directive

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 2

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 3

Merit MRI systems (Low Field resistive solenoid magnets) – 1993 Joint Venture (50/50) with Picker International Inc.. Picker Nordstar Oy founded – 1995 First Open MR scanner: Picker Outlook (0. Seppo Vahasalo.17 T superconducting scanner – 1980s Instrumentarium Imaging: Acutscan. Mega4.Company History 30 Years of MRI Expertise – 1978 MRI research program at Helsinki University of Technology with Instrumentarium Oy – 1981 First 0.0T coils 4 – 2005 Start Integrated coil development for 1.6T with superconducting magnet – 2004 Panorama 1.23T) – 1996 Full ownership to Picker International – 2000 Marconi Medical Systems Finland Oy – 2000 OEM agreement with Philips – 2001 PMS MR Technologies Finland Oy – 2002 Panorama 0. Magnaview. 2008-06-17 .5T/3T Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

1T Merit.6T. 1989 – ‘94 Proview.2002 Panorama 0. 1998 .02T Acutscan. 1995 – ‘98 Panorama 0.Product History 0. Seppo Vahasalo.23T. 1983 – ’87 Outlook. 2002 – ‘06 Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 5 . 2002 – ‘07 0.04T Magnaview. 1987 – ‘89 0.

Seppo Vahasalo.2 T NMR Magnet at HWB-NMR. 2008-06-17 6 . UK being anatomical imaging. typically capable of whole loaded with a sample body scans.NMR and MRI • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is physical phenomenon. using a single atom type and frequency. whereas Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. referring to property of atoms with an odd spin to be able to adsorb energy at the specific frequency. depending on the atom type and strength of the external magnetic field • NMR spectroscopy is a method to measure chemical composition of material and especially chemical bonds of organic molecules by high resolution RF probing in a strong magnetic field • Magnetic Resonance Imaging is used for 900MHz. Birmingham. 21.

Seppo Vahasalo. they are aligned according to that and precess around it at the Larmor frequency • Larmor frequency is directly proportional to the external magnetic field strength by the gyromagnetic ratio 42578100 Hz/T Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Physics of NMR . 2008-06-17 7 .Polarization • Hydrogen nucleus. for example in water behaves like a tiny magnet • When H1 nuclei are put into a strong external magnetic field.

Magnetization • About half of the nuclei are aligned parallel to the external field and the other half antiparallel • There is an excess of about 1 ppm of spins pointing to the direction of external field -> measurable macroscopic net magnetization • How much is the excess for a 2mm x 2mm x 5mm voxel water (= 0.02g)? – One mol of water weighs 18g (2H1+O16) and carries 2x 6.02x1023 = 1.02x1023 H1 nuclei – In one voxel there are (0.02ml = 0.02/18) x 2x 6. 2008-06-17 8 .34x1021 / 2x106 = 2.34x1021 H1 nuclei – The excess is 3x1. Seppo Vahasalo.01x1015 nuclei Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Physics of NMR .

Seppo Vahasalo.Physics of NMR – Excitation of Nuclei • It is possible to bring in energy to the system at the resonant frequency (Larmor frequency). For a 21. 2008-06-17 9 .2T NMR Spectrometer this corresponds to irradiating the sample at RF frequency of 902. in pulsed NMR a very short RF pulse is applied to excite a broad range of frequencies (Fourier spectrum) • Macroscopically this corresponds to: – Forcing the phase of individual spins coherent and – Tilting the macroscopic magnetization away from B0 direction Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.7 MHz • In CW spectroscopy the frequency (or B1 field) of excitations is swept.

Physics of NMR . – There are two different relaxation methods: T1 (spin-matrix or loss of transversal magnetization) and T2 relaxation (spin-spin or loss of phase coherence) • An efficient antenna is needed to collect these signals that are digitized and stored into a computer memory as raw data. 2008-06-17 10 . the nuclei start to relax back to the original state. Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Relaxation • When excitation ends. That happens by emitting weak RF signals. Seppo Vahasalo. • In case of NMR there are no gradients applied and the received signal is just a FID (Free Induction Decay).

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 11 .Physics of NMR – Spectral Information • In the real world the resonance is much more complicated • When the resonance is measured at high resolution for spectroscopy. caused by neighboring atoms Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. in the signal can be seen for example: – Effect of multiple coupled spins in different bonds – Local chemical environment (perturbations to the local magnetic field.

signal can be identified into a single voxel • By using different TE and TR times. 2008-06-17 12 . it is possible to excite only a narrow slice of tissue • By manipulating the excited spins during echo formation and signal collection with additional gradients and RF pulses. it is possible to get tissue contrast Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.MRI – Some Additional Physics • In MRI linear magnetic field gradients are applied to acquire spatial information • By applying a narrow bandwidth excitation pulse with a linear magnetic field gradient on. Seppo Vahasalo.

MRI – Technology • Extremes in electronics: 400A magnet currents and about 400 kW peak power is used to get μV level signals Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 13 . Seppo Vahasalo.

Nobel Prize in 2003 Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 14 . Seppo Vahasalo.

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. By analysis of the characteristics of the emitted radio waves. he could determine their origin. This made it possible to build up two-dimensional pictures of structures (H2O vs D2O) that could not be visualized with other methods. USA • Discovered in 1971 the possibility to create a two-dimensional picture by introducing gradient in the magnetic field.Paul C. Seppo Vahasalo. Urbana. IL. 2008-06-17 15 . Lauterburg • University of Illinois.

This became technically possible within medicine a decade later. which made it possible to develop a useful imaging technique. He showed how the signals could be mathematically analyzed. Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. Mansfield also showed how extremely fast imaging (EPI) could be achievable. 2008-06-17 16 . School of Physics and Astronomy.Sir Peter Mansfield • University of Nottingham. Nottingham. United Kingdom • Further developed the utilization of fast changing gradients in the magnetic field.

Seppo Vahasalo. stenosis and aneurysms imaging Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Key benefits of MRI Safe imaging method with good and selectable Diffusion contrast between different tissues imaging MR Angiography: imaging of arteries to detect abnormal Functional flow. 2008-06-17 17 .

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 18 . MRI Magnets Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 19 . Seppo Vahasalo. transverse field Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.MRI scanners Cylindrical. axial field Open.

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 20 .Open-type magnets Field generators on either side of a gap Field direction transverse to patient Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 21 . Seppo Vahasalo.Cylindrical magnets Magnex GE Oxford/ IGC/ Siemens Philips Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Simple Cylindrical Magnet Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 22 . Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 23 .Simple Cylindrical Magnet Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 24 . Seppo Vahasalo.Simple Cylindrical Magnet Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 25 . Seppo Vahasalo.Simple Cylindrical Magnet Region of ±1% deviation from central field On axis: B(z)=B0+C2z2 Field is not homogeneous Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Sectioned Magnet Remove turns from center of coil Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 26 .

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 27 .Sectioned Magnet Remove turns from center of coil Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Sectioned Magnet Region of ±1% deviation from central field Windings can be concentrated Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 28 . Seppo Vahasalo.

Seppo Vahasalo.Sectioned Magnet Windings can be concentrated Field stays the same if centers of coils don’t move Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 29 .

Sectioned Magnet Helmholtz Coil length ≈ 0. 2008-06-17 (1821-1894) 30 . ±1% B(z)=B0+C4z4 region Not good enough for MRI! Hermann von Helmholtz Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.5*diam. Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 31 . Seppo Vahasalo.Sectioned Magnet – 3 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 32 . Seppo Vahasalo.Sectioned Magnet – 3 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 33 .Sectioned Magnet – 3 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Seppo Vahasalo.Sectioned Magnet – 3 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 34 .

Sectioned Magnet – 3 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 35 .

Sectioned Magnet – 3 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 36 .

B(z)=B0+C6 z6 2 1 3 Still not good enough for MRI. 6 4 5 James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.76*diam. 2008-06-17 37 .Sectioned Magnet – 3 sections Maxwell Coil length ≈ 0. Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 38 . Seppo Vahasalo.Sectioned Magnet – 4 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 39 .Sectioned Magnet – 4 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 40 .Sectioned Magnet – 4 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

Seppo Vahasalo.Sectioned Magnet – 4 sections Oxford Instr. 1977 (Aberdeen) 41 Bruker. 1979 (Philips) Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 .

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 42 .Sectioned Magnet – 5 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 43 .Sectioned Magnet – 5 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

Seppo Vahasalo.Sectioned Magnet – 5 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 44 .

Sectioned Magnet – 6 sections Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 45 .

Sectioned Magnet – 6 sections

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 46

Sectioned Magnet – 6 sections
length ≈ 1.3*diam.

±1% B(z)=B0+C12 z12
region

State of the art
MRI-magnet

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 47

Cylindrical MRI Magnet

±1000 ppm

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 48

2008-06-17 49 .Cylindrical MRI Magnet ± 100 ppm Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 50 . Seppo Vahasalo.Cylindrical MRI Magnet ± 10 ppm Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

. 2008-06-17 51 . Seppo Vahasalo.. Safety issue? Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Cylindrical MRI Magnet ± 1 ppm B(z)=B0+C12 z12 large gradients at edge of FOV Magnetic force is proportional to field gradient.

Strong gradients are located outside magnet.Cylindrical MRI Magnet Full range FOV boundary gradients are invisible. 2008-06-17 52 . Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

Cylindrical MRI Magnet FOV boundary gradients are invisible. 2008-06-17 53 . Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Strong gradients are located outside magnet. Seppo Vahasalo.

Cylindrical MRI Magnet FOV boundary gradients are invisible. Strong gradients are located outside magnet. Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 54 .

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 55 .External field Magnetic force hazard Strong gradients are located outside magnet Force on piece of iron: Fx = mdip dB/dx Typical gradient 10 T/m Fmag ≈ 50 Fgravity Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 56 .External field Pacemaker hazard Fields > 0. Seppo Vahasalo.5 mT reach far outside magnet B(r) ∼ 1/r3 10% of central field Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 57 .Active shielding Active shielding Coils at larger diameter with opposing current Shield coil Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Active shielding Active shielding Coils at larger diameter with opposing current Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 58 .

2008-06-17 59 . Seppo Vahasalo.Active shielding Active shielding Coils at larger diameter with opposing current Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2008-06-17 60 .Active shielding Active shielding Coils at larger diameter with opposing current Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

Active shielding Typical compact actively shielded magnet configuration 0. 2008-06-17 61 . Seppo Vahasalo.5 m radial B(r) ∼ 1/r5 Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.5 mT boundary < 4 m axial < 2.

2008-06-17 62 .Shielded Magnet – external field Magnetic force hazard Active Shielding does NOT solve the magnetic force problem! Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

Seppo Vahasalo. B converted into kinetic energy Impact velocity independent of field details Comparable to drop from high building Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Magnetic dipole flying into magnetic Field Potential energy = mdip . 2008-06-17 63 .

MRI Magnet – external field The magnet trap The stronger the field the deeper the hole Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 64 . Seppo Vahasalo.

5 tesla built 2002 built 1988 Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 65 .Compact cylindrical magnet technology 3 tesla 0.

Seppo Vahasalo.Magnet technology details Coil Helium tank Radiation shield Vacuum can Helium Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 66 .

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 67 .2 K First generation compact magnet Patient Space Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Superconducting magnet technology 4.

2008-06-17 68 .Operating conditions of superconductor • Ample margin needed between actual current and critical current Quench Bconductor • More field >> more conductor Current Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 69 .Superconducting magnet technology 4. Seppo Vahasalo.2 K First generation compact magnet Patient Space Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

2 K Thinner structures Reduced clearance Increased current density Stronger magnet in Patient Space same envelope Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.Superconducting magnet technology 4. 2008-06-17 70 .

2 K NbTi/Cu wire 1-2 mm 200 A/mm2 Patient Space Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 71 .Superconducting magnet technology 4.

2008-06-17 72 .Superconducting magnet technology 4.2 K NbTi/Cu wire 1-2 mm 200 A/mm2 Patient Space Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

High temperature superconductors and MRI • Problems with HTC superconductors in MRI are – Maximum current density. – Trend is towards higher field strengths. reductions in price) will be viable soon. 2008-06-17 73 .6T HTC iron core MRI magnet – Possible to build – With the extrapolated developments (improvements in current/flux density.. so this design does not make sense commercially Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. but . maximum critical flux density – Limited length of available wires -> At the moment not cost effective • We have done a feasibility study for a 0. Seppo Vahasalo.

Ultra-high field magnets Magnex 7T and 8T Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 74 . Seppo Vahasalo.

2008-06-17 75 .9.5T Whole Body Magnet • University of Illinois in Chicago • Imaging of Na ions • Requires slow motion in magnetic field Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.

5T system cost $1. Seppo Vahasalo.4T add about $8M • Above 10T the cost is about $10M/T. 2008-06-17 76 .7T whole body magnet Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. after that exponential growth of cost • A 7T system – Has some 420 kilometers of superconducting wire – Weighs about 30 tons – Requires about 440 tons of steel around magnet for stray field shielding • From 7T to 9.5M • The rule applies up to 7T. so a 15T system would cost $150 million • In France plans to build a 11.Cost aspect of Ultra-high field magnets • Rule of thumb: system cost is about $1 million/T up to 7T systems – 1.

NM) limit for SNR in detection • Best results with SQUIDS and optical atomic magnetometers. Seppo Vahasalo. John Kitching.Better Detectors? • One option to higher magnetic field strength is to use more sensitive detectors • Ultimately thermal noise from sample and environment sets the 30 mT magnetic field. NIST Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. detector. 2008-06-17 77 . Cesium filled cell. still not competitive with traditional resonant antennas with LNAs Optical magnetometer – IR laser. SQUID detector (Vadim Zotev. LANL.

5 Common architecture up to 3 Tesla Unshielded long coils for 7T and more Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Key properties of cylindrical MRI magnets • Field generation: Coils • Field shaping: Coils • Stray-field containment: Coils Enclosed in cryostat with liquid helium L/D ratio > 1. 2008-06-17 78 . Seppo Vahasalo.

8T) .mid field (0.Open-type magnets Technology determined by central field . Seppo Vahasalo.low field (<0.8T) Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 79 .4T) .high field (>0.5 – 0.

Low-field open magnets (B<0. Seppo Vahasalo.4T) Iron magnetic circuit Air gap with pole shoes Pole shoe D>2 x gapsize (Field shaping) Yoke (Return flux) Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 80 .

Low-field open magnets + resistive coils Drive coil More field >> more ampere- turns heavier yoke Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 81 . Seppo Vahasalo.

B≈0. 2008-06-17 82 .2 T Philips Siemens Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo.Resistive Magnets with iron flux return yoke and pole shoes.

Low-field open magnets + permanent magnet Layer of PM material (Nd B Fe blocks) More field >> more PM material heavier yoke Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 83 . Seppo Vahasalo.

4 tesla Yoke Column Magnet Pole piece Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. Seppo Vahasalo. Example of permanent magnet Hitachi Aperto 0. 2008-06-17 84 .

2008-06-17 85 . Seppo Vahasalo.Limits of yoke/pole configuration • Power dissipation of resistive magnet too large • Permanent magnet material cost explodes • Magnetic saturation of pole iron • For B > 0.5T use superconducting drive coils • Field shaping with iron rings Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 86 .Mid-field open magnets + superconducting coils Drive coil (in Cryostat) Rings to profile field in gap More field >> more ampere- turns heavier yoke Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

6 T Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.Mid-field open magnet Iron flux return yoke Iron ring structure Drive coil Philips 0. Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 87 .

7T Airis Panorama Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.6T 0. 2008-06-17 88 .Examples of Mid-field open magnets with iron flux return and superconducting coils Hitachi Philips 0. Seppo Vahasalo.

Iron-less superconducting high-field open magnets • Weight of yoke becomes prohibitive at >1 tesla (≈40 tons at ≈ 0. • Fully superconducting coil system for field generation and field shaping • External field cancelled by active shield coils Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.7 tesla). Seppo Vahasalo. 2008-06-17 89 .

Seppo Vahasalo.0T open magnet (Philips/IGC) Shield coil Main coil Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 90 .Fully superconducting 1.

0T open magnet (Philips/IGC) Vacuum tank of cryostat Total weight 6 tons zero boil-off Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 91 . Seppo Vahasalo.Fully superconducting 1.

2008-06-17 92 .Open magnet summary B<0.5<B<0. Seppo Vahasalo.8 T B>0.4 tesla 0.8T Field generation Resistive coil Supercon coils Supercon coils Nd B Fe Field shaping Pole piece Coils + Iron Coils Flux return Iron yoke Iron yoke Coils Coils Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.

5T – In early 00’s number of receive Bore diameter 70cm.5T magnet – In 90’s 1.5T still biggest) • Now biggest frenzy in short wide bore magnets • Other fashions: – In 90’s gradient strength and slew rate Siemens Magnetom Espree. Seppo Vahasalo.Trends in MRI and Magnets • Going for higher field strengths – Initially 0.0T magnets are the fastest growing sector (1. 2008-06-17 93 . length 125cm channels – Today magnetic field strength and openness Philips Medical Systems MR Finland.5T system the majority – Now 3. 1.

MRI Markets and players

• Price about 750 – 2000 k€/system
• About 3000 systems sold annually
– Biggest market share: Siemens
– Traditional number one, GE has been trailing, now about the same with
Philips
– All the rest (Hitachi, Toshiba, etc) fairly small

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 94

Magnetic fields and safety

• Now about 50 years of research and 500.000.000 patient scans
-> No adverse health effects caused by magnetic fields
• Movement in strong static field may induce temporary nausea and
dizziness, typically affect only engineers and operators, not patients.
• Biggest concern projectile effects and RF burns

Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 95

Concerns with legislation in Europe

• Directive 2004/40/EC of the European Parliament, originally to be
implemented by 30th April 2008 in member countries.
– Protection of workers from exposure to electromagnetic fields
– Exposure limit for low frequency 40 mA/m2(rms)
• Order of Magnitude calculation for a person moving at speed of
1.25 m/s in 1.5T magnetic field: Jmove = 375 mA/m2(peak)
– Similar problem for gradient field and RF fields
• Because of fierce opposition from
MR community, implementation
in law has now been postponed
for 4 years
• Current exposure limits:
– IEC: 4T for patients
– ICNIRP: 2T for workers
– FDA :7T for patients Simulated RF adsorbtion
Philips Medical Systems MR Finland, Seppo Vahasalo, 2008-06-17 96

Overweg and M.Thanks Thanks to J. Seppo Vahasalo. Savelainen for simulation/magnet pictures and magnet information Thank you for your attention Questions? Philips Medical Systems MR Finland. 2008-06-17 97 .