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INDEX

Introduction 1. Selection of Insulators 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Introduction Pin Insulators Post Insulators Stay Insulators Cap and Pin Disc Insulators Insulator testing

2. Conductors 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Phase Conductors 2.3 Corrosion Performance 3. Conductor Sag Tension Theory 3.1 The Conductor profile Parabola vs Catenary 3.2 Sag 3.3 Slack 3.4 Factors that affect conductor tension 3.5 Multiple Span tension calculations – ruling Span 3.6 Sag tension calculations 3.7 Span ratios 3.8 Wind Span 3.9 Weight Span 3.10 Examples 4 Crossarms 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Design loads 4.3 Conductor spacing 5. Poles 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Wood pole Strength 5.3 Pole Design loads 6. Pole Foundations 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Foundation strength 7. Ground Stays 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Stay Application 7.3 Pole bending moment APPENDIX 1 Conductor Loads APPENDIX 2. Distribution Line Layout Steps

Check this is the latest version before use. Page 1 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager

Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

**NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN
**

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

What are we designing for? • • • • • Compliance with Statutory Regulations Safety of both our employees and general public Economic utilisation of materials To best meet the needs of customers with minimum environmental impact To obtain a standard acceptable both from an engineering view and aesthetically (ie. have regard for the look of our construction from the public’s point of view).

What physical loadings do we have to allow for our design? • • Weight of conductor and fittings Conductor tension:Terminal load Deviation load Differential conductor loads in adjacent spans Vertical loads Stay loads

• •

Environmental Loads (eg. Wind) On Structures On Conductors Construction and maintenance loads

LIMIT STATE DESIGN Current practice for the design of Overhead Line Structural Components is to use a Limit State design approach as set out in C (b) 1-1999 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of Overhead Distribution and Transmission Lines. The Limit State design approach uses a reliability based (risk of failure) approach to match component strengths (modified by a factor to reflect strength variability) to the effect of loads calculated on the basis of an acceptably low probability of occurrence. This approach allows component strengths to be more readily matched and optimised by economic comparison. The corresponding Limit State wind pressures which correspond to the previously used working stress values of 500pa and 660 pa and which result in equivalent failure rates based on typical component strengths factored by strength factors which incorporate appropriate component reliability factors are approx 900pa and 1200pa respectively. Limit State wind load pressures are therefore greater than permissible stress loads by a factor of 1.8. Conductor tension loads will increase in response to the higher design wind pressures by a factor of depending on conductor everyday tension and conductor characteristics and generally in the range 1.3 to 1.6. Conductor weight loads will increase due to the effect of increased tension on structures with a height profile above the average of neighbouring structures, however in general this factor is fairly minimal in relatively flat terrain.

Check this is the latest version before use. Page 2 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager

Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

To achieve a minimum cost line layout staff needs to apply the standard structures in the most cost efficient way. It is also worth noting that Ergon Energy has determined that. this should be referred to the Lines Standards Department for a detailed design and approval. Ergon Energy uses the standard structure approach for the majority of its lines and layout staff need only select the appropriate structure to suit the specific application. This requires: • • • • Clear understanding of structure capabilities Methodical approach using all available tools “feel” and “insight” which come with experience detailed checking of work undertaken Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 Check this is the latest version before use. lines designed using the standard structure drawings do require such approval. This would be extremely time consuming and is probably only justified for high value transmission lines. roads etc To railway lines Over flood country To buildings etc Other lines Terrain Roads Railway lines Telecom Stays Special exclusion areas Airfields Roads Railway lines Telecom Stays Special exclusion areas • Topography:- • Avoidance of obstructions:- How do we allow for all these variable factors in our design? In order to minimise the risk of failure of an overhead line it is necessary to ensure that each component of an overhead line has been designed to meet all the electrical and mechanical loads likely to be experienced in service as far as reasonably practical. This approach allows for economics of scale on material purchases and achieved a measure of uniformity of construction. every line and every structure in that line could be individually designed to meet the project requirements. In order to achieve this. Another approach is to utilise a range of standard structures with pre-designed electrical and mechanical capabilities and apply them to a particular project. What physical conditions do we have to allow for in our design? • Conductor clearance:To ground. Page 3 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager . which takes into account the material strength variability. a line can be constructed safely using standard building blocks. Design component stresses are listed in the relevant sections of the Design Manual. and as long as the structures are used within specification. Where standard structures do not satisfy a line requirement.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Design Component stresses is based on the ultimate stress at failure modified by a strength factor. The advantage of this approach is that detailed structure design is not required.

NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN While there are a range of standard construction. If this occurs with the cemented joint of the screwed lead thimble of the pin type insulator as discussed above. corrosion. which it has little ability to withstand. and although these materials are relatively brittle and inelastic. It will be apparent that this type of construction renders it almost non-puncturable and a further advantage is that if any expansion of the cemented base joint does occur the porcelain is put into compression. they have proven service experience and are still widely used. layout and design staffs who apply these standards to an overhead line need to be aware of some of the basic design principles so as to apply the most appropriate structure to a defined requirement. simple and efficient method of conductor support for voltage up to and including 33kV. however if the insulator glazing under the conductor is damaged (usually caused by vibration) the insulator may puncture.1 SELECTION OF INSULATORS Introduction One of the most important and yet one of the most vulnerable links in transmission and distribution is insulators. Page 4 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . Pin type insulators for the lower voltages are designed so that the puncture voltage is higher than the flashover voltage. Insulator damage may occur due to such widely varying causes as lighting (puncture). The following points must be considered in the selection of the appropriate insulation of an overhead line: • • • 1.3 Post Insulators These insulators are of one piece porcelain construction and have a cemented on a galvanised malleable cast iron base provided with a taped hole for fixing stud. a type of load.2 50Hz performance (usually a pollution requirement) Impulse capabilities Switching capabilities Pin Insulators This type was amongst the earliest designs. The design of synthetic type insulators has improved both electrically and mechanically in recent times and they are being used in urban areas to minimise radio interference and in areas where gunshot or stone throwing is a problem. It provides the most economic. power arcs. and the porcelain will fail. and although it has improved both electrically and mechanically. These notes provide an overview of the following factors in line design: • • • • • • • Selection of Insulators Conductors Sag and tension theory Crossarms Poles Pole Foundations Ground Stays 1 1. the porcelain is placed in tension. stone throwing. it has altered little in appearance. Check this is the latest version before use. 1. gunshot and pollution. Porcelain and toughened glass are the materials principally used for supporting conductors on overhead lines.

eg. hence both the electrical and mechanical aspects are to be considered. particularly costal areas the pin of the insulator should be fitted with zinc collar. Information on selection of insulators is contained in the Design manual section on “Insulators” 2 CONDUCTORS 2. consequently their selection is of prime importance. The selection and placement of stay insulators should be in accordance with ESAA C (b) 1. The insulators should be mounted not less than 2. Toughened glass insulators however. 1.2 Phase Conductors The conductors fulfil an electromechanical function. weight. In earlier days of electrical power transmission. Check this is the latest version before use. availability and conductivity.6 Insulator Testing All porcelain insulators taken out of service must be tested before re-erection.1 Introduction Economically. Timber. need not be tested. All stays wires attached to wooden poles supporting active conductors should be fitted with stay insulators. Termination and suspension) in high voltage lines and are available in 70kN and 160kV strengths to suit the various conductor loadings.7 metres vertically above ground and have a wet power frequency flashover voltage not less than one and a half times the highest voltage conductor supported by the pole.5 Cap and Pin Type Disc Insulators These insulators are used at tension positions (ie. however with the expansion of electricity networks. conductors represent between 20 to 40% of the total cost of a line. AAC = All Aluminium Conductor ACRS = All Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforcement AAAC = All Aluminium Alloy Conductor Steel conductors are still widely used as overhead earth wires and also as phase conductors on rural distribution lines. The cap and pin design ensures that the porcelain or glass of the high insulator is always in compression.4 Stay Insulators The stay insulator inserted in the stay wire is usually of porcelain and is so designed that in the event of failure of the stay insulator the stay wires will not fall to ground. several factors. fibreglass etc. such as price. eg.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Where adequate additional insulation is not provided by the support (eg. since the smallest fault will cause disintegration of the insulator. 1.) then the insulators should be of two piece or non-puncturable construction to minimise the risk of an electric hazard due to insulator failure. copper was mainly used as the material of overhead line conductors. 1. SC/GZ = Galvanised Steel Conductor SC/AC = Aluminium Clad Steel Conductor 2. have virtually compelled Overhead Line Design Engineers to concentrate on aluminium based conductors. Page 5 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . In areas of high pollution.

Mechanical parameters: As already indicated. the above gradient on the conductor surface may require the selection of a conductor on the basis of its diameter. power loss and current rating. the diameter of a conductor affects the inductance and the capacities. but AAAC has always been more expensive than ACSR. because it influences voltage regulation. Table 2. however at higher voltages. for salt spray pollution the relative distances from the source depend upon the prevailing winds and the terrain. 2. Aluminium based conductors represent the highest proportion of conductor usage.3. since being monometallic.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Electrical parameters: The most important parameter affecting the choice of conductor is its resistance. which has been known to have severe effects. One of these is the corrosion performance. Page 6 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . Up to a voltage of 132kV.1 provides an indication of the relative corrosion performance of various conductor types. For AC lines. for example. should also be taken into account. Consequently AAAC conductors are used on lines in coastal areas. 2. The recommendations should be modified by local experience. the risk of bimetallic corrosion between the aluminium and the zinc on the steel core are nonexistent. The advantageous mechanical properties of aluminium alloys have also been recognised for long time.1 Indication of relative corrosion performance of conductors SALT SPRAY POLLUTION CONDUCTOR TYPE AAC AAC/6201 AAAC/1120 ACSR/GZ ACSR/AZ ACSR/AC SC/GZ SC/AC HDCu OPEN OCEAN 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 BAYS INLETS SALT LAKES 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ACIDIC 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 ALKALINE 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 = Good performance 2 = Average performance 3 = Poor performance Check this is the latest version before use. the above considerations are generally adequate.3 Corrosion Performance Table 3. 3 or 4 phase). thus leading to the use of bundled conductor (ie. However there are cases where initial cost is not the governing factor. Special circumstances such as crop dusting. for equivalent conductivities.

are much simpler than the catenary formulae. there is less than 1% difference in their shapes. w= Wc × 9. Provided that the sag is less than 9% of the span length.2 Sag The following formula for the sag in a parabola can be used for level and non-level spans. 3.Parabola versus Catenary A parabola is the shape of a cable that supports a uniform horizontal load. Normally the conductor weight is given in kg/km. So for most practical distribution applications the parabola will suffice and is the assumption generally used for distribution design. S= w L2 8T S = mid-span sag (m) w = conductor weight (N/m) L = horizontal span length (m) T = conductor tension (N) The conductor tension T is the tension at the low point of the cable.3 Slack The difference in distance between the straight line between the supports and the distance along the parabola arc (the stretched conductor length) is called the slack. The word catenary comes from the Latin word catena. meaning chain.1 The Conductor Profile . which are derived for the parabola. Page 7 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . however the tension does increase with conductor elevation. An example of a parabola is the cable of a suspension bridge that supports the deck below. A level span is a span where the conductor supports are at the same elevation. The mathematical formulae. which must be converted into N/m to use in the above equation. Whereas a catenary is the shape that is formed by a hanging cable whose weight is a constant per unit of arc length. The tension at the supports will be no greater than an additional 7% of the tension at the low point for a level span where the sag is less than 9% of the span length.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3.81 1000 Wc = conductor weight (kg/km) 3. For a level span the slack is given by K= 8 S2 3L K = slack (m) S = mid-span sag (m) L = span length (m) Check this is the latest version before use. CONDUCTOR SAG – TENSION THEORY 3.

In general the flexibility of a wood pole is sufficient to ensure that an intermediate pin structure can be considered as a suspension for the purposes of calculation of the ruling span provided that the ratio of adjacent span lengths is not too extreme (eg less than 1:2). Age Conductor sag over time may increase due to the effects of strand settling in and metallurgical creep. This is not an issue in Queensland however the same approach can be used for calculating loads and sags if bird darverters are installed along a span. Wind A wind load on the conductor will increase the apparent weight of the conductor resulting in an in increase in tension. Page 8 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .4 Factors that Affect Conductor Tension Temperature As the temperature increases. The increase in tension will increase the cable length due to elastic stretch by an amount given by given by: ∆L = (To − T ) / EA To = the initial tension in newtons T = the final tension E = the coefficient of elasticity A = the cross section of the conductor in metres. Check this is the latest version before use.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3.5 Multiple Span Tension Calculations . the unstretched conductor length will increase by an amount equal to: ∆ L = α T S ∆L = αTS α = the coefficient of thermal expansion T = the temperature increase in deg C S = the span length in metres This will result in a decrease in conductor tension and an increase in sag. A higher tension may be used when the conductor is first erected to allow for “settling in of conductor strands and for subsequent metallurgical creep of the conductor material Pole movement Any movement of pole tops due to stay relaxation etc will have the effect of introducing additional length into the span.Ruling Span The ruling span (or equivalent span) is defined as that span which behaves identically to the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans under the same loading condition. This increase in resultant load will result in an effective sag in an inclined direction with both horizontal and vertical components. Ice Ice build up on the conductor will increase the apparent diameter and weight of the conductor. 3.

In short slack span urban situations. Lr = i =1 n Σ L3 i Σ Li n i =1 Lr = ruling span Li = horizontal span length of span i n = number of spans between strain structures. which may not be able to be equalised by movement of the pole top and may cause ties or pins to fail.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN The ruling span can be calculated using. Conductor Tension Limitations Conductor tension limitations are determined by the most onerous of the following conditions: • • • • Serviceability Condition or everyday condition (relates to vibration. This relates to structural loadings at a temperature of 0°C. This equation applies for lines in flat to undulating terrain. Conductor Strength Limit State . Page 9 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . this practice is generally not necessary.7 Span Ratios Large differences in the lengths of adjacent spans can result in significant tension differences across intermediate structures. In rural situations practice is therefore to limit adjacent span ratios to 1:2. construction and anchoring practicalities). In very mountainous terrain with large differences in elevation between structures. The span at which the change occurs is called the transition span. 3. (This condition will generally never govern for the range of conditions proposed.Bare conductors – 70% of Conductor nominal breaking load at a temperature of 15°C. In some cases however the maximum wind condition may govern at increased span lengths.) Conductor Strength Limit State LV ABC conductors – 40% of Conductor nominal breaking load at a temperature of 15°C. Serviceability Condition – low temperature condition – 50% of conductor nominal breaking load. Conductor stringing charts from which conductor tensions can be determined for differing temperature and wind loading conditions are located in the “Stringing Charts” section of the Design manual. (relates to insulation adhesion considerations).6 Sag and tension Calculations These calculations are primarily used to calculate the conductor tension under one set of conditions based on known tension under some other condition. Check this is the latest version before use.as specified in the table of “Standard Conductor Applications” following in this section at a temperature of 15°C. In general the everyday or serviceability condition will govern and a tension change calculation is used to calculate tensions and sags under other conditions. use of Equation (4) in Appendix E of C(b)1-1999 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of Overhead Distribution and Transmission Lines may be required. 3.

NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3.76 metres This sag can also be determined from the Conductor tension change program.33 m. Check this is the latest version before use. This means that the conductor is over tensioned by a factor of 25% Example 4.893 N/m Span Length S = 250 m Ruling Span Length is also 250 m The sag under this condition is 1.8 Wind Span The wind span at a particular structure is the length of span that determines the transverse load on the structure due to wind action on the conductor and is defined as: Lw = one half the sum of the adjacent spans.9 Weight Span The weight span at a structure is the length of span between the catenary low points on either side of the particular structure and determines the vertical load due to the weight of conductor at that structure.8 deg C we can calculate the resulting tension as 6682 N and sag as 2. 3.82 m.9x10-6 x 250 = 28. Therefore T = ∆ L/α S = 0.10 Examples Example 1. which can be calculated using the formulae for thermal expansion .1 / 13. This will cause the tension to increase however the resulting increase in elastic stretch will partly reduce the effect.8 ie –13. the tension under this condition is 9895 newtons with vertical sag of 1.5 ACSR) conductor strung to a tension of 22% NBL at 15 deg C. Now consider what happens if the conductor is over tensioned by pulling an additional 100 mm out of the span during stringing. Now calculate the tension and sag under the maximum operating temperature of 60 deg C and no wind Using the conductor tension change program.∆ L = α T S.893x250 2 /(8x 5368) = 2.8 deg C By going to the Conductor tension Change Program enter option and using a final condition of 15-28.49 m and horizontal sag of 5. 3. Example 3. Page 10 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .21 m. with the following properties: Tension T = 5368 N (22 % NBL) Weight w = 1. the tension under this condition is 3868 N with vertical sag of 3. Consider a span of Raisin (3/4/2. Now calculate the tension and sag under the maximum wind condition of 900 Pa Using the conductor tension change program. Example 2. We can treat the removal of this conductor length as being similar to a reduction in temperature.

Therefore T = ∆ L/α S = 0.2 ie 9. Wood crossarms do however have significant benefits with regard to electrical performance associated with lightning outage performance. We can treat the addition of this additional conductor length as being similar to an increase in temperature which can be calculated using the formulae for thermal expansion . If we repeated the same exercise with a 100 m span (and 100 m ruling span). Therefore T = ∆ L/α S = 0.9x10-6 x 250 = 57.6 deg C By going to the Conductor tension Change Program enter option and using a final condition of 15 + 57.9x10-6 x 250 = 5.65 m. The increase in chord length can be calculated by ∆ L = L.15 m. This means that there is additional sag of 1.8 deg C we can calculate the resulting tension as 5586 N and sag as 2.6 ie 72. L = span length H = increase in pole Height. which will most likely to result in statutory clearances not being maintained.39 m.018 /13. Example 5. which can be calculated using the formulae for thermal expansion . the effect of tension equalisation provided by adjacent spans would tend to reduce these effects. We can treat the reduction of this additional conductor length as being similar to a decrease in temperature. Now consider what happens if we raise one pole by 3 metres in a section with 250 m spans either side on reasonably even ground. Therefore ∆ L = 250 – Sqrt(250 2+ 3 2) = 0.∆ L = α T S. Of course if this span were one of a section. 4 4. The mechanical loads to which Check this is the latest version before use.Sqrt( L2 + h2).6 deg C we can calculate the resulting tension as 3567 N and sag as 4. the tension would increase to 6143 N which would be around 15 % overtension and may need correction but then only if there are termination structures at each of the adjacent structures. This means that there is an increase in tension of 4% which should be OK.∆ L = α T S. Page 11 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . This will cause the tension to decrease however the resulting decrease in elastic stretch will partly reduce the effect.2 / 13.018 m This will cause the tension to increase however the resulting increase in elastic stretch will partly reduce the effect.1 Crossarms Introduction Crossarms may be either wood or steel construction but the general design procedure is the same. effectively puts an additional 200 mm of cable into the span.2 deg C By going to the Conductor tension Change Program enter option and using a final condition of 15 – 5.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Now consider what happens if the conductor is under tensioned because a stay foundation relaxed to allow the pole head to move by 200 mm which.

4 13. Refer to Appendix 1 for details on wind span.8 TYPE Single Arm Double Arm S. maintenance and short duration or wind loads. Bending moment due to transverse conductor loads . (kN) 150x100 175x125 150x100 175x125 9. (kN) 8.L. this may be either positive or negative. 4. Table 4. Table 4.8 2700 Maint (kN) 6. Refer to Appendix 1 for illustration of weight span.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN crossarms may be subjected should take into account the conditions likely to be experiences in service so as to minimise the probability of failure.6 30.D.1 gives the allowable long and short duration crossarm loads.2 15. Maintenance loads resulting from additional conductor lowering or anchoring activities and loads due to pole top rescue.0 16. Conductor Weight Maint = Maintenance loads Check this is the latest version before use.0 Maint (kN) 7.0 7.(These loads are fairly minimal) Bending moment due to direct horizontal pull of conductors (termination or strain structure only). Page 12 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . (kN) 4. these mechanical loads should be determined in accordance with ESAA C(b)1.D.1 Allowable Horizontal Crossarm Loads CROSSARM LENGTH CROSSARM 2400 S.4 28.3 15.7 14.4 24. for some of the more commonly used crossarms the table makes no allowance for vertical load.wind and deviation loads acting at top of insulator pin (intermediate structures only). as far as reasonably practicable.D.5 19.2 S.7 12.L (kN) 4.5 8.4 L.D.D.0 14.L. = Short Duration limit state Loads eg.6 17.8 S.4 8.L.L.L.2 Design Loads In designing crossarms for single supports the crossarms can generally be treated as two cantilevers fixed at the support.D. Allowable stresses for timber are dependant on the duration of the application of the load hence different allowable stresses are used for long duration.2 9.2 35. The self weight of the crossarm (This load is minimal) Kingbolts must also be checked for allowable bearing loads perpendicular and parallel to the timber grain. The crossarm at the support is therefore subjected to the following bending moments: • • • • • • • Bending moment due to weight span of conductor. Wind Loads L. = Long Duration Loads eg. Crossarm brace bolts must be checked for allowable bearing loads at an angle to the timber grain. depending upon whether the profile imposes a down pull or an uplift of the conductors.4 16.

Stayed poles are also subject to a bending moment. regardless of strength group. Good pole supports. however for stayed poles a vertical load is imposed by the stay as well as the weight and fittings and this becomes a major consideration. and particularly single member pole supports are used to carry both high and low voltage conductors. Page 13 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . properly chosen with regards to local conditions and requirements. 5.D.) is the strength corresponding to the maximum allowable working pole tip load and must be multiplied by 1. are a decisive factor in ensuring high continuity of service. It is assessed as equivalent to the load applied by conductor tension at 15° C no wind and is half of the specified tip load (or approx 28% of the limit state load) 5.8 to equate to limit state wind pressure loads on the project areas of both the pole and the conductor.1 Poles Introduction Pole structures. medium and heavy class. For information on conductor separation refer to the Design Manual section “Layout Clearances”.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 4.3 Conductor Spacing Crossarms must also be selected to give the required separation at the support and at midspan. long life of equipment and low maintenance costs.3 Pole design Loads Unstayed poles may be subjected during service to the following horizontal loads:• • • Horizontal load due to wind acting on pole Horizontal load due to conductor wind span Horizontal load due to conductor tension on angle. as the properties of soil are not as definite as those for other materials such Check this is the latest version before use. All poles (wood or concrete) are now supplied with tip strength rating. 6 6.2 Wood Pole Strength Rating Previously wood poles were classified into light. The strength rating or short duration loads (S. 5 5.D. Typical wind pressures: Conductor 900 Pa or 1200 Pa in cyclonic areas Pole 1300 Pa or 1700 Pa in cyclonic areas The pole long duration load (L.) is the continuous load that the pole has to withstand day after day. which is generally greatest at the stay foundation.L. A vertical load is only imposed on unstayed poles by the conductor weight span and weight of fittings and very seldom becomes an important consideration.1 Pole Foundations Introduction The design of support foundations is rather more difficult than the design of other overhead line components. unstayed termination and unbalanced strain poles due to differential conductor tension in adjacent spans. and the Design Engineer had to determine the loading which each class and strength group would carry.L.

rod. The maximum working strength of a particular stay type is determined by the least value of the strength of: • • • • • • 7. Too much attention cannot be directed to the design. 6. making off and setting of stays. ie. particularly under adverse weather conditions. bedlog etc. copper etc.1 Ground Stays Introduction It is necessary to stay overhead line supports at locations where the loads exceed the capacity of the pole/foundations so that the stay wire. P. take the pull due to the conductors. bed log/screw anchor etc. and consequently for design purposes soil properties are selected within very widely varying limits. aluminium.2 Stayrod Eyebolt Staywire Preformed Guy Grips Stay Insulators Foundations Stay Application It is important to note that when the stay attachment is at the load centre the horizontal component of the stay load is equal to the horizontal load occurring at the load centre.. Where the stay attachment is not to close to the load centre. must be calculated. rod.2 Foundation Strength The allowable pole tip Pο (kN) due to foundation strength is given by the following equation: Tip Load Pο = KmaxD J3 12 (h + ¾ J) where Kmax = Passive Soil Reaction (kPa/m) D = Average below ground pole diameter (m) J = Pole setting depth (m) H = Height of pole above ground (m) 7 7. as the future safety of the line. Check this is the latest version before use. due to the conductor termination or deviation. the horizontal load acting on the stay. The stay wire. This occurs in the majority of cases as most stays on standard constructions are placed as close as possible to the crossarm. Page 14 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . In the economic design of stays it is essential to match the strength of the component parts.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN as steel. depends equally as much on being correctly stayed as it does on the proper erection of the conductors.

.. P.....M.. = bending moment F = design stress Z = section modules L1 x = conductor = height of L1 above stay fZ > L1 ... Table 7.M.2 Stay Horizontal Loads for 30 kN conductor load.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Select the appropriate stay whose allowable horizontal load.. L x P y P = L (1+3x/2y) The calculation of the equivalent horizontal load........ x + wind on pole.1 lists the stay horizontal loads for a number of stay attachments for a conductor load L1 = 30kN and a stay height above ground y = 9. is greater than the calculated load..where B. STAY ATTACHMENT (X) At load centre 0.0m CONDUCTOR LOAD (L1) 30kN 30kN 30kN 30kN 30kN STAY HORIZONTAL LOAD (P) 30...0 m.. assumes that the bending moment occurring at a point one third the height of the stay attachment above ground level is zero. = fZ .....0kN 37. Page 15 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 ...5kN 35.where Check this is the latest version before use. P. ..3 Pole Bending Moment The pole must be designed to resist the maximum bending moment that will occur at the point of stay attachment.2.. ...5m 1.. H..5m 2. Table 7.0m 1...0kN 32.5kN 40..... The allowable bending moment on wood a pole at the stay attachment points is given by the following equation: B..0kN 7..

CONDUCTOR TENSION (kN) HORIZONTAL STAY TENSION (kN) At load centre 0.0m x 8kN wood pole.4 14.0m 8.L.L.D.5m 1.3 57.8 25.D.3 lists the maximum allowable conductor short duration load (S.) for a 14.7 33.8 Check this is the latest version before use.0m 1.4 9. CONDUCTOR TENSION (kN) MAX ALLOW L.0 kN Wood Pole STAY ATTACHMENT MAX. Page 16 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .5 7.3 Governed by allowable stay load 28. ALLOW S.0m 101.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Table 7.5m 2.) and long duration load (L.0 32.6 41.3 Pole Bending Moment – Allowable Conductor Tension 14.L.L. Table 7.D.2 108.D.4 50.

Weight (N/m) x Weight Span (m) Wind Pressure 500Pa 900Pa 1200Pa Wind Speed 100 km/hr 160 km/hr 184 km/hr 2 x Wind Span Weight Span 0°C 50°C Weight Span @ 0°C Weight Span @ 50°C 0°C 50°C Check this is the latest version before use. Page 17 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . Dia (m) x Wind Pressure (Pa) x Wind Span (m) = Cond.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN APPENDIX 1 CONDUCTOR LOADS Transverse Wind Load(N) Vertical Load (N = Cond.

Page 18 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Weight Span @ 50°C 0°C Weight Span @ 0°C (negative) 50°C Check this is the latest version before use.

9. a strain structure should be selected. If ratios of adjacent span lengths exceed 2:1 in full tension rural situations. Determine expected span length on level ground from experience or by using suggested span and pole height / strength in the pole layout tables or the program Maximum span – ground clearance limitation. 2. profile the line and determine pole locations and heights necessary to achieve ground clearances and likely strain/ angle positions. return to step 9 using a greater pole or foundation strength. Using the Crossarm design program. 8. Determine conductor size and type based on planning requirements and application. Determine the weight span in particular on poles with a height which is significantly greater or less than their neighbours. Determine the ruling span using the Ruling span program for each section of line between strain structures. Use the pole top loads from step 9 to input into the Allowable wind span program to determine the allowable wind span on unstayed intermediate poles.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN APPENDIX 2 DISTRIBUTION LINE LAYOUT STEPS The following steps are suggested as the approach to be followed in designing a line from scratch. Consider the need for future subsidiary circuits in the selection of pole /foundation design. 4. If the terrain is not substantially flat. check that the proposed crossarm sizes are sufficient. Consideration should also be given to any future requirement for subsidiary circuits. These pole tip loads are after allowance has been made to take into account wind on the pole element. 11. 7. 5. Allowable weight spans for the selected crossarm sizes under the sustained Check this is the latest version before use. semi urban or rural. 3. With experience or by reference to the tables of common applications in the Design manual section “Pole Structures” many of these steps will not be required for jobs of a standard nature. allowance should be made for additional pole setting depth at this stage. 10. Consideration in this decision should be given to the difficulty of staying and frequency of angles required by route restrictions. Use the Allowable pole tip load program to determine allowable (limit state) pole tip loads based on expected pole strengths and foundation conditions. Use of bisect stays on small angles is an alternative option to increasing pole strengths. 1. If poor soil foundations are anticipated. Determine the Limit state design wind pressure on conductors appropriate to the location (eg 900 or 1200 pa). Determine strain/angle pole locations taking into account the deviation angle limits on pin insulators as per the table in the Design Manual.mid span clearance limitation program. 6. maintenance and limit state conditions. Urban. If these allowable spans are unrealistically low. 12. Check any long spans to ensure that mid span phase to phase clearance requirements are met using the Maximum span . Determine the proposed stringing tension based on the situation eg. Page 19 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . If the weight span is negative. This can be determined using the Weight span program which will output the weight span under the sustained load. consider the use of a strain pole.

Check that allowable horizontal stay loads from the Design Manual section “stays” exceed the limit state conductor wind and tension loads. 16. For any span where clearance to an adjacent structure may be an issue under conductor blowout. If not reduce span length or reposition poles and recalculate. Page 20 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . maintenance and limit state conditions should exceed the weight spans determined from step 11. use the Phase separation program to check clearances. Add to this the relevant statutory clearance to check if clearance to the object from the line is sufficient. Conductor sagging information for listing on the construction plan for use by field staff in sagging the conductors can be determined using the Conductor sagging program. 15. 14. Limit state conductor tensions can be determined using the Conductor tension change program. use the Conductor tension change program to calculate the horizontal swing under the 500 pa and 30 deg C condition. For any spans with different or unusual conductor configuration at one end and where mid span clearance may be an issue. use the Resultant stay load program to check that the stay horizontal load is not exceeded and that the bending moment in the pole at the stay attachment is not exceeded.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN load. 13. 17. For structures with multiple circuits or the stay attachment position away from the conductor attachment locations. Check this is the latest version before use.

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