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(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 40 Due Date: 05/05/2006
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• • • • • • • • Labeled and draw each circuit diagram, other wise you will lose your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks. To solve this assignment, you should have good command over first 8 lectures. Upload assignments properly through LMS, (No Assignment will be accepted through email). Write your ID on the top of your solution file. All students are directed to use the font and style of text as is used in this document. Don’t use colorful back grounds in your solution files. Use Math Type or Equation Editor etc for mathematical symbols. This is not a group assignment, it is an individual assignment so be careful and avoid copying others’ work. If some assignment is found to be copy of some other, both will be awarded zero marks. It also suggests you to keep your assignment safe from others. No excuse will be accepted by anyone if found to be copying or letting others copy. Don’t wait for the last date to submit your assignment.
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Q.1.
For the circuit shown in the figure below, all the resistors are given in Ohms; Find the total resistance RT in the following circuits. Draw the circuit diagram of each step otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Q.2.
You are given the circuit Use Current Division Rule directly to find I30.
Sol.
From Current division rule we have I30 = (10 x 20) / (20 + 30) = 200/50 V I30= 4A
Q.3.
In the network given below find the voltage VX .
Sol.
By Ohm’s Law I1 = 30/15 = 2A Vab = 2x 25 = 50V I2 = 50 / 50 = 1A From KVL (entering current equal to leaving current ) I3 = I1 + I2 = 3A VX = 15I3 + Vab = 45 + 50 VX = 95 V
 Good Luck 
Assignment 2(Spring 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 50 Due Date: 16/05/2006
Q.1.
Many years ago a string of Christmas tree lights was manufactured in the form shown in Fig. A. Today the lights are manufactured as shown in Fig. B. Is there a good reason for this change? Circuit diagram:
Figure A
Figure B
Sol.
In figure (A) if any of the light is not working, the other lights will not lighten up on turning the switch on. While in figure (B) every light is directly connected to the source of current. So, if any of the light is not working it will have no effect on the other lights.
Q.2.
Find Ix, Iy, and Iz in the network given below.
Sol.
Fist of all we will label the diagram,
For node 1: According to KCL: Iz + 4 mA = 2 mA Iz = 2 mA For node 2: According to KCL: Substituting the value of Iz Iz + 12 mA + Iy = 0 2 mA + 12 mA + Iy = 0 Iy =  10 mA For node 3: According to KCL: 12 mA = 3 mA + Ix Ix = 9 mA
Q.3.
Use nodal analysis to find both VO and V1 in the network given below. Identify and label each node otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Fist of all we will label the diagram,
KCL equation at Node’V1’ will be, Sum of all the currents leaving the junction = sum of all the currents entering the junction V1 3k V1 + V1 – V 2 6k  2 mA + 4 mA =0
V1 – V2 + 3k 6k V1 V1 – V2 + 3k 6k 2V1 + V1 – V2 2V1 3V1 3V1 3V1 3V1
= 4 mA + 2 mA
= 2 mA
= 2 mA 6k + V1 – V2 = (6 k)(2 mA) – V2 = (6 × 10+3)(2 × 103) – V2 = 12 × 10+33 – V2 = 12 × 100 – V2 = 12 × 1 3V1 – V2 = 12 …………..… (A)
KCL equation at Node’V2’ will be, V2 12 k V2 12 k + + V2 4k V2 4k + + V2 – V1 6k V2 – V1 6k = 2 mA + 2 mA =0
V2 + 3V2 + 2[V2 – V1]
= 2 mA 12 k V2 + 3V2 + 2[V2 – V1] = (12 k)(2 mA) V2 + 3V2 + 2V2  2V1 = (12 × 10+3)(2 × 103) 6V2  2V1 = 24 × 10+33 V1  3V2 = 12 × 100 V1  3V2 = 12 × 1 V1 + 3V2 = 12 ………………..… (B) V1 = 12  3V2 Substituting the value of V1 in (A) 3[(12  3V2)] – V2 = 12 36 + 9V2 – V2 = 12 8V2 = 12 – 36 8V2 = 48 V2 = 6 Volts Substituting the value of V2 in (B) V1 3(6) = 12 V1 = 12 – 18 V1 =6 Volts According to Voltage Division Rule:
2k V0 = 2k+2k 2k V0 = × 6 V 4k × V2
V0 = 3 Volts
Q.4.
Use nodal analysis to find both VO in the network given below. Identify and label each node otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Fist of all we will label the diagram,
Applying KCL at Super node V1 4k V1 4k + V1 – V3 2k V1 – V3 2k + V2 2k V2 2k = 2mA = 2mA
+
+
 2 mA = 0
V1 + 2[V1 – V3] + 2V2 4k
V1 + 2[V1 – V3] + 2V2 = (4 k)(2 mA) V1 + 2V1 – 2V3 + 2V2 = (4 × 10+3)(2 × 103) 3V1  2V3 + 2V2 = 8 × 10+33 3V1 – 2V3 + 2V2 = 8 × 100 3V1 – 2V3 + 2V2 = 8 × 1 3V1 + 2V2 – 2V3 = 8 Constraint equation V2 – V1 = 12 V2 = 12 + V1 Substituting the value of V2 in eq. (A) 3V1 + 2[12 + V1] – 2V3 = 8 3V1 + 24 + 2V1 – 2V3 = 8 5V1 – 2V3 = 8  24 5V1 – 2V3 = 16 ………………………..(C) …………………(B) ………………… (A)
Applying KCL at node ‘V3’ V3 – V1 2k V3 – V1 2k V3 – V1 + V3 2k 2V3 – V1 = (2 k)(2 mA) 2V3–V1 = (2 × 10+3)(2 × 103) 2V3–V1 = 4 × 10+33 2V3–V1 = 4 × 100 2V3–V1 = 4 × 1 2V3  V1 = 4 Volts ……………. (D) Solving (C) and (D) simultaneously we have V1 = 5V + V3 2k = 2 mA + 2 mA + V3 2k = 2 mA =0
Substituting the value of V1 in eq. (B) V2 + 5 = 12 V2 = 7 Volts V0 = V2 = 7 Volts
 Good Luck 
Assignment 3(Spring 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 50 Due Date: 25/05/2006
Q.1.
Find VO in the network given below. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
According to Voltage Division Rule 4k V0 = × 12 V 4k+8k 4k V0 = × 12 V 12 k
V0 = 4 Volts
Q.2.
Use Mesh analysis to find Voltage VO in the given network. Identify and label each mesh otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Here I1 = 2 mA …………….… (A)
Loop I2: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 1000[I2 – I1] + 2000[I2 – I3] + 1000I2 = 12 1000I2 – 1000I1 + 2000I2 – 2000I3 + 1000I2 = 12 1000I1 + 4000I2 – 2000I3 = 12 [1000I1  4000I2 + 2000I3] = 12 1000I1  4000I2 + 2000I3 = 12 Substituting the value of I1 from equation (A) 1000[2 mA]  4000I2 + 2000I3 = 12 2  4000I2 + 2000I3 = 12  4000I2 + 2000I3 = 14 [4000I2  2000I3] = 14 4000I2  2000I3 = 14 ……….… (B)
Loop I3: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 2000[I3 – I2] + 1000[I3 – I1] + 1000I3 = 6 2000I3 – 2000I2 + 1000I3 – 1000I1 + 1000I3 = 6 1000I1 – 2000I2 + 4000I3 = 6 Substituting the value of I1 from equation (A) 1000[2 mA] – 2000I2 + 4000I3 = 6 2 – 2000I2 + 4000I3 = 6 –2000I2 + 4000I3 = 8 [2000I2  4000I3] = 8 2000I2  4000I3 = 8 Multiplying both sides of Equation (C) by 2 4000I2  8000I3 = 16 Subtracting equation (D) from (B) 4000I2  2000I3 = 14 4000I2  8000I3 = 16 + + 6000I3 = 30 I3 = 5 mA Substituting the value of I3 in equation (B) 4000I2 – 2000[5 mA] = 14 4000I2 – 10 = 14 4000I2 = 24 I2 = 6 mA According to ohm’s Law V0 = (I2)(1 k) …………….… (D) ……………..(C)
V0 V0 V0 V0 V0
= = = = =
(6 mA)(1 k) (6 × 103)(1 × 10+3) 6 × 103+3 6 × 100 6×1 V0 = 6 V
Q.3.
Use Mesh analysis to find Voltage VO in the given network. Identify and label each mesh otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Technique # 1
From fig. (A) Constraint Equation I2 – I3 = 12 mA
……….… (I)
Loop I1: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 12000I1 + 6000[I1 – I3] + 4000[I1 – I2] = 0 12000I1 + 6000I1 – 6000I3 + 4000I1 – 4000I2 = 0
22000I1 – 4000I2 – 6000I3 = 0 From equation (I) I3 = I2 – 12 mA 22000I1 – 4000I2 – 6000[I2 – 12 mA] = 0 22000I1 – 4000I2 – 6000I2 + 72 = 0 22000I1 – 10000I2 = 72 …………….… (II)
Writing equation for Super Mesh According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 6000[I3 – I1] + 4000[I2 – I1] + 8000I2 = 10Vx 6000I3 – 6000I1 + 4000I2 – 4000I1 + 8000I2 = 10Vx 10000I1 + 12000I2 + 6000I3 = 10Vx From equation (I) I3 = I2 – 12 mA 10000I1 + 12000I2 + 6000[I2 – 12 mA] = 10Vx 10000I1 + 12000I2 + 6000I2 – 72 = 10Vx 10000I1 + 18000I2 – 72 = 10Vx We know from the above circuit diagram Vx = 4000[I1 – I2] 10000I1 + 18000I2 – 72 = 10[4000(I1 – I2)] 10000I1 + 18000I2 – 72 = 40000(I1 – I2) 10000I1 + 18000I2 – 72 = 40000I1 – 40000I2 10000I1 + 18000I2 – 72  40000I1 + 40000I2 = 0 50000I1 + 58000I2 = 72 [50000I1  58000I2] = 72 50000I1  58000I2 = 72 ………………… (III)
Multiplying both the sides of equation (II) by –50 1100000I1 + 500000I2 = 3600 Multiplying both the sides of equation (iii) by 22 1100000I1  1276000I2 = 1584 Adding (IV) & (V)  1100000I1 + 500000I2 = 3600 +1100000I1  1276000I2 = 1584 776000I2 = 2016 I2 = 2.60 mA According to ohm’s Law V0 = (I2)(8 k) V0 = (2.60 mA)(8 k) V0 = (2.60 × 103)(8 × 10+3) V0 = 20.8 × 103+3 V0 = 20.8 × 100 V0 = 20.8 × 1 V0 = 20.8 V ………………… (V) ………………… (IV)
Technique # 2
I1
I2
I3
From the diagramwe have Vx = (I3 + I1 − I2 )4k Vx = 4kI3 + 4kI1 − 4kI2 I3 = 12mA For Mesh 1 10Vx + 8k(I1 + I3 ) + 4k(I3 + I1 − I2 ) + 6k(I1 − I2 ) = 0 Put I3 = 12mA in ( A) we have 10(4kI3 + 4kI1 − 4kI2 ) + 8k(I1 + I3 ) + 4k(I3 + I1 − I ) + 6k(I1 − I2 ) = 0 52I3 + 58I1 − 50I2 = 0 − − − − − ( A) Put I3 = 12mA in ( A) we have 52(12) + 58I1 − 50I2 = 0 29I1 − 25I2 = −312 − − − − − − − − − − − (1) For Mesh 2 6k(I2 − I1 ) + 4k(I2 − I1 − I3 ) + 12kI2 = 0 − − − − − (B) Put I3 = 12mA in (B) we have 6k(I2 − I1 ) + 4k(I2 − I1 − 12mA) + 12kI2 = 0 6kI2 − 6kI1 + 4kI2 − 4kI1 − 48 + 12kI2 = 0 10kI1 − 22kI2 = −48 − − − − − − − (2)
Solving (1) and (2 ) simultenously we have I1 = − 14.599mA and I2 = −4.454mA To find out the voltage across 8K Ω reis tan ce Vo = (I3 + I1 )8k Ω Vo = (12 − 14.599)8 Vo = −20.88 volts
 Good Luck 
Assignment 4(Spring 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 40 Due Date: 30/06/2006
Q.1.
Use Mesh analysis to find Current through each mesh in the given network also find out Voltage Vo. Identify and label each mesh and also show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw the complete circuit diagram and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
We can see from the figure that V0 = 2k(I1 + I2 ) (A) From Mesh 1: 2V0 1000 2V0 I1 = 1k I1 =
From (A) we have I1 = I1 = 2 [2k(I1 + I2 )] 1k 2 [2kI1 + 2kI2 ]
1k 4kI1 + 4kI2 I = Loop Equation for Current 1I2 : 1k 4k(I + I2 4kI2 + 4k(II + I2 ) + 12k(I1 )+ I2 ) = 6 1 = 1 4kI2 + 4kI1 + 4kI2 +1k 1 + 2kI2 = 6 2kI I1 = 4(I16kII2+ 10kI = 6 + ) I1 =
1 2
4I1 (3kI 2 + 5kI ) = 6 2 + 4I 1 2 I1  4I1 5kI 2= 3 3kI1 + = 4I 2 3I1 = 4I2 4 Put I1 =  I2 in the above Eq. we have 4 3 I1= I2 (1) 3 ⎛ 4 ⎞ 3k ⎜  I2 ⎟ + 5kI2 = 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 4kI2 + 5kI2 = 3
1kI2 = 3 I2 = 3mA (B) By putting the value of I2 in eq. (1) we have
Q.2.
Apply Superposition to the network given below to find out VO. Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Only voltage Source is acting First we will replace current source by an open circuit, so we will have the circuit as shown below
From the above figure 6kΩ is in parallel with 6kΩ, so 6kΩ  6kΩ = 3kΩ Thus the circuit will become as
Now from the circuit we see that 6kΩ is in series 3kΩ, so
6k+3k = 9 kΩ
The circuit will be as,
In the above diagram 6kΩ is in parallel with 9kΩ, so 6kΩ  9kΩ = 3.6kΩ
According to KVL Sum of voltage drop = sum of voltage rise 6000I + 3600I = 12 9600I = 12 I = 1.25 mA According to ohm’s Law V0′ = (I)(6 k) V0′ = (1.25 mA)(6 k)
V0′ = 7.5 V Only Current source is acting Now we will replace voltage source by short circuit, so our circuit will be as
Rearranging the above diagram as
According to current divider rule
I
=
6k 6k+6k
× 2 mA
I = 1 mA
According to ohm’s Law
V3k = (I)(3 k) V3k = (1 mA)(3 k) V3k = 3 V V3k = VAB V3k = V0″ V0 = V0′ + V0″ V0 = 7.5 V + 3 V
V0 = 10.5 V
Q.3.
Find IO in the network given below by using Source Transformation . Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
For Mesh I: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 4I1 + 12[I1 – I2] + 12 = 0 4I1 + 12I1 – 12I2 = 12 16I1 – 12I2 = 12 … (A)
For Mesh II: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 3I2 + 12[I2 – I1]+3I2 = 6 6I2 + 12I2 – 12I1 = 6 –12I1 + 18I2 = 6 … (B)
Multiplying both sides of equation (A) by 3 48I1 – 36I2 = 36 … (I) Multiplying both sides of equation (B) by 2 –24I1 + 36I2 = 12 … (II) Adding equations (I) & (II) 24I1 = 24
I1 = 1 mA According to ohm’s Law V4k = (I1)(4 k) V4k = (1 mA)(4 k) V4k = (1 × 103)(4 × 10+3)
V4k = 4 V V4k = VAB
I0 =VAB/6K = 4V/6K I0 = 0.667 mA
 Good Luck 
Assignment 5(Spring 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 50 Due Date: 12/07/2006
Q.1.
Use Source Transformation to find IO in the network given below. Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Technique I
Technique II
Parallel combination 12 kΩ × 6 kΩ = 12 kΩ + 6 kΩ 72 k × k = 18 k Source transformation: = 4 kΩ
V = (2 mA)(3 k) V=6V Using mesh analysis:
For Mesh I: According to KVL 6I1 + 4[I1 – I2] + 12 = 0 6I1 + 4I1 – 4I2 + 12 = 0
10I1 – 4I2 = 12 (A) For Mesh II: According to KVL 12I2 + 4[I2 – I1] + 6 = 0 16I2 – 4I1 = 6 Rearranging 4I1 + 16I2 = 6 (B)) Multiplying both sides of equation (A) by (4) 40I1 – 16I2 = 48 (C) Adding equations (B) & (C) 36I1 = 54 I1 = 1.5 mA Substituting the value of I1 in equation (A) 10[1.5] – 4I2 = 12 15 – 4I2 = 12 4I2 = 3 I2 = 0.75 mA I4k = I1 – I2 I4k = 1.5 mA – (0.75 mA) I4k = 1.5 mA + 0.75 mA I4k = 0.75 mA According to ohm’s Law V4k = (I4k)(4 k) V4k = (0.75 mA)(4 k) V4k = 3 V V4k = VAB VAB I0 = 6k 3 V I0 = 6k I0 = 0.5 mA
Q.2.
Use a combination of Thevenin’s theorem and Superposition to find VO in the network given below. Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value. (Note: You must solve this problem only using the techniques mentioned in the problem’s statement.)
Sol.
VTH =?
Consider 12 V source:
Series combination: = 2 kΩ + 8 kΩ + 4 kΩ = 14 kΩ
Parallel combination: 6 kΩ × 14 kΩ = 6 kΩ + 14 kΩ 84 k × k = 20 k = 4.2 kΩ
According to Voltage divider rule: 4.2 k V4.2k = × 12 V 4.2 k + 3 k
V4.2k = 7 V V4.2k = VAB From fig. (c) According to Voltage divider rule: 10 k V10k = 10 k + 4 k 10 k V10k = ×7V 14 k × VAB
V10k = 5 V V10k = VTH’
Now consider 4 mA source:
Parallel combination: 3 kΩ × 6 kΩ = 3 kΩ + 6 kΩ 18 k × k = 9k = 2 kΩ
Loop I2: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 12000[I1 + I2] + 4000I2 = 0 12000I1 + 12000I2 + 4000I2 = 0 12000I1 + 16000I2 = 0 Here I1 = 4 mA 12000[4 mA] + 16000I2 = 0 48 + 16000I2 = 0 16000I2 = 48 I2 = 3 mA According to ohm’s Law V8k = (I1 + I2)(8 k) V8k = (1 mA)(8 k) V8k = 8 × 1 V8k = 8 V According to ohm’s Law V2k = I2(2 k) V2k = (3 mA)(2 k) V2k = 6 V From fig. (g) VTH” = V8k + V2k VTH” = 8 V + 6 V VTH” = 2 V VTH = VTH' + VTH" VTH = 5 V + (2 V) VTH = 3 V RTH =?
Parallel combination: 3 kΩ × 6 kΩ =
3 kΩ + 6 kΩ 18 k × k = 9k = 2 kΩ
Series combinations: = 2 kΩ + 4 kΩ = 6 kΩ = 2 kΩ + 8 kΩ = 10 kΩ
Parallel combination: 10 kΩ × 6 kΩ = 10 kΩ + 6 kΩ 60 k × k = 16 k = 3.75 kΩ
THEVENIN’S EQUIVALENT:
According to Voltage divider rule: 4k V0 = ×3V 3.75 k + 4 k
V0 = 1.548 V
Q.3.
Find VO in the network given below using Thevenin’s theorem. Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
VTH =?
Using Mesh method: Mesh I1: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 6000I1 + 2000[I1 – I2] + 3 = 0 Here I2 = 1 mA 6000I1 + 2000[I1 – (1 mA)] + 3 = 0 6000I1 + 2000I1 + 2 + 3 = 0 8000I1 + 5 = 0
I1 = 0.625 mA Ix = I1 – I2 Ix = 0.625 mA – [1 mA] Ix = 0.375 mA According to ohm’s Law: V2k = Ix(2 k) V2k = (0.375 mA)(2 k)
V2k = 0.75 V
VTH = V2k + 1000Ix Here Ix = 0.375 mA VTH = 0.75 V + 1000[0.375 mA] VTH = 0.75 V + 0.375 V ISC =? VTH = 1.125 V
Equation for supernode: V1 + 3 V1 V2 + + = 1 mA 6k 2k 1k V1 + 3 + 3V1 + 6V2 6k V1 + 3 + 3V1 + 6V2 = (1 mA)(6 k) 4V1 + 3 + 6V2 = 6 × 1 4V1 + 6V2 = 3 2V1 + 3V2 = 1.5 Constraint Equation: V2 – V1 = 1000Ix V1 Ix = 2k V1 V2 – V1 = 1000 2k V2 V2 V2 V2 – V1 = 0.5V1 – V1  0.5V1 = 0 – 1.5V1 = 0 = 1.5V1 … (A) = 1 mA
V1 = 0.667V2 Substituting the value of V1 in equation (A) 2[0.667V2] + 3V2 = 1.5 1.334V2 + 3V2 = 1.5 4.334V2 = 1.5 V2 = 0.346 V ISC = V2
2k 0.346 V ISC = 1k
ISC = 0.346 mA RTH = VTH ISC 1.125 V RTH = 0.346 mA
RTH = 3.251 kΩ THEVENIN’S EQUIVALENT:
According to Voltage divider rule: 2k V0 = × 1.125 V 2 k + 3.251 k
V0 = 0.428 V
 Good Luck 
Assignment 6(Spring 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 50 Due Date: 24/07/2006
Q.1.
Find VO in the network given below using Norton’s theorem. Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
VTH =? 2000Ix 6 kΩ + 4 kΩ +
+
2 kΩ 6V Ix
3 mA
VTH

2000Ix + +
6 kΩ
+
2 kΩ 6V I1 Ix I2
3 mA
VTH
Using Mesh method: Loop I1: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 6000I1 + 2000[I1 – I2] + 6 = 0 Here I2 = 3 mA 6000I1 + 2000[I1 – (3 mA)] + 6 = 0 6000I1 + 2000I1 + 6 + 6 = 0 8000I1 + 12 = 0 I1 = 1.5 mA Ix = I1 – I2 Ix = 1.5 mA – [3 mA] According to ohm’s Law: V2k = Ix(2 k) V2k = (1.5 mA)(2 k) VTH = V2k + 2000Ix Here Ix = 1.5 mA VTH = 3 V + 2000[1.5 mA] VTH = 3 V + 3 V ISC =?
Ix = 1.5 mA
V2k = 3 V
VTH = 6 V
2000Ix V1 + 4 kΩ V2
6 kΩ
+
2 kΩ 6V Ix
3 mA
ISC
Equation for supernode: V1 + 6 V1 V2 + + = 3 mA 6k 2k 4k 2V1 + 12 + 6V1 + 3V2 12 k 2V1 + 12 + 6V1 + 3V2 = (3 mA)(12 k) 8V1 + 12 + 3V2 = (3 × 103)(12 × 10+3) = 3 mA
Constraint Equation: Ix = V1 2k V1 2k
8V1 + 3V2 = 24 V2 – V1 = 2000Ix
………… (A)
V2 – V1 = 2000 V2 V2 V2 V2 – V1 = V1 – V1  V1 = 0 – 2V1 = 0 = 2V1
V1 = 0.5V2 Substituting the value of V1 in equation (A) 8[0.5V2] + 3V2 = 24 4V2 + 3V2 = 24 7V2 = 24 V2 = 3.428 V V2 ISC = 4k 3.428 V ISC = 4k
ISC = 0.857 mA VTH RTH = ISC 6V RTH = 0.857 mA RTH = 7 kΩ NORTON’S EQUIVALENT:
ISC = 0.857 mA
7 kΩ
4 kΩ
According to current divider rule: 7k I4k = × 0.857 mA 4k+7k
I4k = 0.545 mA According to ohm’s Law: V4k = I4k(4 k) V4k = (0.545 mA)(4 k) V4k = (0.545 × 103)(4 × 10+3) V4k = 2.18 V = V0
Q.2.
Use Norton’s theorem to find VO in the network given below. Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
4 kΩ
+ 3 kΩ + 4 mA 8 kΩ
12 V
6 kΩ
2 kΩ
4 kΩ
V0
ISC =?
4 kΩ
I4
3 kΩ + 
4 mA I3
8 kΩ
12 V I1
6 kΩ
I2
2 kΩ ISC
Using Loop analysis: Loop I1: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 3000I1 + 6000[I1 – I2 – I4] = 12 3000I1 + 6000I1 – 6000I2 – 6000I4 = 12 9000I1 – 6000I2 – 6000I4 = 12 Here I2 = 4 mA 9000I1 – 6000[4 mA] – 6000I4 = 12 9000I1 – 24 – 6000I4 = 12 9000I1 – 6000I4 = 36 …………… (A)
Loop I4: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 4000I4 + 6000[I4 + I2 – I1] = 0 4000I4 + 6000I4 + 6000I2 – 6000I1 = 0 10000I4 + 6000I2 – 6000I1 = 0 Here I2 = 4 mA 10000I4 + 6000[4 mA] – 6000I1 = 0 10000I4 + 24 – 6000I1 = 0 6000I1 + 10000I4 = 24 ……………… (B)
Multiplying both the sides of eq. (A) by 2 ………………… (C) 18000I1 – 12000I4 = 72 Multiplying both the sides of eq. (B) by 3 18000I1 + 30000I4 = 72 ……………………..… (D) Adding equations (C) & (D) 18000I4 = 12 I4 = 0 Loop I3: According to KVL Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise 8000I3 + 2000[I3 – I2] = 0 8000I3 + 2000I3 – 2000I2 = 0 10000I3 – 2000I2 = 0 Here I2 = 4 mA 10000I3 – 2000[4 mA] = 0 10000I3 – 8 = 0 10000I3 = 8 I3 = 0.8 mA ISC = I4 + I3 ISC = 0 mA + 0.8 mA
ISC = 0.8 mA
RTH =?
4 kΩ
o.c 3 kΩ 8 kΩ
s.c
6 kΩ
2 kΩ
RTH
Parallel combination: 3 kΩ × 6 kΩ = 3 kΩ + 6 kΩ 18 k × k = 9k = 2 kΩ
4 kΩ
8 kΩ
2 kΩ
2 kΩ
RTH
Fig. (I) Series combinations: = 2 kΩ + 4 kΩ = 6 kΩ = 2 kΩ + 8 kΩ = 10 kΩ
6 kΩ
10 kΩ
RTH
Fig. (II) Parallel combination: 10 kΩ × 6 kΩ = 10 kΩ + 6 kΩ 60 k × k = 16 k
RTH
= 3.75 kΩ
3.75 kΩ
RTH
NORTON’S EQUIVALENT:
ISC = 0.8 mA
3.75 kΩ
4 kΩ
According to current divider rule: 3.75 k I4k = × 0.8 mA 3.75 k + 4 k
I4k = 0.38 mA = I0 According to ohm’s Law: V0 = I0(4 k) V0 = (0.38 mA)(4 k) V0 = 1.54 V
Q.3.
Find IO in the network given below. Using Linearity and the assumption that IO=1mA Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Using Linearity Parallel combination 6 kΩ × 2 kΩ = 6 kΩ + 2 kΩ 12 k × k = 8k = 1.5 kΩ
A
2 kΩ
3 kΩ
+ 
64 V
6 kΩ
1.5 kΩ
B
Series combination = 1.5 kΩ + 3 kΩ = 4.5 kΩ
Fig (A)
2 kΩ
+ 
64 V
6 kΩ
4.5 kΩ
Parallel combination 6 kΩ × 4.5 kΩ = 6 kΩ + 4.5 kΩ 27 k × k = 10.5 k = 2.571 kΩ
2 kΩ
+ 
64 V
2.571 kΩ
According to voltage divider rule 2.571 k V2.571k = × 64 V 2.571 k + 2 k V2.571k = 35.997 V V2.571k = VAB From fig. (A) According to voltage divider rule 1.5 k V1.5k = Here VAB = 35.997 V 1.5 k V1.5k = × 35.997 V 1.5 k + 3 k V1.5k = 11.999 V V1.5k = V6k = V2k I0 = V6k 6k 11.999 V I0 = 6k I0 = 2 mA Using assumption 1.5 k + 3 k × VAB
I4 2 kΩ I3
I2 3 kΩ
+ 
64 V
6 kΩ 6 kΩ I0 I1
2 kΩ
V6k = (I0)(6k) V6k = (1 mA)(6k) V6k = 6 V From fig. (a) V6k = (I0)(6k) V6k = (2 mA)(6k) Hence V6k = 12 V
I0 = 2 mA
Q.4.
Determine the currents I1, I2, and ID2 for the network given below. Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
The applied voltage is such as to run both diodes on, as noted by the resulting current direction in the network given below. Note the use of the abbreviated notation for “on” diodes and that the solution is obtained through an application of technique applied to dc seriesparallel networks.
I1=VT/R1 = 0.7V/3.3k =0.212mA Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law around the indicated loop in the clock wise direction yields, V2+EVT1VT2=0 V2 = EVT1 VT2 = 20V0.7V0.7V= 18.6V I2 = V2/ R2 = 18.6V/5.6k = 3.32mA At the bottom node A ID2= I2I1=3.32ma0.212mA=3.108mA
I
 Good Luck 
Assignment 7(Spring 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 40 Due Date: 02/08/2006
Q.1.
A “1mA diode” (i.e. one that has VD =0.7V at iD = 1mA) is connected in series with a 200Ω resistor to a 1.0V supply. (a) Provide a rough estimate of the diode current you would expect. (b) If the diode is characterized by n=2, estimate the diode current more closely using iterative analysis.
Sol.
(a) (b) #1 #2 thus
iD= (10.7)/0.2 = 1.5mA Iterative analysis gives vD=0.7V At iD=1mA v=0.7V iD= (10.7)/0.2 = 1.5mA
∴ i= Is eV/n VT ∴
n=2 and VT = 0.025 i2 /i1 = e (v2V1)/0.05 v2= v1+0.05 ln i2/i1 for i=1.5mA V=0.7 + 0.05 ln (1.5/1) = 0.720 V iD= (10.720)/0.2 = 1.4mA V=0.720+ 0.05 ln (1.4/1.5) = 0.716 V iD= (10.716)/0.2 = 1.42 mA V=0.716+ 0.05 ln (1.42/1.4) = 0.716 V iD= (10.716)/0.2 = 1.42 mA
& #3 & #4 &
Q.2.
A bridge rectifier is fed by an 18Vac transformer. Determine the dc load voltage and current for the circuit when it has a 1.2kΩ load.
Sol.
With the 18V rated transformer, the peak secondary voltage is found as ac V = 18/0.707 2(pk) =25.46V pk The peak load voltage is now found as V = V – 1.4 L(pk) 2 V =24.06V L(pk) pk The dc load voltage is found as V = 2V /Π ave L(pk) =48.12/Π V =15.32 V ave dc Finally the dc load current is found as I =V /R ave ave L = 15.32/1.2k I = 12.76 µA ave
Q.3.
For each of the circuits shown in the figure below, find the emitter, base, and collector voltages and currents. Use β = 30, but assume VBE = 0.7V independent of current level.
Sol. From fig (A) we have
VB = 0V VE = VB+0.7 =0.7V IE= (3VE) / 1 = (30.7)/1 = 2.3mA
IC = α IE = 30/31 x 2.3mA = 2.23mA VC = 3 + 1xIC = 3 + 2.23 = 0.77V IB = IC/ β = 2.23 / 30 = 0.0743mA
From fig (B) we have
VB = 3V VE = VB+0.7 =3.7V IE= (9VE) / 1.1 = (93.7)/1.1 = 4.82mA
IC = α IE = 30/31 x 4.82mA = 4.66mA VC = IC x 0.56 = 2.62V IB = IC/ β = 4.66/ 30 = 0.155mA
 Good Luck 
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