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Math 242: Principles of Analysis

Homework 3 Examples

(1 + 2n)2
1. Find the limit of the sequence xn = . Use the definition of convergence
5 + 3n + 3n2
to prove your assertion.
Solution. The limit of the sequence is 43 . To prove this, write

4 (1 + 2n)2 4 3(1 + 2n)2 4(5 + 3n + 3n2 ) 17


xn = = = .
3 5 + 3n + 3n2 3 3(5 + 3n + 3n2 ) 3(5 + 3n + 3n2 )
Thus
|xn 43 | = 17
3(5+3n+3n2 )
17
9n
< 2
n

for all n. Given > 0, the Archimedian Property implies that there exists some n0 N
such that n10 < 2 . Thus for any n n0 we have n1 < 2 , and thus |xn 43 | < n2 < .

2. Show that if lim xn = 2. Then there is some n0 N such that xn < 2.003 for all
n n0 .
Solution. Since lim xn = 2 we know that for any > 0 there exists n0 N such that
|xn 2| < whenever n n0 . Choose = 0.003. Then there is some n0 N such
that |xn 2| < 0.003 whenever n n0 . Hence 0.003 < xn 2 < 0.003, and thus
xn < 2.003, whenever n n0 .

3. Prove that if xn converges and yn diverges, then xn + yn diverges.


Solution. Suppose the sequence zn = xn + yn converges and call its limit z. Then
yn = zn xn converges to z x, a contradiction.

4. Prove that if xn is bounded and yn is unbounded, then xn + yn is unbounded.


Solution. Suppose xn is bounded and yn is unbounded. Let zn = xn + yn . If zn were
bounded then there would exist some constant M1 such that |zn | M1 for all n. Since
xn is bounded, there exists a constant M2 such that |xn | M2 for all n. Hence

|yn | = |zn xn | |zn | + | xn | = |zn | + |xn | M1 + M2

for all n, so yn would be bounded, a contradiction.

5. Prove that if lim x3n = a3 , then lim xn = a.


Solution. First use the fact that x3n a3 = (xn a)(x2n + xn a + a2 ) to see that

|x3n a3 |
|xn a| = .
x2n + xn a + a2
We need a lower bound on the term in( the denominator.
)2 3 2 By completing the square,
1
the term in the denominator becomes xn + 2 a + 4 a . Since this is greater than or
equal to 43 a2 , we have
|x3 a3 |
|xn a| n3 2 .
4
a
Now let > 0. Then since x3n a3 , there exists some n0 N such that |x3n a3 | < 34 a2
whenever n n0 . Thus

|x3n a3 | 3 2
a
|xn a| 3 2 < 4
3 2 =
4
a 4
a

for all n n0 . This shows that xn a.

6. Suppose A is a nonempty subset of R that is bounded above, and set = lub(A).


Prove that there exists a sequence xn in A such that xn .
Solution. For each n N we have n1 < , so since is the least upper bound for
A, n1 is not an upper bound for A. Hence there exists an element of A, call it xn ,
such that xn > n1 . Since is an upper bound for A we also have xn . Thus
n1 < xn , which implies n1 < xn 0 and therefore |xn | < n1 for all
n. Given > 0, the Archimedian Property implies that there exists some n0 N such
that n10 < . Hence, when n n0 we have |xn | < n1 n10 < . This proves that
lim xn = .