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II. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION By replacing (3) and (4) in (I) and (2) and by changing fiom 04 fl to U.
b. c, reference frame, the active power filter reference currents are
It is well known that active power filters compensate current defined by:
system distortion caused by nonlinear loads by injecting equalbut
opposite current harmonic components at specific points of a power /1 O \
distribution system [2]. The active power filter compensation
chrvrcteristics depend mainly on the control strategy. The control
system of each PWM inverter has to be able to generate the current
reference waveform, maintain the dc voltage constant, and has to
8CIlente the inverter gating signals. The principle of operation of the
active power filter control system proposed in this paper is presented
in the next subsections. Equation ( 5 ) shows that in order to obtain the reference currents it is
necessary to calculate p' and 9'. The ac component of the active
Signala Generator
C........................
arln~ power, pa,, can be obtained by substracting the dc component, p b
from the instantaneous active power p(t). This can be easily achieved
by using a low pass second order filter. In order to reduce the time
response of this filter, normally it is tuned at 150 Hz.However, if low
frequency power variations are generated by the nonlinear load, the
r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . low pass filter used to generated p' does not allow their compensation,
I thus the voltage source inverters will experience low frequency dc
voltage fluctuation. This problem can be solved by using a low p m
filter tuned at a frequency lower than the fundamental (see Fig. 3).
. Curm( Refe.............
Generator
.................
Dc Volrap Control Unlt
47ZizpFilter (30 Hz)
Fig. 2. The block diagram of the active power filter control system. Fig. 3. The block diagram of the power reference generator
The current reference generator circuit defines the compensation Figure I shows that each PWM voltage source inverter is
characteristics and accuracy of the active power filter. The reference connected to a dc capacitor in the dc bus. Voltage control in the dc
signals are generated by using the Instantaneous Reactive Power bus is performed by adjusting the small amount of real power absorbed
Concept (31 which allows a more flexibility in the active power filter by each converter. The real power flowing into each PWM voltage
compensation performance. Depending upon the reference signals source inverter depends on the amplitude of the fundamental current
used the active power fitter can compensate only the displacement component in phase with the respective phase to neutral voltage. From
power factor, only current harmonics or both at the same time. The ( 5 ) it is found that the reference current of each phase contains a term
instantaneous reactive power concept also allows the generation of the in phase with the respective phase to neutral voltage, and with an
reference signals required to control the dc voltage. According with amplitude proportional to Pavewhich is obtained from the Dc Voltage
the Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory, the reference currents Control Unit (Fig 2). By adjusting Pave. each inverter will absorb the
expressed in aq fl reference fiame are defined by the following real power required to cover the switching losses and to maintain the
quations 131: steady state dc capacitor voltage constant.
v +*q+4q, s Genermr
k c= fv 1 Pac Val + VB1 dc Val + V$I
$
The generation of the converter gating signals depends on the
current control technique used in the P W M voltagesource inverter.
The current control strategy plays an important role in active power
filters. since it defines the converter switching frequency, the converter
where paf is the ac component of the active power p(t), q k and Q~ time response, and the accuracy to follow the current references. Also
are the dc and the ac components of the reactive power q(t). The dc for high power applications it is very important to operate the inverter
components are associated with the displacement power factor with a controlled switching frequency, and with a high voltage gain.
generated by the fundamental components, while the ac components In this paper, current control is achieved by using a vector control
of p(t) and q(t) are associated with the reactive power generated by technique. The current control used in this paper was proposed iq [7],
harmonics. Since the proposed active power filter will compensate for and is not a predictive control but a feedback control, which has
displacement power factor and harmonic current distortion proved to present a better performance for active power filter
simultaneously, the current reference waveforms must include the applications.
t a m s multiplied by pm 9aCand qdc If Current Control Techtiique
(3) Current control is achieved by selecting the inverter output voltage
(4) that will minimized the current error signal. This control technique
divides the or, fl reference frame in six regions (Fig. 4), and then
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identifies in which region the current error vector, Ai, is located and di
selects the inverter output voltage that will force the current error to V(k) == L r + Eo (6)
change in an opposite direction, keeping the inverter output current where V(k) is the inverter output voltage, Eo is the phase to neutral
closer to the reference signal. By selecting the inverter output Voltage source voltage, L is the synchronous inductor, and igen is the inverter
that presents the largest opposite direction component to the current output current. The current error vector, Ai is defined by the
error a faster time response in the current control loop is achieved. expression:
Ai = i*  i Scn
By replacing (7) in (6)
dAi di*
L=
dt
L x + EO  V(k)
dAi
Fig. 4. Hexagon for different region of inverter output voltage. L;i;= E  V(k) (9)
Figure 5 shows the inverter equivalent circuit connected to load Equation (9) represents the active power filter state equation and
arid the power system shows that the wror current vector variations, dAildt, can be
RS Ls controlled by selecting the appropiate inverter output voltage vector
V(k).
Power System
Lb 1 T 2Vdc
The selection of the switching mode is defined by the region in
which the current error vector is located Figure 6 shows the six
regions defined by the inverter output voltage vector, while Fig. 7
illustrates the six regions defined by the inverter output current vector.
The two hexagones are phaseshifted by 30 degrees.
a b c a
PWM VSI
7 1 3 5 0
The equation that relates the active power filter voltages and currents
is:
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Table Ill
Inverter Switching Mode
E Ai Region
I
Evaluation of E
no commui~iion
Y
V
I ..VI
V(W
Fig. 8. Representation of all possible EV(k) vectors Table IV
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1 
1.5 7 7
1 0.8 
0.5 . 0.6 _
p.u
0.5
0
1
1.5 L . 1
=::FE
?
0 ;
1
0.8 ' I

0.6  ____
p.uP.J
0.2 
0 AA A ,'\ r., ,\ . , ,:, ~
0.4
0.2
p.u 0
4 2
0.4
0.8
. 0.6
?
a 0 0.02 0.W 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
0.4
(b)
0.2 __
0 6 r r .j  ,\ I I,
n ,?
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21 I CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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