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Sankar

Department of Computing

and Information Science,

Queen's University,

Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada

Velocity and Acceleration

Assoc. Mere. ASME

Analysis of Contact Between

V. Kumar

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Three-Dimensional Rigid Bodies

and Applied Mechanics,

University of Pennsylvania, During manipulation and locomotion tasks encountered in robotics, it is often neces-

Philadelphia, PA 19104 sary to control the relative motion between two contacting rigid bodies. In this paper

Assoc. Mem. ASME we obtain the equations relating the motion of the contact points on the pair of

contacting bodies to the rigid-body motions of the two bodies. The equations are

developed up to the second order. The velocity and acceleration constraints for

Xiaoping Yun contact, for rolling, and for pure rolling are derived. These equations depend on the

Department of Electrical and local surface properties of each contacting body. Several examples are presented to

Computer Engineering, illustrate the nature of the equations.

Naval Postgraduate School,

Monterey, CA 93943-5121

1 Introduction limited to the motion of the contact points and hence their study

is restricted to a subspace of the configuration space. In Cai and

In robot manipulation tasks, when the robot arm interacts

Ruth (1988) they extend their work to line contacts. Montana

with an object or the environment, it is beneficial to be able to

(1988), like Pars (1968), considers the five-dimensional space

control the contact motion. For example, when exploring the

but his parameterization is somewhat different than Pars' (see

environment by feeling or touching, it is necessary to be able

Section 2). He derives the equations relating the velocity of

to move the robot arm while in contact with the environment

the contact points on the rigid bodies to the relative velocities

and estimate the geometric properties of the environment (Ma-

of the rigid bodies. It is also worth mentioning the work of

son and Salisbury, 1985; Montana, 1988). When grasping an

Kirson and Yang (1978) who developed equations for moving

object it may be desirable (Brock, 1988) to roll or to slide the

and fixed axodes with a relative rolling and sliding motion.

object over one or more fingers in a specified manner. A similar

This paper derives the velocity and acceleration equations

situation also arises in an actively coordinated vehicle traversing

relating the rigid-body motions of the contacting bodies and the

uneven terrain where it is efficient to maintain rolling contact

motions of the contact points on the surfaces of the rigid bodies.

with the ground at all contacts (Kumar and Waldron, 1989).

The papers by Montana (1988) and Cai and Ruth (1987) are

In all these examples, it is necessary to control the motion of

most closely related to this work. We use Montana's definition

an actively coordinated system relative to the contacting object

of the configuration space but our approach is quite different.

or environment in order to achieve a desired motion of the

Although Montana does derive the velocity equations, as seen

contact point on the surface of the object and on the surface of

later in the paper, they do not lend themselves to straightforward

the robot effector.

differentiation. Our approach and results differ from those of

While extensive work has been done on contact between

Cai and Ruth because we do consider the entire five-dimensional

planar rigid bodies (see, for example, Beggs, 1966; Paul, 1979;

configuration space.

Hall, 1966; Rosenauer and Willis, 1953; Whittaker, 1988), the

work on the kinematics of three-dimensional contact is much

more recent and much less is known in this area. Pars (1968) 2 Preliminaries

describes the configuration space associated with the relative

2.1 Notation. In Fig. 1, we consider two rigid objects

motion between two rigid bodies in point contact. He shows

(obj 1 and obj 2) contacting at a point. The contact point is the

that it is five-dimensional. For the special case of a sphere

coincidence of two points, Pl fixed to obj 1, and P2 fixed to obj

rolling over a plane he shows that the configuration space is

2 at time t. cl and c2 are a pair of points, which do not belong

completely accessible. In other words, from any point in the

to either body but move along the surface of obj 1 and obj 2

configuration space it is possible to reach any other specified

respectively so that they are instantaneously at the point of

point.

contact. We choose reference frames on obj 1 and obj 2 at point

Cai and Ruth (1986; 1987) study the relative motion of two

ol and o2, respectively. These reference frames are attached to

contacting bodies in point contact. In Cai and Ruth (1987) they

the objects. We attach coordinate systems at points cl and c2

derive expressions for the motion of the contact point on each

which move with the contact points. Finally, we define object-

contacting surface in terms of the relative motion and the local

fixed coordinate frames at points pl and P2 in such a way that

geometric properties of each surface. However, their focus is

they coincide with cl and c2 frames, respectively, at time t.

Note that the same symbol is used to denote either a point or

a reference frame attached to this point. So far our notation is

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY

OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS for publication in the A S M E JOURNAL OF APPLIED identical to that in Montana (1988).

MECHANICS. r is used for position vectors, V is used for linear velocities

Discussion on this paper should be addressed to the Technical Editor, Professor and w, for angular velocities, a and a denotes linear and angular

Lewis T. Wheeler, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, accelerations, respectively, f~ is used to represent the skew sym-

Houston, TX 77204-4792, and will be accepted until four months after final

publication of the paper itself in the ASME JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. metric matrix form of w. R denotes rotation matrices.

Manuscript received by the ASME Applied Mechanics Division, Mar. 4, 1994; A leading superscript is used to denote the reference frame

final revision, Mar. 27, 1996. Associate Technical Editor: E. J. Haug, Jr. in which the quantity is observed. A vector q with two trailing

Downloaded 24 Mar 2009 to 134.160.96.253. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

is, S = tJ~'__~&, where &'s are coordinate patches for S. The

set {& }7=~ is called an atlas for S.

In what follows we will need to compute derivatives of f in

order to characterize the local properties of S. We will assume

t h a t f ( ~ , ~2) is at least of class C 3.

DEFINITION2. Natural Basis and Unit Normal: xi = (Of/

0~') ( i = 1, 2) are linearly independent at a given point and

obj 2 are called the natural basis of the smface, xl and x2 minimally

Fig. 1 Two rigid bodies with point contact span the tangent plane at that particular point. A unit normal

n is a unit vector which is perpendicular to the tangent plane

at a given point and is defined by (xl x~)/(llx, x x~ll).

If (&, xz) = 0 where (,) is the symbol for inner product,

subscripts, a and b denotes the difference between q at point a then (f, U) is called an orrthogonal coordinate system. It should

and q at point b. For example, r~o, is the position vector from be noted that x~ is not necessarily a unit vector.

o~ to c~. ,Vqo, represents the difference between the velocity DEFINITION 3. Contact Frame: This is a local reJerence

of point c~ and that of point o~ as observed in reference frame frame at the contact point consisting of the unit vector triad

o~. On the other hand, when there is only one trailing subscript (x#llx~ll), (x#llx211), and n.

then it denotes the reference frame attached to that point. Thus, We choose the coordinate system (f, U) in such a way that

o, ~,L or o, f~, denotes the angular velocity of reference frame n is an outward pointing normal.

c, when it is observed in the reference frame Ol. Note that, DEFINITION4. Metric Tensor: A metric tensor G is a 2 X

unless otherwise specified, we refer to the vectors themselves 2 symmetric, positive definite matrix whos e coefficients go are

and not to their components in a particular coordinate system. defined as

When we do refer to components, we denote these with sub-

scripts x, y, and z and explicitly specify the coordinate system. g~j= (&,xj) i,j= 1,2.

When components are considered, a R b is a rotation matrix which The g~i are coefficients of the first fundamental form. G is

transforms components of a vector in frame b to components diagonal for an orthogonal coordinate system.

in frame a.

DEFIN]TION 5. Christoffel Symbols: There are two types

In the case of position vectors, a leading superscript is not

of Christoffel symbols. Christoffel symbols of the first kind,

used because a position vector does not depend upon the frame denoted by [ ij, k ], are defined as

in which it is Observed. However, any derivative, and therefore

any velocity or acceleration, does depend on the reference frame

in which the differentiation operation is performed. We follow [ij, k]

=fox, )

\ O ~ j , xk i , j , k = 1, 2.

a notation that is similar to that used in Kane and Levinson

(1985). For example, consider the derivative of r~o,. Since the

point oj is fixed to the reference frame o~, Christoffel symbols of the second kind, F~, are defined as

t d

OI])clOl : " ~ - rlo I

F5 = Ox,,&

,=, \ O U i g,k= ~, [ij, l]g,k

l=l

i,j,k= 1,2

is the velocity of point c~ in frame o~. Similarly, where glk are the components of the inverse of the metric tensor

t d G.

_ _ (pip o

dt L. qo,) = ,a~,,,~ It is clear from the definition that both kinds of Christoffel

symbols are symmetric in the paired indices ij, that is, [ij, k]

is the acceleration of point c~ in frame o~. = [ji, k] and F~ = Fj~.. Note that all the Christoffel symbols

Thus, the derivative of rqv ~ in frame P2 is not P,vqp,. Instead, vanish when the coordinate system is Cartesian.

It is useful to note that the derivative of the components of

P~d Pld the metric tensor can be expressed in terms of the Christoffel

d---7"r~,,,, = ~ rqv ' + v~w,,, rc,pt symbols.

0---7 = [jk, i] + [ i k , j ] = g~tF~k + gjf~,g (1)

The development here is identical to that presented by Kane

and Levinson (1985, p. 23). DEFINmON 6. Gauss's Equations: The derivatives of the

basis vectors are given by

2,2 Local Properties of Surfaces in ~-R~. Here we briefly

discuss a few definitions and concepts that will be used later in Oxi

the paper to derive the contact kinematic equations. Detailed c9~----7= Li? + ~ F~x~.

discussion can be found in any standard differential geometry k

text (e.g., Millman and Parker, 1977; Stoker, 1969; Lipschutz, The L0 are related to the coefficients of the second fundamen-

1969). tal form only through the metric tensor. They measure the nor-

DEFINITION 1. Coordinate System: Let S v be an open and mal component of (0&/O~ J) while the F~ measure the tangen-

connected subset of the smface S containing the point p. Then tial components.

the pair ( f U) is called a coordinate system of S v if there exists Higher Order Derivatives: If f is at least of class C 3, we

an open subset U of g] 2 and an invertible map f ' U ~ S e @ ~ can differentiate Lgj and F~. By straighforward differentiation,

such that the partial derivatives ( Of( { )/O{ ~) and ( Of( { )/O~ ~) it can be shown (Lipschutz, 1969, p. 224) that

are linearly independent for all ~ = ( ~ ~, ~ 2) ~ U. The open

2

connected subset Sp is called a coordinate patch. 02x~ 5",

It may so happen that not all points of S can be represented [ F ~ik,j + FijFm

~ ~

- LoL~.]x~ + [FuL,~ + Lij.k]n

by a single coordinate patch. In such a case, we can construct

a set of coordinate patches which cover all the points of S, that where F~.j = ( OF~IO~ j) and Lij.~ = ( OLu/O~k).

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O o

"01

x x

xl

i

i

I

y

2 = const

/

/

y

1= constant

X

~1 = constant

2.3.2 Geometric Properties of a Planar Surface. Consider

the plane (Fig. 3) with the coordinate system:

2.3.1 Geometric Properties of a Sphere. For a sphere with

previous subsection.

radius p, let us define a coordinate system (Fig. 2),

The natural basis for this coordinate system and the correspond- gll = 1 gt2 = 0

xl =

[ cos lco

ing unit normal are

-- p sln

xz = p sin ~ cos (2

g21 = 0 g22 = 1

Since the natural basis vectors and the components of the

metric tensor are constant for a plane, all other higher order

derivatives are zero.

["sin ~1 cos ~z] coordinates that characterize the motion of the point of contact.

n= lsin~'sin~Z . First for obj i, we let ~t = ul and ~z = v~ as shown in Fig. 4.

k cos ~ The point of contact is uniquely defined by the four coordinates

Ul, Vl, u2, and v2. The fifth parameter is qJ, the angle of contact

which is the angle between the u~ and u2 curves (Montana,

So the contact frame is defined by [(xl]l[xll[) (x2[[lx2[[) n]. 1988). In Fig. 5, it is the angle between (x~)1 (tangent to the

The components of the metric tensor G are given by v~ = constant curve) and (x~)2 (tangent to the vz = constant

curve). The sign of ~0 is defined in such a way that a rotation

gll = p2 g12 = 0

of (X~)l about the outward pointing unit normal (n)~ to the

surface at point p~ through -~O aligns the axes (xl)~ and (Xl)2.

g21 = 0 g22 = p 2 s i n ( ~ l ) 2 .

We use a trailing subscript i to denote obj i. For example,

the contact frame for obj i is denoted by [(xl/llxl[])i (xz/llxzll)i

G is diagonal because the coordinate system is orthogonal ((x~,

x2) = 0). (n)i].

The Christoffel symbols and the coefficients L U are t

3 Closure Equations

Fit = 0 F121 = 0

In Fig. 1, using the triangle law of vector addition (Paul,

1979), we can write

F]2 = 0 Fl2z = c o t ~ l

F~2 = - s i n ~ t c o s ~

LH = - p L~z = 0

F~2=0

/ obj 2

Note that although the Gaussian curvature and the mean curva- U1 = constant

ture of a sphere are constant, the coefficients, go, F~ and L 0 are

not. Fig. 4 Coordinate curves and contact frames on two contacting bodies

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P2aclp2 = /qaclpl + P2~pl X rclpl + P2~!o I X (P2wpL X rcllh )

velocities, we obtain the velocity and acceleration equations:

( Xl )2

P2WcL = I'lWc~ + v2tOpl (14)

I

I Now consider the closed loop: P2 -~ cl + c2 -+P2. The transla-

tion closure equations are

r,,~,2 = rc~c2 + r~j,2 (16)

)1

v2Vqv 2 = qVqc 2 + P2w~2 X rc~.2 + ~'=Vca,2 (17)

P2ac=p2 = C2aclc2 -}- P2~.~)c2 rqc 2 + P2Odc2 X (P20)c2 X rqc2)

Fig. 5 The definitionof angle 0 By definition, the vectors rq~, qV~,c~ and qa,,~ vanish in the

above equations. The loop equations for the angular velocities

are

P~wq = ~2w~. + P2co,,2 (19)

r,,o, = rca,, + rp,o,. (2)

P2{.~.)Ci = C2~)Cl "~ P2~A,}C2 C2{.4aICl+ P2~JC2. (20)

Note that, in this notation, we implicitly assume that Eq. (2)

can be written in component form in any convenient coordinate We now manipulate the loop equations to obtain what we

system. (At this point we are only concerned with vector equa- call the contact closure equations. Equating the right-hand sides

tions and not their components in a particular coordinate sys- of Eqs. (12) and (17) we get after setting r~lp,, rq~ and Vqc2

tem.) Differentiating each term of Eq. (2) with respect to time to zero

t in the reference frame o~, we get

~'2V~, 2 = P'Vc,l,, + I'~Vl,~p~. (21)

,V,,,o ' = v,V~,p, + % % x G,p, + 'Vine,. (3)

From Eq. (3), because ,Vp,o, = 0 and 0,%,, = 0, Eq. (21) can

Differentiating Eq. (3) in the reference frame o~, we get be written as

iacioi : Piacipi q-- iO3pi X PiVcipi ..{-. i@i rcipi 02Vc202 = OIVcloi -'~- P2VpiP2. (22)

+ %% x (P,Vc,,,, + o,%,, X re.a,,) + ,a,,,o,. (4) Equating the right-hand sides of Eqs. (14) and (19) and then

substituting from Eq. (9), we get

Applying the addition theorem for angular velocities (Kane and

Levinson, 1985, p. 24), we get lW~l + V2OOpt = c20&1 + 2W~2. (23)

o,we, = o, co,,, + ", c%. (5) Next, we equate the right-hand sides of Eqs. ( 13 ) and (18) and

simplify using Eqs. ( 7 ) - (8) to get

Differentiating each term in Eq. (5) in the o~ frame, we get

2a,.~o= = tat,o, + 2P2wpl X lVqo I + P2aplp2. (24)

'd.',., = 'dh,, + P'G., + 'wp, x P,w~, (6)

Finally, equating the right-hand sides of Eqs. (15) and (20)

where %G denotes the time derivative of "CObin frame a. and simplifying using Eqs. ( 9 ) - (10), we write

Since Pi and o~ are fixed in body i,

td3ct + P2O,)pl IOJCl .-~ P2~,t.Jpl

%%=0, o,@,=0, ,G,o, = 0 .

= qd.'c, + ~wc2 X qwq + ~dJ~2. (25)

Substituting these in Eqs. ( 3 ) - (6) we get

In summary, the velocity contact closure equations are (22)

,g~,o, = /"V~a,, (7)

and (23) and the acceleration contact closure equations are (24)

'a ..... = P,ac,v , (8) and (25).

4 Contact Equations: Velocity Analysis

o,~, = P'~c,. (10) Let the components of the relative linear and angular veloci-

ties of the contacting rigid bodies in the frame P2 (also in the

Consider the closed loop: P2 + cl ~ Pl ~ P2. The triangle frame c2) be given in vector form by

law of vector addition applied to position vectors yields

rqv ~ = rqF I + rt,~p2 . ( 11 ) P2gplp2 = gy P2~a,)pl = ~y .

Vz Wz

Differentiating each term of Eq. ( 11 ) in the reference frame P2

two times, we get

In this section we find expressions for the remaining terms in

P2Vclp2 : PlVclpi + P2(.tdpl X rclpl -t- P2Wplp2 (12) Eqs. (22) and (23) in terms of the contact coordinates and their

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derivatives and thus relate changes in contact coordinates to the Therefore,

relative linear and angular velocities defined above.

The position vector of the contact point c~ of obj i in or is

2 ~ , = 2R~, 2Rq = 0 . (31)

r~o~ = r,,o,(~ ~, ~2) i = 1, 2. (26)

0

Next we consider the transformations between or and cr, and

between c~ and c2. The rotation matrix ~R~ is quite simply

Here "2ftc, is the angular velocity expressed in the contact

frame c2 in matrix form. Similarly, ,f~c~, in the contact

'R~ = (n)r frame cr, can be simplified to (see A p p e n d i x for intermedi-

i i ate steps) :

.1 (27) o,~, = O,R~O,l~ ' = 0,2 27 (x2)T|

(n)~' j

Note that since the coordinate system is orthogonal, all the

elements of the metric tensor, Gr, are positive and the square

root operation is a valid one. From the definition of ~b, ~Rq

can be seen to be

C~Rq =

sin 0]

- s i n ~O - c o s 0 0

1 2

_.~.Ij=~ll/OXl\'j

j=l

OX2 *j

j=l

On .j

0 0 -1 Otxz

X [(~/)-I

We now proceed to obtain expressions for the velocity terms.

Differentiating Eq. (26) in the or frame, we get the velocity of

the contact point cr in that frame. The resulting equation is

2 We introduce Christoffel symbols, [ij, k[ and F}k and the coef-

d o. 1

'V .... = ~. [,rc, o,({ , ~2)] = ~ (xj)i~i i = 1, 2. (28) ficients of the second fundamental form, Lu, and after some

j=l algebraic manipulation we get

1

0 --([21, l [ d ~ + [22, 111131)

(g22)1

0 0

1 1 1 1

--([11, 1]lt~l + [12, 111131) ([11,211& + [12, 2]Oh) -- - - {(Lll)lUl + (L12)t131 }

(glt)l (gH)l (g=)l (gll)l

+ 1 1 1 1

-- ([11,211t~ + [12, 2111)1) --([21, 1]lal + [22, 111131) -- - - [(Z21)lal -.}.-(L22)1131}

(gll)l (g22)1 (g22)1 (g22)1

1 1

- - [(LiI)i/il + (Li2)i0l } - - {(Lzl)lal + (L22)101} 0

(g")' (g22),

Expressing the velocities of the contact points in contact frame

c2 (using Eq. (28)): 0 (-crlFlOl)

o,~, = (c~FlO~) 0

OlV ~2RclCIRoi[(XI)I~I~-(X2)lOI]~IRI~GIU'1 (29)

L u 1 {(~)-'ClO, })f2 0

(32)

where cri = { (g=)i/(gH)i } I/2 for i = 1, 2 are the ratios of the

....

norms of the natural base vectors. For an olrthonormal system,

or1 = 1. F1 and Lr are 1 2 and 2 2 matrices consisting of

the Christoffel symbols of the second kind and the coefficients

where Uj = [ul 1)1] T and U2 = [b/2 1)2] T. of the second fundamental form, respectively, for obj i. F and

The skew symmetric matrix representation of the angular L are defined as follows:

velocity is directly obtained from the rotation matrix (McCar-

thy, 1990). For any rotation matrix eR.,, its derivative in frame F = [F~i F~d

f is given by [L,, L,2]

f~m = RRT. L = [L21 L22J"

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Similarly, L = [Lu 2L12 L2~]

F11)r. + - -

02f~C2 = (c~:r:0:) 0

2 2

= (rz21 1 2 1 2 0rt2 Or11

( ( ~ ) - ' L ~ 0 : ] ),~~ 0

- + - + -b-U + T

(33) or~2

( r ~ - F ~~) F ~ + - -

Substituting for ~Vc~o~and lVc,ol from Eqs. ( 2 9 ) - ( 3 0 ) in 0( ~

Eq. (22), expressing each vector in the c~ frame, we get

l FllLu OLii

0~ 1 OLIl~"

oqL12

FI,Ltz + rl2Ll, O(' 0(2~

Vz=O.

r I OLI2 /

In Eq. (23), after substituting for ,w~, from Eq. (32), ~co~ 12L12 0~ 2

from Eq. (33), and ~w~, from Eq. (31), we get =

0La2 0/12

~,L~ + F~:L~, o~' ~l

Simplifying the above equations we obtain the first-order con-

tact kinematics relating the rate of change of contact coordinates F~2L22- 0~'-'5-

--

to the rigid-body velocities:

We first consider the linear accelerations of the contact points.

In the oi frame,

j=l j,k=l

0 2 = ('~2)--1(/-11 '-[-H~)-' - -Wx +/-It V, (35)

(36) [ (Oxl~ )2

=o (37) ,ac,o, = "2Rc]qRo, (Xl)lal + (X2)11)1 + ~OUl/] (/~1

1

where Hi = (,fG/)-'Li ( ~ / ~ ) - ' and .H, = R~H,R,.

These equations are the velocity contact equations which

were first presented by Montana (1988). However, our notation

+ L~1 ) 1"1'1)1 -~- 1(01) 2

and derivation are slightly different. First, we use standard dif-

ferential geometric notation (gig, r~, and L u) to describe the

surface properties. Second, we resolve all vectors in the frame o [ + r,W,)]

(38)

c2 and not in c~ like Montana. ,a.... = L -EIWI J

5 Contact Equations: Acceleration Analysis where Wi = [ (g~) 2 ( u~0~) (0~) z] r represent the nonlinear veloc-

Let the components of the relative linear and angular acceler- ity terms.

ations of the contacting rigid bodies in the frame c2 be Similarly,

az az

We next find an expression for ,~c,, the skew symmetric

In this section we find expressions for the remaining terms in matrix for the angular acceleration of the frame ci relative to

Eqs. (24) and (25) in terms of the contact coordinates and their the frame oi which is attached to obj i, in the contact frame ci.

derivatives in order to relate changes in contact coordinates to

the relative linear and angular accelerations defined above. ol~~c i = o,Re,To.,R~,-

"" (,R~,

o To ,Rc,)(

o~Re,

To.,R~,)

It is convenient to define other matrix functions of the surface

properties (analogous to F and L). = o,R,.,

To. ""

,Rc~- o ,f~ o.'~c~

We substitute from (32) for ,[]c, and from (27) for ~Rc,,and

r= Lr , after considerable simplification (see Appendix) we obtain

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o.. [ o (-a,(r,O, + P,w,))

,fie, = (cri(FiOi + Y'iWi)) 0 ((~ffb-' (L W,o- L,O,)m,]

L ((~/)-l(~im -- riui))lTx2

third-order surface properties enter into the equations.

Other terms in Eqs. (24) and (25) in the c2 frame are as L R,E,H,.~I~ - E~H2"~ J

follows:

]w,+[ El ( ~ 2 )

r21

I ~2 J W2

P2COplX lVc~ol = ( y)

__CO T

+ [-2cozEiRo~.~ 0

-R@(~-I)-ILIUlcoz"]-GrlFIUI(;~Y)]

P2COpl X lcocl = o2x r02x lax/l} (43)

-(;~Y) TRIpEI(~.~I)-ILI~-yl J \ - cox/ ~ Ozxl J

CO T

(44)

c

2COCl Equation (40) is an acceleration constraint equation which can

be rearranged in the following manner:

- - x

6 Examples

Substituting the relevant expressions in Eq. (24) we get 6.1 Two Spheres in Contact. Here we derive the first

and second-order contact kinematic equations for two spheres

~ 2 ( ~ J 2 + F2W2) = R,~i(U 1 "b F,Wl) in contact (obj 1 and obj 2). The choice of coordinates and

notation is according to Section 2.3. Using Eqs. ( 3 4 ) - ( 3 6 ) we

obtain the following first-order contact kinematic equations:

+ 2weEIR,J~U~ + (39)

ay

t~l t92 [COx sin t/, + coy cos ~p]

()T --COY Rt//~IU 1 + a~.

=

Pt + P2

(40) + [Vy sin tp - Vx cos q,]

COx (46)

Pl + Pz

And from Eq. (25), we get

1)1 = [p2(0.)x COS ~/ -- 0)y sin 0 )

R~oE1( ' ~ 1 ) - 1 (K1W1 _ LiO, ) -- R 0 ( ~ i ) -'LIUlcoz (Pl + 102) sin uj

+ (Vxsin~0 + Vycos~p)] (47)

+ chF, O, + = ____ __(~/~)-tL20<~b

COx Oly f12 -- Plcoy + Vx (48)

Pl + P2

+ Ei(~G2)-i(Lw2 -- L2G) (41)

- Plcox + Vy

~2 = (49)

-o'i(FiU ' + ~lWl) - RoEi(~i)-ILiOI + olz (P~ + P2) sin u2

~ b = - c o ~ + ~ l [ t a vi

n Pp'+p2 (cox cs ~ - coy sin qt)

= -~b + cr2(F2G + r2W2). (42)

Solving Eqs. (39), (41), and (42), we obtain the five second- + Vx sin ~p + Vy cos 0 ]

order contact kinematic equations relating double derivatives (50)

of the contact coordinates to the rigid-body velocities and accel- Pl + P2 J

erations:

At the acceleration level, Eq. (43) can be written in the form

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iil I pz sin @ sin u, sin u~ p2 cos O sin ul sin u2 c o s O s i n u , sinu2 sinOsinulsinuz a~

ih

~2

1

u'a = A

I p2 cos tp sin u2

0

Pl sin ul

p2 sin ~b sin u2

pt sin ul sin u2

0

sin ~ sin u2

sin Ul sin u2

0

where h is a nonlinear function of the rigid-body velocities and the rates of change of contact coordinates given by

cos q, sin u2

0

sin ul -(()) %

ax

ay

+h (51)

~//~2 + tOz/~l COS if/ -- tOyO 1 COS b/1 -- /~101 COS []/ COS U 1 + 0202 COS U 2 -- tOz01 sin ~ sin u~,

h = tO~0t cos u~ - tO~a~ sin ~ + a101 cos ul sin ~ - tO~0~ cos ~ sin Ul + ~b02 sin u2,

2w,plal sin ~ - 2pla101 cos u~ sin ~b + 2tOePlO1 COS ~b sin ul - p10~ cos ~b cos ul sin ul + p20~ cos u2 sin u2,

2to~ptal cos ~ - 2plat01 cos ~ cos ut - 2p2a202 cos uz - 2to,p1% sin ~ sin ul + p~0~2 cos u~ sin ~ sin ul

ample of a plane (obj 1) contacting a sphere (obj 2). The

A = (Pl + P2) sin ul sin u2. velocity equations are

From Eq. (44), we get al = p(wy cos 0 + tax sin ~O - Vx cos ~p + Vy sin ~p)

~ ~- --OLz + ~1 COS U 1 + U2 COS ~2

% = p ( - W y sin ~ + cox cos ~b + Vx sin 0 + Vy cos 0 )

- tOy(a1 sin ~ + Ol. sin ul cos ~ ) - /~lOl sin //~1

/~2 = tOy

- u2~2 sin u2 + tO~(01 sin Ul sin q, - a~ cos ,) (52)

02 = --tOx CSC /'/2

and the acceleration constraint from Eq. (40) is

= -(tO~ cot u2 + tOt).

az = - ( p l a ~ 2 + /91(01 sin ul) 2 + p21i22

The acceleration equations are

+ p2(02 sin u2) ~ - 2p~to~al + 2pltO~% sin Ul). (53)

a'l = p~b(a2 sin tp + 02 sin u2 cos ~O)

The development in Cai and Roth (1987) deals with the

special case in which the coordinate curves on the two surfaces - pa2% cos u2 sin ~b - p(02) 2 sin u2 cos u2 cos ~b - 2tOz01

are aligned so that the angle ~b is zero. For this special case,

we get the same results by substituting + p(ax sin ~b + ay cos ~b) - (a~ cos ~b - ay sin ~b)

I[/ = 0 , Ul : ~ , 1)1 = O, U2 = ~ , 1)2=0

- pa202 cos u2 cos ~b + p(O2) 2 sin u2 cos u2 sin ~ + 2Wza~

in our equations above.

+ p(a~ cos O - ay sin ~b) + (a~ sin ~b + ay cos ~b)

P2tOy- V~

/~1 -- - - a2 = 02~b sin u2 + O/y

Pl + P2

P2tO~ + Vy 1)2 = a 2 ~ CSC U 2 -- a202 cot u2 - ax csc u2

01

Pl + P2 = 1)2 sin u2 -- a2~2 COS u2 -- %.

//-/2 = PltOy + V.

Pt + P2 7 Kinematics of Rolling Contact

Two bodies are said to be in a condition of roiling contact if

- PltOx + Vy

02 = the velocity of the point of contact on one body is equal to the

Pl + P2 velocity of the point of contact on the other body. In other

words, the sliding velocity (Cai and Roth, 1986; Cai and Roth,

-a~ + o~;,p2 - tO,tO,P2 - 2wzvy

Ul = 1987) or the relative velocity between the points of contact is

Pl + P2 zero. This definition is well known and can be found in standard

kinematics texts (see, for example, Paul, 1979). Because this

iJl = ay + Olxp 2 + toytozP2 -- 2tozVx

definition imposes a condition on velocities (and not on higher

Pl + P2 order derivatives), it defines rolling contact up to the first order

a~ + O~ypl + tO~tOzpl (Cai and Roth, 1987). We will refer to this as the first-order

a2= condition f o r rolling.

pl + p2 However, if the relative velocity between the points of con-

tact, in addition to being zero, stays constant through a small

i~2 = ay - axpl + WytOzpl time interval, the two bodies are in a condition of rolling contact

Pl + P2 up to the second order. In other words, the derivative of the

The paper (Cai and Roth, 1987) does not deal with the rate of sliding velocity is zero. We will refer to this as the second-

change of ~b which evolves (at ~b = 0) according to the equations order condition f o r rolling.

In Fig. 6, Pi and/~i are points attached to obj i. p~ is the point

I~= --tOz of contact at time t while/5~ is the contact point at time L t and

are considered to be time instants that are separated by a small

-- tOX(tOyPl + I)X) interval At.

Pl + P2 For the first-order condition f o r rolling we have

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It can be shown (Sarkar, 1993) that the third scalar equation

is actually the same equation as (45), provided the first-order

ohj,1 PlyJ , obj 1 condition for rolling is satisfied.

In addition to the rolling conditions defined previously, if we

impose another condition known as the no-spin condition, we

achieve what is called pure rolling (Johnson, 1985, p. 242).

The pivoting component of the angular velocity is zero for pure

rolling (Neimark and Fufaev, 1972, p. 18). In other words, in

the frame c2,

Fig. 6 Roiling motion of two rigid bodies For pure rolling up to the second order, the derivative of the

pivoting velocity or the z component of the derivative of the

relative angular velocity must vanish (Sarkar, 1993).

P2Vp,p2(t ) = O. (54)

a~ = 0 (62)

In the contact frame c2 this is

7.1 Example: Two S p h e r e s in Contact. In the previous

section we considered the example of a sphere contacting an-

Vy =0. (55) other sphere. The conditions for rolling up to the first order are

v~

Vx=O G=0 v~=0

For the second-order condition for rolling we have For rolling up to the second order, from Eq. (60),

--(pla! COS ~ -- p21)l)~z J (63)

(p~U~ sin ~ + P21)1cos ~b)~x + (pd~l cos ~t -- /921)1 sin $)~y

where di and 1)~are given by Eqs. (46) - (49). Further, for pure

"W,,,pd t ) - ~V,~,~(~) rolling, we have

lim = 0. (56)

<,-~)~o t -

~z = 0 (64)

We rewrite Equation (56) to get

az = 0. (65)

" ~ G , ~ ( t) - P~V~,,p~(~)

lim This yields, upon substitution for ai and 0i from Eqs. ( 4 6 ) -

(t-~)~o t -- (49),

~V,,,p~(~) - ~V,~,,5~(~) ax = 0 (66)

+ lim = 0. (57)

(t-~)~o t --

ay = 0 (67)

The first term of the above equation is nothing but P~ap~p2(t).

Recognizing that P2Vj~,~2 = P2V~,p~, the second term can be writ- (w~ + Wy2)p,p2

a~ (68)

ten as lim (-P2wp, x Ptr&pJt -- t). AS &t ~ 0 Pl + P2

(t-D~0

Pl rlsIpl 8 Discussion

lim = -PlVclpl.

(t-~)~o t - - We have derived and presented in this paper the velocity

equations (Eqs. ( 3 4 ) - ( 3 7 ) ) and the acceleration equations

Thus, we get (Eqs. ( 4 3 ) - ( 4 4 ) ) for contact between two three-dimensional

P2aptp2(t ) + P2~pl X (PlVclpl) -- O, (58) bodies. This is the first time that the equations have been pre-

sented in this general form. The work by Cai and Roth (1986;

Because 1987) comes closest to the work presented here. They derived

similar equations that are valid for a Cartesian coordinate system

PtVclm = ~Vqoj, whose origin is coincident with the contact frame. However,

Eq. (58) simplifies to because of this assumption, their coordinate covering of the

contacting surfaces changes as the contact point moves and as

P2aplp2 ( t ) : --PzO.)pl X l Vclol . (59) the relative orientation between the two rigid bodies changes. In

our approach the surface coordinates are independent of where

This is the second-order condition for rolling. In the contact contact occurs and the relative orientation between the two

frame c2, it becomes bodies. Also, our coordinate systems are, in general, curvilinear,

- (- E,R,~/~G)~z" and include the special case of a Cartesian coordinate system.

taxi ay

az

= ( Wy ) r R , X O

\ -- o) x /

t (60)

Finally, the equations derived by Cai and Roth predict the mo-

tion of the contact point over each surface. However, they do

not consider the evolution of the fifth contact coordinate ~/,.

The special case of pure rolling is particularly interesting

in robotic applications. Rolling contact is generally preferred

where we have substituted the expression for ,Vqo~ from Eq. because it is more efficient and also because rolling motion is

(29) and P~o:p~ = [wx O~ywz] r. easier to control. In order to maintain a condition of rolling the

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relative motion between the two contacting bodies must be such Acknowledgment

that the relative acceleration at the contact point is given by This work was in part supported by the grants NSF MSS-

Eq. (60). In general, this acceleration includes tangential (a~ 91-57156, ARPA N0014-88-K-0632 and NATO grant No.

and ay) components as well as a normal component (a~). This 0224/85.

is unlike the planar case in which the tangential acceleration

must be zero for rolling. In three dimensions, only in the special References

Beggs, J. S., 1966, Advanced Mechanism, Macmillan, New York.

case of pure rolling do the tangential components have to be Brock, D. L., 1988, "Enhancing the Dexterity of a Robot Hand Using Con-

zero. The application of the rolling constraint equations to the trolled Slip," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and

derivation of the equations of motion and the controller for a Automation, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 249-251.

two-arm manipulation system is presented in Sarkar et al. Cai, C., and Roth, B., 1986, "On the planar motion of rigid bodies with point

contact," Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 453-466.

(1993) and Sarkar (1993). Cai, C., and Roth, B., 1987, "On the spatial motion of rigid bodies with point

The acceleration level equations depend on first, second, and contact," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and

third-order properties of the contacting surfaces. In other words, Automation, Raleigh, NC, pp. 686-695.

Cai, C., and Roth, B., 1988, "On the spatial motion of rigid bodies with

we encounter upto the third derivative of the coordinate map, line contact," Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and

f, for each object in these equations. Similarly, the velocity Automation. Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1036-1041.

equations depend on first and second order properties. It is Hall, A. S., 1966, Kinematics and Linkage Design, Bait Publishers, West Lafa-

yette, IN.

worth noting that while an object such as a sphere can be Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, London.

described by a second-order equation in the Cartesian space, it Kane, T. R., and Levinson, D. A., 1985, Dynamics, theory and applications,

does not mean that all third-order partial derivatives are zero. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Kirson, Y., and Yang, A. T., 1978, "Instantaneous lnvariants in Three-Dimen-

In fact, as shown earlier in the example of a sphere, the coeffi- sional Kinematics," ASME JOURNALOF APPLIEDMECHANICS,Vol. 45, pp. 409-

cients, gij, F ~ , a n d L o are not constant and the partial derivatives, 414.

(02x~ / 0~ k0~ J), are, in general, nonzero. Kumar, V., and Waldron, K. J., 1989, "Actively coordinated mobility sys-

Finally a comment about the two examples considered in the tems," ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design,

Vol. 1ll, No. 2 pp. 223-231.

paper. At first sight they may appear trivial and may not serve Lipschutz, M. M., 1969, Differential Geometry, McGraw-Hill, New York.

to provide adequate justification for the theoretical development Mason, M., and Salisbury, J. K., 1985, Robot Hands and the Mechanics of

in this paper. But Eqs. ( 3 4 ) - ( 3 6 ) and Eqs. ( 4 3 ) - ( 4 5 ) are Manipulation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

McCarthy, J. M., 1990, An Introduction to Theoretical Kinematics, MIT Press,

completely general, and they work for any contacting surfaces. Cambridge, MA.

The only information needed are the local differential geometric Millman, R. S., and Parker, G. D., 1977, Elements of Differential Geometry,

surface properties (the coefficients of the first and second funda- Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Montana, D. J., 1988, "The kinematics of contact and grasp," The International

mental forms and their derivatives). The main motivation for Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 17-32.

presenting these "simpler examples" is because for these exam- Neimark, J. I., and Fufaev, N. A., 1972, Dynamics of Nonholonomic Systems,

pies, the equations are well known for planar motions, and for American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI.

Pars, L. A., 1968, A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics, John Wiley and Sons,

spatial motions under the condition of pure rolling. Therefore, New York.

for these examples, there is some opportunity for comparing Paul, B., 1979, Kinematics and Dynamics of Planar Machinery, Prentice-Hall,

the general contact kinematics equations derived here with these Englewoods Cliffs, NJ.

Rosenauer, N., and Willis, A. H., 1953, Kinematics of Mechanisms, Associated

special equations. And in fact, it can be seen from Section 2.3.1 General Publications Pty Ltd., Sydney, Australia.

that, even in these "simple" cases, the derivatives of g~, F~ Sarkar, N., 1993, "Control of Mechanical Systems with Roiling Contacts:

and L 0 do not vanish and that a spherical surface does not really Applications to Robotics," Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering

and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

simplify the second-order equations. Sarkar, N., Yun, X., and Kumar, V., 1993, "Dynamic control of 3-D rolling

Current work addresses the application of these equations to in multi-arm manipulation," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference

better understand the stability of multi-contact grasps and the on Robotics and Automation, Atlanta, GA, pp. 978-983.

Stoker, J. J., 1969, D~ffferential Geometry, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

optimization of fixtures for restraining three-dimensional ma- Whittaker, E. T., 1988, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles &

chine components. Rigid Bodies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

APPENDIX

A Expressions for o,~c, and o,~c~

For any rotation matrix IR,,, its derivatives in frame f is given by

i n . , = I~R r

I~,. = KR r _ f~f~

o,~c, = ,.,R~O,R

i ci

o ~0 [ (~/~)-'

o f~,, = ,Rc, ,Rc, = L 012 (X2) T1 [(X|)i (X2) / (n)i]

1 (n)TJ 0,2 o

+

2 Oxt .j

j=l

Ox2 .j

j=l

On .j

01>72

]

1 __1fl "

We introduce Christoffel symbols, [ij, k] and F}k and the coefficients of the second fundamental form, Lij, and simplify the

derivative of the metric tensor through Eq. ( 1 ). After some algebraic manipulation we get

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[----~----([11, 1]lR, + [12, 111'0,)

(gll)l

1

0

0

1

--([21,

(g=),

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

--([11, 1],Ri + [12, 11l~,) -- ([11,211& + [12, 21101) --- { (Ll.),Ul + (L12)tS. }

(g.). (gH)i (g22), (gH)l

1 1 1 1

-- ([11, 2],fil -4- [12, 2]~3,) --([21, 1],g, + [22, 1If0,) - - { (./.a.),g, + (L22),0, }

(gl,), (g=)l (g=)l (g22)1

1 1

- - { ( L u ) l & + (L12)11)1 } - - { ( Z 2 1 ) l / g 1 "4- (L22)101 } 0

(g.), (g22),

which can be simplified to

0 (--~iFIOl)

o,~, = (~,rlo,) o {-(~)-iL'o')}='| q (69)

{ (t. G i ) - i L i U i } ) iTx2 0 J

where cr~ = { ( g z E ) ~ / ( g H ) , } ~:2 for i = 1, 2 are the ratios of the norms of the natural base vectors.

In order to obtain an expression for o,h~, we start with Eq. (69).

~ (~7)f /='

~ (~'7)f ] [ ((x/G/)-')01x2 02,0]

t 0,X2

2 Oxl ; On j

{ -- ( ~ i ) - l L i O i }2X1

- (~riGG) 0 x (GiFiVi) 0

{6/~7)-'L,G }fx~ o [ (,/~7)-*L,o, }f2 0

After simplification, we finally write ,he. in the following compact form:

0 (-oi(FiG + riWi))

((~)-i(Lw, - a,g))fx2

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