That if Xn is Bounded

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That if Xn is Bounded

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Homework 3 Examples

(1 + 2n)2

1. Find the limit of the sequence xn = . Use the definition of convergence

5 + 3n + 3n2

to prove your assertion.

Solution. The limit of the sequence is 43 . To prove this, write

xn = = = .

3 5 + 3n + 3n2 3 3(5 + 3n + 3n2 ) 3(5 + 3n + 3n2 )

Thus

|xn 43 | = 17

3(5+3n+3n2 )

17

9n

< 2

n

for all n. Given > 0, the Archimedian Property implies that there exists some n0 N

such that n10 < 2 . Thus for any n n0 we have n1 < 2 , and thus |xn 43 | < n2 < .

2. Show that if lim xn = 2. Then there is some n0 N such that xn < 2.003 for all

n n0 .

Solution. Since lim xn = 2 we know that for any > 0 there exists n0 N such that

|xn 2| < whenever n n0 . Choose = 0.003. Then there is some n0 N such

that |xn 2| < 0.003 whenever n n0 . Hence 0.003 < xn 2 < 0.003, and thus

xn < 2.003, whenever n n0 .

Solution. Suppose the sequence zn = xn + yn converges and call its limit z. Then

yn = zn xn converges to z x, a contradiction.

Solution. Suppose xn is bounded and yn is unbounded. Let zn = xn + yn . If zn were

bounded then there would exist some constant M1 such that |zn | M1 for all n. Since

xn is bounded, there exists a constant M2 such that |xn | M2 for all n. Hence

Solution. First use the fact that x3n a3 = (xn a)(x2n + xn a + a2 ) to see that

|x3n a3 |

|xn a| = .

x2n + xn a + a2

We need a lower bound on the term in( the denominator.

)2 3 2 By completing the square,

1

the term in the denominator becomes xn + 2 a + 4 a . Since this is greater than or

equal to 43 a2 , we have

|x3 a3 |

|xn a| n3 2 .

4

a

Now let > 0. Then since x3n a3 , there exists some n0 N such that |x3n a3 | < 34 a2

whenever n n0 . Thus

|x3n a3 | 3 2

a

|xn a| 3 2 < 4

3 2 =

4

a 4

a

Prove that there exists a sequence xn in A such that xn .

Solution. For each n N we have n1 < , so since is the least upper bound for

A, n1 is not an upper bound for A. Hence there exists an element of A, call it xn ,

such that xn > n1 . Since is an upper bound for A we also have xn . Thus

n1 < xn , which implies n1 < xn 0 and therefore |xn | < n1 for all

n. Given > 0, the Archimedian Property implies that there exists some n0 N such

that n10 < . Hence, when n n0 we have |xn | < n1 n10 < . This proves that

lim xn = .

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