Distillation is defined as a process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions

of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat. Distillation column is a tall metal cylinder internally fitted with perforated horizontal plates used to promote separation of miscible liquids ascending in the cylinder as vapor. They also function to saparate air into its various components, principally oxygen and nitrogen. For separating air in distillation columns these are taken into their liquid form rather than gaseous state. Distillation columns are designed based on the boiling point properties of the components in the mixtures being separated. Thus the sizes, particularly the height, of distillation columns are determined by the vapour liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the mixtures.

Types of Distillation Column
Batch Distillation Column The column is charged with a 'batch' and then the distillation process is carried out. When the desired task is achieved, a next batch of feed is introduced. A condenser to turns the vapors back to a liquid so they can be easily collected. Batch distillation comprises of tall column that is desirable to improve the separation. Finally, by using different collection vessels, the original mixture can be separated into fractions. Batch distillation is labor intensive. Continuous Distillation Column Continuous columns process a continuous feed stream. No interruptions occur unless there is a problem with the column or surrounding process units. They are capable of handling high throughputs. A continuous column operates under steady conditions where the composition at a given location does not change over time. The composition only depends upon the position in the column and so additional product steams can be easily tapped at different heights and each tray will have a different composition of compounds.

The two major types of continuous columns are:

y y

Tray Column - Such columns consist of physically separated pools of liquid which are in intimate contact with a vapor. Packed Column - Such columns are filled with a saddle shaped packing. This packing provides a lot of surface area for the vapor to condense upon and assures that the liquid and vapor are in intimate contact.

Continuous column can also be classifed into the following:

y y y y y

Binary column - feed contains only two components. Multi-component column - feed contains more than two components. Multi-product column - column has more than two product streams. Extractive distillation - where the extra feed appears in the bottom product stream. Azeotropic distillation - where the extra feed appears at the top product stream.

Factors Affecting Distillation Column Operation


Feed Conditions - The state of feed mixture and feed composition affects the operation line and hence the number of stages required for separation.

and the adsorption took place mainly at the pore walls. The materials are porous. For the tangible feedback in addition to saturated liquid vapor needs.Ada flow and the flow of material into the material keluar. Weather Conditions . nickel diadsorpsi heavy metals with the activated zeolite. Because of a different character then the mixture is distilled in a different way too. Called continuous distillation if the process is going terusmenerus. distillation ua (steam distillation) and vacuum distillation. in general. Electroplating wastes containing nickel. the column is isolated. Operation of adsorption column Adsorption column equipped with: y .With unfavorable column size the final separation will not be achieved. the distillation can also be divided into batch distillation (Distillation batch) and continuous distillation (continuous distillation).Changing weather conditions can greatly affect column operation y y y y y y Distillation tower and the maintenance. extractive distillation. if done once the process. distillation fractionation. Most substances are pengadsorpsi adsorbent. heat is given to re pendidih the same as those issued in a condenser.The number of tray is determined by the efficiency of the plate. State of Trays and Packings . Distillation equipment maintenance. Adsorption or separation process penjerapan material is a mixture of gases or liquids. so the loss of heat along the column is relatively small 2. materials that will be separated drawn by a solid surface that absorbs (adsorbent). Distillation column must be treated to clean and can optimally use. because. The separation occurs because of differences in seed molecules or due to differences in polarity causes some molecules were attached to the surface more closely than the other molecules.As the reflux ratio is increased. Therefore include some types of distillation are: Azeotropic distillation. Vapor Flow Conditions . For feedback in the form of liquid at bubble point (q = 1) is saturated liquid. It is called a batch distillation. Based on the process. Usually small particles of absorbent material is placed into a carpet of fixed and fluid then flows through the fixed bed of solid water until it is close to saturation and the desired separation can not last longer. The influence of heat on the unit column distillation column condenser and is limited to re pendidih (reboiler). industrial waste washing diadsorpsi batik cloth with color substances using coconut shell charcoal activated. the gradient of operating line for the rectification section moves towards a maximum value and when the reflux ratio is decreased the operating line moves towards equilibrium. dry distillation. For example.Rangkaian distillation equipment widely used in industry is the type of tray and packed-tower tower.Adverse vapor flow conditions may cause foaming. Column Diameter .y Reflux Condition . processed and then taken the results (distillate and residual). the materials included in the equipment. Tray efficiencies are affected by fouling and corrosion. weeping and flooding. heating is calculated by the balance of heat (enthalpy balance). carried out as follows: 1. distillation of frozen (freeze distillation).

and chemical industry fixed-capital investment. mechanical. Nevertheless. and variations in the size of the media. closed ddan faucet faucet c b opened. Because of a different character then the mixture is distilled in a different way too. Therefore include some types of distillation are: Azeotropic distillation.Bak bait container also functions as a tub overflow reservoir. checklists. and installation of the internal equipment. Proper operation of the distillation column internal and peripheral equipment depends on the design. There are few hard-and-fast rules because each distillation column system is unique.Repeated for different operating conditions with variations in the rate of runoff. and case studies for some equipment are included. petrochemical. .Before the first operated device filled with aquades column to just above the layer of adsorbent. When a column is shut down during a maintenance turnaround or to correct a problem. influen concentration variations. Bak regulator runoff rate is used to obtain pressure and a constant runoff rate.y . Inspection is not an exact science that is amenable to rote checklist procedures.Equipment operated by passing the raw water sample is gravity (downflow) continuous feedback from the tub using the reservoir to the tub pump speed control runoff. guidelines. distillation ua (steam distillation) and vacuum distillation. . dry distillation. B faucets will be closed at the time of the flowmeter calibration condition c faucets open. In accordance with Figure tap a used to manage the size of the rate of runoff. which then conducted an analysis . water pump. Distillation systems processing the same feedstock often have unique features. inspection is the last opportunity to find design.Flowmeter runoff rate is equipped with 3 pieces regulator tap. Inspection is more an art practiced by experienced field personnel such as Norm Lieberman. . column internals require quick inspection to determine equipment repair requirements. flowmeter. fabrication. y y y y Distillation column equipment represents a significant percentage of the petroleum refining. bath effluent reservoir. flow regulator tub. Then the bait will flow into the adsorption column. tap b serves as the entrance to the feed flow adsorption column. This is intended to avoid air trapped in the column that can interfere with the flow rate. . As computerization takes over many aspects of distillation system design and operation. extractive distillation.After the sink rate of runoff flow regulator missed the feedback to get the flowmeter reading secar visual. distillation of frozen (freeze distillation). After the runoff flow rate is stable. It is generally a very hot and dirty business that many engineers do not like to perform. distillation fractionation.Once operational tool with time and a specific runoff rate is the raw water sampling at each outlet. . the tools required to be a competent field inspector increasingly reside with a small number of practitioners. and installation errors in revamped equipment. Additionally. practical application examples of inspection philosophy.

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