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Luis Mori" Juan Dixon" Sergio Muller' Rogel Wallace'

* Dept. of Elechical Engg. ** Dept. of Elechical Engg.
Universidad de Concepcion Universidiid Catblica de Chile
P.O.BOX53-C P.O.Box 306 Correo 22
Concepcibn - CHILE Santiago - Chile
harmonic component of the load. In that way, the converter
ABSTRACT connected closer to the load operates at lower switching
frequency (650 Hz) and compensate the reactive power and
A three-phase active power filter implemented with two P W M the low frequency current components required by the load.
voltage-source inverters Connected in cascade is presented and The second inverter operates at higher switching frequency (2
analyzed in this paper. The active power filter is connected in parallel kHz) and compensates the high frequency current harmonic
to the system and can Compensate the reactive power and the components that can not be generated by the first converter.
harmonic current components of high power nonlinear loads. By using Since the converter connected closer to the load will generate
two P W M voltage-source inverters in cascade, the compensation a higher rms cuiient and will operate at lower switching
characteristics of the active power filter are significantly improved. frequency, it can be implemented with GTOs or fast thyristors,
The voltage-sour1.e inverter connected closer to the nonlinear load which can stand highest rms current. The second inverter can
compensates the tactive power and the low frequency current be implemented Nith bipolar transistors or IGBT's since it will
components requi. '-v the nonlinear load, while the second inverter operate at higher switching frequency but will generate a lower
;ompensates only the high frequency current components. For this rms current.
reason the first PWh.1 inverter can be implemented with GTO's Current control in each P W M inverter is achieved with almost
operating at lower switching frequency while the second inverter can constant switching frequency
used IGBTs since it has to operate at higher switching frequency. In Current control is done in time domain allowing instantaneous
panicular, this paper discusses the proposed scheme in terms of compensation characteristics.
principles of operation, and the analysis under transient and steady By connecting the two inverters in cascade a significant
state operating conditions. The computer simulation for the proposed improvement in the active power filter compensation
active power filter has been done and the results show excellent static characteristics is achieved since the second inverter will
and dynamic performances. generate all the current harmonic that the first converter is not
able to provide.
I.- INTRODUCTION Moreover, compared with active power filters using quad series
PWh4 inverters [4]-[SI, the proposed topology requires less number of
With the proliferation of nonlinear loads, including the increasing converters, a simple and conventional transformer, and a simpler
number of static power converters and electric furnaces, fast acting control circuit and compared with active power filters implemented
power filters will have to be considered as an essential component of a with parallel converters [ 6 ] , the active power filter proposed in this
power distribution installation In recent years, active power filters paper presents a better Compensation performance since, by using an
have been researched and developed to suppress harmonics generated independent control scheme. the second converter compensates the
by static power conveners and large capacity nonlinear power current harmonics introduced by the low frequency PWM switching
apparatus [I] Various power circuit configurations have been pattern used in the first converter.
proposed, and gradually beiny recognized as a viable solution to the The treatment presented in this paper includes a comprehensive
problems created by harmonic components [2] steady state and transient analysis of the proposed system. Special
The topology of the three-phase active power filter presented in emphasis is given tci the transient behavior of the active filter while it is
this paper is shown in Fig 1 It can compensate for displacement and compensating a fluctuating nonlinear load Finally, the validity of the
distortion power factor The proposed configuration is based on two proposed scheme is confirmed by computer simulation.
three-phase force-commutated pulse-width modulation voltage-source
inverters (FWM-VSI) connected in parallel to the nonlinear load. The Thee-Phase
3 + WIM-VSI 0 1
two inverters are connected in cascade and operate with independent n o n h e a r Load
dc voltage and current control schemes The control system of each
PWh4-VSI consists of four modules, the current generalor circuit, the
dc voltage control, the inverter output current control, and the gating
signal generator. The current generator circuits uses the concept of
Instantaneous Reactive Power [3] to create the required reference
signals. The gating signals of each inverter are generated by using a
vector control techniques The proposed vector control technique
allows to control the maximum switching frequency of each converter.
Although there are a number of articles which deal with the
analysis of active power filters using force-commutated voltage-source
inverters connected in parallel [ I ] - [ 6 ] . the three-phase active power
filter proposed in this paper ditkrs from previously discussed
approaches in the following ways.
a) Each PWh4 voltage-source invener operates with different
switching frequency allowing the generation of specific current Fig 1 The proposed active power filter configuration


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II.- PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION By replacing (3) and (4) in (I) and (2) and by changing fiom 04 fl to U.
b. c, reference frame, the active power filter reference currents are
It is well known that active power filters compensate current defined by:
system distortion caused by nonlinear loads by injecting equal-but-
opposite current harmonic components at specific points of a power /1 O \
distribution system [2]. The active power filter compensation
chrvrcteristics depend mainly on the control strategy. The control
system of each PWM inverter has to be able to generate the current
reference waveform, maintain the dc voltage constant, and has to
8CIlente the inverter gating signals. The principle of operation of the
active power filter control system proposed in this paper is presented
in the next subsections. Equation ( 5 ) shows that in order to obtain the reference currents it is
necessary to calculate p' and 9'. The ac component of the active
Signala Generator
arln~ power, pa,-, can be obtained by substracting the dc component, p b
from the instantaneous active power p(t). This can be easily achieved
by using a low pass second order filter. In order to reduce the time
response of this filter, normally it is tuned at 150 Hz.However, if low
frequency power variations are generated by the nonlinear load, the
r--.- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . low pass filter used to generated p' does not allow their compensation,
I thus the voltage source inverters will experience low frequency dc
voltage fluctuation. This problem can be solved by using a low p m
filter tuned at a frequency lower than the fundamental (see Fig. 3).

. Curm( Refe-.............
Dc Volrap Control Unlt
4-7Ziz-pFilter (30 Hz)

Fig. 2. The block diagram of the active power filter control system. Fig. 3. The block diagram of the power reference generator

7 J3) Dc Voltaee Control U nu

The current reference generator circuit defines the compensation Figure I shows that each PWM voltage source inverter is
characteristics and accuracy of the active power filter. The reference connected to a dc capacitor in the dc bus. Voltage control in the dc
signals are generated by using the Instantaneous Reactive Power bus is performed by adjusting the small amount of real power absorbed
Concept (31 which allows a more flexibility in the active power filter by each converter. The real power flowing into each PWM voltage-
compensation performance. Depending upon the reference signals source inverter depends on the amplitude of the fundamental current
used the active power fitter can compensate only the displacement component in phase with the respective phase to neutral voltage. From
power factor, only current harmonics or both at the same time. The ( 5 ) it is found that the reference current of each phase contains a term
instantaneous reactive power concept also allows the generation of the in phase with the respective phase to neutral voltage, and with an
reference signals required to control the dc voltage. According with amplitude proportional to Pavewhich is obtained from the Dc Voltage
the Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory, the reference currents Control Unit (Fig 2). By adjusting Pave. each inverter will absorb the
expressed in aq fl reference fiame are defined by the following real power required to cover the switching losses and to maintain the
quations 131: steady state dc capacitor voltage constant.

-v +*q+-4--q, s Genermr
k c= fv 1 Pac Val + VB1 dc Val + V$I
The generation of the converter gating signals depends on the
current control technique used in the P W M voltage-source inverter.
The current control strategy plays an important role in active power
filters. since it defines the converter switching frequency, the converter
where paf is the ac component of the active power p(t), q k and Q~ time response, and the accuracy to follow the current references. Also
are the dc and the ac components of the reactive power q(t). The dc for high power applications it is very important to operate the inverter
components are associated with the displacement power factor with a controlled switching frequency, and with a high voltage gain.
generated by the fundamental components, while the ac components In this paper, current control is achieved by using a vector control
of p(t) and q(t) are associated with the reactive power generated by technique. The current control used in this paper was proposed iq [7],
harmonics. Since the proposed active power filter will compensate for and is not a predictive control but a feedback control, which has
displacement power factor and harmonic current distortion proved to present a better performance for active power filter
simultaneously, the current reference waveforms must include the applications.
t a m s multiplied by pm 9aCand qdc If Current Control Techtiique
(3) Current control is achieved by selecting the inverter output voltage
(4) that will minimized the current error signal. This control technique
divides the or, fl reference frame in six regions (Fig. 4), and then


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identifies in which region the current error vector, Ai, is located and di
selects the inverter output voltage that will force the current error to V(k) == L r + Eo (6)
change in an opposite direction, keeping the inverter output current where V(k) is the inverter output voltage, Eo is the phase to neutral
closer to the reference signal. By selecting the inverter output Voltage source voltage, L is the synchronous inductor, and igen is the inverter
that presents the largest opposite direction component to the current output current. The current error vector, Ai is defined by the
error a faster time response in the current control loop is achieved. expression:

Ai = i* - i Scn
By replacing (7) in (6)

dAi di*
L x + EO - V(k)

If E = Ldi*/dt + Eo' then (8) becomes:

Fig. 4. Hexagon for different region of inverter output voltage. L-;i;= E - V(k) (9)

Figure 5 shows the inverter equivalent circuit connected to load Equation (9) represents the active power filter state equation and
arid the power system shows that the wror current vector variations, dAildt, can be
RS Ls controlled by selecting the appropiate inverter output voltage vector

Power System
Lb 1 T 2Vdc
The selection of the switching mode is defined by the region in
which the current error vector is located Figure 6 shows the six
regions defined by the inverter output voltage vector, while Fig. 7
illustrates the six regions defined by the inverter output current vector.
The two hexagones are phase-shifted by 30 degrees.
a b c a-

Fig. 5 The P\i'h,l voltage-sourceinverter equivalent circuit.

In Table I, all the possible switching combinations of the inverter
aie shown One or zero of the switching hnctions Sa, Sb, and S,
corresponds to the mode in which the upper side device or the lower
side device is on respectively For each switching combination the
inverter output voltage is defined in Table 11.
Fig.6. The hexagone defined by the inverter output voltage vector.
Table 1 a"

V(k) k=O k=l k=2 k=3 k 4 k=5 k=6 k=7

(Sa, Sb. S,) I 000 I 100 I 110 I010 I o 1 1 IO01 I 101 I 1 1 1 1
Table I1
e / 4 \

Fig 7 The hexagone defined by the inverter output current vector.

The selection of the inverters switching mode can be explained

assuming that E is located in Region I (Fig. 6)and Ai in Region 6 (Fig.
7) The voltage vectors located closer to E are V, and V,. The vectors
E-V, and E-V, define two vectors LdAi/dt, located in regions 111 and
IV respectively In order to reduce the error current vector Ai, LdAddt
must be located in region I11 thus V(k) has to be equd to V,. If the
same analysis is done for all the possible combinations, the inverter
switching modes for each location of Ai and E can be defined (Table

7 1 3 5 0

The equation that relates the active power filter voltages and currents


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Table Ill
Inverter Switching Mode
E Ai Region

Fig. 9. Hexagons that definesthe switching criteria

If Ai is located below the 6 region no commutation is applied to

the inverter. If Ai is located between 6 and h, the switching modes
VI v, v, v,-v, v,-v, v, V, shown in Table 111 must be applied, and if Ai passes through the h
hexagon, then the control system is switc:hed over to the faster loop
and applies the switching modes defined in Table IV. Once the current
Table 111 shows that the switching hnction is determined by the control circuit has selected the region where V(k) must commutated, it
region in which Ai and E are located. It is important to note that it is verifies the time that has passed since the last commutation, and then it
not necessary to know the magnitude of the error current vector, thus compares with the switching frequency selected for the inverter. If the
simplifying the current control circuit implementation. In case Ai needs time is higher or equal to 1/2fc a new switching function is applied to
to be changed faster it is necessary to determine which vector E-V(k) the inverter semiconductors.Figure IO shows the block diagram of the
presents the higher component in the oppositve direction to Ai For the inverter current control scheme
example shown previously, E-V, represents the best solution (Fig. 8) I 'ref

Evaluation of E
no commui~iion

I ..VI
Fig. 8. Representation of all possible E-V(k) vectors Table IV

Table IV shows the switching mode in case Ai becomes large in V(k)

transient state and needs to be changed faster. Fig. 1 1. The block diagram of the current control scheme


Switch Mod hrnges en Ai
The steady state and transient performance of the active power
filter presented in this paper is proved by computer simulation. The
steady state compensation characteristics of the active power filter
while compensates a six step controlled rectifier are shown in Fig. 12.
Specifically, Fig. 1240 and 12-(g) show the line current and its
frequency spectrum. The frequency spectrum is low and the line
current is in phase with the respective phase-to-neutral voltage. This
proves the effectiveness for steady state compensation. Transient
behavior of the active power filter is proved for the compensation of a
step change in the gating signals of the controlled rectifier Simulated
waveforms are illustrated in Fig 13 Figure 13-(c) shows that the line
current is almost sinusoidal and remains in phase with the respective
Table 111 shows the inverter switchiny modes when Ai experiments phase to neutral voltage. Finally, in Fig. 14 the good compensation
small changes and in Table IV the switching modes required when Ai performance of the active power filter while compensating a low
becomes large in transient state are defined The control circuit must frequency power load fluctuation is demonstrated. This figures show
be able to identify the switching modes that will apply. For that a the influence of the low pass filter implemented to obtain the reference
relationship is defined between the two references; that is h = a + 6, signals Figures 14-(b) show that if the second order low pass filter is
where a is some margin tuned at 150 Hz the active power filter is to compensate this
power fluctuation. This problem is solved by decreasing the resonant
Switching Frequency Control frequency of the filter as shown in Fig. 14-(d)

The two hexagon that defines the switching modes characteristics

are shown in Fig. 9.


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1 -
1.5 7 -7
1 0.8 -
0.5 . 0.6 _-

-1.5 L------ . --1

0 ;

0.8 ' I
0.6 - -____

0.2 -
0- AA A ,'\ r., ,\ . , ,:, ~

p.u 0
4 2

. 0.6
a 0 0.02 0.W 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
0.2 __--

0 6 r r .j - -,\ I- I-,
n ,?

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14

Fig. 13. Simulated results for transient operating conditions. (a) The
load current. (b) The line current after the first inverter and the
0 0.02 0.04 006 0.09 0.1 0.12 0.14
respective phase to neutral voltage. (c) The power system line current
and the phase t o neulral voltage.
1.5 I-- I
d o
-1.5 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14



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An active power filter implemented with two P W voltage-source

inverters connected in cascade was presented and analyzed in this
paper. The proposed active power filter is aimed toward application
that require displacement power factor correction and current
harmonics compensation. The reference signals required by the active
power filter were obtained by using the instantaneous reactive power
concept Current control was implemented with a vector control
technique Each converter was operated at a different switching
frequency, allowing the compensation of high power nonlinear loads.
Simulated results has demonstrated the operating performance of the
proposed active power filter system.


The authors would like to acknowledge the finance support from

-3J FONDECyt through the project 92-0262. Also the authors would likq
0 0.05 ai 0.15 0.2 025 to thank the Direccion of Investigacion of Universidad de Concepcibn,
(b) the International Copper Association. nd the Agency for International
- Development for the assistance gave through the projects # 20.92.11,
1.5 ICA#416,AID# 11.196.
4 5
[I) W. M. Grady, M.J Samotyj, A.H. Noyola, "Survey of Active
Power Line Conditioning Methodologies," in IEEE Trans. on
-2 '
0 a05 0.1 0.15 02
Power Delivery, Vol 5 , no 3. July 1990, pp. 1536-1542.
[2] H. Kawahira, T. Nakamura, S . Nakazawa, M.Nomura, "Active
(c) Power Filters," iii Proc. of h e JIEE-IPEC, March 1983, pp. 981-
I.-, -1 992.
1 [3] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, "Instantaneous Reactive
Power Compensators Comprising Switching Devices without
Energy Storage Components," in IEEE Trans. on I t h s r y
2 0 Applicafroti, Vol IA-20, no 3. MayIJune 1984, pp. 625-630.
a5 [4] H Akagi, A Nabae, S Atoh, "Control Strategy of Active Power
-1 Filters Using Multiple Voltage-Source P W Converters," in
IEEE Tratis. otr Itidistry Applicnitoit, Vol. IA-22, no 3. MaylJune
1986, pp. 460-465.
o aaz 0.w 0.06 0.08 ai 0.12 0.14
[SI F.Z. Peng, H. Akagi, A Nabae, "A Study of Active Power Filters
Using Quad-Series Voltage-Source PWM Converters for
Harmonic Compensation," in IEEE Trans. oit Power Elec;roiiics,
1 Vol. 5, no I , January 1990, pp. 9-15.
[6] L. Moran, P. Godoy. R. Wallace, J Dixon. "A New Current
Control Strategy for Active Power Filters Using Three Voltage
2 0 Source Inverters," irr Proc. of 1EEE PESC 93, June 1993, pp. 3-9.
-a5 [ 71 A. Nabae, S Ogasawara, H Akagi, " A Novel Control Scheme for
-1 Current-Controlled PWM Inverters," irr IEEE Trans. on hdrtsfry
Applicaliotu, vol. IA-22, no 4, July/Aug. 1986, pp. 697-701.
-1.51 J
o 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 ai4

Fig. 14. Simulated results for compensation of a IO Hz load current

fluctuation. (a) The fluctuating nonlinear load current. (b) Power
system current between the two inverters for compensation with a
reference signal generated with a low pass filter tuned at IS0 Hz. (d)
Power system current between the two inverters for compensation
with a reference signal generated with a low pass filter tuned at 5 Hz,
(e) Power system current for compensation with a reference simal
generated w$h a low pass filter tuned at 5 Hz.


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