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Oo G eri5 I

Andrews University
Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary
Euphrates - Ottoman Empire
Drying up of Euphrates - Ottoman Empire
ELLEN G. WHITE: VIEWS OF ARMAGEDDON The Gathering of the Nations Three Evil
Armageddon - Palestine

Time of the Battle
A Term Paper
Participants in the Battle
Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the
The Place Literal or Symbolic
Requirements for the course
The Meaning of Armageddon
CHIS574 Development of Seventhday Adventist Theology
The Nature of the Battle
The Sign of God-The Mark of the Beast
The Battle Names
by The Conflict in Heaven and Earth
Hector Jurado
The Conflict and Its Causes
The Gathering In Armageddon
Fall, 1978
Summary and Conclusion

White UbTary

James White Library
Berrien Springs, MI 49104
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The expositors of the second interpretation are mostly
followers of Ellen G. White's teachings. This study has
selected one of the expositors less know among Latin
For many years, Revelation 12:12-16 has been a contro- American Seventh-day Adventist. Louis F. Were, an Aus-
vertial passage in the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the tralian scholar who was an expositor of the prophecies of
area of Biblical escathology. Seventh-day Adventist expos- Daniel and Revelation, he was a prolific writer about
itors are divided in reference to two diferent interpreta - Biblical eschatology. He wrote several times about "What
tions concerning the sixth plague and the terms employed. is Armageddon. It will be helpful to know the thinking of
The first interpretation stresses that the terms of scholars outside of North America.
,r k.7\ Rev. 12:12-16 should be interpreted literally. The second Therefore, this paper is an attempt to follow what
X' V-
,Y\ interpretation stresses that the terms used in Rev. 16:12-16 the Spirit of Prophecy teaches about Armageddon. Being
4 ,
41. /
/ must be understood. symbolically. that .the Spirit of Prophecy is a light in understanding
C1 This study seeks to set forth what the Bible teaches correctly the Scripture, Ellen G. White in her writ/ings
about the place . of armageddon, where the battle of that gives us the basis to know which of the two interpretations
great day of God Almighty will be fought. By studying the is correct and which of them gives us a complete christo-
two interpretations, this paper will attempt to draw a logical, ecclesiological fulfillment.
conclusion as to whether the term Armageddon must be under- In order to understand how the expositors have arrived
stood literally or symbolically. at their conclusions, it is necessary to see how they have
The expositors of the first interpretation are followers interpreted the whole passage of Rev. 16:12-16, concerning
of Uriah Smith's interpretation of Daniel and Revelation. of the period of the sixth plague. This paper presents
The main ideas of Smith's conclusions are recorded in his first the views of Uriah Smith and his followers; secondly
books: Thoughts on Daniel and Thloughta , on the Revelation the views of the second interpretation centered in Louis
(1873). Were's teachings; and thirdly, the Spirit of Prophecy's
Later those works appeared in one book titled The teachings about Armageddon. Finally a summary and
Prophecies of Daniel and Revelation; this book has been conclusion about the subject studied.
revised several times during Smith's lifetime and later,
and it still has a wide circulation.

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with more or less destruction of its sujects.
Therefore, we should have literal judgments upon
men as the result of this plague, as in the case
URIAH SMITH AND ARMAGEDDON of all the others." 2
Around 1871, Uriah Smith changed his view of the king The way of kings of the east will be prepared by
of the north from that of Rome to Turkey. The pioneers of the drying up or consuption of the Ottoman power,
the Adventist message understood Rome as the king of north as the power holding possesion of the territory
of Dan. 11. By 1883, Raymond F. Cottrel's book: The Return watered by that river. "Is not that they (the
to the PionSr View, charged U. Smith fiir bFrowing from kings) may come up to the battle of the great day
non-Adventist sources the interpretation that Turkey stands of God Almighty?." 3
for king of the north. The battle will be fought at Jerusalem, according
The view above led Smith to the conclusion that Rev. Smith's literal interpretation of Joel and Zephaniah.
16:12-21 concerning the sixth plague, and the battle of But he argued in his times that Palestine (Jerusalem
Armageddon refers to: and the sacred sepulctes) was in the hands the
The great river Euphrates represents the former Turks. "Europe supported Turkey in order to have
Ottoman Empire and its modern succesor Turkey. In a balance of power between East and West. When
this way U. Smith says that the Euphrates does not Europe will withdraw their support, and leaves
refers to the literal river as a river, but it Turkey, the drying up of Euphrates has been fulfilled,
retains its geographical significance, to the the symbolic river will clean (dried up), then
extend of being a designation for the river in the Turkey will be no more, and the way will be all
Mesopotamia Valley. For more than 1000 years this open for the nations to rush to the holy land." 4
area was administered by the Sarcen and the Turks, Then the prophecy moves to the gathering for the
and more recently by the government of Iraq. To final battle in Armageddon.
Smith, Isa. 817 and Rev. 9:14 concede the idea Who gather the nations to the great final battle?
"that the Euphrates symbolizes the turkish power." 1 Smith in his Thoughts on Revelation says:
For Smith the drying up of the Euphrates refers to "Another event to be noticed under this plague is
the "Consumption of the Turkish Empire, accompanied the using forth of the three unclean Spirits to

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gather the nations to the great battle. We regard (Rev. 16:16) in terms of the geographical environment and
the agency now already abroad in the world, and historical associations of the ancient city of Megiddo as
known as Modern spiritualism, as the mean to be the literal place where the spirits will gather the nations
employed in this work." 5 together to fight the battle of that great day of God
These spirits have absolute authority over the race Almighty.
to gather them to battle against the King of Kings, therefore, Summary: Smith said that the Euphrates river stands for
they are now trying to win their way among the nations of Turkey and that the drying up of the Euphrates river is the
the earth, and cause their teachings to be received as end of the Turkish Empire, thus, opening of the way to
divine authority, and their words as law. Smith stated enter in . Palestine. That the three unclean spirits will
that these spirits "work among three great religious gather the nations to the great battle of the Almighty.
divisions of Mankind represented by the dragon, the beast, These spirits are represented by Spiritualism (1879 edition),
and the false prophet, or Paganism, Catholicism and Protes- or Spiritism (1944 edition) which are working miracles
tantism." 6 around the world to decieve the nation to gather to fight
Uriah Smith in commenting on Rev. 16:15, says "that against God. These three spirits are working through three
Christ has left his mediatorial position, before the plague great religious divisions of mankind which are Catholicism,
begin to fall. That the spirits begin their work at the Protestantism and Paganism. They will gather the nations
&lose of probation time." 7 together in the place called Armageddon, (1944 ed.),
Smith, taking Albert Barnes Notes on the New Testament, (Jerusalem, Palestine 1898 ed.). It is not a symbolic place,
stated the following interpretation of Armageddon: but the literal geographical place where Barak and Deborak
"The persons gathered are the minions of Satan, destroyed Sisara's Army, also where Josiah was routed by
not saints; that it is the work of the spirits;
that it is the work of the spirits, not of the Egyptian king Pharaoh Necho. Armageddon is name that
Christ; and that the place of assamblage is
not in the new Jerusalem at the marriage only appears in Rev. 16:16 as the prophet says it is a
supper of the lamb but at Armageddon (or
Mount Megiddo), "at the battle of that great Hebrew name, which literally appears as Har (mountain)-
day of Cod Almighty." 8
Mageddon (Megiddo) meaning the mountain of Megiddo.
The hills of Megiddo, overlooking the plain of
Esdraelon, was the place where Barak and Deborah destroyed Therefore, Smith laid stress on the word "place" as
the geographical localization. As other Bible commentators,
Sisera's army, and where Josiah was routed by the Egyptian
Smith is saying that the gathering of the nations for the
Xing Pharaoh-Necho. Therefore Smith took Armageddon

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Battle occurs during the sixth plague, but the battle is
fought during the seventh plague.
Thus, Smith represents the group which believe that FOOTNOTES
Armageddon as a military war is to be fought in a literal Uriah Smith, Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation,
p. 714.
place, in Palestine, around Jerusalem. The gathering for
Ibid, p. 715
that war is going to take place during the sixth plague
Smith, Daniel and Revelation, p. 692, 693
and to be fought during the seventh plague when the King
Smith, Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation, P 715
of Kings will destroy them by the seventh plague (earthquake,
Ibid, p. 716
thunder lightnings and great hail Out of heaven).
Ibid, p. 717
Ibid, p. 717
Ibid, p. 718
Ibid, p. 718

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much better understood by a careful study as to who are
the participants in this battle.
Participants in the Battle: In order to understand
WERE AND ARMAGEDDON who are the participants of the battle of Armageddon, Were

Were has emphatically said when Armageddon will be says that "the Bible was written to expalin the plan of
salvation centered in Jesus, the world's redeemer. And
fought. He states that the battle of Armageddon has two
it is right here that error has come about. In the Old
settings the first-fold will occur before of the millenium,
and he sees it as a battle of spiritual order. The second Testament the plan of redemption was set forth in the
Jewish economy. Then God dwelt in the Temple of Jerusalem,
fold will occur after the milleniUm, and he give it a
and the king of Israel ruled over the Kingdom sitted on
literal connotation. He, in his What is Armageddon?, says:
"As to when Armageddon is fought Rev. 16:14 God's throne. In the New Testament (after Christ's death
says that it is the battle of that great day and the withdrawal of God's presence from the Temple at
of God Almighty." it does not come until
the door of mercy is shut and the day of wrath Jerusalem) the church is the dwelling place of God." 3
has come. The expression "That great day of
God" referred to in the Bible when Christ no (1 Cor. 6:16; 2 Cor. 6:16; Ephes. 2:21,22 etc.).
longer mediates between God and Man; that time
when he ceases to be the high Priest in the With this idea in mind, Were argued that in the days
heavently courts. The great time of trouble
to which Dan. 12:1 directs our attention is of ancient Israel the enemies of God gathered to destroy
there stated to come when Jesus has completed
the work of salvation. Armageddon comes at Israel, and in doing so they gathered to fight God, Who
end of that short period which elapses between
Christ's rising and closing the door of mercy reigned within the temple in their midst. When God rejected
and his actual coming in the clouds of heaven."'
According to Were Armageddon come at the end of the national Israel, the church (spiritual Israel) stands in

period of trouble, during which no salvation is aviable its place. Now the Old Testament prophetic forecasts of

consequently the earth's military war connot be Armageddon. enemies attacking Israel apply to the church. He arrived
at this idea from Ezek. 38,39, where it says that Israel
Taking Ellen G. White's position, Were says that the
second'-fold7of Armageddon takes place "after the millinnium was attacked by powerful enemies. He applied this to the

when there will be a literal resurrection to life and powers history of the church.
AccordingA Were, John in Revelation 19:17,18;20:8,
a literal gathering of nations around the New Jerusalem to
engage in a literal conflict against Christ and his church." 2 brings the scene despicted in Ezek. 38,39 into the imagery

These two concepts, spiritual and literal, will be of the final conflict of Armageddon. Gog and Magog, being

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the enemy of God and His people in Ezekiel are brought into the cities were literal cities, these seven places are used
view as the enemy of Christ and His church. Now in Rev. in a world-wide, symbolic sense as the seven periods of
16:16, "partly taken from the scene of the destruction of the Christian church, from the days of the apostles to
God's armies on the mountains of Israel, Christ refers us the close of probation. These names of the seven churches
back to the picture presented in Ezekiel's vision for the were chosen because of the significance of their meanings,
fuller picture of the destruction of the enemies of Israel- associated with the topographical and historical features
the church. This destruction has a world- wide spectrums, of the cities. For Were, "Scripture and logic demand that
the triumph of the church of Christ and the overthrow of its the same principles be recognized and followed when inter-
enemies are represented by the destruction of vast armies preting "Place" and "Armageddon" of Rev. 16:16." 5
from the extreme North and South... the consummation of the Were says, if "Armageddon" refers to a specific
great conflic... between the kingdoms of God and of Satan. locality, it would be the only prophetic name in Revelation
Christ will be the leader of the church, God's people,and used in its literal sense.
Satan will be the leader of the enemies of God and His people." 4 This Australian author uses Henry's commentary and Ibson
Place: literal or symbolic: To define what means T. Beckwith- The Apocalypse of John to express the following
the word place in Rev. 16:16, is definitely important in ideas: that Armageddon is the connection of two words
Were's eyes. He wants to demonstrate that those who taught "mountain, mentioned in Ezek. 38,39 with the word "Meggido",
that Armageddon will be a literal place, where a literal famed in Israel's history as the place where Jehovah's
conclict of nations to be fought in the literal place enemies perished. There is no literal place called
Meggido, has been taught as an unbiblical prophecy. He "Armageddon." Meggido is in John's mind, when he coins the
argued that a number of places are mentioned in the book word when referring to slaughter of spiritual Israel's
of Revelation only because of their symbolical importance. enemies on the antitypical mountain of Israel. 6
"Jerusalem and Babylon, both literal are not mentioned The Meaning of Armageddon: According to Revelation
in reference to literal things, but to spiritual. 16:16, the word Armageddon comes from the Hebrew tongue.
In his book The Certainty of the Third Angel's Message, Were used a principle of Uriah Smith's, in his Daniel and
Were says that the word "place" is first used in Revelation Revelation, where Smith says "That the character rather
in connection with the first of the seventh churches. than the name of the power is entended to be represented
Although the seven churches were literal churches, and in a name of Hebrew tongue."7

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Taking the Works of Dr. William Gesenius, Dr. Strong during the 1260 years of papal supremacy. It is evident
and Ch. Wordsworth (scholar and Hebrew lenguists), Were says that in these facts the papacy has fulfilled the prophecy
that Armageddon is a combination of two Hebrew words Ear- concerning the antichrist. (Rev. 12:6,17,14;13:5; Dan. 7: 2 5),
which meaning is mountain and the word Meggido that comes which was predicted to make war over saints.
from a Hebrew root Gadad which means to cut off, or slaughter; The Nature of the Battle: Were commenting on Rev.
therefore the word Armageddon signifies a mountain of slaughter 16:13 said that the dragon, the beast and the false prophet
like the valley of decision of the cutting off, described are the leaders in the coming Armageddon. This false trinity
by Joel 3:14, and is figurative expression similar to that gather to form the great city (the great Babylon of Rev.
in the same prophet, namely, the valley of Jehoshophat Joel 16:19). Babylori stands for the ecclesiastical realm of
3:2,12, or Judgement of God. The word Armageddon seems the great city, which reigned over the kings of the earth
also designed to signify a defeat and slaughter, such as in Rev. 17:18. "God's message is come out of her (Babylon)
that of the kings of Cannan at Meggido in the reign of my people." "Under the symbol of a city the prophet points
Galilee, wrought by the miraculous Intervention God Almighty out a false system of worship. According to Isa. 14:4,
discomforting the vast and terrible army of Sisara and his ancient Babylon was the city of which Lucifer was the
confederates. invisible king. t'8
Were concludes by saying that the word Armageddon is In almost all of his books the Australian Expositor
a symbolic word employed in Rev. 16:16 because of the meaning gave the following summary about Babylon: "Early in the
attached to its name and because of the Old Testament Old Testament Babylon is related as the rebels who opposed
history associated with Meggido. the Command of God (Gen. 10:10, Gen. 11:1-9). In the New
In this sense Armageddon cannot be a literal place, Testament Babylon means confusion, a confused system of
cannot be futuristic as an antichrist risen in Palestine worship which is not based upon true teaching found in
to make war against the saints and also to affect the Jew's. God's Word. Rev. 17:5 refers to Babylon as idols false
This futuristic theory has to do with taking literal every system of worship.
thing referred to as Israel, but it has to do with a In the realm of religion. Were believed that Armageddon
historical interpretation of an ecclesiastical system is the conflict between good and evil that is pictured
headed by the Pope (antichrist), who is against Christ's under a war scene. This war is described in Rev. 12:13;
true teaching and who has salin many millions of martyrs 16:19 as the battle over God's worship or the beast's

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worship. In his book What is Armageddon? the author gave In the great conflict between right and wrong, Hence, to
a commentary on Rev. 15:2 as follows: follow the lead of Satan is to serve under his flag.
"Those who stand loyalty by the will of God are Whereas, being loyal to God in the manner of His worship
said to have gotten the victory over the beast
and over his mark." 9 and commandments given by Him in His word is to fight under
In this quotation, Were was saying the beast is the the banner of Christ.
leader in earthly forces at Armageddon (Rev. 17:13,14:19:19). The preparation for this final conflict depends upon
It is clear that the conflict is over the true worship receiving the seal or sign of God; and not receiving the
of God. The beast seeks to compel the true church to mark, or sign of the beast. (Rev. 13:16,17:4:9-11).
disobey the command of God; as the church refuses, the The mark of the beast and the seal of God: The sign
false System of worship turns to those in governmental between God and Spiritual Israel is expresed in the third
position to force God's people by the law of the land to angels message as a call from the Lord Jesus Christ to His
disobey God. people to show their loyalty to Him by obedience to all
In his book What is Armageddon? page 27, Were shows His commandments. The Sabbath is thesign of obedience.
that this war has already begun in heaven when Satan The third angel message is based upon the spiritual inter-
wanted to overthrow the law of God. In accomplishings pretations of the typical services of ancient Israel. The
his purpose, Satan entered upon his rebellion against the Lord and His Sabbath were the central features of the Old
Creator and he was cast out of heaven. He, Satan, goes Testament; they are also the central features in the New
on the same warfare upon the earth. Were quoted the Spirit Testament.
of Prophecy to support his vieWs-above as follows: ',Israel's literal deliverance from 'the land
of Egypt, out of the house of bondage' (Ex.
"The last great conflict between truth and error 20:2, etc.), was typical of the spiritual
is but the final struggle of the long-standings deliverance from Satan's kingdom of bondage.
controversy concerning the law of God. Upon this Sabbath-keeping was a sign of gratitude for
battle we are now entering-a battle between the the deliverance God had wrought. Deut. 5:
law of men and the pmcepts of Jehovah.. the agencies 12-16. Spiritual Israel observe the Sabbath
which will unite against truth and rigkqeousness as a "sign" of deliverance and sanctification.
in this contest are actively at work." 1u Ex. 31:13. H10
In every one of his books concerning this suject, Were was trying to demonstrate that Sabbath is the
Were says that the beast, the leader of Armageddon, commites crucial test of obedience to the spiritual by observing
blasphemy, and leads the world to war against God. All the Sabbath. The faithful remant subordinate the demands
false forms of worship are from Satan-God's great Adversary of the material world to those of the invisible and spiritual.

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17 18

Were in his book Christ Conouers made the following in peace, in the presence of God for ever.
comment: Were is opposed to any idea that appoints Armageddon
"In the book of Revelation a solemn warning as a literal place to fight a military war, motivated by
is sounded against "the mark of the beast"
(Rev. 13:17) which is Satan's counterfit of socio-economic reasons, over literal Palestine.
the seal of God (Rev. 7:2-4). Both the sign
of God and the mak of the beast are spiritual
mark or signs. One of the signs of loyalty to
God, the other the sign of disloyalty to God.
The Old Testament nor New Testament teaches the
observance of the first day (Sunday) of the
week in the church of Jesus Christ. Neither
the apostles nor Jesus Christ himself ever
taught or observed that day. ull
Summary: Were stated that any prophecy of.Revelation
has to be undertood in a triple application of Israel.
Israel as the Old nation of the Old Testament, as the
spiritual Israel, the church in the New Testament, during
the depensation of the Holy Gost, and finally the literal
application of the eternal kingdom Armageddon is war
that has begun in heaven with Lucifer against God and God's
Law: that war has gone on through out history, which will
reach its spiritual climax before the millenium, when the
mark of the beast (Sunday) will be imposed instead of the
sign of God (Sabbath); and that it will arrive at its final
end after the millennium, when in a literal gathering, Satan
and his followers attempting capture the Holy City, will
be totally destroyed. It is called in the Bible the end
of the Devil, the wicked and Sin. The leaders of this
controvertial battle are Satan, the chief of evil, and
Christ, the Prince of good and justice. Finally, Christ
will destroy Satan and his followers, and sin. It will
be the final victory over evil, since the saints will live

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Louis F. Were, What is Armageddon?, p. 11 THE SPIRIT OF PROPHECY AND ARMAGEDDON

Were, Christ Conquers or Why Christ Rose on Sunday-
The Vital Realation to the Great Battle of Armageddon, The Spirit of Prophecy deals with the subject of
p. 124. Armageddon in the books Great Controvercy, Patriarch and
Were, What is Armageddon?, p. 11
Prophet, Prophets and Kings, Early Writings, Testimonies
Were, The kings of the North at Jerusalem, P- 95 For the Church and many other books.
Ibid, 96
The following study is a review of what E. G. White
Uriah Smith, Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation,
P. 471 has taught about Rev. 12:12-46, in particular concerning
Were, What is Armageddon?, p. 26 the battle of Armageddon.
Ibid, p. 27. Ellen G. White in her series The Conflict of the Ages
Ibid, p. 27 gives us insight into the war between Christ and Satan.
Ibid, p. 27 She uses several names in referring to this battle. In
Were, The Certainty of the Third Angel's Message, her Early Writtings, page 146, state "there was war...." 1
p. 72,73
In her Testimonies for the Church volume seven, she describes
Were, Christ Conquers, p. 48
it as "the great conflict. .." 2 In Testimonies for the
Church volume 5, she speaks "of the Coming crisis." 3 This
war between good and evil is described in the Spirit of
Prophecy as the final conflict, it is to say the Great
Controversy between Christ and Satan, known as Armageddon.
So we can see the expressions "war","great conflict", "the
coming crisis", "final conflict" are used be E. G. White
as equivalents of the word Armageddon.
A war that began in heaven but will be decided on this earth:
Ellen G. White states that the war began in heaven in the
following words:

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"There was war in heaven. Angels engaged in the to vindicate the authority of His downtrodden law.
battle; Satan wished to conquer the son of God... Now the coptroversy is not alone with Satan, but
But the good and true angels prevailed, and Satan, with men."'
with his followers were driven from heaven." 4
The causes of the conflict have been appointed by E.
The Spirit of Prophecy says that this war will be for
G. White in her books Testimonies for the Church, and The
ever decided and that all the inhabitants of this world
Great Controversy. In these books we can read paragraphs
will take part in it.
like this.
"The great conflict that Satan created in
the heavenly courts is soon, very soon, to "The last great conflict between truth and error
be for ever decided. Soon the inhabitants is but the final struggle of the long-standings
of the earth will have taken side, either for controversy concerning the Law of God. Upon this
or against the fovernment of heaven. 65 battle we are now entering-a battle between the
religion of the Bible and the religion of fable
.////// From these two statements above we understand that the and tradition."

Ci final of this war which began in heaven is "Armageddon." E. G. White said that the war mentioned in Rev. 12:7,17,
, -.7 This "controversy between the two great powers of good and is the same as Rev. 16 and 19. She wrote in The Great
evil is soon to be ended, but tO the timeof it close there Controversy how the causes for this war operate:
K-, . "For the very begining of the great controversy
-will be continual and sharp contest." 6
(Rev. 12:7,17) in heaven, it has been Satan's
-... The impeding conflict and its causes. Frequently E. purpose to everthrow the law of God. It was to
accomplish this that he entered upon his
G. White states that the war between Christ and Satan rebellion against the Creator, and though he
was cast out of heaven, he has continued the
originated in heaven and that one of the reasons was Satan's same warfare upon the earth. To deceive men,
and thus lead them to transgress God's law,
inconformity with the Law of God. In her book Selected is the object which he has steadfastly pursued
whether this be accomplished by casting aside
Message 2, she says, "Satan has been persevering and the law altogether, or by rejecting one of its
precepts, the results will be ultimately the same." 1
untiring in his efforts to prosecute the work he began in
E. G. White presents the Sabbath question as "The issue
heaven, to change the law of God."7
in the great final conflict, in which all the world will
In hers book Great Controversy she presents this
act a part. She explains this truth by saying:
conflict with the following words:
"Men have honoured Satan's principles above
"The Lord hath a controversy with the nations... the principles that rule in the heavens.
for six thousand years the great controversy has They have accepted the spurious Sabbath,
been in progress; the Son of God and his heavenly which Satan has exalted as the sign of his
messagers have been in conflict with the power authority. But God has set His seal upon
of the evil one, to warn, enlighten, and save the His royal requirement. Each Sabbath insti-
children of Men. Now all have made their decision; tution bears the name of its author, an
the wicked have fully united with Satan in his ineffaceable mark that shows the authority
warfare against God. The time has come for God of each. It is our work to lead the people

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to understand this. We are to show them that trough Spiritualism will exert its influence
it is of vital consequence whether they bear against those who choose to obey God rather than
the mark of God's kingdom or the mark of the men. Communications from the spirits will
kingdom of rebellion for they acknowledge declare that God has sent them to convince
themselves subjects of the kingdom whose mark the rejectors of Sunday of their error....
they bear." 1 Great will be the indignation excited against
all who refuse to accept their testimony." 10
In applying Dominical Law to the Battle of Armageddon
The role of the dignataries of the church and the
E. G. White states the following declaration:
rullers of the nations in the last conflict is described
"The substition of the law of men for the
law of God, the exaltation, by merely human in The Great Controversy, page 592, as follow:
authority, of Sunday in place of the Bible
Sabbath, is the last act in the drama. "The dignataries of the church and state
When this substitution becomes universal, will unite to bribe, persuade, or compel
God will reveal Himself. He will arise in all classes to honor the Sunday. Rulers
majestic to shake terribly the earth..." 13 and Legislators, in order to secure public
"The captain of our salvation Will strengthen favour, will yield to the popular demand
His peolge for the conflict in which they must for a law enforcing Sunday observance...
engage. 1114 In the soon coming conflict we shall see
exemplified the prophet's word: The dragon
The Gathering to fight the war in the place of Armageddon: was wrath with the woman and event to make
war with the remmant of her seed, which keep
God's messenger says that, "The agencies which will the commandments 94 God, and have the testimony
of Jesus Christ." 11
unite against truth and righteousness in this contest are
Ellen G. White and the place of Armageddon (Meggido):
now actively at work."- 5
It is evident that for E. G. White Rev. 16:14; Rev. 12:17;
She is saying that this gathering for the final Conflict
19:19;20:8;6- refer to the same war, struggle, conflict
is already in progress, and "By the time of sixth plague
or controversy.
the wicked are fully united with Satan in his warfare
She did not think it will be a military war, in Meggido,
against God." 16 The battle of that great day of God Almighty
or Palestine, she clearly says:
is the final phase of the war, or controversy, of Satan
"The last great conflict between truth and error
against God and His law. is but the final struggle of the long-standing
controversy concerning the law of God. Upon this
Demoniac spirits are perfoming signs to meet the kings battle we are now entering- a battle between
the'teligion of the Bible and the religion of
of the earth for the battle of the great day of God the fable and tradition." 18

Almighty, to this expression of Rev. 16:14, the Spirit of In not one of the quotations above we can see E. G.
Prophecy comments: White interpreting Armageddon as a gathering of nations

"For they are the spirits of devils, working at Meggido, but of the whole world being deceived into
miracles, which go forth unto the kings of
the earth and the whole world, to gather joining up with Satan in his warfare against God.
them to the battle of the great day of God
Almighty. The miracle working power manifested

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"Which he will do in regard to the mark of the refer to some sudden military battle by nations at Meggido,
beast- and this gathering or unit with Satan
brings about the out pouring of the wrath of but refers to the culmination of the work of deception
God in the destruction of the world wide
Armageddon. "19 carried on through the years by Satan as he prepares to
According to Isa. 60 and Zech. 8:2, there are two unite the world to join him in his last struggle against
gatherings taking place in the world toddy: the gathering God.
of God's people from Babylon and the gathering of the forces Summary: Ellen G. White called the battle between
of the world to oppose God and His people. Ellen G. White Christ and Satan "The conflict of the ages". This conflict
in her Provhets and. Kings page 375, and in her Acts of the began in heaven and it will be decided in this earth. The
Apostles page 595 says: "The prophet heard the voice of causes of this conflict are Satan's inconformity with the
God calling His church to her Appointed work." According law of God. Satan wants to be worshiped as God, thus he
to her views The gathering to Jerusalem refers to our work has changed the four commandments, making Sabbath and Sunday
of bringind souls to Christ in His church. According to the struggle of the final crisis. Sabbath stands for the
the Spirit of Prophecy the gathering expressed in Isa. sign of God's creative power, and God's redemptive power.
11:11,12, refers to the work of the Third Angel's Message Therefore, those who keep the Sabbath holy carry the sign
calling people to . join up with Israel on the side of God. of God as children of God. Otherwise, those who keep
The gathering of the remnant of God from all parts of the Sunday, carry the mark of the beast and they are children
earth. Ellen G. White did not hesitate in saying that of the prince of the evil. The Spirit of Prophecy takes
this gathering means a spiritual gathering, a uniting in Gen. 3:15 to show the begining of this controversy in the
the truth of God, which is done by the Third Angel's earth, and progressively shows how it is being developed
Message, like it is expressed in Joel 3:2,11; Zech. 12:3,9, in Rev. 12:17;14:16:12,14,16:19;20. Finally, the Spirit
Rev. 16:14,16;19:19, etc. of Prophecy does not appoint Armageddon as a particular
"These prophecies of Great Spiritual awakening place in Palestine to fight a military war. But clearly
in a time of gross darkness, are today meeting
fulfillment in the advancing lines of mission states that this is a conflict between truth and error, a
stations that are reaching out into the benighted
regions of earth. The groups of missionaries in battle between the religion of the Bible and the religion
heathen lands haven been likened by the prophet to
ensigns set up for the guidance 9f those who are of fable and tradition. In this controversy, Satan with
looking for the light of truth."
his spirits will gather the dignataries of the church and
The conclusion is that the Spirit of Prophecy shows
state, of the whole world, and will deceive them into joining
that the gathering pictured in Rev. 16:13,14,16, does not

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up with Satan in his warfare against God. In the other hand,

God is gathering and conforting his people to be ready for
the last conflict. The conflict will end when Christ, in FOOTNOTE

majesty and glory, and with His angels, will appear as 1. Ellen G. White, Early Writings, p. 146
King of Kings at His second comming. 2. White, Testimonies For the Church, volume 7, p. 141
White, Testimonies For the Church, vol. 5, p. 449-454
White, Early Writings, p. 146
White, Testimonies for The Church, vol. 7, p. 141
White, Testimonies to Ministers, p. 470
White, Select Message, book two, p. 107
White, The Great Controversy, p. 656
Ibid, p. 582
Ibid, p. 582
White, Testimonies for the Church, vol. 6, p. 352
Ibid, 352
White, Testimonies For the Church, vol. 7, : p. 141
White, Testimonies For the Church, Vol. 5, p. 137
White, The Great Controversy, p. 582
Ibid, 656
Ibid, 591-592
Ibid, 592
Ibid 582
White, Prophets and Kings, p. 375

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Smith is saying that the battle of Armageddon begins
as essentially a political conflict, and comes to a climax
CHAPTER IV with the appearance of Christ and the armies of heaven.
THE BEST INTERPRETATION U. Smith's teachings, concerning Armageddon, the

There are two interpretations of Rev. 16:12-16, among military, Palestinian interpretation of the final conflict

Seventh-day Adventist expositors. One follows the line of differs from the clear teaching of the Spirit of Prophecy

Uriah Smith, which is recorded in Thoughts on the Revelation that the Sabbath question (the sign of righteousness) is

(1892 edition). Although thisbook has been revised several to be the issue, not Turkey, in the great final conflict

times, the idea is the same as the original concerning Rev. in which all the world with act a part (6 T 352, GC 562,623,
656, 640; 6T 410 TM 465).
16:12-16. The several revisions of the book consists in
adding some paragraphs to visualize the book with the world's On the other hand, there is the second view, or
interpretation. The expositors of this view follow Ellen
situation. These revised editions are called the Prophecies
G. White's teachings concerning Rev. 16:12-16. Among the
of Daniel and Revelation. Since then, this book has had
defenders of the second view are Louis F. Were, McGready
many words implemented, which cannot be found in the
original book, and there are many changed words that Smith Price and other Seven-day Adventist expositors. They have
stated the following summary: That the Euphrates represents
did not use in his first edition. These changes have been
done in order to make the book more suitable with E. G. the people over whom mystical Babylon control; that the

White's teachings. drying upo of its waters the witdrawal of their support

Smith and his followers have stated that the great from Babylon. "The Kings of the east", represents Christ

river Euphrates represents the Ottoman Empire; the drying and those accompanying Him, and Armageddon, the last battle

up of its waters, represent the gradual consumption that of the great controversy between Christ and Satan, will be

empire. "The kings of the east" stand for the nations of fought out on the battlefield of this earth. The expositors

the orient; and Armageddon is the literal valley of Meggido of the second view have concluded that the withdrawal of
human support from mystical Babylon is seen as the removal
in Northern Palestine. TheY have arrived ar the following
conclusions that the Ottoman Empire is seen as preparing of the last barrier to her ultimate defeat and punishment.
According to the second view the climax of the battle
the way for oriental nations to join battle with those of
of Armageddon begins when the united religious and political
the west in the valley of Meggido.

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power of the earth open their final attack on God's remnant from their enemy's invasions. This type has found its

people. Furthermore, these expositors agree with the Spirit antitype in the New Testament, Rev. 12:17; Rev. 13-19 !

of Prophecy, that the conflict between Christ and Satan Taking the Historical setting and the context, mystical

began in the heaven; passed to the earth and that Gen. 3:15, Babylon is to persecute and to war against Christ, but

Dan. 7:25, Dan. 11, Rev. 12:17;13-19, are the progressive it will be defeated in the day of the "great battle of

steps or stages of the development of this war between good the Almighty". It is to say that this prophecy has nothing

and evil, arriving at its climax in Armageddon, the day of to do with Turkey or literal Palestine.

final judgment. The gathering for this climax begins in Another Biblical Hemeneutical principle says that every

the period of the sixth plague and ends in the period of kingdom prophecy has a Christological and Ecclesiological

the seventh plague. fulfillment centered in the two comings of Christ. The

The fundamental difference between the two views consists c7) war is a war between Christ and Satan. Most of the Bible

in whether the three terms "Euphrates," "Kings of the east commentators agree that Rev. 12:17 was fulfilled practically

and "Armageddon," retain a measure of literal, geographical cYi during the first coming of Jesus Christ. Rome was the

significance; otherwise, the second view takes the Bible as instrument of persecute and execute our Lord-Christ. Finally,

a whole and puts the Old Testament and New Testament together, the persecution and execution was going on against Christ's

specially Gen. 3:15, Dan. 7:25, Rev. 12:12 and Rev. 13-19, church, as examplifield in Paul, Peter, and the first Christian

stating that these terms are to be interpreted altogether believers. Thus, the battle, or war, is the religious

figuratively, because their inmediate and historical contexts character where Christ and His church is involved. It is

force a symbolic interpretation. not political, socio-economic, or military war.

Which of these two interpretations are correct? To The New Testament shows that the Jews' refusal of

answer this question, it is necessary to look for the Christ was the end of Jewish nation as the choosen people

principles of Biblical Hermeneutic in order to know that to accomplish God's purpose to give salvation to all the

the Bible, as an organic whole, in Christ, is its own world. Act. 2 bears witness of how God is fulfilling His

interpreter: that the Unity between the Old Testament and purpose through the Spiritual Israel, the remanant of

the New Testament is the typological order. Babylon was God's people, His church, believer's, without the Jewish

the type, the ancient .enemy of God's people, Babylon nation's participation. Through the church, the gospel

fought against God. Yahweh always defended his people Is preached to all Jews and Gentiles in order that they

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can become spiritual Israelites, believers in Christ. BERRIEN SPRINGS. MI. 49103

Jerusalem was no longuer the center of attraction for the Dec. 13, 1978
world, because God was not dwelling any more in their Dear Rector:

temple, (Mt. 23:37-39). It is not necessary to go to You have worked hard on this paper and you have made some interesting
comparisons. But I would like to ask if you have really been fair
Jerusalem to visit a holy place (Mat. 18:20). In Christ to Ellen G. White and to Uriah Smith.
every nation, place, and person can be blessed. Thus, Do any of your numerous quotations from Ellen White really settle
the question about the battle of Armageddon? Personally, I do not
there is no reason to take literal Palestine or Jerusalem think so--for I do not think she was either burdened or inspired to
settle it. If you had read more widely (out of fairness) in the
as the battlefield of Armageddon. writings of those who have taught the localized Armageddon, you would
know that they believed in the great controversy theme just as much
The second interpretation is much more close to these as Ellen White did--and just about the same as Louis Were! They
knew all about the war in heaven, and also about the controversy over
principles above and to the Spirit of Prophecy teachings. Sabbath and Sunday, and they had much to say about the final scene
around the New Jerusalem at the close of the millennium. What is
The Spirit of Prophecy gives us the following advise more, they all had a great deal to say about the literal and glorious
second coming of Christ. In fact, Uriah Smith, W.R. French, and the
as the final point of this study:
others taught almost the very same thing that Louis Were teaches, point
by pointthat's right!--except for the fact that Smith, French, and
'There is not one in one hundred who understands others added the localization of a military engagement in northern
for himself the Bible truth on this subject that Palestine.
is so nocessary to our present and eternal
welfare.' R.B. Sept. 3, 1889. I have no burden for the localized Armageddon. It is my personal
"We need to study the pouring out of the seventh belief, however, that there will be fighting going on all around the
vial. The powers of evil will not yield up the - world after the close of probation--and that this global confrontation
conflict without a struggle, but providence has a will more likely than not include battles within the areas controlled
part to act in the battle of Armageddon. When by the Arabs and the Jews. After all, if human beings fight while they
the earth is lighted with the glory of the gospel are still being restrained to some degree by the Four Angels, how will
of Revelation eighteen, the religious elements, they fight when the Angels release the four winds? Think about that
for armment!
good and evil, will awake out of slumber and the
armies of the living God will take the.field."
E. G. White, M.S. 175, 1899. I am not sure that itis fair to say that Were's view is christocentric
and Smith's view is anthropocentric, merely. After all, as I just
pointed out, Smith's Armageddon is a prelude to the very Second Coming
of Christ which Were calls Armageddon! (It is interesting to observe,
incidentally, that Smith wrote a good-sized book with the title,
Looking Unto Jesus. Did Were write a book under any such title?)

Smith talks about the Second Coming as "Second Coming," and precedes
it with a battle he calls "Armageddon." Were calls the Second Coming
"Armageddon" and does not precede it with a battle. Other than that,
it is really hard to find any substantive difference. As I said before,
both men have the great controversy, both have Sabbath-Sunday as a final
issue, both have good versus evil. Both have Babylon falling, and both
have evil spirits gathering the world to final conflict.

There is another difference. Were has much to say about the Catholic
Church in the last days, Smith has much to say about the Ottoman (or Islamic)
Empire. In this respect, both men interpret biblical symbols differently,
to be sure, but both are dealing with the union of religion-and-state.
And inasmuch as Rome and Turk are human, both are "anthropocentric"to this degree.
You may not agree with me, but I hope I have stirred your thinking. It has been
a pleasure to have you in class. C.M.M.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Were, Louis F., Armageddon and the Advent, James White
Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan,
Heritage Room.
Newfeld, Don F., Seventh Day Adventist Encyclopedia, Review
and Herald, Washington, D.C., 1966, White, Ellen G., Early Writtings, Review and Heral Publishing
Association, Washington, D.C., 1963.
Nichol, Francis D., Seventh Day Adventist Bible Commentary ,

Vol. 7, Review and Herald, Washington D.C., 1966 , Testimonies For the Church, Vol. 5, 6 ,71
Pacific Press Publishing Association, Mountain View,
Smith, Uriah, Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation, Review California, 1948.
and Herald Publishing Co., Battle Creek, Michigan, 1892.
, Testimonies to Minister, Pacific Press
, Daniel and Revelation, Review and Herald, Publishing Association, Mountain View, California
Battle Creeck, Michigan, 1901. 1962.

, Daniel of Revelation, Pacific Press Publishing , Select Message, book 2, Review and Heral
Association, Mountain View, C a lifornia, 1919. Publishing Association, Mountain View, California,
, Daniel and the Revelation, Southern Publishing
Association, Nashville, Tennesse, 1944. , The Great Controversy, Pacific Press
Publishing Association, Mountain View, California,
, Thoughts, Critical and Practical, on the 1950.
Book of Revelation,
, Prophets and Kings, Pacific Press Publishing
Were, Louis F., What is Armageddon?, Modern Printing C., Association, Mountain View, California, 1958.
Adelaide South Australia, 1942.
Pariarchs and Prophets, Pacific Press
, Christ Gonouers or Why Christ robe on ' Publishing Association, Mountain View, California,
Sunday, the Vital Relation to the Great Battle of 1958.
Armageddon., Modern Printing Co., LTD, South Australia,
1944. , Act, of the Apostles, Pacific Press
Publishing Association, Mountain View, California,
, The King of the North at Jerusalem, A.F. 1958.
Blackman Printer, Melbourne, Victoria Australia,
w/o date.
, The Certainty of the Three Angel's Message,
48 White Road, Blackburn, Victoria 3130, Australia
, The Woman and the Resurrected Beast,
48 White Road, Blackburn, Victoria 3130, Australia
Reprinted 1975.
, Armageddon the Battle of That Great Day
of God Almighty, Modern Printing Co. LTD., South
Australia, 1944.
, Mts. E. G. White, Uriah Smith, and The
King of the North, James White Library, Andrews
University, Berrien Spring, Michigan, Heritage Room
, The Spirit of Prophecy and Armageddon,
How God Purifies the Soul, James White Library, Andrws
University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, Heritage Room,1978.

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