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# NETWORK LINES STANDARD

INDEX

Introduction

1. Selection of Insulators

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Pin Insulators
1.3 Post Insulators
1.4 Stay Insulators
1.5 Cap and Pin Disc Insulators
1.6 Insulator testing

2. Conductors

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Phase Conductors
2.3 Corrosion Performance

3. Conductor Sag Tension Theory

3.1 The Conductor profile Parabola vs Catenary
3.2 Sag
3.3 Slack
3.4 Factors that affect conductor tension
3.5 Multiple Span tension calculations – ruling Span
3.6 Sag tension calculations
3.7 Span ratios
3.8 Wind Span
3.9 Weight Span
3.10 Examples

4 Crossarms

4.1 Introduction
4.3 Conductor spacing

5. Poles

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Wood pole Strength

6. Pole Foundations

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Foundation strength

7. Ground Stays

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Stay Application
7.3 Pole bending moment

APPENDIX 2. Distribution Line Layout Steps

Check this is the latest version before use. Page 1 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1
Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062
Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARD

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
What are we designing for?

• Compliance with Statutory Regulations

• Safety of both our employees and general public

• Economic utilisation of materials

• To best meet the needs of customers with minimum environmental impact

• To obtain a standard acceptable both from an engineering view and aesthetically (ie.
have regard for the look of our construction from the public’s point of view).

• Weight of conductor and fittings

• Environmental Loads (eg. Wind) On Structures
On Conductors

LIMIT STATE DESIGN

Current practice for the design of Overhead Line Structural Components is to use a Limit State
design approach as set out in C (b) 1-1999 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of

The Limit State design approach uses a reliability based (risk of failure) approach to match
component strengths (modified by a factor to reflect strength variability) to the effect of loads
calculated on the basis of an acceptably low probability of occurrence. This approach allows
component strengths to be more readily matched and optimised by economic comparison.

The corresponding Limit State wind pressures which correspond to the previously used working
stress values of 500pa and 660 pa and which result in equivalent failure rates based on typical
component strengths factored by strength factors which incorporate appropriate component
reliability factors are approx 900pa and 1200pa respectively. Limit State wind load pressures
are therefore greater than permissible stress loads by a factor of 1.8.

Conductor tension loads will increase in response to the higher design wind pressures by a
factor of depending on conductor everyday tension and conductor characteristics and generally
in the range 1.3 to 1.6.

Conductor weight loads will increase due to the effect of increased tension on structures with a
height profile above the average of neighbouring structures, however in general this factor is
fairly minimal in relatively flat terrain.

Check this is the latest version before use. Page 2 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1
Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062
Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

every line and every structure in that line could be individually designed to meet the project requirements. This requires: • Clear understanding of structure capabilities • Methodical approach using all available tools • “feel” and “insight” which come with experience • detailed checking of work undertaken Check this is the latest version before use. In order to achieve this. Another approach is to utilise a range of standard structures with pre-designed electrical and mechanical capabilities and apply them to a particular project. Terrain Roads Railway lines Telecom Stays Special exclusion areas • Avoidance of obstructions:. What physical conditions do we have to allow for in our design? • Conductor clearance:. and as long as the structures are used within specification. It is also worth noting that Ergon Energy has determined that. This would be extremely time consuming and is probably only justified for high value transmission lines. this should be referred to the Lines Standards Department for a detailed design and approval. To ground. Ergon Energy uses the standard structure approach for the majority of its lines and layout staff need only select the appropriate structure to suit the specific application. Where standard structures do not satisfy a line requirement.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Design Component stresses is based on the ultimate stress at failure modified by a strength factor. lines designed using the standard structure drawings do require such approval. Page 3 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . a line can be constructed safely using standard building blocks. To achieve a minimum cost line layout staff needs to apply the standard structures in the most cost efficient way. The advantage of this approach is that detailed structure design is not required. roads etc To railway lines Over flood country To buildings etc Other lines • Topography:. which takes into account the material strength variability. This approach allows for economics of scale on material purchases and achieved a measure of uniformity of construction. Airfields Roads Railway lines Telecom Stays Special exclusion areas How do we allow for all these variable factors in our design? In order to minimise the risk of failure of an overhead line it is necessary to ensure that each component of an overhead line has been designed to meet all the electrical and mechanical loads likely to be experienced in service as far as reasonably practical. Design component stresses are listed in the relevant sections of the Design Manual.

the above gradient on the conductor surface may require the selection of a conductor on the basis of its diameter.3 Corrosion Performance Table 3. since being monometallic. for equivalent conductivities. The advantageous mechanical properties of aluminium alloys have also been recognised for long time. 2. Special circumstances such as crop dusting. power loss and current rating.1 provides an indication of the relative corrosion performance of various conductor types. Table 2. For AC lines. The recommendations should be modified by local experience. however at higher voltages. Consequently AAAC conductors are used on lines in coastal areas. Aluminium based conductors represent the highest proportion of conductor usage. Mechanical parameters: As already indicated. the risk of bimetallic corrosion between the aluminium and the zinc on the steel core are nonexistent. for salt spray pollution the relative distances from the source depend upon the prevailing winds and the terrain. because it influences voltage regulation. the diameter of a conductor affects the inductance and the capacities. Up to a voltage of 132kV.1 Indication of relative corrosion performance of conductors SALT SPRAY POLLUTION INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONDUCTOR TYPE BAYS INLETS OPEN OCEAN ACIDIC ALKALINE SALT LAKES AAC 1 1 1 3 AAC/6201 1 1 2 3 AAAC/1120 1 1 1 3 ACSR/GZ 3 2 2 3 ACSR/AZ 2 1 2 3 ACSR/AC 1 1 2 3 SC/GZ 3 2 3 2 SC/AC 1 1 2 3 HDCu 1 1 2 1 1 = Good performance 2 = Average performance 3 = Poor performance Check this is the latest version before use. for example. However there are cases where initial cost is not the governing factor. 3 or 4 phase).3.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Electrical parameters: The most important parameter affecting the choice of conductor is its resistance. but AAAC has always been more expensive than ACSR. which has been known to have severe effects. One of these is the corrosion performance. Page 6 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . the above considerations are generally adequate. 2. should also be taken into account. thus leading to the use of bundled conductor (ie.

The word catenary comes from the Latin word catena. which must be converted into N/m to use in the above equation. For a level span the slack is given by 8 S2 K= 3L K = slack (m) S = mid-span sag (m) L = span length (m) Check this is the latest version before use. 3. w L2 S= 8T S = mid-span sag (m) w = conductor weight (N/m) L = horizontal span length (m) T = conductor tension (N) The conductor tension T is the tension at the low point of the cable. Page 7 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . CONDUCTOR SAG – TENSION THEORY 3. The tension at the supports will be no greater than an additional 7% of the tension at the low point for a level span where the sag is less than 9% of the span length. Provided that the sag is less than 9% of the span length. So for most practical distribution applications the parabola will suffice and is the assumption generally used for distribution design. which are derived for the parabola.Parabola versus Catenary A parabola is the shape of a cable that supports a uniform horizontal load. An example of a parabola is the cable of a suspension bridge that supports the deck below.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3.1 The Conductor Profile .3 Slack The difference in distance between the straight line between the supports and the distance along the parabola arc (the stretched conductor length) is called the slack. however the tension does increase with conductor elevation. A level span is a span where the conductor supports are at the same elevation. Wc × 9. Normally the conductor weight is given in kg/km. are much simpler than the catenary formulae. Whereas a catenary is the shape that is formed by a hanging cable whose weight is a constant per unit of arc length.2 Sag The following formula for the sag in a parabola can be used for level and non-level spans. there is less than 1% difference in their shapes.81 w= 1000 Wc = conductor weight (kg/km) 3. The mathematical formulae. meaning chain.

Page 8 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .4 Factors that Affect Conductor Tension Temperature As the temperature increases. This is not an issue in Queensland however the same approach can be used for calculating loads and sags if bird darverters are installed along a span. The increase in tension will increase the cable length due to elastic stretch by an amount given by given by: ∆L = (To − T ) / EA To = the initial tension in newtons T = the final tension E = the coefficient of elasticity A = the cross section of the conductor in metres. the unstretched conductor length will increase by an amount equal to: ∆ L = α T S ∆L = αTS α = the coefficient of thermal expansion T = the temperature increase in deg C S = the span length in metres This will result in a decrease in conductor tension and an increase in sag. A higher tension may be used when the conductor is first erected to allow for “settling in of conductor strands and for subsequent metallurgical creep of the conductor material Pole movement Any movement of pole tops due to stay relaxation etc will have the effect of introducing additional length into the span. 3.5 Multiple Span Tension Calculations . This increase in resultant load will result in an effective sag in an inclined direction with both horizontal and vertical components.Ruling Span The ruling span (or equivalent span) is defined as that span which behaves identically to the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans under the same loading condition.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3. Age Conductor sag over time may increase due to the effects of strand settling in and metallurgical creep. In general the flexibility of a wood pole is sufficient to ensure that an intermediate pin structure can be considered as a suspension for the purposes of calculation of the ruling span provided that the ratio of adjacent span lengths is not too extreme (eg less than 1:2). Ice Ice build up on the conductor will increase the apparent diameter and weight of the conductor. Wind A wind load on the conductor will increase the apparent weight of the conductor resulting in an in increase in tension. Check this is the latest version before use.

893x250 2 /(8x 5368) = 2.82 m.5 ACSR) conductor strung to a tension of 22% NBL at 15 deg C.1 / 13. with the following properties: Tension T = 5368 N (22 % NBL) Weight w = 1. This means that the conductor is over tensioned by a factor of 25% Example 4.33 m. the tension under this condition is 3868 N with vertical sag of 3.76 metres This sag can also be determined from the Conductor tension change program. Now calculate the tension and sag under the maximum wind condition of 900 Pa Using the conductor tension change program. Therefore T = ∆ L/α S = 0.8 Wind Span The wind span at a particular structure is the length of span that determines the transverse load on the structure due to wind action on the conductor and is defined as: Lw = one half the sum of the adjacent spans.21 m.49 m and horizontal sag of 5.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3.8 deg C we can calculate the resulting tension as 6682 N and sag as 2. the tension under this condition is 9895 newtons with vertical sag of 1.10 Examples Example 1.∆ L = α T S. Page 10 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . Example 2. Example 3.9x10-6 x 250 = 28. Consider a span of Raisin (3/4/2. 3. We can treat the removal of this conductor length as being similar to a reduction in temperature.9 Weight Span The weight span at a structure is the length of span between the catenary low points on either side of the particular structure and determines the vertical load due to the weight of conductor at that structure. Now calculate the tension and sag under the maximum operating temperature of 60 deg C and no wind Using the conductor tension change program. This will cause the tension to increase however the resulting increase in elastic stretch will partly reduce the effect. Check this is the latest version before use.893 N/m Span Length S = 250 m Ruling Span Length is also 250 m The sag under this condition is 1.8 deg C By going to the Conductor tension Change Program enter option and using a final condition of 15-28. Now consider what happens if the conductor is over tensioned by pulling an additional 100 mm out of the span during stringing. 3.8 ie –13. which can be calculated using the formulae for thermal expansion .