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The

tkt
Course
Teaching Knowledge Test

Mary Spratt
Alan Pulverness
Melanie Williams
Published in collaboration with Cambridge ESOL
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paolo

Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK
http://www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521609920

Cambridge University Press 2005

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2005

Printed in the UK, at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN-13-978-0-521-60992 0
ISBN-10-0-521-60992 5

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for


the persistence or accuracy of URLS for external or
third-party internet websites referred to in this book,
and does not guarantee that any content on such
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Contents

Introduction 1

Module 1 Language and background to language learning and teaching


Part 1 Describing language and language skills
Unit 1 Grammar 5
Unit 2 Lexis 10
Unit 3 Phonology 13
Unit 4 Functions 17
Unit 5 Reading 21
Unit 6 Writing 26
Unit 7 Listening 30
Unit 8 Speaking 34

Part 2 Background to language learning


Unit 9 Motivation 38
Unit 10 Exposure and focus on form 41
Unit 11 The role of error 44
Unit 12 Differences between L1 and L2 learning 48
Unit 13 Learner characteristics 52
Unit 14 Learner needs 57

Part 3 Background to language teaching


Unit 15 Presentation techniques and introductory activities 61
Unit 16 Practice activities and tasks for language and 66
skills development
Unit 17 Assessment types and tasks 71

TKT Module 1 Practice test 75

Module 2 Lesson planning and use of resources for language teaching


Part 1 Planning and preparing a lesson or sequence of lessons
Unit 18 Identifying and selecting aims 86
Unit 19 Identifying the different components of a lesson plan 91
Unit 20 Planning an individual lesson or a sequence of lessons 96
Unit 21 Choosing assessment activities 102
Part 2 Selection and use of resources and materials
Unit 22 Consulting reference resources to help in lesson preparation 106
Unit 23 Selection and use of coursebook materials 110
Unit 24 Selection and use of supplementary materials and activities 114
Unit 25 Selection and use of aids 119

TKT Module 2 Practice test 124

Module 3 Managing the teaching and learning process


Part 1 Teachers and learners language in the classroom
Unit 26 Using language appropriately for a range of classroom functions 134
Unit 27 Identifying the functions of learners language 138
Unit 28 Categorising learners mistakes 141

Part 2 Classroom management


Unit 29 Teacher roles 145
Unit 30 Grouping students 148
Unit 31 Correcting learners 152
Unit 32 Giving feedback 156

TKT Module 3 Practice test 160

Sample TKT answer sheet 168


Exam tips for TKT 169
Answer key for Follow-up activities 171
Answer key for TKT practice tasks 176
Answer key for TKT practice tests 177
Alphabetical list of terms 178
Unit by unit list of terms 182
Phonemic symbols 187
Acknowledgements 188
Language and background to
Module 1 language learning and teaching
Part 1 Describing language and language skills

Unit 1 Grammar

What is grammar?
Grammar describes how we combine, organise and change words and parts of words to make
meaning. We use rules for this description.

Key concepts
What are parts of speech, grammatical structures and word formation?
We can use grammar to describe parts of speech, grammatical structures and how words are
formed.
There are nine parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, determiners, prepositions,
pronouns, conjunctions and exclamations. A part of speech or word class describes the
function a word or phrase has in a sentence. This controls how the word or phrase can operate
and combine grammatically with other words. For example, in English:
a noun can act as the subject of a verb but an adjective cannot
e.g. The tall girl ran very fast () but not Tall ran very fast ()
an adverb can combine with an adjective but an adjective cannot combine with another
adjective
e.g. well organised (), good organised ()
a noun can combine with another noun
e.g. a car park.

The table below shows the functions of the different parts of speech:

Part of speech Examples Function(s)


Nouns (e.g. countable, children to name people, places, things, qualities, ideas,
uncountable) sugar or activities
to act as the subject/object of the verb
Verbs (e.g. transitive, see to show an action, state or experience
intransitive) run

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Module 1

Part of speech Examples Function


Adjectives easier to describe or give more information about a noun,
(e.g. comparative) pronoun or part of a sentence
Adverbs completely to describe or give more information about how,
(e.g. of degree, quickly when or where something happens
manner, time) yesterday to add information to adjectives, verbs, other
adverbs or sentences
Determiners my to make clear which noun is referred to or to give
(e.g. possessive the information about quantity
adjectives, articles, this
demonstrative both
adjectives, quantifiers)
Prepositions after to connect a noun, noun phrase or pronoun to
(e.g. of time, place, at another word or phrase
direction) towards
Pronouns she to replace or refer to a noun or noun phrase just
(e.g. personal, mine mentioned
possessive, relative, who
reflexive) myself
Conjunctions as to join words, sentences or parts of sentences
(e.g. of reason, and
addition, contrast) but
Exclamations Er to show a (strong) feeling especially in informal
(e.g. of doubt, pain) Ow spoken language

We can divide the parts of speech into further categories, e.g. countable and uncountable
nouns and transitive and intransitive verbs.
Grammar rules also describe grammatical structures, i.e. the arrangement of words into
patterns which have meaning. The rules for grammatical structures use grammatical terms to
describe forms and uses. Form refers to the specific grammatical parts that make up the
structure and the order they occur in. Use refers to the meaning that the structure is used to
express. Look at these examples:

Term Form Use


Past subject + past tense of verb to be + -ing to describe a temporary or
continuous form of verb background situation or action in the
tense e.g. he was running past
Passive voice subject + to be + past participle to show what happens to people
(+ by + agent) or things
e.g. the road was built (by the company)
Comparative more + long adjective (+ than) generally used with adjectives of two
of long e.g. he was more embarrassed than his syllables or more to compare separate
adjectives friend things or people

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Unit 1 Grammar

We also use grammar to describe how words are formed. English uses prefixes (a group of
letters added at the beginning of a word) and suffixes (a group of letters added at the end of a
word) to create new words. The prefixes and suffixes are added to base words (e.g. stop, book) to
make new grammatical units such as tenses, parts of verbs, the plural of nouns, possessives, e.g.
talked, goes, going, books, girls. Many other prefixes (e.g. un-, il-, pre-, dis-) and suffixes (e.g. -tion,
-est, -ly, -able) are also used in English to make new words e.g. disappear, careful, friendly. Some
languages, e.g. Turkish and German, make a lot of use of prefixes and suffixes to create new
words. Other languages make little or no use of them.
Grammar includes a large number of terms, grammatical structures, uses and forms. This
unit only introduces them generally. The TKT Glossary (http://www.cambridgeesol.org/TKT)
and the grammar books and websites suggested in the Discovery activities on page 8 provide
more information.

Key concepts and the language teaching classroom


Grammar rules describe the way that language works, but language changes over time, so
grammar rules are not fixed. They change too. Unfortunately, grammar rules and grammar
books dont always change as quickly as the language, so they are not always up to date. For
example, some grammar books say that we should use whom rather than who after
prepositions, but, in fact, except in some situations, who is generally used, with a different
word order, e.g. Ive just met the girl who I talked to on Friday is much more common and
accepted than Ive just met the girl to whom I talked on Friday.
Teachers need to keep up to date with what parts of the language are changing and how.
Grammar rules traditionally describe written language rather than spoken language. For
example, repetition, exclamations and contractions (two words that are pronounced or
written as one, e.g. dont from do not, isnt from is not, wont from will not) are common
features of spoken language, but they are not always described in grammar books. Some
grammar books are now available which describe spoken language too.
Very often, speakers of a language can speak and write it well without consciously
knowing any grammatical rules or terms.
Learning some grammatical rules and terms makes language learning easier for some
learners. Other learners e.g. young children may not find them useful at all.
Just learning grammatical rules and structures doesnt give learners enough help with
learning how to communicate, which is the main purpose of language. So, much language
teaching has moved away from teaching only grammar, and now teaches, e.g. functions,
language skills and fluency as well as grammar.

See Units 914 for how we learn grammar, Units 15 and 16 for teaching grammatical structures, Units 18, 19
and 20 for planning lessons on grammatical structures and Units 28 and 31 for approaches to and ways of
correcting grammar.

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Module 1

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (See page 171 for answers)


1 Which part of speech is each of these words? To help you, think of the words in sentences and
look at the table on pages 56. (Some words are more than one part of speech.)
box during walk because younger well wow
all decide water we clever herself though
2 Use prefixes and suffixes to make as many words as you can from these words:
new possible run
3 Find three grammatical structures in your coursebook and complete this table.

Term Form Use

REFLECTION
What do you think these learners comments mean? Do you agree with them? Why?/Why not?
1 Learning grammar doesnt help me to speak English with English-speaking people.
2 Learning grammar rules is really useful, but learning grammatical terms isnt.
3 I didnt need to learn grammar when I learnt my first language.

DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Find out which reference materials are available in your school to help you with
grammar. Which are most useful? Why?
2 Compare any two of these books on grammar or the grammar information on these
two websites. Which do you prefer? Why?
Practical English Usage (second edition) by Michael Swan, Oxford University Press 1995
Discover English by Rod Bolitho and Brian Tomlinson, Macmillan 1995
English Grammar In Use (third edition) by Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University
Press 2004
Uncovering Grammar by Scott Thornbury, Macmillan 2001
http://www.learnenglish.org.uk
http://www.englishclub.com
3 Use a grammar book or the TKT Glossary to find the meaning of these terms:
active/passive voice, clause, modal verb, phrase, question tag, tense.

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Unit 1 Grammar

TKT practice task (See page 176 for answers)


For questions 1-6, match the underlined words in the text below with the parts of speech listed A-G.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

Parts of speech
A conjunction
B preposition
C noun
D adverb
E pronoun
F verb
G adjective

I want you to write a (1) list of ten things which (2) you like. Do it (3) carefully. But dont talk to me
or your sister. (4) Ask me about any (5) difficult words you cant spell. (6) When you have
finished, you can watch television.

1
2
3
4
5
6

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Unit 2 Lexis

What is lexis?
Lexis is individual words or sets of words, i.e. vocabulary items, that have a specific meaning,
for example: tree, get up, first of all.

Key concepts
What meanings does the word tree have?
Vocabulary items have different kinds of meaning. Firstly, there is the meaning that describes the
thing or idea behind the vocabulary item, e.g. a tree is a large plant with a wooden trunk,
branches and leaves. This meaning is called denotation. Then there is figurative meaning. We
speak, for example, of the tree of life or a family tree. This imaginative meaning comes from,
but is different from, denotation. There is also the meaning that a vocabulary item has in the
context (situation) in which it is used, e.g. in the sentence We couldnt see the house because
of the tall trees in front of it we understand how tall the trees were partly from knowing the
meaning of tall and partly from knowing how tall a house is, so the meaning of tall in this
sentence is partly defined by the context.
The meaning of some vocabulary items is created by adding prefixes or suffixes to base
words (e.g. nationality, unprofessional), or by making compound words (two or more words
together that have meaning as a set, e.g. telephone number, bookshop) or by collocation (words
that often occur together, e.g. to take a holiday, heavy rain).
To help distinguish the meaning of words from other related words, vocabulary items can be
grouped into synonyms (words with the same or similar meanings), antonyms (words with
opposite meanings), and lexical sets (groups of words that belong to the same topic area, e.g.
members of the family, furniture, types of food). The table below shows some examples.

Vocabulary items clear (adjective) paper (noun)


Denotations 1 easy to understand 1 material used to write on or wrap things in
2 not covered or blocked 2 a newspaper
3 having no doubt 3 a document containing information
Synonyms simple (for meaning 1) (none)
certain (for meaning 3)
Antonyms/ confusing (meaning 1), (none)
Opposites untidy, covered (meaning 2)
unsure (meaning 3)
Lexical sets (none) stone, plastic, cloth, etc.

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Unit 2 Lexis

Vocabulary items clear (adjective) paper (noun)


Prefixes + base word unclear (none)
Base word + suffixes clearly, a clearing paperless
Compounds clear-headed paper knife, paper shop, paperback
Collocations clear skin, a clear day to put pen to paper
Figurative meanings a clear head on paper (e.g. It seemed a good idea on paper)

We can see from this table that words sometimes have several denotations. The context in
which we are writing or speaking makes it clear which meaning we are using. Words can also
change their denotations according to what part of speech they are, e.g. the adjective clear vs the
verb to clear. We can also see that not all words have all the kinds of forms, and that it is not
always possible to find synonyms for words, as few words are very similar in meaning.

Key concepts and the language teaching classroom


Really knowing a word means knowing all its different kinds of meanings.
Knowing a word also involves understanding its form, i.e. what part of speech it is, how it
works grammatically, and how it is pronounced and spelt.
Whether we are learning our first or our second language, it takes a long time before we fully
know a word. We often recognise a word before we can use it.
Teachers need to introduce vocabulary items again and again to learners, expanding gradually
on their meaning and their forms. This also increases the chances of learners remembering
the item.
We can introduce vocabulary items in reading and listening before we ask learners to use
the items.

See Module 1.2 for factors affecting the learning of vocabulary, Module 1.3 for techniques for the teaching and
assessment of vocabulary and Module 2.2 for resources for teaching vocabulary.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (See page 171 for answers)


1 What does each of these sets of words have in common? Are they synonyms, antonyms,
lexical sets, compounds, collocations, words with prefixes or words with suffixes?
A table, chair, sofa, bed, bookcase, chest of drawers, desk
B oldyoung, brightdark, loudquiet, fastslow, firstlast, longshort
C a straight road, a brilliant idea, hard work, no problem, extremely grateful
D neattidy, preciselyexactly, to doubtto question, nobodyno one
E microwave, compact disc, toothbrush, paper clip, lampshade, bottle top
F illness, badly, useless, doubtful, affordable, ability, practical
G imperfect, rewrite, unable, illiterate, incorrect, ultramodern
2 Put these words in their right place in the first column in the table on the next page:
compound words synonyms antonyms collocations denotations
lexical sets prefix + base word base word + suffix

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Module 1

Term care (noun) to decide


A sensitive attention to choose one option after thinking about several
B love and attention, worry to make up your mind
C neglect to hesitate
D politeness, admiration, respect to think, to hesitate, to wonder
E (none) undecided
F careful, careless, carelessness decided, decidedly
G caretaker (none)
H great care, take care of finally decide

REFLECTION
Think about these teachers comments:
1 Beginner learners only need to learn the denotations of words.
2 Learners dont need to learn the names for the different types of meaning.
3 The only way to learn vocabulary is through reading widely.

DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Look up three words from your coursebook in an EnglishEnglish dictionary. What kinds
of meanings are given for each word?
2 Look at Chapter 7 Vocabulary in Learning Teaching by Jim Scrivener, Macmillan 1994.
It tells you more about the meaning of words and gives ideas for teaching vocabulary.
3 Look at http://dictionary.cambridge.org and http://www.vocabulary.com. Which is more
useful for teaching vocabulary to your learners? Why? Write your answers in your TKT
portfolio.
4 Use a dictionary or the TKT Glossary to find the meanings of these terms: affix, homophone,
idiom, phrasal verb, register.

TKT practice task (See page 176 for answers)


For questions 1-5, match the examples of vocabulary with the categories listed A-F.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

Examples of vocabulary Categories


1 impossible, unhappy, disadvantage, rename A synonyms
2 hard work, a heavy subject, a great idea B collocations
3 wonderful, marvellous, brilliant, great C compound words
4 longest, director, wooden, slowly D lexical set
5 oranges, apples, mangoes, bananas E words with suffixes
F words with prefixes

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Unit 3 Phonology

What is phonology?
Phonology is the study of the sound features used in a language to communicate meaning. In
English these features include phonemes, word stress, sentence stress and intonation.

Key concepts
Do you know what the signs and symbols in this word mean?
/ stjudnt/
A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound that has meaning in a language. For example, the s in
books in English shows that something is plural, so the sound /s/ has meaning. Different
languages use a different range of sounds and not all of them have meaning in other languages.
For example, the distinction between /s/ and /sh/ is an important one in English, where it helps
distinguish between words such as so and show, sock and shock, sore and shore. But in Cantonese,
you can use either /s/ or /sh/ in words without changing their meaning, i.e. in Cantonese they
are not two separate phonemes.
The phonemes of a language can be represented by phonemic symbols, such as /i:/, /a/ and
//. Each phonemic symbol represents only one phoneme, unlike the letters of the alphabet
in English where, for example, the letter a in written English represents the // sound in hat,
the /e/ sound in made and the // sound in usually. Phonemic symbols help the reader know
exactly what the correct pronunciation is. A phonemic script is a set of phonemic symbols
which show (in writing) how words are pronounced, e.g. beautiful is written /bjutfl/,
television is /telvn/ and yellow is /jel/.
Dictionaries use phonemic script to show the pronunciation of words. They usually have a
list of all the phonemic symbols at the beginning of the book, together with an example of the
sound each symbol represents. The symbols are often grouped into consonants and vowels,
and the vowels are sometimes divided into monophthongs (single vowel sounds as in put /pt/
or dock /dk/), and diphthongs (a combination of two vowel sounds, e.g. the vowel sound in
make /mek/ or in so /s/). There are several phonemic scripts and some small differences in
the symbols they use. TKT and most learner dictionaries use symbols from the International
Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). There is a list of some of these symbols on page 187.
In dictionary entries for words another symbol usually accompanies the phonemic script. This
can be , as in / bjutfl/, or _ , e.g. /bjutfl/ or , e.g. /bju tfl/. These signs are used to show
word stress. This is the part of the word which we say with greater energy, i.e. with more
length and sound on its vowel sound. Compare the stress (the pronunciation with greater
energy) in the vowel sounds in the stressed syllables and the other syllables in: pencil, children,
important. (The stressed syllables are underlined.) We pronounce the other syllables with less
energy, especially the unstressed or weak syllables, whose vowels get shortened or sometimes
even disappear, e.g. the vowel sound in the last syllable of important, which is pronounced as a
schwa //. There are many languages which, like English, give especially strong stress to one

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Module 1

syllable in a word, e.g. the Portuguese spoken in Portugal. Other languages give equal length to
all the syllables.
In English, stress also influences how sentences and incomplete sentences are pronounced.
We say different parts of the sentence with more or less stress, i.e. slower and louder, or quicker
and more softly. This is called sentence stress. One word in the sentence has main stress. This
is the word which the speaker thinks is most important to the meaning of the sentence. Other
words can have secondary stress. This is not so strong as main stress and falls on words which are
not so important to the meaning as the word with main stress. Other words in the sentence are
unstressed. For example, in She came home late last night or I cant understand a word he
says, the words with the main stress are the underlined ones, the words with secondary stress
would probably be came, home, last, night and cant, understand, says, and the unstressed words she
and I, a, he.
Main and secondary stress are usually on content words rather than structural words.
Content words are nouns, verbs, adverbs or adjectives, i.e. words that give more information.
Structural words are usually prepositions, articles, pronouns or determiners, i.e. words we use to
build the grammar of the sentence. For example, in the sentence The girl ran to the sea and
jumped in quickly the content words are: girl, ran, sea, jumped, quickly. The others are structural
words. You can see that normally these would not be stressed. Of course, there are exceptions to
this. It is possible to stress any word in a sentence if the speaker thinks it is important. For
example, The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly. This stresses that she ran towards the
sea and not, for example, away from it. Changing the stress of a sentence changes its meaning.
Look at these examples:
The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly. (i.e. not another person)
The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly. (i.e. not to any other place)
The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly. (i.e. not in any other way)
Sentence stress is a characteristic of connected speech, i.e. spoken language in which all the
words join to make a connected stream of sounds. Some other characteristics of connected
speech are contractions and vowel shortening in unstressed words and syllables, e.g. the schwa
sound // in potato /ptet/ or London /l ndn/. These characteristics help to keep the rhythm
(pattern of stress) of speech regular. The regular beat falls on the main stress, while the weaker
syllables and words are made shorter to keep to the rhythm. Try saying the sentences above and
beating out a regular rhythm on your hand as you say them.
Intonation is another important part of pronunciation. It is the movement of the level of the
voice, i.e. the tune of a sentence or a group of words. We use intonation to express emotions and
attitudes, to emphasise or make less important particular things we are saying, and to signal to
others the function of what we are saying, e.g. to show we are starting or stopping speaking, or
whether we are asking a question or making a statement.
To hear these uses, try saying Schools just finished with these meanings: as a statement of
fact, with surprise, with happiness, as a question, to emphasise just. You should hear the level
of your voice rising and falling in different patterns. For example, when you say the sentence as
a statement of fact, your intonation should follow a falling tone as follows:
schools just
finished. When you say it as a question, it has a rising tone, as follows: schools just finished,
and when you say it with surprise, you will probably say it with a fall-rise tone, as \ schools just
finished. Different intonation patterns can show many different meanings, but there is no short
and simple way of describing how the patterns relate to meanings. If you want to learn more
about intonation, look at the book suggested in the Discovery activities on page 16.

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Unit 3 Phonology

Key concepts and the language classroom


Learners of English need to be able to understand a wide variety of accents in English, as
English becomes more and more a global language.
As pronunciation communicates so much of our meaning, producing sounds in a way that
can be widely understood is extremely important in language learning. Learners
pronunciation needs to be clear to speakers from many countries.
A regular focus in lessons on different aspects of pronunciation helps to make learners aware
of its importance.
Teaching materials sometimes include activities or exercises which focus on hearing or
producing different sounds in a minimal pair, i.e. words distinguished by only one
phoneme, e.g. ship and sheep, hut and hat, thing and think, chip and ship.

See Modules 2.1 and 2.2 for how to incorporate the teaching of pronunciation into lesson plans and the
resources that can be used to do this.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (See page 171 for answers)


1 Look at the phonemic symbols on page 187. Practise saying each symbol. Learn them, then
test yourself or a colleague.
2 How many phonemes are there in each of these words? What are they?
book flashcard number thirteen morning
3 Underline the stressed syllable in each of these words:
twenty monkey difficult forget remember
4 On which word would you put the main stress in each of these sentences?
My name is Julia, not Janet.
Brasilia is in the middle of Brazil, not on the coast.
The girl was much taller than her older brother. He was really short.
5 Say Im sorry with these different intonations:
A a quick apology B a request for repetition C with surprise

REFLECTION
Think about these comments from teachers. Which do you agree with and why?
1 I dont expect my learners to pronounce the language like a first language speaker.
2 Young children learn good pronunciation naturally. You dont need to teach it to them.
3 Good teachers need to understand phonology.
4 Its not very useful for my learners to learn any of the phonemic symbols.

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Module 1

DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Here is an extract from a pronunciation syllabus. Which parts would be relevant for
teaching to your learners?

Lesson Pronunciation focus


1 Polite intonation in questions
5 Intonation in question tags to show agreement
Progress check /i/ and /i/; being aware of speakers attitude
7 Stress and intonation when correcting someone
12 Word stress in sentences
15 Stress in compound nouns
(adapted from Reward by Simon Greenall, Macmillan 1995)

2 Find five words you will soon teach your learners. Check their pronunciation in a
dictionary. Decide which sounds might be problematic for your learners.
3 Have a look at Sound Foundations by Adrian Underhill, Macmillan 1994. It has lots of
useful information about different aspects of phonology.
4 Listen to other peoples pronunciation and practise your own on this website:
http://towerofenglish.com/pronunciation.html
5 Play with the phonemic symbols on this website: http://janmulder.co.uk/Phonmap
6 Use a dictionary and/or the TKT Glossary to find the meaning of these terms: consonant,
linking, syllable, voiced/unvoiced sound, vowel.

TKT practice task (See page 176 for answers)


For questions 1-5, look at the questions about phonology and the possible answers. Choose the
correct answer A, B or C.

1 How many phonemes does the word heart have?


A two B three C four
2 How is paper written in phonemic script?
A pper B pp C pep
3 Which of the following is true about a stressed syllable?
A It contains the schwa sound. B It sounds stronger. C It is spoken fast.
4 Which of the following is a minimal pair?
A pin/bin B so/sing C lot/list
5 Which of the following is a contraction?
A see you B ASAP C havent

16
Unit 4 Functions

What is a function?
A function is a reason why we communicate. Every time we speak or write, we do so for a
purpose or function. Here are some examples of functions:
apologising greeting clarifying inviting
advising agreeing disagreeing refusing
thanking interrupting expressing obligation expressing preferences
Functions are a way of describing language use. We can also describe language grammatically
or lexically (through vocabulary). When we describe language through functions we emphasise
the use of the language and its meaning for the people who are in the context where it is used.

Key concepts
Look at this table. What do you think an exponent is?

Context Exponent (in speech marks) Function


A boy wants to go to the The boy says to his friend: Suggesting/making a
cinema with his friend tonight. Lets go to the cinema tonight. suggestion about going to the
cinema
A girl meets some people for The girl says to the group: Introducing yourself
the first time. She wants to get Hello. My names Emilia.
to know them.
A customer doesnt The customer says to the shop Asking for clarification (i.e.
understand what a shop assistant: Sorry, what do you asking someone to explain
assistant has just said. mean? something)
A girl writes a letter to a The girl writes Thank you so Thanking someone for a present
relative thanking her for a much for my lovely
birthday present.

The language we use to express a function is called an exponent. The pieces of direct speech in
the middle column in the table above are all examples of exponents. In the third column, the
functions are underlined. You can see from the table that we use the ing forms of verbs (e.g.
suggesting, asking) to name functions. The words after the function in the third column are not
the function. They are the specific topics that the functions refer to in these contexts.
An exponent can express several different functions. It all depends on the context it is used in.
For example, think of the exponent Im so tired. This could be an exponent of the function of
describing feelings. But who is saying it? Who is he/she saying it to? Where is he/she saying it?
i.e. what is the context in which it is being said? Imagine saying Im so tired in these two
different contexts:

17
Module 1

Context Function
A boy talking to his mother while he does his homework Requesting to stop doing homework
A patient talking to her doctor Describing feelings

One exponent can express several different functions because its function depends on the
context. One function can also be expressed through different exponents.
Here are five different exponents of inviting someone to lunch. How are they different from
one another?
Coming for lunch?
Come for lunch with us?
Would you like to come to lunch with us?
Why dont you come for lunch with us?
We would be very pleased if you could join us for lunch.

These exponents express different levels of formality, i.e. more or less relaxed ways of saying
things. Generally speaking, formal (serious and careful) exponents are used in formal situations,
informal (relaxed) exponents in informal situations and neutral (between formal and
informal) exponents in neutral situations. It is important to use the level of formality that suits a
situation. This is called appropriacy. A teacher who greets a class by saying Id like to wish you
all a very good morning is probably using an exponent of the function of greeting that is too
formal. A teacher who greets a class by saying Hi, guys! might be using language that is too
informal. Both of these could be examples of inappropriate use of language. It would probably
be appropriate for the teacher to say Good morning, everyone or something similar.

Key concepts and the language teaching classroom


In language teaching, coursebooks are often organised around functions.
For example, the map of the book in a coursebook could list functions and language like this:
Functions Language
Expressing likes First and third person present simple affirmative: I like ,
he/she likes
Expressing dislikes First and third person present simple negative: I dont like ,
he/she doesnt like

Functions are often taught in coursebooks together with the grammar of their main
exponents. There is an example of this in the map of the book above. You can see that the
language in the second column includes present simple affirmative, which is a grammatical
term, while I like , he/she likes are exponents of the function Expressing likes.

18
Unit 4 Functions

Combining functions and grammar helps to give grammar a meaning for learners and helps
them to learn functions with grammatical structures that they can then use in other
contexts.
A functional approach to teaching language helps teachers find real-world contexts in which
to present and practise grammar, and helps learners to see the real-world uses of the
grammar they learn.

See Units 15 and 16 for teaching activities for functions, Units 18 and 20 for lesson planning and Units 2627 for
classroom functions.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (See page 171 for answers)


1 List at least four different exponents for each of these functions: introducing yourself,
suggesting, asking for clarification, thanking.
2 Go through the list of exponents you made in 1 and mark them F (formal), N (neutral)
or I (informal).
3 Look at your list of exponents. Which are suitable to teach to a beginners class?

REFLECTION
Think about these comments from teachers. Which do you agree with and why?
1 It is easier to teach functions than grammar.
2 Functions contain too much complicated grammar for beginner learners.
3 Learners dont need to learn the names of functions just some of the exponents.

DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Look at the map of your coursebook. Is it organised around functions? What kinds of
activities are used in the coursebook units to introduce and practise functions?
2 In your TKT portfolio, list six functions your learners might need to learn to use their
English outside the classroom. List the most useful exponents for them, too.
3 To find out more about functions and exponents, look at Chapter 5 of Threshold 1990 by
JA van Ek and JLM Trim, Council of Europe, Cambridge University Press 1998.
4 Here are the names of four common functions: enquiring, negotiating, predicting,
speculating. Use a dictionary and/or the TKT Glossary to find their meanings. Can you
think of two exponents for each one?

19
Module 1

TKT practice task (See page 176 for answers)


For questions 1-6, match the example sentences with the functions listed A-G.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

Example sentences Functions


1 I dont think thats a very good idea. A describing
2 Its a beautiful place with a big river. B clarifying
3 He might be able to, Im not sure. C comparing
4 What I mean is D disagreeing
5 Id really love to fly to the moon. E wishing
6 Theyre much older than their friends. F suggesting
G speculating

20
Unit 5 Reading

What is reading?
Reading is one of the four language skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. It is a
receptive skill, like listening. This means it involves responding to text, rather than producing
it. Very simply we can say that reading involves making sense of text. To do this we need to
understand the language of the text at word level, sentence level and whole-text level. We also
need to connect the message of the text to our knowledge of the world. Look at this sentence,
for example:
The boy was surprised because the girl was much faster at running than he was.
To understand this sentence, we need to understand what the letters are, how the letters join
together to make words, what the words mean and the grammar of the words and the sentence.
But we also make sense of this sentence by knowing that, generally speaking, girls do not run as
fast as boys. Our knowledge of the world helps us understand why the boy was surprised.

Key concepts
Can you think of reasons why learners may find reading difficult?
A text is usually longer than just a word or a sentence. It often contains a series of sentences, as
in a letter or even a postcard. These sentences are connected to one another by grammar and
vocabulary and/or knowledge of the world. Reading also involves understanding the connection
between sentences. For example:
The boy was surprised because the girl was much faster at running than he was. Then he
found out that her mother had won a medal for running at the Olympic Games.
The second sentence gives us a possible reason why the girl was so good at running. But we can
only understand that this is a reason if we know that Olympic runners are very good. This
means we need to use our knowledge of the world to see the connection between these two
sentences (coherence). The grammatical links between the sentences (cohesion) also help us
see the connection between them. For example, in the second example sentence he refers to
the boy in the first sentence, and her refers to the girl.
When we read we do not necessarily read everything in a text. What we read depends on
why and how we are reading. For example, we may read a travel website to find a single piece of
information about prices. But we may read a novel in great detail because we like the story and
the characters and want to know as much as we can about them.
These examples show us that we read different text types and we read for different reasons.
Some examples of written text types are letters, articles, postcards, stories, information
brochures, leaflets and poems. All these kinds of text types are different from one another. They
have different lengths, layouts (the ways in which text is placed on the page), topics and kinds of
language. Learning to read also involves learning how to handle these different text types.

21
Module 1

Our reasons for reading influence how we read, i.e. which reading subskill (a skill that is part
of a main skill) we use. For example, if we read a text just to find a specific piece or pieces of
information in it, we usually use a subskill called reading for specific information or
scanning. When we scan, we dont read the whole text. We hurry over most of it until we find
the information we are interested in, e.g. when we look for a number in a telephone directory.
Another reading subskill is reading for gist or skimming, i.e. reading quickly through a text
to get a general idea of what it is about. For example, you skim when you look quickly through a
book in a bookshop to decide if you want to buy it, or when you go quickly through a reference
book to decide which part will help you write an essay.
A third reading subskill is reading for detail. If you read a letter from someone you love
who you havent heard from for a long time, you probably read like this, getting the meaning
out of every word.
Another way of reading is extensive reading. Extensive reading involves reading long
pieces of text, for example a story or an article. As you read, your attention and interest vary
you may read some parts of the text in detail while you may skim through others.
Sometimes, especially in language classrooms, we use texts to examine language. For
example, we might ask learners to look for all the words in a text related to a particular topic, or
work out the grammar of a particular sentence. The aim of these activities is to make learners
more aware of how language is used. These activities are sometimes called intensive reading.
They are not a reading skill, but a language learning activity.
We can see that reading is a complicated process. It involves understanding letters, words and
sentences, understanding the connections between sentences (coherence and cohesion),
understanding different text types, making sense of the text through our knowledge of the
world and using the appropriate reading subskill. Reading may be a receptive skill but it certainly
isnt a passive one!

Key concepts and the language teaching classroom


If learners know how to read in their own language, they can transfer their reading skills to
reading in English. Sometimes though, they find this difficult, especially when their language
level is not high, and they need help to transfer these skills. Teachers need to check which
reading subskills their learners are good at, then focus on practising the subskills they are not
yet using well, and, if necessary, on teaching them language which will help them do this.
Giving learners lots of opportunities for extensive reading, in or out of class, helps them to
develop their fluency in reading.
The reading subskills that we need to teach also depend on the age and first language of the
learners. Some learners of English, e.g. young children, may not yet know how to read in
their own language. They need to learn how letters join to make words and how written
words relate to spoken words both in their language and in English. Other learners may not
understand the script used in English as their own script is different, e.g. Chinese, Arabic.
These learners need to learn the script of English, and maybe also how to read a page from left
to right.
We need to choose the right texts for our learners. Texts should be interesting for learners in
order to motivate them. Texts should also be at the right level of difficulty. A text may be
difficult because it contains complex language and/or because it is about a topic that learners
dont know much about.

22
Unit 5 Reading

We can make a difficult text easier for learners to read by giving them an easy comprehension
task. Similarly, we can make an easier text more difficult by giving a hard comprehension task.
This means that the difficulty of a text depends partly on the level of the comprehension task
that we give to learners.
Sometimes we may ask learners to read texts that are specially written or simplified for
language learners. At other times they may read articles, brochures, story books, etc. that are
what a first language speaker would read. This is called authentic material. The language in
authentic material is sometimes more varied and richer than the language in simplified texts.
Experts believe that learners learn to read best by reading both simplified and authentic
materials.
Different reading comprehension tasks and exercises focus on different reading subskills.
Teachers need to recognise which subskill a task focuses on.
Teachers need to choose comprehension tasks very carefully. They need to be of an
appropriate level of difficulty and practise relevant reading subskills.
The activities in a reading lesson often follow this pattern:
1 Introductory activities: an introduction to the topic of the text and activities focusing on
the language of the text
2 Main activities: a series of comprehension activities developing different reading subskills
3 Post-activities: activities which ask learners to talk about how a topic in the text relates to
their own lives or give their opinions on parts of the text. These activities also require
learners to use some of the language they have met in the text.

See Unit 16 for activities practising different reading subskills, Module 2.1 for lesson planning and Module 2.2 for
resources to help plan lessons.

23
Module 1

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (See page 171 for answers)


Look at this text and activities from a coursebook for intermediate level teenagers and young
adults. What does each activity aim to do? Match the activities with the aims in the box. (There
is one extra aim.)
to relate the text to our world knowledge to practise skimming
to introduce the topic to practise reading for specific information

BEFORE READING
1 Do people eat out a lot in your country?
2 What different kinds of foods are there?

When people think of food in the United States, they think mostly of fast
foods like hamburgers and hot dogs. In fact, in U.S. cities like New York and
Los Angeles, there are thousands of different kinds of restaurants with
foods from all over the world.
So if you like to try different foods, the United States is the place for you.
The United States has people from all over the world, and they bring with
them typical foods from their countries. You can eat tempura in Japanese
restaurants, tacos in Mexican restaurants, paella in Spanish restaurants,
pasta in Italian restaurants, and you can also eat Americas most
popular food, pizza.
Yes, pizza! Pizza is originally from Italy, but today it is an important part of
the U.S. menu. There are about 58,000 pizzerias in the United States thats
about 17 percent of all restaurants in the country, and the number is growing.
The United States has eating places for all tastes and all pockets. You can
buy a hot dog on the street and pay one or two dollars. Or you can go to a
four-star restaurant and pay $200 for a dinner.

AFTER READING
A Read the article and fill in the information:
1 Number of different kinds of restaurants in the U.S.
2 Cost of a meal at a very good restaurant
3 Cost of a hot dog on the street
4 Number of pizzerias in the U.S.
B Make a typical menu from your country. Include food for breakfast, lunch and dinner.

(adapted from SuperGoal 2 by Manuel dos Santos, McGraw-Hill 2001)

24
Unit 5 Reading

REFLECTION
1 What are the easiest and most difficult things for you about reading in English?
2 What helped you most to read English well when you were a learner?

DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Look at one text in your coursebook. What text type is it? What reading subskills do its
exercises and activities focus on? Is the text interesting and at the right level for the learners?
Write your answers in your TKT portfolio.
2 Exchange ideas with colleagues about books or magazines in English that you have enjoyed.
3 Teach a reading lesson. Put your plan and your materials in your TKT portfolio. Include some
comments about what was successful/not successful and why. Also comment on how you
would improve the lesson next time.
4 Look at these websites:
http://www.learnenglish.org.uk for reading texts and activities for primary-age learners
http://kids.mysterynet.com for mystery stories to read and solve
http://www.thenewspaper.org.uk for newspaper extracts with sports, news and music for
teens.
5 Use the TKT Glossary to find the meaning of these terms: deduce meaning from context, prediction,
text structure, topic sentence. Think about how these terms could influence your teaching.

TKT practice task (See page 176 for answers)


For questions 1-5, match the instructions with the ways of reading listed A-F.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

Ways of reading

A reading for specific information


B reading for detail
C reading for gist
D intensive reading
E deducing meaning from context
F extensive reading

Instructions
1 Find all the words in the story about pets.
2 Read the text. Decide which is the best heading for it.
3 Read the article to find out exactly how the machine works.
4 Finish reading the story at home.
5 Read the poster to find the dates of Annies, Sams and Julies birthdays.

25
26
27
31
32
34
35
58
TKT
*535567698*

Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT)


Modules 1-3

www.CambridgeESOL.org/tkt

Handbook for teachers

University of Cambridge
ESOLExaminations
1 Hills Road
Cambridge
CB1 2EU
United Kingdom

Tel +44 1223 553355


UCLES 2010 EMC/2819/0Y05
Fax +44 1223 460278
email ESOLhelpdesk@CambridgeESOL.org

www.CambridgeESOL.org
Preface

This handbook is intended for course providers who are, or intend to become, involved in preparing
candidates for the Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) Modules 13.

For further information on any of the Cambridge ESOL examinations and teaching awards, please
contact:
Cambridge ESOL Information, 1 Hills Road, Cambridge, CB1 2EU, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1223 553355, Fax: +44 1223 460278, email: ESOLhelpdesk@CambridgeESOL.org
www.CambridgeESOL.org

Contents

2 Introduction

4 An overview of TKT Modules 13

4 Content of TKT Modules 13

1
5 Module 1: General description and syllabus
Language and background
8 Sample test to language learning and
teaching

2
16 Module 2: General description and syllabus
Lesson planning and use of
18 Sample test resources for language
teaching

25 Module 3: General description and syllabus


3
Managing the teaching and
27 Sample test
learning process

34 TKT test administration

34 Grading and results

34 Special Circumstances

35 The production of TKT

35 Support for TKT candidates and course providers

36 Common questions and answers

36 TKT wordlist

42 Module 1 answer key

42 Module 2 answer key

43 Module 3 answer key

44 Sample OMR answer sheet

45 Band descriptors

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | c o n t e n t s 1
Introduction
of a framework of teaching awards and tests for
teachers offered by Cambridge ESOL.

 Introduction to Cambridge ESOL Cambridge ESOLs tests for teachers include:

The Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) is designed and produced


The Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) Modules 13
by University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations (Cambridge
TKT: Knowledge about Language (KAL)
ESOL), a department of the University of Cambridge and part
of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, TKT: Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
which has provided examinations in English for speakers of TKT: Practical
other languages since 1913. Cambridge ESOL offers an
extensive range of examinations, certificates and diplomas for Cambridge ESOLs practical, course-based qualifications for
learners and teachers of English, taken by over 3 million teachers include:
people a year, in more than 130 countries.
CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to
 Introduction to TKT a test of professional Adults)
knowledge for English language teachers CELTYL (Certificate in English Language Teaching to
Young Learners)
TKT tests knowledge about the teaching of English to speakers
of other languages. This knowledge includes concepts related ICELT (In-service Certificate in English Language
to language, language use and the background to and practice Teaching)
of language teaching and learning and is assessed by means of
objective format tests, which are simple to administer and to Cambridge ESOL also offers the Delta Modules, which cover all
take. areas of knowledge at an advanced level and include teaching
practice. The Delta Modules are:
TKT is designed to offer maximum flexibility and accessibility
to candidates and therefore does not include a compulsory Delta Module One: a written examination
course component. However, it is likely that centres and other Delta Module Two: a course-based qualification
institutions will wish to offer courses for TKT preparation.
Delta Module Three: an extended assignment
TKT offers candidates a step in their professional
development as teachers and enables them to move onto Other teaching qualifications offered by Cambridge ESOL
higher-level teaching qualifications and access professional include two specifically designed for the further education
support materials, such as resource books for English language and skills sector within the UK.
teaching (ELT) and journals about ELT.
A summary of the entry requirements and content of
TKT candidates are encouraged to keep a portfolio, a record of Cambridge ESOLs teaching awards and tests for teachers can
their professional development and reflections on their be found on the following page.
teaching. Through their portfolio candidates can become
reflective practitioners, analysing their teaching and how this
impacts on their students learning. However, the portfolio
does not form part of the assessment for TKT. The Teacher
Portfolio is Cambridge ESOLs free online system that any
teacher can use to record and document their career progress.
Teachers can visit www.teacherportfolio.CambridgeESOL.org
for more information.

TKT can be taken at any stage in a teachers career. It is


suitable for pre-service or practising teachers and forms part

2 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | i n t r o d u c t i o n
Cambridge ESOL teaching awards and tests for teachers

TKT Module 1 TKT: CLIL TKT: KAL TKT: Practical CELTA ICELT Delta Delta Delta
TKT Module 2 CELTYL Module Module Module
TKT Module 3 One Two Three

Teaching not essential not essential not essential required not required required recommended required recommended
experience

Previous not essential not essential not essential not essential qualifications local an initial an initial an initial
qualifications which allow requirements teaching teaching teaching
/ training access to apply qualification qualification qualification
higher
education

Suggested minimum of minimum of minimum of minimum of minimum of minimum of minimum of minimum of minimum of
language Council of Council of Council of Council of Council of Council of Council of Council of Council of
level Europe B1 Europe B1 Europe B2 Europe B1 Europe C2/C1 Europe B2 Europe C2/C1 Europe C2/C1 Europe C2/C1

Teaching age primary, primary, primary, primary, CELTA: primary, primary, primary, primary,
group secondary or secondary or secondary or secondary or adults (16+) secondary or secondary or secondary or secondary or
adults adults adults adults CELTYL: adults adults adults adults
primary or
secondary

Can be taken yes yes yes no yes no not no not


pre-service recommended recommended

Course not required not required not required not required yes yes not required yes not required
attendance

Assessed no no no yes yes yes no yes no


teaching
practice

Continuous no no no no yes yes no yes no


assessment

Involves no no no no yes yes no yes no


coursework

Written test / yes yes yes no no no yes no no


examination

Note: Cambridge ESOL also offers IDLTM and the Young Learner Extension to CELTA. IDLTM is an educational management qualification.
The Young Learner Extension to CELTA shares similarities with CELTYL, except that entry is conditional on candidates having completed
CELTA.

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | i n t r o d u c t i o n 3
An overview of Content of TKT Modules 13
TKT Modules 13  Content outline

 Aims For each module, candidates are required to answer 80


questions by selecting a letter for the correct answer. As TKT
to test candidates knowledge of concepts related to tests candidates knowledge of teaching rather than their
language, language use and the background to and proficiency in the English language, candidates are not
practice of language teaching and learning required to listen, speak or produce extended writing when
to provide an easily accessible test about teaching taking TKT Modules 13.

 Overview
English to speakers of other languages, which is
prepared and delivered to international standards, and
could be used by candidates to access further training,
and enhance career opportunities Module Title Timing Test format

1
Language and 1 hour 20 minutes Three parts with
to encourage teachers in their professional development
background to 80 objective
by providing a step in a developmental framework of
language learning questions
awards for teachers of English
and teaching

 Candidature

2
Lesson planning 1 hour 20 minutes Two parts with
TKT is suitable for teachers of English in primary, secondary or and use of 80 objective
resources for questions
adult teaching contexts and is intended for an international
language teaching
audience of non-first language or first language teachers of
English.

3
Managing the 1 hour 20 minutes Two parts with
Candidates taking TKT Modules 13 will normally have some teaching and 80 objective
experience of teaching English to speakers of other languages. learning process questions

They may also be taken by:

pre-service teachers

 Approaches to teaching and learning


teachers who wish to refresh their teaching knowledge

teachers who are moving to teaching English after


teaching another subject. A range of approaches to teaching and learning may be
covered in the examination material.
To access TKT Modules 13, teachers need a level of English of
Approaches which might bias against candidates from
at least Level B1 of the Council of Europes Common European
particular backgrounds or teaching contexts are avoided.
Framework of Reference for Languages. This level is specified
Knowledge of communicative and other approaches to
in the Council of Europes Threshold document (Van Ek, J.A. &
teaching is expected, as is familiarity with ELT terminology.
Trim, J.L.M. (1998) Threshold, Cambridge: CUP). However,
candidates are not required to have taken any English  Sources and text types used in TKT Modules 13
language examinations.
Extracts, original or adapted, from the following sources may
TKT candidates are expected to be familiar with language feature in TKT Modules 13:
relating to the practice of ELT. A non-exhaustive list of
ELT coursebooks or supplementary materials
teaching terminology is provided in the TKT Glossary, which
handbooks on English language teaching and learning
can be found on our website: www.CambridgeESOL.org/TKT
ELT journals and magazines
Candidates are not required to fulfil any specific entry
testing materials
requirements for TKT Modules 13.
grammar books and dictionaries, including phonemic
transcription (IPA International Phonetic Alphabet)

diagrams or other visuals

transcriptions of classroom talk

descriptions of classroom situations

examples of learners writing

4 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | o v e r v i e w a n d c o n t e n t
Language and background
to language learning and MODULE 1
teaching
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Module format Module 1 consists of three parts.

Timing 1 hour 20 minutes

No. of questions 80

Task types Objective tasks, such as one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option matching;


3-option multiple choice and odd one out.

Answer format For all parts of this module, candidates indicate their answers by shading
the correct lozenges on their answer sheets.
Candidates should use a pencil and mark their answers firmly.
Candidates should use an eraser to rub out any answer they wish to change.

Marks Each question carries one mark.

 Syllabus

This module tests candidates knowledge of terms and concepts common in English language
teaching. It also focuses on the factors underpinning the learning of English and knowledge
of the range and functions of the pedagogic choices the teacher has at his/her disposal to cater
for these learning factors.

Part Title Areas of teaching knowledge Task types and format

1
Describing Concepts and terminology for describing language: 6-8 tasks consisting of approximately 40 questions
language and grammar, lexis, phonology and functions
language skills Tasks include one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option
Concepts and terminology for describing language skills matching; 3-option multiple choice and odd one out.
and subskills, e.g. reading for gist, scanning

2
Background to Factors in the language learning process, e.g. 2-3 tasks consisting of approximately 15 questions
language learning motivation
exposure to language and focus on form Tasks include one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option
the role of error matching; 3-option multiple choice and odd one out.
differences between L1 and L2 learning
learner characteristics, e.g.
learning styles
learning strategies
maturity
past language learning experience
learner needs

3
Background to The range of methods, tasks and activities available to the 4-5 tasks consisting of approximately 25 questions
language teaching language teacher, e.g.
presentation techniques and introductory activities Tasks include one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option
practice activities and tasks for language and skills matching; 3-option multiple choice and odd one out.
development
assessment types and tasks

Appropriate terminology to describe the above

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s y l l a b u s 5
 Part 1

1 This part of Module 1 tests candidates knowledge of the terms and concepts common in English
language teaching that are used to describe language and its use, and language skills.

Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to:

Syllabus area Possible testing focus


grammar parts of speech
the forms and use of grammatical structures

lexis types of meaning


word formation, e.g. prefixes, suffixes, compounds
word groupings, e.g. synonyms, antonyms, lexical sets, homophones, collocation
register

phonology symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)


phonemes, word stress, sentence stress, intonation and connected speech

functions context
levels of formality
appropriacy
a range of functions and their typical exponents
language skills reading, listening, speaking, writing and their subskills
features of spoken and written texts, e.g. layout, organisation, accuracy, fluency, authenticity

 Part 2

This part of Module 1 tests candidates knowledge of factors underpinning the learning of English
by speakers of other languages. It focuses on those learner characteristics which distinguish one
learner or group of learners from another in terms of their learning and those which affect both
what and how a teacher chooses to teach a class or an individual learner. It also tests candidates
knowledge of aspects of the language learning process and their impact on teaching.

Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to


the following and their implications for the L2 classroom:

Syllabus area Possible testing focus


motivation influences on motivation
the importance of motivation
measures that can increase motivation

exposure to language and focus acquisition


on form silent period
L2 learners need for interaction and focus on form as complements of exposure

the role of error errors and slips


interference and developmental errors
interlanguage
the differences between L1 and L2 differences in age
learning differences in the context of learning
differences in ways of learning

learner characteristics common learning styles and preferences


common learning strategies
maturity
past language learning experiences
how learner characteristics affect learning

learner needs the personal, learning and (future) professional needs of learners

6 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s y l l a b u s
 Part 3

This part of Module 1 tests candidates knowledge of the pedagogic choices the teacher has
at his/her disposal to cater for learner characteristics, learning processes and the differences
between L1 and L2 learning. This part also tests knowledge of concepts and terms related to
1
teaching and learning procedures and activities, including assessment.

Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of methods, tasks, activities and terminology


related to:

Syllabus area Possible testing focus


presentation techniques and introductory activities such as warmers and lead-ins
introductory activities common ways of presenting language

types of activities and tasks for the design and purpose of a range of common comprehension and production tasks and activities
language and skills development teaching terms, e.g. prompting, eliciting, drilling
frameworks for activities and tasks
Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP)
Task-based Learning (TBL)
Total Physical Response (TPR)
The Lexical Approach
Grammar-Translation
Test-teach-test
Guided discovery

assessment types and tasks purposes for assessment, e.g. diagnostic, placement, achievement, formative, progress, proficiency
methods of assessment, e.g. self, peer, portfolio, informal and formal
the design and purpose of a range of assessment tasks and activities

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s y l l a b u s 7
MODULE 1
Sample Test

8 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 1
Sample Test

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : s a m p l e t e s t 9
MODULE 1
Sample Test

10 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 1
Sample Test

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MODULE 1
Sample Test

12 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 1
Sample Test

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : s a m p l e t e s t 13
MODULE 1
Sample Test

14 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 1
Sample Test

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 1 : s a m p l e t e s t 15
Lesson planning and use of
MODULE 2 resources for language teaching

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Module format Module 2 consists of two parts.

Timing 1 hour 20 minutes

No. of questions 80

Task types Objective tasks, such as one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option matching;


sequencing; 3-option multiple choice and odd one out.

Answer format For all parts of this module, candidates indicate their answers by shading
the correct lozenges on their answer sheets.
Candidates should use a pencil and mark their answers firmly.
Candidates should use an eraser to rub out any answer they wish to change.

Marks Each question carries one mark.

 Syllabus

This module focuses on what teachers consider and do while planning their teaching
of a lesson or series of lessons. Teaching in this context is intended also to refer to
assessment. It focuses too on the linguistic and methodological reference resources that
are available to guide teachers in their lesson planning as well as on the range and
function of materials and teaching aids that teachers could consider making use of in
their lessons. Knowledge of any particular book is not required.

Part Title Areas of teaching knowledge Task types and format

1
Planning and Lesson planning 5-6 tasks consisting of approximately 40 questions
preparing a lesson identifying and selecting aims appropriate to learners,
or sequence of the stage of learning and lesson types Tasks include one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option
lessons identifying the different components of a lesson plan matching; 3-option multiple choice; odd one out and
planning an individual lesson (or a sequence of lessons) sequencing.
by choosing and sequencing activities appropriate to
learners and aims
choosing assessment activities appropriate to learners,
aims and stages of learning

2
Selection and use Consulting reference resources to help in lesson preparation 5-7 tasks consisting of approximately 40 questions
of resources
Selection and use of: Tasks include one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option
coursebook materials matching; 3-option multiple choice and odd one out.
supplementary materials and activities
teaching aids

appropriate to learners and aims

16 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 2 : G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s y l l a b u s
 Part 1

This part of Module 2 tests candidates knowledge of the relationship between activities and
aims. It also tests knowledge of ways of sequencing activities within and across lessons in a
manner appropriate to particular groups of learners, and of selecting appropriate assessment
2
activities to build into (a series of) lessons.

Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to:

Syllabus area Possible testing focus


identifying and selecting lesson aims main, subsidiary and personal aims
specification of aims
factors influencing the choice of aims
identifying the different components the standard components of a lesson plan: aims, procedures, stages, timing, aids, anticipated problems,
of a lesson plan assumptions, interaction patterns, timetable fit

planning an individual lesson or common sequences, e.g. structures, skills, topic, project
sequence of lessons

choosing assessment activities informal or formal assessment and related tasks and activities

 Part 2

This part of Module 2 tests candidates knowledge of how to make use of resources, materials and
aids in their lesson planning.

Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to the


following and their implications for the L2 classroom:

Syllabus area Possible testing focus


using reference resources for lesson the range of resources available and teachers reasons for consulting them
preparation

the selection and use of coursebook criteria for selection


materials ways of adapting materials

the selection and use of types of supplementary materials and activities


supplementary materials and reasons for use
activities how to select and adapt

the selection and use of teaching types of aids and their teaching functions
aids

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 2 : G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s y l l a b u s 17
MODULE 2
Sample Test

18 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 2 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 2
Sample Test

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MODULE 2
Sample Test

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MODULE 2
Sample Test

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MODULE 2
Sample Test

22 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 2 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 2
Sample Test

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MODULE 2
Sample Test

24 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 2 : s a m p l e t e s t
Managing the teaching and PAPER 1 : WRITING
learning process MODULE 3
Part 1 : Questions 14

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Module format Module 3 consists of two parts.

Timing 1 hour 20 minutes

No. of questions 80

Task types Objective tasks, such as one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option matching;


3-option multiple choice and odd one out.

Answer format For all parts of this module, candidates indicate their answers by shading
the correct lozenges on their answer sheets.
Candidates should use a pencil and mark their answers firmly.
Candidates should use an eraser to rub out any answer they wish to change.

Marks Each question carries one mark.

 Syllabus

This module tests candidates knowledge of what happens in the classroom in terms
of the language used by the teacher or learners, the roles the teacher can fulfil and
the ways in which the teacher can manage and exploit classroom events and interaction.

Part Title Areas of teaching knowledge Task types and format

1
Teachers and Using language appropriately for a range of classroom 5-6 tasks consisting of approximately 40 questions
learners language functions, e.g.
in the classroom instructing Tasks include one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option
prompting learners matching; 3-option multiple choice and odd one out.
eliciting
conveying meaning of new language

Identifying the functions of learners language

Categorising learners mistakes

2
Classroom Options available to the teacher for managing learners and 5-7 tasks consisting of approximately 40 questions
management their classroom in order to promote learning, e.g.
teacher roles Tasks include one-to-one matching; 3/4/5-option
grouping learners matching; 3-option multiple choice and odd one out.
correcting learners
giving feedback

appropriate to the learners and aims

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 3 : g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s y l l a b u s 25
 Part 1

3 This part of Module 3 tests candidates knowledge of the functions of classroom language, and how
to adapt teacher language according to its audience and purpose. It also tests candidates
knowledge of the appropriacy of teachers classroom language, how to analyse learners language
and categorise learners errors.

Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to:

Syllabus area Possible testing focus


the functions commonly used by the identification of a range of classroom functions and typical exponents
teacher in the classroom appropriacy of use, e.g. degrees of simplicity of language, appropriateness of sequencing, degrees of formality,
use of L1

identifying the functions of language identification of common functions and typical exponents
used by learners in the classroom identification of communicative purpose
(tasks may involve analysis of learner appropriacy of use
language which is not completely
accurate)

categorising learners mistakes categorising types of mistakes, e.g. spelling, wrong verb form, subject-verb agreement

 Part 2

This part of Module 3 tests candidates knowledge of the range and function of strategies available
to a teacher for managing classes in ways appropriate to learners and to teaching and learning
aims. These include variety of activity and pace, ways of grouping learners, techniques for
correcting learners mistakes and the roles a teacher can fulfil at different stages of the lesson.

Candidates need to demonstrate an understanding of concepts and terminology related to the


following and their implications for the L2 classroom:

Syllabus area Possible testing focus


the roles of the teacher common teacher roles, e.g. manager, diagnostician, planner
functions of teacher roles, e.g. managing the teaching space, establishing systems for praise and reward,
establishing rules, routines and procedures; analysing learners needs; building variety into lessons,
planning lessons to meet learners needs

grouping learners common classroom interaction patterns and their uses


grouping of learners and reasons for this

correcting learners methods of oral and written correction, and their appropriacy of use

giving feedback the focus and purpose of feedback


ways of giving feedback

26 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 3 : g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s y l l a b u s
MODULE 3
Sample Test

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MODULE 3
Sample Test

28 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 3 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 3
Sample Test

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MODULE 3
Sample Test

30 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 3 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 3
Sample Test

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MODULE 3
Sample Test

32 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 3 : s a m p l e t e s t
MODULE 3
Sample Test

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | m o d u l e 3 : s a m p l e t e s t 33
TKT test administration
each module is 80. Candidate performance is reported using
four bands.

 Modular structure
Band A candidate at this level demonstrates
TKT modules can be taken together in one examination

1
session or separately, in any order, over multiple sessions. limited knowledge of TKT content areas

 Entry procedure

2
basic, but systematic knowledge of TKT content areas
Candidates must enter through an authorised Cambridge
ESOL Centre. A list of Cambridge ESOL Examination Centres is

3
breadth and depth of knowledge of TKT content areas
available from Cambridge ESOL from the address on page 1.
Institutions wishing to become Cambridge ESOL Examination

4
extensive knowledge of TKT content areas
Centres should contact the Centre Registration Unit at
Cambridge ESOL.

TKT is available throughout the year. Candidate details must


be submitted to Cambridge ESOL at least six weeks prior to See page 45 for a detailed description of each band for each
running the session. Please note that more notice may be module.
necessary if candidates have special requirements and
therefore need special arrangements (see below).  Notification of results

Copies of the regulations and more details on entry procedure, Certificates are despatched to Centres approximately two
current fees and further information about this and other weeks after receipt of answer sheets by Cambridge ESOL.
Cambridge ESOL examinations can be obtained from the Please note that despatch of candidates results will be
Cambridge ESOL Centre Exams Manager in your area, or from delayed if they need special consideration or are suspected of
the address on page 1. malpractice (see page 35).

 Answer sheet completion


Enquiries on results may be made through Cambridge ESOL
Centre Exams Managers within a month of the issue of
Candidates mark all their answers on OMR (Optical Mark certificates.
Reader) answer sheets, which are scanned by computer in
Cambridge. There is one answer sheet per module, and  Appeals procedure
candidates must fill in all their answers within the time
Cambridge ESOL provides a service to enable Centres to
allowed for the test.
appeal, on behalf of candidates, against assessment decisions
A sample OMR answer sheet can be found on page 44 of this that affect grades awarded to candidates, e.g. decisions
Handbook, and it is useful for candidates to practise filling in relating to results and decisions relating to irregular conduct.
an OMR sheet before taking the examination so that they are
Candidates should first contact their Cambridge ESOL Centre
familiar with the procedure.
Exams Manager for advice. Further information about the

 Computer-based TKT
appeals procedure can be found at
www.CambridgeESOL.org/support
A computer-based version of TKT (CB TKT) is also available
via the Cambridge Connect internet delivery system.
Please contact your local Cambridge ESOL Centre for more
information.
Special Circumstances
Special Circumstances cover three main areas: special
arrangements, special consideration and malpractice.
Grading and results
 Special arrangements
 Grading
These are available for candidates with disabilities. They may
Each module is free-standing, and there is no aggregate score. include extra time, separate accommodation or equipment,
Candidates receive a certificate for each module they take. Braille versions of question papers, etc. If you think you may
need special arrangements, you must contact the Cambridge
Each question carries one mark, so the maximum mark for
ESOL Centre Exams Manager in your area as soon as possible
so that the application can be sent to Cambridge ESOL in time
(usually 8 12 weeks before the examination, depending on
what is required).

34 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
 Special consideration  Question paper production cycle

Cambridge ESOL will give special consideration to candidates Pretesting of TKT test material provides Cambridge ESOL with
affected by adverse circumstances before or during an valuable information about candidates performance on
examination. Special consideration can be given where an particular tasks. Pretesting is also useful for Centres or
application is sent through the Centre and is made within ten institutions as it gives candidates the opportunity to
working days of the examination date. Examples of acceptable familiarise themselves with TKT task-types under test
reasons for giving special consideration are cases of illness or conditions and to receive feedback on areas of strength and
other unexpected events. weakness. If your Centre or institution would like to be
involved in TKT pretesting, please contact the Pretesting Unit
 Malpractice TKT Administrator on + 44 1223 558454 or
TKTpretesting@CambridgeESOL.org
The Malpractice Committee will consider cases where
candidates are suspected of copying, collusion or breaking the
examination regulations in some other way. Results may be
withheld because further investigation is needed or because of Support for TKT candidates
infringement of regulations. Centres are notified if a
candidates results are being investigated.
and course providers
General information on TKT, including administration details
and downloadable versions of this Handbook and sample
The production of TKT materials, can be found by visiting
www.CambridgeESOL.org/TKT
Cambridge ESOL is committed to providing examinations of
Course providers and individual candidates can also access
the highest possible quality. This commitment is underpinned
the TKT Glossary on this website.
by an extensive programme of research and evaluation, and by
continuous monitoring of the marking and grading of all Support material for teacher trainers is available on the
Cambridge ESOL examinations. Of particular importance is the Teaching Resources website
rigorous set of procedures which are used in the production www.teachers.CambridgeESOL.org/ts/
and pretesting of question papers.
The TKT Course is published by Cambridge University Press in
The production process for TKT is the same as that for the collaboration with Cambridge ESOL. This coursebook provides
Cambridge ESOL language examinations. It begins with the approximately 6090 hours of classroom-based or self-access
commissioning of materials and ends with the printing of study, and includes practice tasks and tests.
question papers.
Further support is also available in the form of seminar
There are five main stages in the production process: programmes in different countries. Contact Cambridge ESOL
Information for further details by emailing:
commissioning
ESOLhelpdesk@CambridgeESOL.org
pre-editing and editing

pretesting

analysis and banking of materials

question paper construction

Commissioning of material


for question papers


Pre-editing and editing




of material


Revision Pretest construction Rejection

  
Pretesting


Item analysis


Live materials bank

Question paper
construction

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | p r o d u c t i o n a n d s u p p o r t 35
Common questions and TKT wordlist
answers This list is indicative only. Other terms may also be used in TKT.

The words are entered into categories so as to help the reader.


Can candidates make notes on the question paper?
Some words could fall into more than one category. However,
Candidates may write on the question paper during the
to economise on space each word has been entered only once.
examination, but their notes will not be marked. Candidates
Candidates who are preparing for only one module should
must complete an answer sheet, which is then scanned.
ensure they have an understanding of all the TKT terminology.
Does it matter if candidates write in pen or pencil? The TKT Glossary contains definitions of the words in this list
Candidates must use a pencil to mark their answers on the and can be downloaded from www.CambridgeESOL.org/TKT
answer sheet. Answer sheets marked in pen cannot be read by
computer. Approaches
Is the use of dictionaries allowed? Activity-based learning
No. Communicative approaches
Content-based learning
What is the mark allocation?
Functional Approach
One mark is given for each correct answer.
Grammar-Translation method
Do candidates have to take all the modules? Guided discovery
No. The modules are free-standing. Candidates may enter for Lexical Approach
any number of modules in any order. Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP)
Situational presentation
What is the pass mark?
Structural Approach
Results are reported in four bands. There is no pass or fail.
Task-based Learning (TBL)
Candidates receive a certificate for each module taken.
Test-teach-test
What is the date of the TKT examination? Total Physical Response (TPR)
Dates are set by Centres in consultation with Cambridge ESOL,
taking into account local needs and conditions.
Assessment
Where can candidates enrol? Achievement test
Your Cambridge ESOL Centre Exams Manager can give you Assess
information about Centres where the examination is taken. Assessment
Candidates enrol through local Centres, and not through the Assessment criteria
Cambridge ESOL office in Cambridge. Fees are payable to the Can-do statements
local Centre. Cloze test
Comprehension questions
How do candidates get their results?
Continuous assessment
TKT certificates are issued to Centres approximately two
Diagnose
weeks after receipt of answer sheets by Cambridge ESOL.
Diagnostic test
Do candidates need to have taken a particular English Evaluation
language examination before taking TKT? Formal assessment, evaluation
No. However, it is advisable for candidates to have a minimum Formative assessment, evaluation
language level of Council of Europe Framework level B1. Informal assessment, evaluation
Item
What kind of teaching terminology will be tested in TKT?
Learner profile
Opposite is the TKT wordlist which contains terms which may
Matching task
be used in TKT.
Multiple-choice questions
A non-exhaustive list of the teaching terms and their
Objective test
definitions which could be tested in TKT can be found in the
Oral test
TKT Glossary at www.CambridgeESOL.org/TKT
Peer assessment, evaluation
Placement test
Portfolio
Proficiency test
Progress test
Self-assessment, evaluation
Sentence completion
Sentence transformation
Subjective test

36 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | C o m m o n q u e s t i o n s a n d a n s w e r s
Summative test Personalise
Test Pick up
True/false questions Processing language
Tutorial Proficient
Silent period
Slip
Background to language learning
Target language culture
Achievable target, goal
Unmotivated
Acquire
Visual learner
Acquisition
Work language out
Attention span
Auditory learner
Autonomous Classroom management
Cognitive (processes) Active role
Confidence Classroom management
Conscious (of) Closed pairs
Demotivate Co-operate
Developmental error Co-operation
Effective Co-operative
English-medium school Discipline
Error Dominant
Expectation Dominate
Expose Energy levels
Exposure Get students attention
Factor Grade (language)
First language Group dynamics
Focus on form Interaction patterns
Goals Involvement
Guidance Learning contract
Ignore (errors) Mingle
Independent study Mixed ability
Intensive course Mixed level
Interference Monitor
Interlanguage Nominate
Kinaesthetic learner One-to-one
L1/L2 Open class
Language awareness Open pairs
Learner autonomy Passive role
Learner characteristics Rapport, build rapport
Learner independence Routine
Learner training Seating arrangement
Learning resources Seating plan
Learning strategies Teacher role
Learning style Teaching space
Linguistic
Literacy
Functions
Mature
Appropriacy
Maturity
Appropriate
Memorable
Chunk
Memorise
Colloquial
Mother tongue
Declining, refusing an invitation
Motivate
Enquiring
Motivation
Express
Natural order
Expressing ability
Needs
Expressing intention
Participate
Expressing necessity
Participation
Expressing obligation
Personalisation

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | W o r d l i s t 37
Expressing permission Object
Expressing preference Object pronoun
Expressing probability Participle (past and present)
Formal (language) Passive voice
Formality (level of) Past perfect simple and continuous, progressive
Function Past simple and past continuous, progressive
Functional exponent Personal pronoun
Greeting Phrase
Inappropriate Plural noun
Informal (language) Possessive adjective
Informality (level of) Possessive pronoun
Instructing Possessive s and whose
Negotiating Preposition
Neutral Present continuous, progressive for future
Predicting Present perfect simple and continuous, progressive
Register Present simple and continuous, progressive
Requesting Pronoun
Speculating Proper noun
Punctuation
Grammar Quantifier
Active voice Question tag
Adjective Reflexive pronoun
Adverb Regular verb
Article Relative clause
Aspect Relative pronoun
Auxiliary verb Reported statement
Base form of the verb Reporting verb
Clause Second conditional
Collective noun Singular noun
Comparative adjective Subject
Compound noun Subject-verb agreement
Conditional Subordinate clause
Conditional forms Superlative adjective
Conjunction Tense
Connector Third conditional
Countable noun Third person
Demonstrative adjective Time expression
Demonstrative pronoun Uncountable noun
Dependent preposition Used to
Determiner Verb
Direct question Verb pattern
Direct speech
First conditional Introductory activities
Gerund, -ing form
Ice-breaker
Grammatical structure
Introductory activity
Imperative
Warm up
Indirect question
Warmer
Indirect speech
Infinitive
Infinitive of purpose Language skills
-ing/-ed adjective Accuracy
Intensifier Authenticity
Interrogative Cohesion
Irregular verb Cohesive
Main clause Coherence
Modal verb Coherent
Noun Context

38 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | W o r d l i s t
Discourse Lesson planning
Deduce meaning from context Achieve aims, objectives
Develop skills Aim
Draft Analyse language
Edit Anticipate (language) problems
Extensive listening/reading Arouse, generate interest
Extract Assumptions
Fluency Class profile
Infer attitude, feeling, mood Components (of a lesson plan)
Intensive listening/reading Conduct feedback
Interact Consolidate
Interaction Enable
Interactive strategies Encourage
Key word Encouragement
Layout Feedback
Listen/read for detail Focus on
Listen/read for gist Give feedback
Listen/read for mood Highlight
Note-taking Lead-in
Oral fluency Logical
Paragraph Main aim
Paraphrase Objective
Predict Outcome
Prediction Pace
Process Peer feedback
Process writing Personal aim
Productive skills Pre-teach (vocabulary)
Proofread Procedure
Receptive skills Raise awareness
Re-draft Rationale
Relevance Recycle
Relevant Reflect on teaching
Scan Reinforce
Skill Report back
Skim Scheme of work
Subskill Sequence
Summarise Set a question, task, test
Summary Set the scene, the context
Text structure Specification, to specify (aims)
Theme Stage
Thematic Step
Topic Stimulate (discussion)
Topic sentence Student-centred
Turn-taking Subsidiary aim
Version Syllabus
Teacher talking time
Learners mistakes and correction strategies Teacher-centred
Timetable fit
Correction code
Timing
Echo correct
Variety
Finger correction
Vary
Over-application of the rule
Over-generalisation
Reformulate Lexis
Reformulation Affix
Repetition Affixation
Self-correction Antonym
Time line Collocation

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | W o r d l i s t 39
Compound Communicative activity
False friend Controlled practice
Homonym Drill
Homophone Extension task
Idiom Filler
Lexical set Freer practice
Lexis Gap-fill
Multi-word verb Guided writing
Part of speech Individual drill
Phrasal verb Information-gap activity
Prefix Jigsaw listening/reading
Suffix Jumbled paragraphs, pictures, sentences
Synonym Label
Less controlled practice
Mind map
Phonology
Open-ended (task)
Connected speech
Picture stories
Consonant
Practice
Contrast
Prioritising
Contrastive stress
Problem solving
Contraction
Project work
Diphthong
Rank ordering
Discriminate
Recall
Distinguish
Restricted practice
Feature
Revise
Identification
Revision
Identify
Role-play
Intonation
Solution
Linking
Solve
Main stress
Substitution drill
Minimal pair
Survey
Phoneme
Swap
Phonemic script
Target language
Phonemic symbol
Task
Phonemic transcription
Task-type
Primary stress
Transformation drill
Rhyme
Visualisation
Rhythm
Visualise
Schwa
Word map
Secondary stress
Sentence stress
Stress Presentation techniques
Strong forms Concept checking
Syllable Concept questions
Unvoiced sound Contextualise
Voiced sound Define
Vowel Definition
Weak forms Elicit
Word boundary Emphasis
Word stress Emphasise
Gesture
Illustrate meaning
Practice activities and tasks
Meaningful
Brainstorm
Mime
Categorisation
Present
Categorise
Presentation
Chant
Teaching strategy
Choral drill

40 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | W o r d l i s t
Reference resources Overhead projector (OHP)
Overhead transparency (OHT)
Bilingual dictionary
Puppet
Consult
Realia
Headword
Recording script
Monolingual dictionary
Resources
Phonemic chart
Rubric
Reference materials, resources
Self-access centre
Sticker
Teachers and learners language in the classroom Supplementary material
Acknowledge Tapescript
Ask for clarification Teachers book
Clarify Teaching aids
Convey meaning Textbook
Exchange Transcript
Facial expression Video clip
Filler Visual (aid)
Hesitate Workbook
Model Worksheet
Narrate
Praise
Prompt
Recast
Refer to
Respond
Response
Simplification
Simplify
Terminology
Utterance
Word prompt

Teaching materials and aids


Activity book
Adapt (material)
Audio script
Authentic material
Board game
Book
Brochure
Chart
Coursebook
Coursebook unit
Crossword puzzle
Dialogue
Dice
Exploit (material)
Flashcard
Flexible
Flipchart
Graded reader
Graph
Grid
Handout
Language laboratory
Leaflet
Learning centre

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | W o r d l i s t 41
MODULE 1 MODULE 2
Answer key Answer key

1 B 36 C 74 H 1 E 37 B 73 I
2 F 37 A 75 E 2 C 38 E 74 A
3 C 38 B 76 C 3 B 39 A 75 G
4 A 39 C 77 F 4 F 40 F 76 D
5 E 40 B 78 A 5 H 41 C 77 C
79 D 6 G 78 F
6 E 41 B 80 B 7 A 42 B 79 B
7 D 42 A 43 A 80 E
8 A 43 C 8 C 44 D
9 F 44 D 9 A 45 I
10 B 45 C 10 H 46 H
46 D 11 G 47 E
11 A 12 B 48 G
12 A 47 D 13 F 49 C
13 B 48 C 14 D
14 B 49 A 50 B
15 B 50 H 15 B 51 F
16 C 51 E 16 C 52 A
52 G 17 B 53 D
17 F 53 F 18 A 54 G
18 A 19 B 55 C
19 C 54 C 20 A 56 H
20 E 55 D
21 D 56 G 21 D 57 H
57 B 22 B 58 A
22 I 58 A 23 C 59 E
23 A 59 F 24 A 60 C
24 G 25 B 61 G
25 H 60 A 26 E 62 F
26 C 61 B 27 C 63 D
27 D 62 C 28 D 64 I
28 F 63 A 29 A
29 B 64 B 65 C
65 B 30 D 66 D
30 D 66 C 31 H 67 A
31 E 32 B 68 D
32 B 67 A 33 C 69 C
33 F 68 B 34 E 70 C
34 C 69 C 35 F 71 B
35 G 70 A 36 G 72 A
71 A
72 C
73 B

42 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | a n s w e r k e y s
MODULE 3
Answer key

1 C 33 E 64 C
2 H 34 B 65 E
3 F 35 G 66 D
4 B 36 A 67 A
5 G 37 D 68 G
6 A 38 I 69 F
7 E 39 F 70 B
40 C
8 A 71 C
9 B 41 A 72 C
10 C 42 A 73 B
11 C 43 D 74 B
12 A 44 C 75 C
13 B 45 D
14 A 46 C 76 C
15 C 47 B 77 E
16 B 48 B 78 F
49 D 79 A
17 B 80 D
18 F 50 A
19 A 51 A
20 E 52 C
21 C 53 A
54 B
22 A 55 C
23 C
24 C 56 A
25 B 57 B
26 A 58 A
27 B 59 C
60 B
28 C 61 B
29 A 62 C
30 A 63 A
31 C
32 B

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | a n s w e r k e y s 43
TKT
Sample OMR answer sheet

44 Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | S a m p l e o m r a n s w e r s h e e t
Module 1: Module 2: Module 3:
Language and background to Lesson planning and Managing the teaching and learning
language learning and teaching use of resources process
The candidate demonstrates comprehensive and The candidate demonstrates comprehensive and The candidate demonstrates comprehensive and
accurate knowledge of all areas on the TKT Module 1 extensive knowledge of all areas on the TKT Module 2 extensive knowledge of all areas on the TKT Module 3
syllabus, i.e. language systems and background to syllabus, i.e. lesson planning and use of resources for syllabus, i.e. managing the teaching and learning
language learning and teaching. He/she shows language teaching. He/she shows familiarity with the process. He/she shows familiarity with the full range of
familiarity with the full range of concepts, terminology, full range of concepts, terminology, practices and concepts, terminology, practices and processes tested
practices and processes tested in TKT Module 1, which processes tested in TKT Module 2, which relate to in TKT Module 3, which relate to teachers and learners
BAND 4 relate to describing language and language skills, general practice in lesson planning and materials use, language in the classroom and options available for
factors in the language learning process and the range of reasons for carrying out particular activities in the classroom management in order to promote learning.
methods, tasks and activities available to the language classroom, and for using particular resources and The candidate is able to relate existing knowledge to
teacher. The candidate is able to relate existing materials. The candidate is able to relate existing both familiar and unfamiliar classroom situations.
knowledge to both familiar and unfamiliar classroom knowledge to both familiar and unfamiliar classroom
situations. situations.
The candidate generally demonstrates comprehensive The candidate generally demonstrates comprehensive The candidate generally demonstrates comprehensive
and accurate knowledge of areas on the TKT Module 1 and extensive knowledge of areas on the TKT Module 2 and extensive knowledge of areas on the TKT Module 3
syllabus, i.e. language systems and background to syllabus, i.e. lesson planning and use of resources for syllabus, i.e. managing the teaching and learning
language learning and teaching. He/she shows language teaching. He/she shows familiarity with most process. He/she shows familiarity with most of the
familiarity with most of the concepts, terminology, of the concepts, terminology, practices and processes concepts, terminology, practices and processes tested
practices and processes tested in TKT Module 1, which tested in TKT Module 2, which relate to general practice in TKT Module 3, which relate to teachers and learners
BAND 3 relate to describing language and language skills, in lesson planning and materials use, reasons for language in the classroom and options available for
factors in the language learning process and the range of carrying out particular activities in the classroom, and classroom management in order to promote learning.
methods, tasks and activities available to the language for using particular resources and materials. The The candidate is generally able to relate existing
teacher. The candidate is generally able to relate existing candidate is generally able to relate existing knowledge knowledge to both familiar and unfamiliar classroom
knowledge to both familiar and unfamiliar classroom to both familiar and unfamiliar classroom situations. situations.
situations.
The candidate demonstrates basic knowledge of areas The candidate demonstrates basic knowledge of areas The candidate demonstrates basic knowledge of areas
on the TKT Module 1 syllabus, i.e. language systems on the TKT Module 2 syllabus, i.e. lesson planning and on the TKT Module 3 syllabus, i.e. managing the
and background to language learning and teaching. use of resources for language teaching. He/she shows teaching and learning process. He/she shows
He/she shows familiarity with some of the concepts, familiarity with some of the concepts, terminology, familiarity with some of the concepts, terminology,
terminology, practices and processes tested in TKT practices and processes tested in TKT Module 2, which practices and processes tested in TKT Module 3, which
Module 1, which relate to describing language and relate to general practice in lesson planning and relate to teachers and learners language in the
BAND 2 language skills, factors in the language learning materials use, reasons for carrying out particular classroom and options available for classroom
process and the range of methods, tasks and activities activities in the classroom, and for using particular management in order to promote learning. The
available to the language teacher. The candidate is able resources and materials. The candidate is able to relate candidate is able to relate existing knowledge to
to relate existing knowledge to familiar classroom existing knowledge to familiar classroom situations, familiar classroom situations, and occasionally to
situations, and occasionally to unfamiliar ones. and occasionally to unfamiliar ones. unfamiliar ones.

The candidate demonstrates restricted knowledge of The candidate demonstrates restricted knowledge of The candidate demonstrates restricted knowledge of
areas on the TKT Module 1 syllabus, i.e. language areas on the TKT Module 2 syllabus, i.e. lesson areas on the TKT Module 3 syllabus, i.e. managing the
systems and background to language learning and planning and use of resources for language teaching. teaching and learning process. He/she shows
teaching. He/she shows familiarity with a limited range He/she shows familiarity with a limited range of the familiarity with a limited range of the concepts,
of the concepts, terminology, practices and processes concepts, terminology, practices and processes tested terminology, practices and processes tested in TKT
tested in TKT Module 1, which relate to describing in TKT Module 2, which relate to general practice in Module 3, which relate to teachers and learners
BAND 1 language and language skills, factors in the language lesson planning and materials use, reasons for carrying language in the classroom and options available for
learning process and the range of methods, tasks and out particular activities in the classroom, and for using classroom management in order to promote learning.
activities available to the language teacher. The particular resources and materials. The candidate is The candidate is able to relate existing knowledge to

Te ac h i n g K n o w l e d g e Te s t | b a n d d e s c r i p t o r s
candidate is able to relate existing knowledge to able to relate existing knowledge to familiar classroom familiar classroom situations only.
familiar classroom situations only. situations only.

45
Band descriptors
TKT
46 f c e e x a m i n at i o n | s a m p l e p a g e s
TKT
*535567698*

Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT)


Modules 1-3

www.CambridgeESOL.org/tkt

Handbook for teachers

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UCLES 2010 EMC/2819/0Y05
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