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1_ Reinforcement Angle Tower Thesis

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* ** ***

ABSTRACT In the desert area of Libya, an incident involving the collapse of several

telecommunication towers became a very serious problem. Such incidents can be prevented by

taking adequate measures to strengthen the tower structures. However, most towers that needed

to be reinforced are located in the middle of the desert with frequent harsh windy conditions

and are difficult to reach. Any construction work at these locations faces great challenges in

mobilization of heavy equipment as well as materials and personnel. Therefore, it was

essential that any remedial measure should be simple and easy to undertake. In this paper, we

present a new structural steel reinforcement methodology that is both simple and easy to

implement, but yields effective and guaranteed results. It does not require any drilling or

welding of the existing tower structures. Such new and innovative methodology have now

been employed in the Libyan Desert, which were extensively tested and found to be very

effective and resulted in significant savings to the clients.

Key words: Telecommunication steel tower, Main post, Bracing for buckling, Buckling strength

In a desert area such as the African Sahara in structural members of the tower using a simple

Libya, otherwise known as the Socialist but effective methodology that would maximize

Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, the collapse the strength of the main structural members.

of several steel telecommunication towers Since most of the tower locations to be

became a very serious problem, caused by very reinforced are located in the desert area under

harsh and strong windy conditions. Moreover, harsh weather and terrain conditions, it was

there were also increases on the wind load on not practical to mobilize heavy machinery to the

the towers, which accumulated over the years sites. In addition, if the galvanized surface of

resulting from changes to the installed tower the tower members were to be damaged, it will

appurtenances from the towers original design diminish its resistance to rust. Considering the

load. In order to prevent further collapse of above circumstances, the new reinforcement

the other remaining and existing towers, it was methodology that was employed has had to be

necessary to strengthen these towers. both effective, easy to implement and cost

effective.

*

() The new methodology that we have invented,

which is explained in this paper, employs a

275-8575 1-2-1

**

built-up approach and does not require drilling

and/or welding of the tower members. The

102-0071 1-5-16 auxiliary reinforcement attachment is buckled

***

2 by bolts around the main member posts

together with the reinforcement flat bar. This

275-8575 1-2-1 method have been studied and analyzed by

18

various professionals in the field of Structural area of both materials in the reinforced and

Steel Reinforcement. Dr. Ono reported that the non-reinforced models. The reinforcement effect

reinforcement plate is fastened by using the was analyzed by comparison study with the

bolts of the tower junction part to intensify the obtained data considering the structural

main post1). Moreover, they have also proposed characteristic.

the reinforcement method which constitutes a

closed cross section using the angle steel as a 2. Experimentation

reinforcement2). Dr. Tamai proposed that the 2.1 Reinforcement Method

carbon fiber plate is adhered to the main post Fig. 1 shows the sectional diagram of the

steel by means of bonding to increase the specimen used in the experiment and Fig. 2

maximum strength3). As an example, there is a shows the whole configurations of the specimen,

construction method which covers main post which is composed of angle steel, flat bar and

material in a split pipe in the case of an overseas. auxiliary attachment material. As shown in Fig.

And reinforcement of truss material has attached 1, the flat bar is adhered to the fillet of the angle

a rod, flat bar, and the angle steel by weld4). Thus, steel by the auxiliary attachment. This contact

there is little study on reinforcement of the angle makes the reinforcement effect stronger. The

steel main post which main post material is not angle steel and the reinforcement bar are

made to damage. fastened by the attachment with high-tension

In this study, the construction method is bolts as shown in Fig. 1. This flat bar is

simpler than a past case, and in order to continuously adhered to the span of the angle

construct with a flat bar and small auxiliary steel, so that it is highly effective to reinforce

attachment, a lightweight thing is the the weak axial bending.

description. In this experiment, various

buckling loading tests at the center

axis of compression were carried out Angle Reinforcement

L10010010 (Flat bar)

on the angle steel reinforced by this 6110

new method. The reinforcement

Lc

effect was observed by changing the

Lb

125 50

Lc

Lb

125 50

La

L

La

L

Lr

Lr

La

Lb

Lc

Lb

Lc

Auxiliary

Attachment

Angle

110 110

H.T.B(M16) reinforcement reinforcement

Reinforcement

28

2.2 Specimens The length L in Fig. 2 is the value subtracted

The specimens used in this experiment were 290mm of knife-edge length from the overall

an angule steel L10010010 (SS400) as length.

main post and flat steel bar 1106 (SS400) as

auxiliary attachment. Table 1 shows the outline c = Ny / Ne (1)

Ne = EI / L , Ny = yA

2 2

of the mechanical characteristics of the both

materials. Table 1 also shows the maximum A=19cm2, Iu=278cm4 Iv=72cm4 ,

compression strength obtained by stub column E=20500kN/cm2

compression experiment that the flat rigid c generalization slenderness ratio

compression is loading to 300mm length Ny : yield axial force

specimens of the same angle steel. The y tensile yield stress

parameters used in the experiment are the A : cross-section Area (a nominal value)

slenderness ratio, the reinforcement area, the IuIv : geometrical moment of inertia

reinforcement material interval and the (a nominal value)

buckling direction. Those parameters are E : Young's modulus

shown in Table 2. In this table, the slenderness L length between knife-edge

ratio means the generalized slenderness ratio

c obtained by formula (1), and when c is 0.8, Table 1 Mechanical Characteristics

1.0 and 1.2 in weak axial bending, the length L

ty tu cu

between the knife-edges becomes 1272mm, (N/mm )

2

(N/mm )

2

(N/mm )

2

(%)

1590mm and 1908mm, respectively. While, in

the case of the weak axial bending, the length L Angle 303.4 439.8 330.7 25.7

bending, so that the generalized slenderness Flat Bar 347.2 462.2 28.0

tytensile yield stress tutensile stress

elongation

Direction Number

L L Reinforcement Lr La Lb Lc

of flexural c Lr/L of Auxiliary

(mm) (mm) area (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

buckling Attachment

Non-reinforcement

0.80 65.2 1272 982 Partial reinforcement 491 266.0 358.0 245.5 0.50 2

Whole Reinforcement 832 303.5 187.5 75.0 0.85 3

Non-reinforcement

425.0 2

Weak Partial Reinforcement 650 437.5 325.0 0.50

212.5 3

axial 1.00 81.5 1590 1300

bending 462.5 3

1150 187.5 75.0 0.88

Whole Reinforcement 231.0 5

1280 527.5 122.5 10.0 0.98 3

Non-reinforcement

1.20 97.8 1908 1618 Partial Reinforcement 809 292.0 517.0 404.5 0.50 3

Whole Reinforcement 1468 311.0 187.5 75.0 0.91 5

Non-reinforcement

0.51 41.5 1590 1300 462.5 3

Strong Whole Reinforcement 1150 187.5 75.0 0.88

231.0 5

axial

bending Non-reinforcement

0.61 49.8 1908 1618 Partial Reinforcement 809 292.0 517.0 404.5 0.50 3

Whole Reinforcement 1468 311.0 187.5 75.0 0.91 5

cgeneralization slenderness ratio slenderness ratio L length between the knife-edges

Llength of test specimen Lrlength of reinforcement

38

Fig. 2 shows two reinforcement methods,

which are partial reinforcement and the whole 1000kN

Testing machine

reinforcement. The interval of the auxiliary

attachments in both methods is intentionally

varied from narrow to large for comparison. Lr in

Table 2 is the length of the reinforcement flat bar, Knife-edge

and Lr/L represents the ratio of the

Displacement

reinforcement bar to the whole angle steel in

L=L-290mm

meter

length. This Lr/L ratio in partial reinforcement

L

is 2 to 1. The length of the reinforcement bar is

Spechimen

shorter than the angle steel in order not to

receive the loading directly instead of the angle

Knife-edge

steel. For that reason, 75mm non- reinforcement

interval is placed between the end-plate and the

edge of the reinforcement bar, but 10mm

non-reinforcement interval is also placed in case

of c=1.0. The auxiliary attachment is 125mm in

length and fastened to the main post with the

reinforcement bar by M16 high-tension bolts

with the torque 100N m. The auxiliary

attachment is placed in three points, one at the

center and the two other are placed on both

edges of the flat bar at regular intervals. In the

case where the interval is shorter in c =1.0 as

well as c =1.2, two more attachment materials

are added between the center and the both edges.

While, in the case of the partial reinforcement,

the attachment is set at the same position and/or

only at the edge. The number of the auxiliary

attachments used in each test is summarized in

Table 2.

Fig. 3 Test set-up

The machine used in conducting this study 1.2

was a 1000kN Structural Loading Equipment

cu=1.09

1.1

(UH-1000kNI), and the outline of the

equipment is shown in Fig. 3. The UH-1000kNI 1.0

can measure buckling bending strength in the

Nmax/Ny

ends of the angle steel, and the pin type support c1.00

0.7 c1.20

device having knife-edge project is fastened to c0.51

the endplate by bolts, so that the buckling c0.61

0.6

direction is controlled in one way by the 0.0 0.5 1.0 Lr/L'

knife-edge. The fixture of the knife-edge is Non Partial Whole

reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement

adjusted to the centroid of the angle steel before

Reinforcement area

reinforcement. The value of the compression

strength is introduced by the machine, and Fig. 4 Maximum strength vs. Reinforcement area

48

displacement is measured in the axial direction 3. Discussion of Experiment Resuits

by displacement meters placed at two points 3.1 Maximum Strength and Failure Type

between the fulcrums. Moreover, strain is The results of the experiment are

measured on the angle steel and the flat bar summarized in Table 3. In this table, strength

separately. In the case where the number of increase rate represents the ratio of the

auxiliary attachments is even, a strain gage is non-reinforcement strength to the

placed at the center of the angle steel. However, reinforcement strength. Since the decline of the

in the case of uneven number of auxiliary bending stress was not found when the interval

attachments, the meter is located at two points length was changed in the partial and the

i.e. above and below the center point. Two axis whole reinforcement cases, 500mm interval was

gauges are placed on the flat bar at the same deemed reasonable for this experiment. Fig. 4

points of the angle steel in order to measure the shows the relation between the maximum

strain on its axis and at the rectangular strength and the reinforcement area, and the

directions. All measurements are done twice cu in Fig. 4 represents the result of the short

under the same conditions. length column compression test. As can be seen

in Fig. 4, it is determined that the

Average

Direction Maximum Strength

Reinforcement La maximum

of flexural c Lr/L strength increase Failure position

area (mm) strength

buckling (Nmax/Ny) rate

(Nmax/Ny)

Non 0.965

0.951 1.00 Center of specimen

reinforcement 0.937

Partial 0.940

0.80 266.0 0.50 0.968 1.02 Edge of reinforcement

reinforcement 0.997

Whole 1.002

303.5 0.85 1.000 1.05 Edge of reinforcement

reinforcement 0.997

Non 0.808

0.795 1.00 Center of specimen

reinforcement 0.782

0.852

396.0 0.900 1.13

Partial 0.948

0.50 Edge of reinforcement

reinforcement 0.896

Weak 212.5 0.899 1.13

0.901

axial 1.00

1.020

bending 462.5 0.997 1.25

0.975

0.88 Edge of reinforcement

Whole 1.026

231.0 0.983 1.24

reinforcement 0.939

0.998 Near by centered auxiliary

527.5 0.98 1.016 1.28

1.034 attachment

Non 0.668

0.640 1.00 Center of specimen

reinforcement 0.611

Partial 0.756

1.20 292.0 0.50 0.710 1.11 Edge of reinforcement

reinforcement 0.664

Whole 0.957

311.0 0.91 0.967 1.51 Edge of reinforcement

reinforcement 0.977

Non 1.063

1.063 1.00 Center of specimen

reinforcement 1.063

1.068 Near by centered auxiliary

0.51 462.5 1.076 1.01

Whole 1.085 attachment

0.88

reinforcement 1.056 Near by centered auxiliary

Strong 231.0 1.056 0.99

1.056 attachment

axial

Non 1.024

bending 1.033 1.00 Center of specimen

reinforcement 1.041

Partial 1.003

0.61 292.0 0.50 1.043 1.01 Edge of reinforcement

reinforcement 1.082

Whole 0.955 Near by centered auxiliary

311.0 0.91 0.987 0.84

reinforcement 1.020 attachment

58

reinforcement effect is slightly improved when has on the maximum strength. In weak axial

c is 0.8 in the weak axial bending. However, bending, when a generalization slenderness ratio

significant improvement was observed when c is small, it is not influenced by L'/L to the

is 1.0 and 1.2. The maximum strength N/Ny maximum strength. However, when a

value is calculated almost 1.0 in all slenderness generalization slenderness ratio is large, the

ratios of the whole reinforcement, which means maximum strength is greatly influenced by L'/L,

that 1.0 is the value of the yielded axial force of and especially the effect is remarkable at c=1.2.

the angle steel. Figs. 5(a)(d) shows the failure type in case

The strength increase rate in Table 3 shows of the weak axial bending. The maximum

the effect which the reinforcement area (L'/L) strength is determined by the various failure

1.2

Non reinforcement

1.0 Partial reinforcement

Whole reinforcement

0.8

N/Ny

0.6

0.4

(a) Non reinforcement

0.2

0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5

/y

(a) c=0.8

1.2

Non reinforcement

1.0 Partial reinforcement

Whole reinforcement

(b) Partial reinforcement 0.8

N/Ny

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5

/y

(b) c=1.0

1.2

Non reinforcement

(c) Whole reinforcement (Lc=75mm)

1.0 Partial reinforcement

Whole reinforcement

0.8

N/Ny

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5

/y

68

types, and Fig. 5(a) shows the buckling state acquired, since the flat bar received the weak

occurring at the center part of the angle steel in axial bending. As for the failure type in partial

non-reinforcement method. Whereas, buckling reinforcement, buckling occurred at the edge

occurred near the edge of the flat bar in partial side as well as the weak axial bending case,

reinforcement as shown in Fig. 5(b). Figs. 5(c) while buckling occurred in the center portion in

(d) shows the failure types in the both whole the whole reinforcement case, and the outbreak

reinforcement cases. It is observed that buckling of the buckling is concentrated at the center in

occurred near the edge of the flat bar in case of the case of the no reinforcement.

having 75mm without reinforcement interval as

well as in partial reinforcement case as shown in 3.2 Hysteretic Characteristics and Normal

Fig. 5(c), however, in case of the test object Strain Description

having 10mm interval, the buckling occurred at Fig. 6 shows the relationship between N/Ny

the center portion as shown in Fig. 5(d). and / y in all the slenderness ratios of the

Judging from the relationship between the weak axial bending. In this Fig. 6, indicates

reinforcement area and the slenderness ratio, shrunk length in long axis direction between

the point of damaged due to buckling is shorter, the knife-edges, and y is the yield

when the maximum strength is greater in the displacement calculated by the yield strain y

partial reinforcement case, while as the multiplying the test material length (L)

slenderness ratio is increased, the results together. Consequently, the initial stiffness in

showed greater reinforcement effect. As for the both reinforcement cases becomes equal

whole reinforcement, the 75mm

non-reinforcement is located near the endplates, 600

so that the occurrence of the buckling is

500

concentrated in the non-reinforcement area. As

for the results, the maximum strength is almost 400

the same values in all the slenderness ratios of

Load (kN)

300

c =0.8, 1.0 and 1.2. While, buckling occurred in

the center portion without using 10mm Angle

200

Reinforcement

reinforcement interval, the maximum strength (Vertical)

100 Reinforcement

is greatest. The maximum strength is increased (Holizontal)

by 25% in c =1.0 and 50% in c =1.2 in the 0

-6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000

reinforcement as compared to the Strain (10-6)

non-reinforced cases.

(a) Partial reinforcement

When the main structure of the

telecommunication tower is designed, the axial

600

strength set in consideration of the overturning

moment. The axial strength value is normally 500

designed to more than 10 times the vertical load

400

of the tower itself. As the materials needed for

Load (kN)

vertical weight increases only by 1.5 to 2 times,

200 Angle

which is negligible. Therefore, it can be stated Reinforcement

that the reinforcement added to the angle steel (Vertical)

100

Reinforcement

structure is highly effective to neutralize (Holizontal)

0

buckling at the weak axial points. -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000

When the angle steel receives the weak axial Strain (10-6)

the prominent reinforcement effect was not Fig. 7 Normal strain description

78

condition to the non-reinforcement, and there is 5) The total weight of tower becomes almost

no influence to the initial stiffness by double by installing all the reinforcement

introducing the reinforcement flat bar. Since materials, but the increasing weight is

the hysteretic characteristic after buckling negligible since the main structure of the

outbreak shows similar tendency, it is telecommunication tower is designed in

confirmed that the reinforcement flat bar is consideration of the overturning moment

working only to protect the angle steel as the and the value is predominantly greater

main post from buckling outbreak. than the vertical tower weight. And since

Fig. 7 shows a tendency of vertical strain a reinforcement does not transmit axial

values in long axial directions of the main post force, there is no effect on the foundation

and reinforcement flat bar. The strain in the structure by having reinforced the tower

main post is linearly increased and reaches body.

around 15002000, while the strain of the 6) Buckling occurs near the edge in case of

flat bar is about 100200. Since the strain using 75mm non-reinforcement interval,

volume of the reinforcement flat bar starts and the buckling break out at the center

increasing after the buckling outbreak of the point in case of having 10mm

angle steel, it is obvious that the reinforcement non-reinforcement interval. Therefore,

is operating only to protect the buckling the location of the local deformation

bending as well as the tendency of the outbreak can be controlled by reinforcing

hysteretic characteristic. the angle steel continuously.

References

4. Conclusion 1) Hidemasa KOZAWA, Tetsuro ONO,

The centrally loaded compression tests were Kazuto ISHIDA, Takashi MABUCHI,

carried out on the angle steel reinforced by this Yasuo SUGIMOTO, Yasuo OHKOCHI

new method. The findings from the and Tomohiro ISHIDA : Experiment of

experiments are: Reinforced Angle Members for Buckling

1) The main post angle steel of the on Truss Tower, Summaries of Technical

telecommunications tower can be Paper of Annual Meeting, AIJ, C-1,

continuously reinforced along its full length pp.829-830, 2006.9

from the base to the required upper level 2) Makoto SAKURABA, Hiroyuki TAMAI,

including a tower cross junction, Takao TAKAMATSU, Tokuji HAITANI

2) When reinforcement is applied on the and Akeo HATTORI : Strength and

whole span of the angle steel, the Stiffness Evaluation of Multi-interface

maximum stress in the weak axial Connection used in Seismic retrofitting,

bending is almost equal to the value of Journal of Constructional Steel, Vol.14,

the weak axial bending. pp.437-444, 2006.11

3) Judging from the data obtained on 3) Takashi MABUCHI, Tetsuro ONO, Yasuo

hysteretic characteristic, the initial SUGIMOTO and Akihiro KOJIMA :

stiffness and normal strain description, Experiment of the Reinforced Angle

the axial force is not transferred to the Members by Fiber Sheets and Steel Angle

flat bar from the angle steel, and the Members for Buckling on Truss Tower,

reinforcement flat bars function is only to Summaries of Technical Paper of Annual

intensify the bending property. Meeting, AIJ, C-1, pp.611-612, 2007.8

4) Since sufficient strength of the angle steel 4) Broekemeier, Marlon W. and Fisher,

under test can be achieved, 500mm James M. "Evaluation and Modification

of Open-Web Steel Joists and Joist

interval between the attachments was

Girders," NASCC 2007 Proceedings, New

determined to be ideal and was used

Orleans LA.

during this experiment.

88

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