Introduction to FDM, OFDM, OFDMA, SOFDMA Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) WiMAX air interface is based on OFDM/OFDMA
physical layer (PHY). To understand how OFDM and OFDMA work, it is useful to start with its "mother" namely FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing).
Figure. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Spacing is put between two adjacent sub-carriers. In FDM system, signals from multiple transmitters are transmitted simultaneously (at the same time slot) over multiple frequencies. Each frequency range (sub-carrier) is modulated separately by different data stream and a spacing (guard band) is placed between sub-carriers to avoid signal overlap.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Figure. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Sub-carriers are closely spaced until overlap. Like FDM, OFDM also uses multiple sub-carriers but the sub-carriers are closely spaced to each other without causing interference, removing guard bands between adjacent subcarriers. This is possible because the frequencies (sub-carriers) are orthogonal; meaning the peak of one sub-carrier coincides with the null of an adjacent sub-carrier. In an OFDM system, a very high rate data stream is divided into multiple parallel low rate data streams. Each smaller data stream is then mapped to individual data sub-carrier and modulated using some sorts of PSK (Phase Shift Keying) or QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). I.e. BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM.
OFDM needs less bandwidth than FDM to carry the same amount of information which translates to higher spectral efficiency. Besides a high spectral efficiency, an OFDM system such as WiMAX is more resilient in NLOS environment. It can efficiently overcome interference and frequency-selective fading caused by multipath because equalizing is done on a subset of sub-carriers instead of a single broader carrier. The effect of ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) is suppressed by virtue of a longer symbol period of the parallel OFDM sub-carriers than a single carrier system and the use of a cyclic prefix (CP). OFDM has been in theory for decades but just entered real world applications in recent years thanks to the availability of modern chips that can handle complex digital signal processing. Wireline and wireless, fixed and mobile communications or networking technologies have chosen OFDM to achieve higher data rate (what is called broadband). Examples of such technologies are: ADSL, HomePlug AV, WiMedia UWB, Wi-Fi (802.11a/g), WiMAX. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) Like OFDM, OFDMA employs multiple closely spaced sub-carriers, but the sub-carriers are divided into groups of sub-carriers. Each group is named a sub-channel. The subcarriers that form a sub-channel need not be adjacent. In the downlink, a sub-channel may be intended for different receivers. In the uplink, a transmitter may be assigned one or more sub-channels.
Figure. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Sub-carriers with the same color represent a sub-channel.
Subchannelization defines sub-channels that can be allocated to subscriber stations (SSs) depending on their channel conditions and data requirements. Using subchannelization, within the same time slot a Mobile WiMAX Base Station (BS) can allocate more transmit power to user devices (SSs) with lower SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio), and less power to user devices with higher SNR. Subchannelization also enables the BS to allocate higher power to sub-channels assigned to indoor SSs resulting in better in-building coverage.
g. Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) SOFDMA (S-OFDMA) adds scalability to OFDMA. SOFDMA reduces system complexity of smaller channels and improves performance of wider channels. while FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is used in a WiMAX receiver to demodulate the data streams. The FFT size equals the number of sub-carriers. This power-saving feature is particularly useful for battery-powered user devices. several SS's can transmit at the same time slot over several sub-channels. By making the sub-carrier frequency spacing constant. the FFT size is 256. Subchannelization in the uplink can save a user device transmit power because it can concentrate power only on certain sub-channel(s) allocated to it. Transmitter and Receiver RF chains in WiMAX Basic building blocks of a Tx RF chain and a Rx RF chain. It scales the FFT size to the channel bandwidth while keeping the sub-carrier frequency spacing constant across different channel bandwidths. As a reminder. IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) is used in a WiMAX transmitter to create an OFDM waveform from modulated data streams.
Figure. In OFDMA. in a OFDM/OFDMA system with 256 subcarriers. Uplink Subchannelization in WiMAX In OFDM. only one SS transmits in one time slot. e. Smaller FFT size is given to lower bandwidth channels. while larger FFT size to wider channels.
.Figure. the likely case in Mobile WiMAX.
Mobile WiMAX technology can comply with various frequency regulations worldwide and flexibly address diverse operator or ISP requirements. Each symbol consists of: .
.pilot sub-carriers as reference frequencies and for various estimation purposes. It supports channel bandwidths ranging from 1. . With bandwidth scalability.DC sub-carrier as the center frequency. OFDM and OFDMA Symbol Structure
Figure. .25 MHz to 20 MHz. and . OFDM symbol structure in WiMAX
Both OFDM and OFDMA symbols are structured in similar way. OFDMA symbol structure in WiMAX sub-carriers of the same color represent a sub-channel.guard sub-carriers or guard bands for keeping the space between OFDM/OFDMA signals. that's whether for providing only basic Internet service or a broadband service bundle.data sub-carriers (OFDM) or sub-channels (OFDMA) that carry data (information).SOFDMA is the OFDMA mode used in Mobile WiMAX.
That is what leads WiMAX being touted as a Personal Broadband technology.
The emergence of WiMAX (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access) as a broadband wireless access (BWA) technology adds another alternative for users to access broadband services. and T1/E1 lines to business subscribers.Internet Access Guide : WiMAX
Figure: WiMAX vision WiMAX provides broadband Internet connection wirelessly. specifically high speed Internet (HSI). Above all. the fact that WiMAX is an international standard is the prime advantage of WiMAX over previous BWA systems such as LMDS and MMDS which experienced limited adoption and deployment.
. alternative backhaul for Wi-Fi hotspots. video and data over microwave RF (Radio Frequency) spectrum to stationary or moving users making broadband available anywhere.e. i. WiMAX has the capability to deliver triple play services. voice.
market demands. channel bandwidth scalability (SOFDMA). For Fixed WiMAX.There are two flavors of WiMAX.16-2004 supports LOS (line-of-sight) fixed wireless access (FWA) in 10 .25 MHz to 20 MHz over SOFDMA (Scalable OFDMA) air interface.e.related RFCs.16e.16 standards harmonized with industry trends. i. 2. and integration with different networks (such as Wi-Fi and 3G). Mobile WiMAX systems also can provide fixed and nomadic access. OFDM and OFDMA) support LOS and NLOS applications in licensed and license-exempt sub-11 GHz bands. and better NLOS performance and indoor penetration. 7. flexible power management (sleep mode and idle mode). The WiMAX Forum. is included as one of Mobile WiMAX profiles. The two multi-carrier air interfaces of Fixed WiMAX (i.5 GHz bands. other relevant IEEE standards. Even though with PHY and MAC not fully compatible with Mobile WiMAX specification. Release-1 Mobile WiMAX profiles cover 5. the organization that promotes WiMAX interoperability between vendors. 10 MHz channel bandwidths for licensed spectrum in the 2. Meanwhile.16-2004 is harmonized with similar work by the European standard body.e.16 standard only defines physical layer (PHY) and MAC sublayer air interface specifications. Mobile WiMAX incorporates additional features crucial to mobile applications: handoff. ETSI HiperMAN.16e standard and targeted primarily for portable and mobile applications in NLOS environment.16-2004 standard and is optimized for fixed and nomadic applications in LOS and NLOS environments.75.75 MHz TDD-channel. the 802. WiBro operates in the 2.
. i. fractional frequency reuse.e.3 GHz.3 GHz band over an 8. The 802. More details of Fixed and Mobile WiMAX system profiles can be found on this page. and international regulations. the WiMAX Forum also creates guidelines for an end-to-end WiMAX network architecture. 8. and 3GPP's IMS fixed mobile convergence concept. The first Fixed WiMAX profiles use OFDM with 256 carriers as its PHY (physical layer) in the licensed 3. WiBro (Wireless Broadband) which is the Korean implementation of IEEE 802. However. taking a large part from IETF Internet Protocol (IP) .5 GHz band using a pair of 3.66 GHz licensed frequency bands using single carrier air interface. Mobile WiMAX is based on the IEEE 802. roaming.5 MHz or 7 MHz TDD/FDD channels and the unlicensed 5. DOCSIS-based security protocols. Fixed WiMAX and Mobile WiMAX. develops WiMAX system profiles based on the IEEE 802.5 GHz and 3.8 GHz band using a 10 MHz TDD channel. Fixed WiMAX is developed based on the IEEE 802. Mobile WiMAX will operate in sub-6 GHz bands and support scalable channel bandwidths from 1. Because the 802.
modem. For that kind of application.
WiMAX is a versatile wireless MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) access technology that can address diverse applications. traffic can occur directly between SSs. dynamic bandwidth allocation and QoS (Quality of Service) per service flow. WiMAX supports traffic scheduling. In PMP mode. and various interfaces for connecting user
. latency. traffic only occurs between Base Station (BS) and Subscriber Stations (SSs) while in mesh mode. user will need outdoor or indoor CPE which consists of antenna. That's why sometimes WiMAX is called Wireless DSL.Figure: WiMAX Point-To-Multipoint (PMP) application
WiMAX MAC (media access control) sublayer supports point-to-multipoint (PMP) and optionally mesh topology. RF interface. WiMAX keeps user traffic from eavesdropping and protects operator or service provider from becoming a victim of bandwidth theft by unauthorized users. which guarantees every type of traffic will be handled with its associated bandwidth. This way. Figure: Fixed and Mobile WiMAX CPE Outdoor CPE. Every WiMAX user device is authenticated using a digital certificate or SIM (Subscriber Identity Module). Fixed WiMAX most notably will become an alternative for DSL or cable broadband access. and PC card. The encryption keys are distributed from the BS to the SSs using PKM (Privacy Key Management) protocol to ensure that only authorized SSs can receive the keys. jitter. and priority requirements. Therefore. Every WiMAX traffic is encrypted using DES (Data Encryption Standard) or AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) for securing its transmission over the air. indoor CPE. WiMAX can deliver toll quality VoIP while maintaining best effort traffic such as e-mail and web browsing at the same time.
WiMAX serves as a big pipe that streams Wi-Fi hotspot traffic to/from the Internet. this is like a typical application of 3G. router. and backbone for proprietary networks spanning hard-to-wire geographical areas. A more interesting application of Fixed WiMAX is as wireless access in a hotzone or metro zone. But Mobile WiMAX introduces several advantages in that it has higher spectral efficiency. In this particular case. Mobile WiMAX will bring broadband access experience to stationary as well as walking users and those traveling at vehicular speed (up to about 120 km/hour) with devices such as laptop.
Fixed WiMAX also finds its application as backhaul (high speed connection to the Central Office or ISP's Point of Presence) for Wi-Fi hotspots. in the near future both technologies will work together in a complementary manner. CPE with roof-mounted or wall-mounted outdoor antenna offers the best performance of all. better support for NLOS technologies. More details on this page.
Figure: WiMAX Point-To-Point (PTP) backhaul In point-to-point application. Meanwhile. cellular base stations connection to base station controller. LAN switch. WiMAX can be viewed as a competitor to Wi-Fi because it could replace Wi-Fi altogether. and even Wi-Fi access point. that's the kind of hotspot but covers larger area (very often city-wide). but in many cases its installation requires a technician and maybe a truckroll. flexible and dynamic
.devices. At a glance. The kinds of interfaces for connecting computers and other types of user devices are RJ-45 (Ethernet/Fast Ethernet). High end Fixed WiMAX CPEs integrate several functions in one box which is ready for home or small office networking and Internet connection sharing. RJ-11 with integrated VoIP adapter. Nonetheless. RJ-11 (POTS). PDA. and smart phone.
duplexing scheme (TDD or FDD). on which frequency band it operates. Fixed WiMAX operators will likely multiply those rates up to several Mbps to compete with DSL/cable. at home. It certainly varies from one case to another. on car. Looking from some pre-WiMAX implementations. antenna types. in terms of services Mobile WiMAX is better compared with DSL with the bonus of mobility.is taken as a baseline. They can adjust the number of subscribers that will be served by a Base Station sector based on the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of each subscriber (or user) and the maximum capacity per sector.1 Mbps upload rate in a NLOS environment and PMP configuration. if WiBro . or 64-QAM) and code rate. Mobile WiMAX vision as a Personal Broadband is to make broadband available everywhere (i. and the number of users per base station sector. on vessel). For PTP backhaul in a LOS environment.k.e. those farther from the BS get lower order modulation. As for Mobile WiMAX.e. whether LOS or NLOS. channel bandwidth.a. modulation (whether BPSK. Expect these kinds of services over Mobile WiMAX: music/video streaming. 3. WiMAX performance (throughput and range) is determined by many factors. in the office. transmit power.which is deployed this year in Korea . fixed broadband wireless access subscribers at average get 512 kbps . and corporate-grade security. thanks to the OFDM/OFDMA PHY and the advanced MAC design. ensuring the best performance for each user within the BS coverage. on train. live TV broadcast.QoS. QPSK.2 Mbps download data rate and 128 kbps . on the street. receiver sensitivity. voice/video chatting. large file download/upload from/to the Internet. remote access to office LAN via VPN. 16-QAM. WiMAX capacity per base station sector can reach 70 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel with range over 30 miles. So instead.
. the effective download and upload rate per user will be over 1 Mbps outpacing 3G and enhanced 3G (a. i. Internet multiplayer game.
Figure: Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) Users with better SNR (closer to the BS) get higher order modulation.5G) technologies such as EV-DO and HSDPA.
Satellite Internet Access In (one-way) Internet access over satellite. The request runs over telephone network (PSTN). coverage or range. or mobile broadband access. They can improve performance by improving spectral efficiency or signal strength (SNR). The ISP uses a dish antenna to transmit the Internet content to a satellite transponder. Internet Access Guide : Other Internet Access Methods There are more types of Internet access that aren't so popular as DSL or cable Internet. But despite certification process is still in early phase. She will be granted access if she is a registered subscriber. Another round will follow and from the second half of this year (2006) will include certification for Mobile WiMAX profiles. Some are illustrated below. After the connection establishment. capacity. portable.
. nomadic. a user requests an Internet connection to her ISP using a dial-up modem. WISPs or independent service providers are expected to be the first WiMAX adopters in developed countries. She must install a dish antenna to capture the content and a satellite receiver (decoder) to tune into the right frequency and translate the content into standard formats readable on her computer screen.e. But any content that she wants is delivered through a satellite. That was the first round of certification. in many developing countries WiMAX has gained traction with pre-WiMAX products being installed or trialed for providing fixed.WiMAX offers a number of techniques that can improve its performance. Several Fixed WiMAX products (base stations and CPEs) have become WiMAX Forum Certified after passing compliance and interoperability tests last year (2005). uplink subchannelization (using OFDMA). and smart antenna technologies (via optional AAS and MIMO features). Some of these techniques are adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). The satellite transponder retransmits the received content to the user. she can do any Internet activities. Forward Error Correction (FEC). hybrid automatic repeat request (H-ARQ). i. Meanwhile. many of them already have Fixed WiMAX-like products installed for backhauling traffic from their access networks. indoor penetration. throughput.
it is stationed at a fixed coordinate. Stratellite Internet Access Stratellite is an airship that stays afloat in the stratosphere at an altitude of 65. But users reported more glitches and longer latency. beyond the coverage of DSL or cable Internet service. but significant commercial deployment hasn't materialized. the company that plans to launch and operate stratellites. upstream traffic is served by the telephone network.000 feet and functions as a relay station that receives and retransmits signals from/to the ground. The word "stratellite" is a trademark owned by Sanswire Networks. It is cheaper than satellite and considered more viable for providing two-way broadband communication due to its closer distance to earth.
.Figure: (One-Way) Internet Access over Satellite. The connection speeds offered by broadband satellite ISPs compete with those of DSL and cable Internet access. A stratellite is used to blanket a city or a region with Internet access and other telecom services. LLC. Nonetheless. both upstream and downstream Internet traffic is carried over satellite's links therefore a dial-up modem is not required. Stratellite (or the likes) concept has been around for years. that's because the satellite is positioned far away from earth and the wireless (microwave) link passes through several atmospheric layers. In two-way Internet access over satellite. Internet access over satellite is often the only choice for people living in remote areas. Stratellite doesn't orbit the earth. The satellite only sends downstream Internet traffic.
Intensive studies and tests by HomePlug Powerline Alliance members have led to a candidate standard for delivering broadband Internet services over the power network. The standard is still being developed but one can expect to have Internet out of home power outlets in the coming years.
. Internet Access over Powerline The thought to use the AC power grid to deliver Internet to the homes has been around for long.Figure: Stratellite A stratellite blankets a city with Internet access. The standard is called HomePlug BPL (Broadband over Power Line).
E1/T1).e. FDD and TDD. Downlink is also known as forward link.other DSL flavors: HDSL.EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for GSM and TDMA Evolution). and . There are two types of duplexing scheme.EVDO (Evolution Data Only). . Get electricity and Internet from the wall power jack. The downlink carries information from a Base Station (BS) to Subscriber Stations (SSs).Figure: Broadband over Powerline. It is also called reverse link.
. SDSL.dial-up access over ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). VDSL.CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data).leased line (nx64 kbps. The uplink carries information from a SS to a BS. in early deployment. Duplexing Scheme in WiMAX: TDD or FDD Duplexing refers to the way downlink and uplink data is arranged in a two-way wireless transmission. such as those using: .3G (Third Generation) mobile technology. . . There are other types of Internet access methods not explained in this guide that have been used for years. or still being developed. .HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data). i. . .
FDD is inefficient for handling asymmetric data services since data traffic may only occupy a small portion of a channel bandwidth at any given time. Moreover. WiMAX supports full-duplex FDD and half-duplex FDD (HFDD or HD-FDD). The difference is in fullduplex FDD a user device can transmit and receive simultaneously. Meanwhile. TDD can flexibly handle both symmetric and asymmetric broadband traffic. TDD therefore has higher spectral efficiency than FDD. FDD is suitable for bidirectional voice service since it occupies a symmetric downlink and uplink channel pair. while in half-duplex FDD a user device can only transmit or receive at any given moment.full duplex mode Downlink and uplink sub-frames are transmitted at the same time in two adjacent channels.Figure.
Figure. using TDD downlink to uplink (DL/UL) ratio can be adjusted dynamically. FDD is commonly used in cellular networks (2G and 3G). TDD (Time Division Duplex) is another duplexing scheme that requires only one channel for transmitting downlink and uplink sub-frames at two distinct time slots. Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) . Downlink and Uplink Downlink and uplink traffic in a 2-way communication.
FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) requires two distinct channels for transmitting downlink sub-frame and uplink sub-frame at the same time slot.
0 3.5 7.5850 Channelization Duplexing (MHz) 3.5 7.3600 5725 . The profiles do not cover all possible operational parameters as stated in the IEEE 802.0 10 TDD TDD FDD FDD TDD
. additional system profiles may be added over time based on market demand and regulation changes.3600 3400 . The reasons are TDD uses half of FDD spectrum hence saving the bandwidth. Consequently. and WiMAX traffic will be dominated by asymmetric data. Fixed WiMAX and Mobile WiMAX Initial System Profiles To accelerate WiMAX adoption in real world networks. They include frequency band. while Mobile WiMAX profiles only include TDD.3600 3400 . The first release of Fixed WiMAX profiles support both TDD and FDD. and duplexing scheme.
Most WiMAX implementations either on licensed or license-exempt bands will most likely use TDD.3600 3400 . Frequency band (MHz) 3400 . The first release of Fixed WiMAX profiles has been published by the WiMAX Forum.Figure. Time Division Duplex (TDD) Downlink and uplink sub-frames are transmitted at different time slots in one channel. channel bandwidth.16 standards because the WiMAX Forum prioritizes those with wide support from the industry (mainly due to advantageous propagation characteristics) and those in harmony with various frequency regulations across regions and countries. WiMAX system profiles refer to a set of parameters on which a WiMAX network will operate. the WiMAX Forum creates WiMAX system profiles. TDD system is less complex and thus cheaper. They are listed in the following table.
Release-1 of Mobile WiMAX profiles has been published.3.8 GHz band the use of frequencies should be coordinated with other users of the band. fixed and nomadic.0 7. in the unlicensed 5.e.2. whether for fixed only application. For Mobile WiMAX deployment. The availability of spectrum in a certain band doesn't automatically mean a green light for either Fixed WiMAX or Mobile WiMAX implementation. WiMAX operators should examine carefully the intended use of each band. For example. and so on. Operators of an unlicensed spectrum in the 5. the most preferred bands of many would-be Mobile WiMAX operators are between 1.4 TDD TDD 3. Handoff mechanism in Mobile WiMAX
. Also whether the band can be used for both indoor and outdoor.3 .Table. Such system is able to vacate the band when it detects the presence of the primary user of the band. several countries in which the 3. But it is still unclear when these bands will be completely vacated. but those bands have been assigned to 3G operators.36 TDD 2.4962.8 GHz band might have to install a DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) system. Fixed WiMAX initial profiles (source: WiMAX Forum) The licensed 3.3452.4-3.32 TDD 2.8 TDD TDD
Table.800 MHz bands. However.75 MHz channel bandwidths.9 GHz and 2. i.3 . indoor only or outdoor only. traditionally used by analog TV broadcast. The lower frequency bands are generally of preference because they offer propagation advantage.5 GHz band (3400 .3052. Mobile WiMAX Release-1 System Profiles (source: WiMAX Forum) For 7 and 8. as in the following table: Frequency band (GHz) Channelization FFT 2.3600 MHz) is the most globally harmonized band for Fixed WiMAX. portable and mobile. sampling factor -instead of FFT size. However.69 TDD 3.made variable.0 8.5 GHz band has been assigned for other services will most likely propose other frequencies as additional profiles. lower bands are not always available. On the other hand.4 (MHz) Size 5.75 10 512 1024 1024 1024 TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD 2. lower attenuation and longer reach which leads to smaller number of cells required to provide a mobility coverage. There is also a growing interest in 700 . frequency selection will affect the quality and cost of the network.1 GHz.
When used for delivering data traffic (such as web browsing and e-mail).
. In general.For implementing a mobile network. It uses a make-before-break approach whereas a connection to the next BS is established before a SS leaves an ongoing connection to a BS. This technique is suitable to handle voice and other latency-sensitive services such as Internet multiplayer game and video conference. Soft Handoff A SS maintains multiple connections. they can be divided into soft handoff and hard handoff. Delay is very minimal
Soft handoff is used in voice-centric cellular networks such as GSM or CDMA. a handoff mechanism must be defined to maintain uninterrupted user communication session during his/her movement from one location to another.
Figure. soft handoff will result in lower spectral efficiency because this type of traffic is bursty and does not require continues handover from one BS to another. Handoff mechanism handles subscriber station (SS) switching from one Base Station (BS) to another. Different handoff techniques have been developed.
In hard handoff.Figure. Introduction to Multiple Antenna Systems: SIMO. This is known as a break-before-make approach. video). Voice in Mobile WiMAX is packetized (what is called VoIP) and treated as other types of IP packets except it is prioritized. Hard handoff (HHO) is therefore used in Mobile WiMAX. A network-optimized hard handoff mechanism was developed for Mobile WiMAX to keep a handoff delay under 50 ms. a typical Mobile WiMAX network is supposedly dominated by delay-tolerant data traffic. MIMO SISO Radio transmissions traditionally use one antenna at the transmitter and one antenna at the receiver. but it causes longer delay. data. MISO. Hard Handoff A SS maintains a connection to a single BS at any given time. This system is termed Single Input Single Output (SISO). However. Hard handoff is more bandwidth-efficient than soft handoff.
Mobile WiMAX has been designed from the outset as a broadband technology capable of delivering triple play services (voice.
. a connection with a BS is ended first before a SS switches to another BS.
It is used in radio and TV broadcast and our personal wireless technologies (e. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth). To improve performance. A system which uses a single antenna at the transmitter and multiple antennas at the receiver is named Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO).
Figure.g. 1x2 One antenna at the transmitter. The latter is known as maximal ratio combining (MRC).Figure. a multiple antenna technique has been developed. one antenna at the receiver. two antennas the receiver. SISO is relatively simple and cheap to implement and it has been used age long since the birth of radio technology. MISO
Figure. Employs a receive diversity technique. Employs a transmit diversity technique. The first technique is known as switched diversity or selection diversity. Employs no diversity technique.
. Multiple Input Single Output (MISO). Single Input Single Output (SISO) One antenna at both the transmitter and the receiver. The receiver can either choose the best antenna to receive a stronger signal or combine signals from all antennas in such a way that maximizes SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio). 2x1 Two antennas at the transmitter. Both the transmitter and the receiver have one RF chain (that's coder and modulator).
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). multiple antennas (and multiple RF chains accordingly) are put at both the transmitter and the receiver. MIMO can further boost WiMAX performance. Mobile WiMAX supports multiple MIMO modes. For example. If combined with AAS (Adaptive Antenna System). Meanwhile. This system is termed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). the cost of providing either a receive diversity (in SIMO) or transmit diversity (in MISO) can be shared by all subscriber stations (SSs) served by the BS. A MIMO system with similar count of antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver in a point-to-point (PTP) link is able to multiply the system throughput linearly with every additional antenna. A technique known as Alamouti STC (Space Time Coding) is employed at the transmitter with two antennas.A system which uses multiple antennas at the transmitter and a single antenna at the receiver is named as Multiple Input Single Output (MISO). Multiple antennas (each with an RF chain) of either SIMO or MISO are usually placed at a base station (BS).
MIMO often employs Spatial Multiplexing (SM) to enable signal (coded and modulated data stream) to be transmitted across different spatial domains. meaning the information is transmitted by two antennas at two different times consecutively. MIMO To multiply throughput of a radio link. 2x2 Two antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver. The dynamic switching between these modes based on channel conditions is termed Adaptive MIMO Switching (AMS). STC allows the transmitter to transmit signals (information) both in time and space. This way. that's using either SM or STC or both to maximize spectral efficiency (increase throughput) without shrinking the coverage area.
. a 2x2 MIMO will double the throughput.
MIMO is a hot topic in today wireless communications since all wireless technologies (PAN.
. and WAN) try to add it to increase data rate multiple times to satisfy their bandwidth-hungry broadband users. LAN. MAN.