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Welcome!

Designing Dust Hoods for Better Containment

Gary Johnson, PE

1
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2
Designing Dust Hoods
for Better Containment
Gary Q. Johnson, P.E.
Workplace Exposure Solutions LLC
April 3, 2014
Copyright Gary Q. Johnson 2014

Agenda

Types of hoods & enclosures,


limitations
Understanding emission sources
Hood design and maintenance
concepts
Powders handling dust control
examples
Summary Better Dust Hood Containment 6

3
KEY DECISION:
CAPTURE OR CONTAIN?
Capture - HOODS Contain - ENCLOSURES
Dust source in front Dust source inside
of hood enclosure
Draw the dusty air Air velocity at openings
into hood in spite of: keeps dust inside
Particle momentum

Not trying to capture dust
Machinery air currents
Most of dust falls back
Room air currents
into process stream
Dust removed from
process stream Greater containment than
open hoods
Better Dust Hood Containment 7

Successful Hood Designs


Consider:
Process emissions
Generation mechanism
Particle characteristics
Normal operation, startup/shutdown,
entry for maintenance/cleaning
Environment around process
Operator techniques

Better Dust Hood Containment 8

4
Types of hoods &
enclosures
Limitations of hoods
Air velocity terms
Hoods increasing capability:
Level 1 - Open face hoods
Receiving hoods
Level 2 - Open face enclosures
Level 3 - Sealed enclosures
Level 4 Isolators (ie, gloveboxes)
Better Dust Hood Containment 9

LIMITATIONS OF HOODS

Fig.A9-2: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial


Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended for Operation and Maintenance, 1st Edition. Copyright 2007.
Reprinted with permission. Better Dust Hood Containment 10

5
Air Jet Influence Persists

Courtesy Health & Safety Better Dust Hood Containment 11


Executive, United Kingdom

Open Hood Suction


Influence Limited

Courtesy Health & Safety Better Dust Hood Containment 12


Executive, United Kingdom

6
AIR VELOCITY TERMS

Simple Hood (1 entry loss) Compound Hood (2 entry losses)


Fig.6-1: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial
Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 13

Hood Air Flow


Patterns
Capture velocity at
surface of sphere
fishtail slot hood

Shape ~ Sphere less duct Shape Cylinder


Plain end hood
or elephant
2Sphere _ Halves
Area 4 * * r 2 - * D 2 / 4
trunk Area 2 * * L 4 * * r 2
Hoods - Physics of Air Flow 14

7
Flanges reduce Q & SPh:
Q = Vc (10x2 + A) Q = 0.75Vc (10x2 + A)

SPh = 0.93*VP SPh=0.49*VP

Hoods - Physics of Air Flow 15


Pioneering work by Dallavalle

Hood Air Flow Patterns


Flanged Duct Exhaust

Shape Half sphere


Area 2 * * r 2
Whats done right in this photo?
Hoods - Physics of Air Flow 16

8
Hood Air Flow Patterns
Slot with flanges & sides
SLOT

Shape 1 / 4 _ cylinder
Area 1 / 2 * * L

Hoods - Physics of Air Flow


Courtesy17Dynamic Air Corp.

Hood Air Flow Patterns


Open Enclosure - 5
Sided Hood

Height, h

Width, w
Shape opensided _ box
Source inside _ box
Area height * width
Must include design features to
ensure uniform face velocity profile
Hoods - Physics of Air Flow 18

9
Receiving Hoods
- Use Contaminant Momentum

Particle
Momentum?
Thermal Buoyancy?

Fig. 4-3, Hemeons Plant & Process


Fig. 4-7, Hemeons Plant & Process Ventilation, 3rd Edition, 1999, Edited by Jeff
Ventilation, 3rd Edition, 1999, Edited by Burton, reprinted with permission
Jeff Burton, reprinted with permission Better Dust Hood Containment 19

Take Advantage of
Particle Momentum!

Courtesy Health & Safety Better Dust Hood Containment 20


Executive, United Kingdom

10
Limitations of Hoods-Physics
Dust particles with velocity have
momentum and inertia much greater than
the relatively small mass and inertia of
air

Vector diagram shows resultant dust


movement when particles have higher
speed

This Physics of Airflow must be


considered in hood design

Dust hood
Hoods - Physics of Air Flow 21

Canopy receiving hood


design principles:
Be big enough to receive all the rising contaminant cloud
Emptied as fast as its filled
As near to the process and source as possible
As enclosing as possible
Shielded from drafts

Better Dust Hood Containment 22

11
Actual Canopy Hood
Performance

23 Better Dust Hood Containment

Receiving Hoods Must


Exhaust Excess Air

Better Dust Hood Containment 24

12
Open Enclosures Level 2
Person in front of
cabinet, dust inside
cabinet
Protection: low
velocity inward air
movement
Avoid giving particle
escape velocity from
process or manual
handling procedure
Bag dumps, super
sack dumps, dump Why the bag?
cabinets, lab hoods Better Dust Hood Containment 25

Sealed Enclosures Level 3


Contaminant totally
surrounded by enclosure
Protection: negative pressure
and inward air movement
Low air velocity at access
openings
Avoid enclosure positive
pressure - dusting
Examples: belt conveyor
housings, bins, Loss In Weight
Feeders, sumps, tanks

Better Dust Hood Containment 26

13
Sealed Enclosures Need Air Bleeds

Air bleed for duct air makeup


Air paths through enclosure drafts steal powder
De-entrainment space
Better Dust Hood Containment 27

Questions on Hood Types?

Better Dust Hood Containment 28

14
Recognizing Dust Emission Sources
Movement of particles in air
Particles>100um travel some
distance if ejected at speed
but settle out quickly
Particles ~100um settle out of
air near process that
generated them
Smaller particles float and
remain suspended in air
(minutes) & move with air
currents

Better Dust Hood Containment 29

Powders - range of particle diameters


dQ, relative quantity particles with diameter D
dust is generally < 100 microns
Q, proportion particles diam. D, < D horiz. axis

Better Dust Hood Containment 30

15
Fine Dust Particles Harder to Control
(easily influenced by building drafts)

Settling Time vs. Diameter, microns


20

30

40

50

60 Stokes _ Settling _ Velocities


70
US : _ Vs 0.0052 * SG * D 2
80
SI : _ Vs (26.4 x10 6 ) * SG * D 2
90

100

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Seconds to fall 9 feet (3 meters)


Better Dust Hood Containment Page 31

Other particle characteristics

Sticky? block
hood openings,
ducts?
Abrasive? erosion
Fibrous ? form a
mat
Moist? mud or
crusty layer
Other?
Better Dust Hood Containment 32

16
Source ID Techniques

Side lighting

Color contrast
Better Dust Hood Containment 33

Visualizing Dust Sources High


intensity light or Tyndall lighting

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom

Better Dust Hood Containment 34

17
Dust generation
- Expulsion of fine particles

Better Dust Hood Containment 35

Dusty Displaced Air

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom
Better Dust Hood Containment 36

18
Dust generation Induced dusty air

Entrained air from falling


powder strips fine particles
during fall with expulsion of
fine particles at floor
Better Dust Hood Containment 37

Dust generation
Induced dusty air
Air induced or drawn in at
chute by powder flow and
then pumped into bin

Bin vent
filter a
common
solution,
courtesy
Donaldson

Better Dust Hood Containment 38

19
Pressurized Dusty Air

Room ventilation transports dust

Better Dust Hood Containment 39

Dust generation VIBRATION

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom

Better Dust Hood Containment 40

20
Another dusty displaced
air drop a dusty panel

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom

Better Dust Hood Containment 41

Dust generation secondary air currents

Compressed air cylinder


vents

Rotating machinery parts Courtesy Health & Safety


table saw example Executive, United Kingdom

Better Dust Hood Containment 42

21
Dust generation bag puffing

Spillage from
residual product
in emptied
containers

Better Dust Hood Containment 43

Fugitive Dust Goes Everywhere!

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom Better Dust Hood Containment 44

22
Secondary dust generation
transports spilled dust from a
primary dust source
Compressed air blow
down cleaning
rearranges dust

Better Dust Hood Containment 45


Courtesy Health & Safety
Executive, United Kingdom

Secondary dust
generation

Re-entrainment of spillage by drafts


from mechanical movements

Fanning action
from sweeping
Grinding action
from foot and
vehicle traffic on
spilled materials
Better Dust Hood Containment 46

23
Questions on Dust Sources?

Better Dust Hood Containment 47

Design of Open Faced


Hoods (Level 1 Containment)
Capture velocity
Airflow versus distance
Flanging shaping
airflow
Estimating airflow
required
Uniform velocity across
the hood opening
Duct transition shapes
Also a receiving hood, Slots
taking advantage of
particle momentum Hood static pressure
Better Dust Hood Containment 48

24
Capture Velocities
Dispersion Example Capture Velocity,
Conditions ft/min

Release with Evaporation from tanks; 50 -100


practically no velocity degreasing, etc.
into quiet air
Released at low Spray booths; intermittent 100 - 200
velocity into container filling; welding;
moderately still air plating; pickling
Active generation into Spray painting in shallow 200 500
zone of rapid air booths; barrel filling;
motion conveyor loading
Released at high initial Grinding; abrasive blasting; 500 - 2000
velocity into zone of tumbling
very rapid air motion
Table 6-1: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial
Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 49

Capture Velocities factors to


decide upper or lower end of range
Lower End of Range Upper End of Range
Room air currents minimal or Disturbing room air currents
favorable to capture

Contaminants of low toxicity Contaminants of high toxicity


or of nuisance value only

Intermittent, low production High production, heavy use

Large hood-large air mass in Small hood-local control only


motion
Table 6-1: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial
Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 50

25
Hood Shape
and Distance
Determine
Required
Airflow

Fig. 6-11: From American


Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH),
Industrial Ventilation: A Manual
of Recommended Practice, 26th
Edition. Copyright 2007.
Reprinted with permission."

Better Dust Hood Containment 51

Hood Static Pressure:


SPh = he + VPd
Hood static pressure = hood entry loss + 1 duct velocity pressure to
accelerate stagnant air to duct velocity

Hood entry loss is affected by the shape over which


the airflow passes:
(Hood entry loss = hood entry loss coefficient x
duct velocity pressure)

Simple hood: he = Fh x VPd


Compound hood (slots): he = FsVPs + FdVPd
Better Dust Hood Containment 52

26
Hood Entry Losses Shapes

Used
for slots

Fig.9a: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial Ventilation:
A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 53

Hood Entry Losses -


Transitions

Fig.9a: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial Ventilation:
A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 54

27
Examples of open hood
performance -1
Hood face velocity
Vd = 4,200 ft/min
FV = 1,315 ft/min
Wire brushing lead
paint 10 in front
Vc = 50 ft/min
Not adequate

Better Dust Hood Containment 55

Examples of open hood


performance -2
Capture velocity
200 ft/min?
4.7 in. vs. 10 in.
Hood SP at design
airflow? (90o
included angle)
He = 0.28w.c.
SPh = 1.38 w.c.

Better Dust Hood Containment 56

28
Open Faced Enclosures
(Level 2 Containment)
Contain with relatively low velocity mass of
air at face of opening (face velocity)
Uniform velocity profile techniques
Baffles
Slots
Transitions
Applications partially closed processes:
belt conveyors, dump hoods, lab hoods
Better Dust Hood Containment 57

Open Hood Turbulence Causes


Poor Face Velocity Profile

Widely believed myth how


airflow enters a lab hood

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom
Better Dust Hood Containment 58

29
Turbulence in Corners
Kickback to Opening

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom

Better Dust Hood Containment 59

Tapered Edges Minimize


Turbulence, Even at 100 fpm

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom
Better Dust Hood Containment 60

30
Final Piece Sash to
Counter Worker Wake Effect

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom

Better Dust Hood Containment 61

With attention to detail, even


energetic processes controlled

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom
Better Dust Hood Containment 62

31
Why Slots Provide A
Uniform Velocity Profile

Equal air paths


Unequal air paths Equal air paths
Back wall has slots
to exhaust point To horizontal duct and plenum to
vertical duct
Better Dust Hood Containment 63

Interfering Room Drafts


Common Hood Failure Mode

Find Other
Ways to Cool
Workers!

Courtesy Health & Safety


Executive, United Kingdom

Better Dust Hood Containment 64

32
Hood Failure Modes Address
in Maintenance Planning-1
Excessive room air currents
Improper hood location
Poor hood shape
Changing hood airflow
Physical changes to hood
Connected DCS degrades
Poor face velocity profile
Unequal air paths
External air currents
Poor conveying velocity inside slotted manifolds
Better Dust Hood Containment 65

Hood Failure Modes Address


in Maintenance Planning-2
Excessive particle momentum
Face velocity too low to stop high energy
particles
Process design steps to slow particles
Sealed enclosures need duct air bleeds
to prevent drafts that steal powder
into DCS
Insufficient HVAC makeup air
Better Dust Hood Containment 66

33
SPh & Maintenance
Visual Checks
React to visible emissions
to room
Check for hood blockage,
modifications or relocation
First line of defense
monitor air flow
Install Hood Static
Pressure gauges with
action limits (+ 20%
Green band
Baseline)
is + 20 % SP
from baseline OR
SP roughly take routine Face Velocity
+ 10% airflow measurements
Better Dust Hood Containment 67

Questions on Hoods?

Better Dust Hood Containment 68

34
Hood & Enclosure Examples
Containers
Drum filling or hand scooping
Big bag unloading
Powder Transfers
Belt conveyors
Bucket elevators
Pressurized dust sources
Pneumatic conveying
Pneumatic bag filling
Better Dust Hood Containment 69

Open Hood Failure Mode


Not Matched to Dust Source

Better
performance
same airflow,
Elephant trunk
psychological 100-150 fpm
dust control! at gap Page 70 Hoods - Physics of Air Flow

35
Other Drum Fill
Options

moon slot hood


Powder
chute
Vent to DCS with
air bleed
Inflatable seal

moon hoods also used for


Drum liner or
hand scooping better
big bag liner
containment with open faced
enclosure, courtesy Flow Sciences
Better Dust Hood Containment 71

Big bag discharge


with no dust control
Three dust sources
1 Initial rush of
material into bin
below displaces
dusty air
2 Shaking
supersack to remove
residual dusty
operation
3 Rolling up sack
discharges dusty air

Better Dust Hood Containment 72

36
Options used
- Flexible Seal only works for a few
moments due the full weight of the
sack
- Hopper too small for dust de-
entrainment, dusty air must be
relieved into dust collection

Supersack
Block particle
Unloading momentum with
hopper physical barrier, the
Tight fit of spout inside
hopper barrier to dusting spout
Dust controlled bin Hood Containment
Better Dust 73

Seal Spout Completely


Vent hopper to dust collection

Pull ssck spout to raised fixture Clamp spout to fixture

Courtesy
Flexicon
Better Dust Hood Containment 74

Release spout drawstring Fixture stretchs spout

37
Belt Conveyors Many Dust Sources

-Boundary layer dust from vibration


-Dusting at belt discharge
-Residual dust clinging to returning belt Discharge of powder off belt
largest dust source

Recognizing Contaminant Sources 75

Dust Control: Belt Conveyor Powder


Discharge De-entrainment Space
Transfer
point only

DC Connection
Provide de-
entrainment
DC Air Inlet plenum for
dust fines

Provide de-
entrainment
space for
powder at
access door

Powder
Enclosed conveyor trajectory
discharge
Better Dust Hood Containment 76

38
Minimize particle momentum
belt conveyor feed to avoid overshoot
Keep vertical drop
< 3 feet
Use sloped chutes
where possible

Ramp

Skirts

Product Divert feed to follow


Belt motion of next belt
Tail Pulley
Better Dust Hood Containment 77

Belt Conveyor Lay-on Guides and Dust


Skirts (Top View) Keep powder on belt
Lay-on Guide

Dust Skirts

Powder Feed

Belt
Housing

Keep powder centered on belt


Better Dust Hood Containment 78

39
Belt Cleaning returning belt residual

Scraper at
tangent point

Courtesy Martin Engineering Co.


-Primary, secondary, & even tertiary belt
cleaning can prevent carry back and spillage
under the belt
- Important for open belt conveyors to prevent
return belt dust dribble
Better Dust Hood Containment 79

Vertical Continuous
& Centrifugal
Bucket Elevators
Centrifugal throw powder
versus gravity empty
Dust sources
Feed inlet
Boot shaft slots
Choked or free flowing
solids
Spillage past buckets into
housing
Discharge
Head shaft seals
Choked or free flowing
solids
Better Dust Hood Containment 80

40
Bucket Elevator
Feed Inlet
- Chute 6-12 above
buckets at 3 oclock to
avoid throwing powder
back up chute
-Replace missing
buckets major
spillage to bottom
otherwise

Boot gravity take


Courtesy Orthman up no exposed
Conveyor Co. external shaft
Better Dust Hood Containment 81

Bucket
Elevator
Dust Control
-Keep elevator
housing under
negative pressure
- Best to extract in
space between
pulleys, - 2-3 feet
above boot pulley
and below head
pulley

Better Dust Hood Containment 82


Fig. VS-50-01: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial Ventilation: A
Manual of Recommended Practice for Design, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.

41
Equipment Dense vs. Dilute
Bin vent filter sizing
Dense phase
Normally operates with full line
high air volume (10X conveying
volume or more) when line is
cleared.

Dilute phase
Bin vent filter sizing ~ assume 1.5-
2.0 x conveying airflow when pipe
clears its throat of powder (3-3.5
x for truck/rail unloading)
Better Dust Hood Containment 83

Pneumatic Conveying Dust Control

Leak tight construction if positive pressure


Vent backpressure from airlock valves to
dust collection
Size bin vent filter for line clearing bubble
Prevent powder attrition and its increasing
fines dust load
Pipe velocity increases as air expands from psig
pressures - attrition ~ Velocity 3
Example (14.7+5)/14.7= 34% volume increase
(4,000 fpm becomes 5,400 fpm)
Increase pipe diameter last 1/3 or so of length
to reduce velocity close to 4,000 fpm
Better Dust Hood Containment 84

42
Pressurized Dusty Air at Feed
Vented Pocket Airlocks

Courtesy Sprout Bauer Co.

Vent to small, self cleaning


filter or to a dust control
system Better Dust Hood Containment 85

Pressurized Dusty Air


Pneumatic Bag Filling

blow back - no dust collection rooster tail (excess air while filling bag)
ACGIH recommends 500 CFM in blow back (excess air and little dust control)
VS-15-03 of IV Design manual dust coated bag on conveyor (puffs dust)
Better Dust Hood Containment 86

43
Summary
Know your contaminant sources
Know your process
Know how your operators interact with it
Understand the physics of air flow
movement to know if the hood is
practical
Reapply proven designs VS Prints in
Industrial Ventilation can help or develop
standard designs Better Dust Hood Containment 87

Thanks for your attention,


now for some questions
Gary Q. Johnson, P.E.
Workplace Exposure Solutions LLC
(Industrial ventilation, process safety
combustible dusts and flammable vapors, &
environmental consulting)
Cincinnati, OH 45241
gary@workexposoln.com
513-777-4626
88

44
Reference Material
Hood Calculations
Open hood
Open faced enclosure

Better Dust Hood Containment 89

Hood Calculations - Math Review


Continuity Equation: (In = Out)
Q = VxA = V1xA1 = V2xA2
Q-ft3/min, V-ft/min, A-ft2

Duct Area:
A = x radius2 = x (diameter/2)2
A=3.14x(D/2)2x(1 ft/12in)2 = x D2/576

Velocity-Velocity Pressure:
V = 1096x(VP/df)1/2 = 4005x(VP)1/2 (sea level)
or VP = (V/4005)2 (VP-inches water column)
Better Dust Hood Containment 90

45
Slot Velocity
Slots have aspect ratios, W/L < 0.2
A slot velocity of 1,500-2,000 ft/min
provides a uniform velocity the length of the
slot useful for getting uniform face
velocity at the area in front of the slot.
Slot loss is like a sharp edge orifice: Fs =
1.78
The compound hood loss is:
he = FsVPs + FdVPd
Better Dust Hood Containment 91

Calculate Hood Face Velocity

V 4005 VP / df

Better Dust Hood Containment 92

46
Hood Face Velocity Solution

1-Vduct = 4005x(1.1)1/2 = 4200 ft/min


2-Ad = pi x (4)2/576 = 0.087 sq.ft.
3-Ahood = 4x10x(1 ft/12)2 = 0.278
sq.ft.
4 -Vh = Vd x (Ad/Ah) = 4200 x
(0.087/0.278) = 1315 ft/min
Better Dust Hood Containment 93

Calculate Capture Velocity 10


in Front of Hood
wire brushing lead paint

10

Better Dust Hood Containment 94

47
Solution: Capture Velocity
10 in Front of Hood
1. Find Q = Vh x Ah = 1315 ft/min x
(4x10/144) ft2 = 365 ft3/min

2. Find hood aspect ratio L=10, W=4,


W/L = 4/10 = 0.4 (not a slot)

Fig. 3-11 plain opening hood-next pg


Q = Vc(10X2+A)
Better Dust Hood Containment 95

Hood Shape
and Distance
Determine
Required
Airflow

Fig. 6-11: From American


Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH),
Industrial Ventilation: A Manual
of Recommended Practice, 26th
Edition. Copyright 2007.
Reprinted with permission."

Better Dust Hood Containment 96

48
Solution, continued
3. Plain opening hood shape
Q=Vc(10X2 + A), Vc= Q/(10X2 + A)

Vc = 365 ft3 /(10x(10/12)2 + (40/144))

Vc = 365/7.222 = 50 ft/min

4. Effective - wire brushing surface? See


tables

Better Dust Hood Containment 97

Capture Velocities
Dispersion Example Capture Velocity,
Conditions ft/min

Release with Evaporation from tanks; 50 -100


practically no velocity degreasing, etc.
into quiet air
Released at low Spray booths; intermittent 100 - 200
velocity into container filling; welding;
moderately still air plating; pickling
Active generation into Spray painting in shallow 200 500
zone of rapid air booths; barrel filling;
motion conveyor loading
Released at high initial Grinding; abrasive blasting; 500 - 2000
velocity into zone of tumbling
very rapid air motion
Table 6-1: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial
Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 98

49
Capture Velocities factors to
decide upper or lower end of range
Lower End of Range Upper End of Range
Room air currents minimal or Disturbing room air currents
favorable to capture

Contaminants of low toxicity Contaminants of high toxicity


or of nuisance value only

Intermittent, low production High production, heavy use

Large hood-large air mass in Small hood-local control only


motion
Table 6-1: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial
Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 99

Distance for Capture


Velocity = 200 ft/min?
Apply same
equation, solving
for distance X

Better Dust Hood Containment 100

50
Distance for Capture
Velocity = 200 ft/min
1. Q=Vc(10X2 + A), Q/Vc=10X2+A,
(Q/Vc-A)=10X2
2. X=((Q/Vc-A)/10)1/2

3. X=((365/200-40/144)/10)1/2

4. X=0.393 ft x 12 /ft = 4.7


Better Dust Hood Containment 101

Calculate Hood SP

Included angle = 90o

Better Dust Hood Containment 102

51
Hood Entry Losses -
Transitions

Fig.9a: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial Ventilation:
A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 103

Calculate Hood SP
1. Duct VP = 1.1w.c. (diagram)
2. Entry loss = 0.25 x VP
(Fig. 5-15-25th; Fig. 9a-26th)
3. Acceleration loss = 1 x VP
4. Hood SP
= acceleration loss + entry loss
= 1VP+0.25VP=VP(1+0.25)
=1.1x1.25 = 1.4w.c.
Better Dust Hood Containment 104

52
Using Hood Static Pressure
(SPh) for Monitoring
Every hood has a specific SPh based on its
shape and the airflow through it.
SPh values can be found in Industrial
Ventilation, A Recommended Practice for
Design, 28th Edition
SPh values can be measured in the field at
startup
Local SPh indication (Magnehelic or
manometer) provides operator warning of
IVS problems

Better Dust Hood Containment 105

Uniform Velocity
Profile - Slots

Hood opening: 60 x 60
3 slots, 2x 36
Duct diameter 12
Rectangular to round duct
transition 120 degrees

Better Dust Hood Containment 106

53
Open Enclosures:
Calculating SPh & Q
SPh essentially a box with a duct
connected use the tapered shapes or
the slot shapes calculations on Fig 5-
15
Flow Q = V x A where
V is face velocity at plane of the opening
A is cross sectional area of the opening

Better Dust Hood Containment 107

Find Hood SP, FV = 125 fpm

1 Hood Airflow = Q = V X A
125 ft/min x (60x60)/(1/144)2
= 3125 ft3/min
- Duct velocity = Q/A = Q*576/(pixD2)
= 3125*576/(3.14x144) = 3980 ft/min
- VPduct = (Vd/4005)2
= (3980/4005)2 = 0.99 w.c.
Better Dust Hood Containment 108

54
Find Hood SP

2 Slot Area = L x W x # slots


(3x2x36)/144 = 1.5 ft2
- Slot Velocity = V = Q/A
3125 ft3/min/(1.5 ft2) = 2083 ft/min
VPslot = (Vs/4005)2
(2083/4005)2 = 0.27 w.c.

Better Dust Hood Containment 109

Hood Entry Losses -


Transitions

Fig.9a: From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial Ventilation:
A Manual of Recommended Practice, 26th Edition. Copyright 2007. Reprinted with permission.
Better Dust Hood Containment 110

55
Find Hood SP

3 Hood Entry Loss


he = Fs x VPs + Fh x VPd (fig.5-15)
Fs = 1.78 (sharp edged orifice)
Fh = 0.35 (120 degree rectangular)

he = 1.78x0.27+0.35x0.99 = 0.827

Better Dust Hood Containment 111

Find Hood SP

4 Hood Static Pressure


SPh = acceleration loss + hood loss
SPh = 1 x VPd + Fs x VPs + Fh x VPd
= 1 x VPd + he

SPh = 1x.99 + 0.827 = 1.82w.c.

Better Dust Hood Containment 112

56
Increasing Hood Face
Velocity
What are the ways the face velocity
could be increased to 150 ft/min?

Better Dust Hood Containment 113

Increasing Hood Face


Velocity
Option 1: Decrease opening size
A=Q/V=3125/150 = 21.8 ft2
Option 2: Increase exhaust air flow
Q=3125 x (150/125) = 3750 ft3/min

Better Dust Hood Containment 114

57
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