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Electronics- is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which

the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that
involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated
circuits, optoelectronics, sensors etc. associated passive electrical components, and
interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting
primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a
circuit is described as an electronic circuit.

Electronics is distinct from electrical and electro-mechanical science and technology,

which deal with the generation, distribution, switching, storage, and conversion of electrical
energy to and from other energy forms
using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors, and
other passive components. This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De
Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals
possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology"
because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers,
and vacuum tubes.
Today, most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control.
The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-
state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical
problems come under electronics engineering. This article focuses on engineering aspects of

Semiconductors - is a material that is neither a good conductor or a good insulator but that
conducts more electricity when heat, light or voltage is added. a substance, as germanium or
silicon, whose conductivity is poor at low temperatures but is improved by minute additions of
certain substances or by the application of heat, light, or voltage: used in transistors, rectifiers,

- Any of various solid crystalline substances, such as germanium or silicon, having

electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than good conductors, and used
especially as a base material for computer chips and other electronic devices.

- An integrated circuit or other electronic component containing a semiconductor as a

base material.
Importance of electronics and semiconductors in industry

Electronics dominate the world today and many of the people in it. Within the past twenty
years or so, so many improvements and advancements in technology have created a world
which relies on electronic services and communication. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to own
numerous electronics for one reason or another. All of them have a purpose and many of them
seem quite necessary in day to day lives of people.

One of the most popular and most important electronic today is the cell phone. It seems like
everyone has a cell phone; even young children are becoming owners of their very own cell
phones! Cell phones are an extremely popular form of communication and are relied upon by
families, businesses, friends, and pretty much anyone who needs to talk on the phone.
These electronics are taking over and house phones and landlines are becoming less and less
popular. People are on the go more than ever now, and feel the need and importance to stay in
communication with the world while they are traveling or out and about. Parents like their
children to own these electronics because, with them, parents can keep in constant
communication with their children. If a child owns a cell phone, it gives them no excuse why
they have not called home, and they can reach their parents in emergencies or be reached in

Electronics which might be even more important, though most likely less owned, are
computers. So much communication is done online today, that it is vital for many people to
own computers. Universities now expect all of their students to own their own computers,
because so many assignments, lectures, and information is given and received online. Also,
computers are able to perform similar functions to the television and dvd players now, since so
many forms of entertainment can be found online. The internet has made communication all
over the world possible with the click of a mouse and companies are able to expand globally
because of this phenomenon. Computers are electronics which are going to be around till
the end of time and they are going to continue growing, expanding, and improving throughout
the upcoming years.

Although the aforementioned electronics are probably the two most important and
growing electronics out there, there are numerous others which people turn to and rely on
daily. Dont forget about the television which is standard in homes across America and many
other countries across the globe. The television and all the electronics you can hook up to the
television such as video games, dvd players, blue ray, and more, are extremely popular forms of
entertainment and are relied upon by most American families. Just like all other electronics, the
television is continually being improved upon and advanced, and televisions are becoming
more and more expensive with these improvements.
One final electronic which has become pretty popular over the last four years or so is the
Ipod. These electronics are used to play music and view videos and are popular with people
who work out and want to listen to music while doing so. Ipods are also
popular electronics with people who travel and do not want to carry around a laptop. These
little electronics are quickly gaining more and more features and tools to make them more
marketable, diverse, and popular.

These electronics are only a few of the technologies that humans today rely upon to live
their day to day lives. Whether they are for communication, entertainment, or
business, electronics have become a huge part of daily life for many people and will continue
doing so in the years to come.

Semiconductors are used in the production of transistors and diodes, as the basic components
of modern electronic devices. This technology has completely changed the world we live in,
semiconductors has been widely used in the electronics, integrated circuits and computer
industry because it can produce better, faster, cheaper electronic devices.
Not all semiconductors are suitable for computers. Computer semiconductors must be made in
a particular way. In 2011, semiconductors were used in 2/3 of the electronic devices, such as
personal computers, notebooks made of integrated circuits, tablet computers, calculators and
other devices. The continuous improvement of semiconductor manufacturing process is the
main reason for the decline in the prices of computers and other similar electronic products.
A large part of televisions and other consumer electronic devices apply different
semiconductors. Every electronic device, from a toaster to the most advanced home theater
system, is using this technology. Without semiconductors, many functions and characteristics of
modern electronic devices do not exist. Other semiconductor applications include military
equipment, weapons, laboratory equipment and various electronic devices used in industrial
control systems.
Process and equipment in building electronics and semi conductors

An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect

the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the
electronic system. Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by
being soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular
function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Components may be packaged
singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits. Some common electronic components
are capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes, transistors, etc. Components are often categorized
as active (e.g. transistors and thyristors) or passive (e.g. resistors, diodes, inductors and

Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: analog and digital. A particular device
may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types.
Analog circuits
Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations
of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuitsuse a continuous range of voltage or current as
opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits.
The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a 'circuit' can
be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of
Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in
analog circuits such as mixers, modulators, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include
vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators.
One rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use
digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is
usually called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital.
Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have
elements of both linear and non-linear operation. An example is the comparator which takes in
a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Similarly,
an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having
essentially two levels of output. In fact, many digital circuits are actually implemented as
variations of analog circuits similar to this exampleafter all, all aspects of the real physical
world are essentially analog, so digital effects are only realized by constraining analog behavior.
Digital circuits
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits
are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra, and are the basis of all digital
computers. To most engineers, the terms "digital circuit", "digital system" and "logic" are
interchangeable in the context of digital circuits. Most digital circuits use a binary system with
two voltage levels labeled "0" and "1". Often logic "0" will be a lower voltage and referred to as
"Low" while logic "1" is referred to as "High". However, some systems use the reverse definition
("0" is "High") or are current based. Quite often the logic designer may reverse these definitions
from one circuit to the next as he sees fit to facilitate his design. The definition of the levels as
"0" or "1" is arbitrary.
Ternary (with three states) logic has been studied, and some prototype computers made.
Computers, electronic clocks, and programmable logic controllers (used to control industrial
processes) are constructed of digital circuits. Digital signal processors are another example.
Building blocks:

Logic gates
Schmitt triggers
Highly integrated devices:

Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)
Digital signal processor (DSP)
Field-programmable gate array (FPGA)

Step 1: Get An Overview Of The Basics

The first step to take, is to get a simple understanding of the basic concepts in electronics for

Voltage, Current and Resistance

Current is measured in Amp or A

Voltage is measured in Volt or V
Resistance is measured in Ohm or

Here is a nice illustration:

Learn more about the basics of current, voltage and resistance.

Schematic diagrams are like recipes for electronics. They tell you exactly how to connect the
components to make a certain circuit.

There are a gazillion schematic diagrams on the internet. So without knowing any theory, you
can actually build some pretty advanced circuits. As long as you know the practical steps on
how to build a circuit.

Basic Components
I wouldnt spend too much time in this phase when you are starting out. Just read a bit to get
your curiosity started. Then move on to the next step.

Start by skimming through my popular article on the basic electronic components. Or choose a
specific component you want to learn more about from one of these articles:
What is a resistor?
How does a capacitor work?
How does a transistor work?
What is a diode?
What is an inductor?
What is an integrated circuit?

Then, as you progress and get curious about something, you can come back to this Electronics
For Beginners-guide and learn more about the components.

Step 2: Start Building Circuits

If you would like to learn public speaking what do you think is the best way to do it? Study it
or actually do it? I think you would agree that youll learn more from actually speaking in public.

So as soon as possible, start building circuits. This is the number one thing to do if you want to
learn electronics.

The easiest way to start is by building kits. Youll get the board and all the components in one
package. All you need to do is follow the instructions.

But, eventually you should free yourself from these instructions and start building circuits on
your own. Start by building some circuits using breadboards and stripboards.
I have written a super practical eBook you might find helpful: Getting Started With Electronics.

The book gives you step-by-step instructions on building your first circuits from a blinking light
to a music-playing gadget. It also covers the basics of electronics: what components you need
to know, and how to choose components for your circuit. I recommend you to read it and do
the steps to get comfortable with building circuits.

Step 3: Get an understanding of microcontrollers

Now that you have built some circuits and gotten

your ears wet, its time to learn about microcontrollers. They are one of the most useful tools in

You can choose how deep you want to go at this step. Maybe you just want to read about
the basics of microcontrollers, or maybe you want to go deeper play around with some more
advanced microcontroller topics for a while.

One of the simplest ways to get started with microcontrollers is with Arduino. Whatever you
choose, its useful to know about the possibilities you have with microcontrollers.

Step 4: Start a project you are passionate about

Now the REAL fun begins!

Take on a project that you feel inspired by. Something you think would be really cool to make.
By doing this, you will meet many challenges. And these challenges are good, because they will
show you what you need to learn.

In this phase youll probably learn some electronics theory, like Ohms law. And some useful
circuit concepts, like the current limiting resistor.
A good resource for you, when starting your own project, is how to design your own schematics
from scratch.

Step 5: Take it to the next level

Now that you have built your first project, its

time to take your skill level to the next level. Its time to learn to design your own circuit boards.
When you learn this skill, you will be able to design really advanced gadgets like quadcopters,
robots, mobile phones +++

Designing your own circuit boards is one of the many skills youll learn in my electronics
learners club Ohmify.

Are you a beginner and want to learn electronics? How can I improve this Electronics for
Beginners-guide? Let me know what you are struggling with by leaving a comment below. Ill
do my best to guide you on the right path.


Gathering Materials:
The first thing to do is gather the materials for making a miniature cleanroom.
I found a large plastic container from Walmart that already came as waterproof with insulation
between the box and the lid.
2. Next I went on ebay and found some HEPA filters which are special filters that filter the air
down to particles smaller then 0.3microns. Full scale cleanrooms use large HEPA filters but they
are also used in vacuums and air filters. Along with that we need a few small computer fans to
blow the air through the filters.
3. Lighting is a very important part of making a cleanroom since photoresist is sensitive to UV
light which regular light contains. Yellow light doesn't emit UV so it is used when doing
photolithography. Ebay or local hardware stores often sell yellow bug lights that emit only
yellow light which is ideal.
4. We also need two chemical gloves which we will be able to use to interact with the materials
inside safely.
5. A small plastic lunch box which will be used later for a door.
6. From a local store get some hot glue or silicone to seal the various openings.
1.Once those materials are gathered I suggest following a similar approach as shown in this
instructable for how to make the arm openings and a few holes for wires.
2.Next step is to take the small plastic lunch box container and use a dremel or exactoknife and
cut 3 sides of a square into the bottom of the container; this will be used for a small door.
Following that cut an opening on the side for a hepa filter and fan, then silicone/hot glue them
in. Cut a large enough opening in the side of your large plastic container now where your small
plastic lunch box can fit in partially. You want to be able to have it so you can access the flap the
you cut from the inside. Next seal up the small box to your large container with hot glue or
silicone. What you should end up having then is a flap on the inside of your container where
you can open and close it as a door to your cleanroom. Where you can open the lid of the
plastic container put an object in, close the lid, and grab it through the flap with your glove
inside the box without spoiling the pristine environment.
3. Following that cut an opening either on the top and bottom or either side of your large
plastic container for hepa filters and fans. You want the air to flow through the filter, into the
container, then back out through another filter. Secure these via hot glue/silicone. There should
be a constant small breeze through the container and I recommend leaving the fans on.
4. If you plan on doing photolithography your going to need a heat source around 100C for a
soft and hard bake. Best thing I had available for me was a toaster oven. I completely cleaned it
out, sealed the door, then cut an opening in the box and used metal tubing to connect it to the
large plastic container. Due to the nature of the head I used a heat resistant sealant to seal the
openings and made a metal door to the metal tubing so that no heat would flow into the box. I
also used a pair or long tweezers to place samples in the toaster oven.

-Kiln/Furnace must get up to 1000C

Dopant Sourse


Silicon is a gray color that changes with the amount of oxide grown. Oxide grows on silicon at
temps above 1000C and growth can be speed up if steam is supplied. I ran into the problem of
particles landing on my samples after extended periods of time. To help prevent that I used
some quartz rocks in a stonehendge like fashion with the sample under it to protect it.

Oxide Growth Calculator

Color Chart Showing SiO2 Ammount

Diffusion Calculator

Step 3: Photolithography

1. UV light source at least 5mw which can be found on ebay
2. isopropyl alcohol higher concentration if possible
3. UV blocking glasses, found in sears
4. Semiconductor grade photoresist, found on ebay or elsewhere online
5. Paint or Photoshop
First you need a mask, create a design in photoshop/paint and then from staples have 2 copies
made of it. You need it double layered to fully block out the light in certain areas. Note though
even with the clear film it does dim down the laser light a bit ~30%.

1. Surface Prep: clean with bottled water and dry.

2. Resist application: Use a PC fan fan or even a blender motor with double sided tape. Stick
your sample to it, apply resist and spin for 20-30 seconds. Note that thickness depends on RPM
and differs depending on the resist.
3. Softbake: move sample carefully into a heater not over 100C and leave it for around 1 min.
This evaporates some of the solvents.
4. Align and expose: To align it I had made a simple stand I would line up the sample and had
two rods out of it and would put the mask on top of it using a proximity printing like method. I
used a 200mw laser for 0.7s to expose, it all depends on the resist you are using.
5. Development: Developing removes photoresist in the unwanted areas leaving your with your
image. To develop the image I used an alkaline developer since I didn't have any TMAH
available. This works however it does etch silicon so that has to be kept in mind.
6. Hard Bake: This removes more solvents and light sensitivity which can be useful in etching if
small features are required. I had no use for a hard bake since my feature size was so large that
it was perfectly fine with a soft bake. If it is needed though that would go for over 100C for
several minutes depending on the resist.
7. Inspect: Before you etch a material it is important to check for flaws since if there are flaws
you can remove the resist and repeat the process. To inspect I used a small microscope and my
own eyes.
8. Etch: Etching removes material where the photoresist has been removed. For etching SiO2 I
used a bit of the Whink Rust Stain Remover which contains 2% HF and has an etch rate of
~300A/min. *HF is very dangerous please review the possible hazards before working with it.
9. Resist Removal: To remove the photoresist after it was etched I used isopropyl alcohol.
10. Final Inspection: check to see what your results are.