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The Text  大學之道在明明德，在親民，在止於至善。 The way of great learning consists in manifesting one's bright virtue, consists in loving the people, consists in stopping in perfect goodness.  知止而后有定； When you know where to stop, you have stability. 定而后能靜； When you have stability, you can be tranquil. 靜而后能安； When you are tranquil, you can be at ease. 安而后能慮； When you are at ease, you can deliberate. 慮而后能得。 When you can deliberate you can attain your aims.  物有本末；事有終始。知所先後則近道矣。 Things have their roots and branches, affairs have their end and beginning. When you know what comes first and what comes last, then you are near the Way.  古之欲明明德於天下者、先治其國。
The ancients who wanted to manifest their bright virtue to all in the world first governed well their own states. 欲治其國者先齊其家。 Wanting to govern well their states, they first harmonized their own clans. 欲齊其家者先脩其身。 Wanting to harmonize their own clan, they first cultivated themselves. 欲脩其身者先正其心。 Wanting to cultivate themselves, they first corrected their minds. 欲正奇心者先誠其意。 Wanting to correct their minds, they first made their wills sincere. 欲誠其意者先致其知。 Wanting to make their wills sincere, they first extended their knowledge. 致知在格物。 Extension of knowledge consists of the investigation of things.  物格而后知至。 When things are investigated, knowledge is extended. 知至而后意誠。 When knowledge is extended, the will becomes sincere. 意誠而后心正。
When the will is sincere, the mind is correct. 心正而后身脩。 When the mind is correct, the self is cultivated. 身脩而后家齊。 When the self is cultivated, the clan is harmonized. 家齊而后國治。 When the clan is harmonized, the country is well governed. 國治而后天下平。 When the country is well governed, there will be peace throughout the land.  自天子以至於庶人臺是皆以脩身爲本。 From the king down to the common people, all must regard the cultivation of the self as the most essential thing.  其本亂而末治者，否矣。其所厚者薄而其所薄者厚，未之有也。 It is impossible to have a situation wherein the essentials are in disorder, and the externals are well-managed. You simply cannot take the essential things as superficial, and the superficial things as essential. The traditional commentary, attributed to Confucius, through the transmission of Tseng Tzu 1. In the "Announcement to K'ang" it is said, "He was able to manifest his virtue." The "T'ai-chia" says, "He contemplated Heaven's unveiled mandate." The "Canon of Yao" says, "he was able to manifest his lofty virtue."
2. The inscription of the bath of King T'ang said, "If you renew yourself for one day, you can renew yourself daily, and continue to do so." In the "Announcement of K'ang" it says, "carry out the renewal of the people." The Book of Odes says, "Even though Chou was an ancient state, its mandate was sustained anew." Therefore there is nothing in which the Superior Man does not fully exert himself. 3. The Book of Odes says, "The people only stay (comfortably) in a state where there is security." The Book of Odes also says, "The chirping bird only rests in the wooded part of the hill." The Master said, "When it rests, it knows where to rest. Can a person possibly be unequal to a bird?" The Book of Odes also says, "How sublime was King Wen! He abode in clear, shining reverence." As a ruler, he abode in jen, as a minister, he abode in reverence, as a son, he abode in filial piety, as a father, he abode in loving compassion, and in his interactions with the people of the land, he abode in trustworthiness. The Book of Odes also says, Look at the bend in the Ch'i River, And how green and luxuriant the bamboo trees are there! Here is our refined prince, Who is like a gem cut and filed, Carved and polished! How dignified he is, and how awesome! How majestic and distinguished! Our illustrious prince will never be forgotten. 'Like a gem cut and filed' refers to the way of study. 'Like a gem carved and polished' refers to self-cultivation. 'How dignified and awesome,' refers to a cautious respect. 'How majestic and distinguished,' refers to his awe-inspiring way of handling himself. 'Our illustrious prince will never be forgotten,' means that the Tao flourishes in him and his virtue reaches excellence, hence, the people will be unable to forget him.
The Book of Odes also says, "Aah, the ancient kings are not forgotten!" The Superior Man treats the worthy as worthy and loves his family. The inferior man enjoys his enjoyment and grabs profit whenever he has a chance. It is in this way that they are not forgotten after their death. 4. Confucius said, "In hearing legal cases I am just like anyone else. What we really need is to not have these legal cases." Those who lack sincerity should not be allowed to speak on and on. They should also have a great awe for the will of the people. This is called knowing the basis. 5. This is called, 'Knowing the root.' This is called 'The extension of knowledge.' 6. 'Making the will sincere,' means 'no self-deception.' Like when we allow ourselves to be disgusted by a bad smell or become infatuated with a beautiful face. This is called 'self-satisfaction.' Therefore the Superior Man must be watchful over himself when he is alone. When the inferior man is at leisure, there is no limit to the extent of his evil. But when he sees a Superior Man he will be ashamed; he will cover his evil and show off his goodness. When people observe you, they see right to your core. So what's the use of being deceitful? Therefore we say: "internal sincerity expresses itself outwardly without obscuration." Therefore the Superior Man must be watchful over himself when he is alone. Tseng Tzu said, "What ten eyes are seeing, what ten fingers are indicating, isn't it sublime? Riches adorn a house, virtue adorns the person; the mind is expansive and the body is at ease. Therefore the Superior Man must make his will sincere." 7. "The cultivation of the person lies in the correction of the mind." When you are angry, you cannot be correct. When you are frightened, you cannot be correct; when there is something you desire, you cannot be correct; when there is something you are anxious about, you cannot be correct. When the mind is not present, we look, but do not see. We listen, but do not hear, we eat, but don't taste our food. This is the meaning of "the cultivation of the person lies in the correction of the mind." 8. "The regulation of the family lies in the cultivation of the person." When there is someone you love, you are biased. When there is something you hate, you are biased. When there is something you are in awe of, you are biased. When there is someone you pity, you are biased. When you are lazy, you are biased. Those who love someone and yet know their bad points, or who hate someone and yet know their good points, are few and far between. Hence there is the proverb:
"The man does not know of his own son's evil, or the richness of his own corn." This shows that if you do not cultivate yourself, you cannot regulate your family. 9. "Before governing the country, you must first regulate your family." There has never been a case where a man could not educate his own family, and yet could educate others. Therefore the Superior man perfects the education for the country without leaving his own home. Filial piety is the means by which you serve your ruler. Fraternal submission is the means by which you serve your elders. Compassion is the means by which you deal with everyone. The "Announcement of K'ang" says: "It is like a mother completely giving herself to the care of her baby." She may not be perfect, but she won't be far off, even though she never took a course on child-rearing before having the baby. When one family becomes jen, the whole country will be stimulated to jen. When one family becomes easy to get along with, all the people in the country are stimulated to become easy to get along with. If one man greedily upsets things, the whole country can be plunged into chaos. Its function is really like this. Hence there is the saying "one word can win the whole affair, one man can settle the whole kingdom." Yao and Shun led the realm by jen and the people submitted to them. Chieh and Chau led the realm with aggression, and the people submitted to them, but did not go along with laws that they didn't like. The Superior Man looks for good in others only after possessing it in himself. He negates the evil in others only after ridding it from himself. There has never been a case where a person was able to teach others the things he had learned, if he lacked fairness (shu). Therefore, the governing of the country lies in the regulation of the family. The Book of Odes says: "The peach-tree so ripe, its leaves so luxuriant. The girl is going to her husband's house, and she will harmonize the household." Once the household is harmonized, the people of the realm can be taught. The Book of Odes says: "He treated his elder brothers right, he treated his younger brothers right." If you can treat your brothers right, then you can teach your countrymen. The Book of Odes says: "His manner unchanging, he rectifies his whole state." Only when the ruler has actualized the harmonious relationships of father/son, elder brother/younger brother in himself will the people take him as a model. Thus, it is said: "The ability to govern the country lies in harmonizing the family." 10. "Bringing peace to the realm lies in the ability to govern the country."
If you respect the aged, the people will be encouraged to be filial. If you respect your elders, the people will be stimulated to respect their elders. If you pity the weak and defenseless, the people won't hurt them. Therefore the Superior Man has a Way of Correcting. What he hates in his superiors, he does not give to his inferiors. What he hates in those below him, he does not pass up to those above him. What he hates in those who are in front, he does not pass on to those behind; what he hates in those behind, he does not pass on to those in front. What he hates on the right, he doesn't transfer to the left. What he hates on the left, he doesn't transfer to the right. This is his Way of Correcting. The Book of Odes says: How wonderful is the prince! The parent of the people. What the people likes, he likes. What the people hate, he hates. Thus he is called 'the parent of the people.' The Book of Odes says: How high, the Southern Peaks The cragged rocks jutting in the air. Magnificent is the Teacher Yin; All look up to you! He who possesses the country must be prudent. If he errs, he will be the embarrassment of the realm. The Book of Odes says: Before the Yin lost its teachers They could appeal directly to the Lord on High. Learn from the Yin: The lofty mandate is not easy to maintain. The Way is to win the people, then win the country. If you lose the people, you lose the country. Therefore the ruler must be concerned about his own virtue first. If he has virtue, he will have the people. If he has the people, he will have the land. If he has the land, he will have wealth. If he has wealth, he will be able to function. Thus, virtue is the 'root' and wealth is the 'branches.' If you put the roots outside and the branches inside, you will struggle against your people, and make them grab for
anything they can. If you gather the wealth, you will scatter the people. If you scatter the wealth, you will gather the people. Therefore, the wrong words going out will result in the wrong words coming back in. Wealth taken wrongly will also leave wrongly. The "Announcement of K'ang" says: Even destiny is not changeable, since When our ways are good We obtain it. When our ways are not good We lose it. The Ch'u Record says: The state of Ch'u does not treasure that. It treasures its good men. Uncle Fan (maternal uncle to a prince in exile) said: Our exiled prince has no treasure. To be good to his parents is his only treasure. The "Oath of Ch'in" says: I would like to have just one decisive man, without all kinds of specific abilities, whose mind was broad and easy, such that he could utilize the talents of others as if they were his own. Finding sages, he would sincerely love them with his heart, and not just give them lip-service. By being able to accept and utilize everyone in this way, he would be ensuring safety for me, my sons, grandsons and all the people. Wouldn't the benefits be great? But what can you do when you have a man who gets jealous of the abilities of others and hates them? When he hates the sagely, creates disturbances for them and keeps them from advancing? Since he cannot protect me, my son, grandsons or the common people, isn't he quite dangerous? Only a man of jen can banish such a minister and send him out to live with the barbarian tribes away from the middle kingdoms. Thus the saying: "Only the jen man can love people and hate people."
To see a worthy and be incapable of promoting him; to promote him, but not to the top--this is avoiding responsibility. To see someone evil and not remove him; or to remove him, but not completely get rid of him--this is a fatal error. To love that which the people hate, and hate that which the people love: this is to ignore human nature, and you are sure to bring great harm to yourself. Therefore the ruler attains the Great Way through loyalty and trust, and loses it with pride and arrogance. There is also a clear Way for the production of wealth. When producers are many and consumers are few; when production is rapid and use is slow, then there will always be enough. The jen man expends his wealth to expand himself. Lacking jen, one expends himself to expand his wealth. There is no such case where those in power loved jen and those below disliked Justice. And there is no case where a man loves Justice and is not thorough in his work. In this situation, there are no treasure houses in the state which do not belong to the ruler. Meng Hsien Tzu said: The man who keeps horses and chariots Does not look after chickens and pigs. The family that stores ice Does not raise cattle and sheep. A hundred-chariot clan Does not keep a tax-collector. If they are going to have a tax-collector, They might just as well have a thug. Thus, the saying: "A state does not benefit by profiteering, it benefits by its Justice." One who rules a state or a clan who sacrifices himself to wealth and its usage must be under the influence of an inferior man. He may regard him as good, but if this man handles the affairs of the state or clan, calamities from Heaven and harm from men will be visited upon him. Even if a good man is finally found, what can he do? Thus the saying: "A state does not benefit from profiteering, it benefits from Justice."
Notes 1. This saying can be found in Analects 4:3. 2. The procurement and storage of ice in ancient times was extremely difficult, and therefore an expensive proposition.
The Doctrine of the Mean
A. The Text 1. What Heaven confers is called "nature." Accordance with this nature is called the Way. Cultivating the Way is called "education." That which is called Way cannot be separated from for an instant. What can be separated from is not the Way. Therefore the Superior Man is cautious in the place where he is not seen, and apprehensive in the place where he is not heard. Nothing is more visible than the hidden, and nothing is more apparent than the subtle. Therefore the Superior Man is cautious when he is alone. When joy, anger, sorrow and pleasure have not yet arisen, it is called chung (equilibrium, centrality, mean). When they arise to their appropriate levels, it is called "harmony." Chung is the great root of all-under-heaven. "Harmony" is the penetration of the Way through all-underheaven. When the mean and harmony are actualized, Heaven and Earth are in their proper positions, and the myriad things are nourished. B. The Commentary 2. 仲尼曰， 「君子中庸； 小人反中庸。 「君子之中庸也，君子而時中。 」 小人之中庸也， 小人而無忌憚也。」 Confucius said: "The Superior Man actualizes the mean, the inferior man goes against it. The Superior Man actualizes the mean because he is always with it; the inferior man's contrarity is do to his heedlessness." 3. How far-reaching the mean is! That is why those who are able to keep it for long are few.
4. Confucius said: "I know why the Way is not practiced. The intelligent go beyond it and the dull do not reach it. I know why the Way is not manifested. The 'good' go beyond it and the unworthy do not reach it. There is no one who does not eat or drink, but there are few who really have 'taste.'" 5. Confucius said: "What a pity! The way is not followed." 6. Confucius said: "(Emperor) Shun was so wise! He liked to question people and delighted in listening to everyday speech. He would cover people's bad points and disclose their goodness. He snatched up their excesses and facilitated their balanced nature for the benefit of all. It was in this way that Shun made himself into what he was." 7. Confucius said: "Everybody says 'I know,' but they are driven forward, becoming ensnared in traps and falling into pits without knowing how to avoid them. Everybody says 'I know,' but in intending the actualization of the mean, they are not able to stay with it for a full month." 8. Confucius said: "(Yen) Hui was the kind of person who grasped the mean in such a way that, attaining to a certain goodness, he would clasp it firmly and never lose it." 9. Confucius said: "You might be able to put in order the whole country, kingdoms and clans; decline rank and merit-pay and tread on bare swords, yet still be incapable of actualizing the mean." [Comment] The performance of phenomenal wonders in incomparable with the task of actualizing the mean. 10. Tzu-lu asked about strength. Confucius said: "Do you mean the strength of the South, the strength of the North, or the strength of self-mastery? To be broadminded and gentle in teaching and not rashly punish wrong-doing is the strength of the South. The Superior Man abides in this. To be able to make a bed of weapons and armor and die without grief--this is the strength of the North. The forceful are at home in this. Therefore the Superior Man is harmonious without getting sloppy. How correct his strength is! He stands in the center without leaning to either side. How correct his strength is! When the Way is manifest in the land, he is changeless in his support of it. How correct his strength is! When the Way is not manifest in the land, he will not sell himself out, even until death. How correct his strength is!" 11. Confucius said: "When you study the occult and perform miracles, later generations always tell about it. This I won't do."
"As a Superior Man, to go according to the Way and abandon it half way--this I certainly cannot do." "Then there is the Superior Man, who depends on his actualization of the mean, hides himself from the world such that he is unseen and unknown, and has no regrets about it. Only the sage can do this." 12. The Way of the Superior Man functions everywhere, yet is inconspicuous. Average men and women, even if ignorant, know something of it; yet even the sage cannot know it completely. Average men and women, even though lacking in ability are able to practice to some extent; yet even the sage cannot practice it perfectly. As vast as the universe is, people still have dissatisfaction. When the Superior Man calls it "vast," he means it is too large to be grasped. When he speaks of its smallness, he means that it is something that cannot be further broken down. The Book of Odes says: "The hawk flies high in the sky; the fish dances in the deep." This means that its height and its depth are both observable. The Way of the Superior Man starts with the common people, but in its absoluteness, it is observed throughout the universe. 13. Confucius said: "The Way is not something separate from man. If you practice a Way that is apart from man, this cannot the Way. The Book of Odes says: Carving axe handles One after another They differ little from the original sample Taking one to carve another. When you compare them, There are still differences. Therefore the Superior Man treats people as human beings, and once they have corrected themselves, he lets them be. Being sincere and fair to all, though this is different from the Way, it are not far from it. This means "not doing to others what you don't want done to yourself." There are four general ways that this can be characterized, one of which I have been able to fully practice: (1) Treating my father as I expect my son to treat me. (2) Treating my ruler as I expect my ministers to treat me.
(3) Treating my older brothers as I expect my younger brothers to treat me. (4) Treating my friends as I expect my friends to treat me. In the putting into practice of virtue or the taking care of speech, if there is somewhere where I am deficient, I certainly endeavor further. If there is excess, I do not dare to merely expend it. His words reflecting his actions, his actions reflecting his words--how can this Superior Man not be sincere through and through? 14. The Superior Man acts accepting his own situation. He does not hope to be somewhere else. When he is in a position of fame and fortune, he acts within fame and fortune. When in a position of poverty and low status, he acts within poverty and low status. When dwelling with uncultured tribes, he acts as if he is with uncultured tribes. When he is in stress and difficulty, he acts from within stress and difficulty. There is no place where the Superior Man is not completely himself. When in a high position, he does not step on those below him. When in a low position, he does not drag down those above him. Correcting yourself and not expecting things from others, you will not create resentments. You will not resent Heaven above, nor blame men below. The Superior Man abides in change and awaits his destiny. The inferior man practices manipulation and prays for luck. The Master said: "Practicing archery is like practicing to be a Superior Man. When you miss the bulls-eye, you look for the error in yourself." 15. The Way of the Superior Man can be compared to traveling: To go far, you must start from close by. It can be compared to climbing: To go high, you must start from down low. The Book of Odes says: The Happy union with wife and children Is like the music of lutes and harps When siblings all get along The harmony is entrancing. So make your household good And enjoy your wife and children. The Master said: "Husband and wife should follow each other."
16. Confucius said: "The overabundance of the power of spiritual beings is truly amazing! Looking for them, they cannot be seen. Listening for them, they cannot be heard. There is nothing that they do not embody. They cause the people of the world to fast for purification, and wear beautiful clothes in order to participate at the sacrifices. They are overflowing, seeming to be above, seeming to be on the left and on the right. The Book of Odes says: 'Trying to investigate the spirits, we cannot reach them. How could we possibly grasp them with our thoughts?' The manifestation of the subtle and the inconcealability of sincerity is like this." 17. What a good son was Shun (the sage emperor)! His virtue was that of a sage, he was venerated as an emperor. His wealth included everything within the four seas. He is sacrificed to in the ancestral temple, and his sons and grandsons have preserved his name. Therefore we can say that the greatly virtuous always attain their appropriate position, always receive their proper reward, always get their recognition and are always long-lived. We can also know that Heaven develops each thing according to its preparation. Thus, Heaven nourishes the growing sprout, and throws down the leaning tree. The Book of Odes says: Joyful is the Prince With the power of his own correctness He harmonized those far and near He received his reward from Heaven Who protected him, helped him And gave him the mandate Which he in turn enhanced. Thus, the greatly virtuous always receive the Mandate of Heaven. 18. Confucius said: "The only one who didn't suffer from grief was King Wen, since his father was King Chi and his son was King Wu. His father set him up and his son continued his ways. King Wu merely extended what had been handed down from Kings T'ai, Chi and Wen. Once he put on his armor, he took control of the whole realm and he never failed to live up to the great reputation the people accorded to him. He was respected as an emperor; his wealth included all within the four seas. The ancestral halls make offerings to him, and his sons and grandsons have preserved his name."
King Wu received the Mandate of Heaven late in life. The Duke of Chou consummated the virtue of Wen and Wu. Following in the ways of Kings T'ai and Chi, he sacrificed to the former princes with the ceremony proper to an emperor, and spread this ceremony to all the nobles, ministers, officers and the common people. If the father was a minister and the son an officer, then the funeral ceremony would be for a minister, and the sacrifices for an officer. If the father was an officer and the son was a minister, he would be buried as an officer and sacrificed to as a minister. The one year's mourning applied up to the ministers, but the three-year mourning applied up the emperor. In the mourning for parents, there was no distinction according to class. 19. Confucius said: "How completely King Wu and the Duke of Chou actualized their filial piety! Through filial piety, they correctly passed down the wills of their forefathers and correctly transmitted their works. In spring and autumn, they cleaned the ancestral temple, laid out the sacrificial vessels, dressed up in the ceremonial outfit and prepared the seasonal foods." Using the ritual of the ancestral temple, they ordered the ancestral lineages. By rank, they distinguished high and low classes; by works, they distinguished goodness. By having the lower classes offer the toast to the upper classes, they kept the lower classes involved. By hair color, they distinguished seniority. Each taking their positions, they carried out the ritual, played the music, respected the venerable, loved their relatives. They served the dead as if they were alive, and they served those not present as if they were there. Herein they brought filial piety to its highest level. They used the Winter and Summer festival to make offerings to the Lord-on-High, and used the rituals on the ancestral temple to make offerings to the ancestors. He who could completely disclose the meaning of the Winter and Summer sacrifices, and the great Imperial sacrifice, could govern the country as easily as if he were pointing to the palm of his hand." 20. The Duke of Ai asked about government. Confucius said: "The records of the governments of Wen and Wu are on the ancient tablets. When they had the right people, the government functioned, and when they didn't have the right people, government failed. When people are right, the government flourishes; when the ground is right, plants flourish; the governments of Wen and Wu flourished like fastgrowing weeds."
Therefore, the skillful handling of government is contingent upon having the right people. You attract the right people by your own character. You cultivate your character through the Way and you manifest the Way by means of jen. Jen is "humanity" and its most obvious function is in love for relatives. "Justice" means "setting things right" and its most obvious function is in venerating the Good. The differing levels in loving relatives and venerating the good are expressed through propriety. Thus, if your rank is low, and you do not have the support of those in power, you cannot hope to have an influence on government. Therefore the Superior man cannot but cultivate his character. Wanting to cultivate his character, he cannot do it without serving his parents. Wanting to serve his parents, he cannot do it without understanding others. Wanting to understand others, he cannot do it without understanding Heaven. There are five pervasive (ta) relationships in this world, which are carried out in 3 ways. The relationships are those between ruler and minister, father and son, husband and wife, older brother and younger brother, and between friends. The three ways of practice are wisdom, jen and courage, but they are practiced in unison. Some are born knowing it; some know it by learning and some have to struggle to know it. Nonetheless, the knowledge is the same. Some practice it by being comfortable within it; some practice it by benefitting from it; and some have to struggle to practice it. But when the practice is perfected, it is the same." Confucius said: "Loving study, you approach wisdom; loving energetic practice, you approach jen. Understanding shame, you approach courage. If you understand these three, you know how to polish your character; knowing how to polish your character, you know how to handle others; knowing how to handle others, you know how to govern a state or clan." In general, in the handling of the realm, a state or a clan, there are nine basic patterns of treatment. These are: polishing your own character; venerating the Good; caring for your relatives; respecting the high ministers; making the lower ministers feel like they have a significant role; treating the common people as your children; making the artisans feel welcome; treating foreign guests gently and embracing the nobles. Polishing your character, you set up your own Way. Venerating the Good, you are not deluded. Caring for your relatives, then your fathers, elder and younger brothers will not resent you. Respecting the high ministers, you will not make foolish mistakes.
Making the lower ministers feel like they are part of it, they will regard propriety with seriousness. Treating the common people as your children, they will work hard. Making the artisans feel welcome, there will be plenty of commerce. Being gentle to guests from afar, people will flock to you from all directions. If you embrace the nobility, the people will have a healthy fear of them. Fasting in ceremonial dress, not acting against the norms of propriety; this is how you polish your character. Letting go of slander, freeing yourself from lust, disregarding wealth and prizing virtue: This is how you promote goodness. Respecting their rank, paying them well, going along with their likes and dislikes: this is the way to take care of your relatives. Giving them enough officers to dole out their responsibilities: this is the way to encourage the high ministers. To reward well trustworthiness and loyalty: this is the way to encourage the lower officers. Employing the people around their own farming schedules and taxing them lightly: this is the way to encourage the people. Daily and monthly examining their works and giving merit where due: this is the way to encourage the artisans. Sending out envoys to meet foreign visitors and bestowing kindness and pity on the handicapped: this is the way to be gentle to visitors from afar. To renew their broken lineages, restore their vanquished states, quell their rebellions and protect them from danger; giving them rich presents and expecting little in return: this is how you embrace the nobles. While altogether there are this nine patterns of treatment, there is a single way to carry out all of them. In all affairs, if you plan ahead you can be successful, and if you don't plan ahead, you will fail. If you are prepared before you speak, you won't be tongue-tied. If you are prepared before you begin a job, you won't have complications. If you are prepared before you act, you won't have to be sorry. If you are prepared before teaching, you won't run out of material. Again, if you are in a position of low rank, and you have no influence above, you will have no way of governing people. Even though there is a way of influencing superiors, if your friends don't trust you, you won't be able to influence superiors. Even though there is a way of gaining the trust of your friends, if you have discord with your relatives, you will not be trusted by your friends. Even though there is a way of having harmony with your relatives, if your character is not sincere, you will have discord with your relatives. Even though there is a way to make your character sincere, if you have not awakened to your goodness, you will not be able to make your character sincere. Sincerity is the Way of Heaven. Making oneself sincere is the Way of Man. If you can be perfectly sincere without effort, without a mindfulness to its attainment, and walk embracing the Middle Way, you are a sage.
If you are working at making yourself sincere, you must find your goodness and hold fast to it. You must study it broadly, investigate it in detail, deliberate on it carefully, discern it clearly and practice it universally. Where there is a lack in your understanding, or your study has not yet reached the point where it is effective, don't just leave it. When there is something you have investigated, or investigated but not understood, don't just leave it. When there is something that you have not yet discerned, or discerned but not yet clarified, don't just leave it. When there is something you have not yet practiced, or have practiced, but not yet universally, don't just leave it. If someone else gets it in one try, I will try one hundred times. If someone else gets it in ten tries, I will try one thousand times. If you are able to follow this Way, then even if you are stupid, you will become enlightened. Even if you are weak, you will become strong. 21. The enlightenment that comes from sincerity is our own nature. The sincerity that comes from enlightenment is called "education." If you are sincere you will be enlightened. If you are enlightened, you will be sincere. 22. Only the perfectly sincere person can actualize his own essence. Actualizing his own essence, he can fully actualize the essence of others. Fully actualizing the essence of others, he can fully actualize the essence of all things. Being able to fully actualize the essence of all things, he can assist Heaven and Earth in their transformation and sustenance. Able to assist in Heaven and Earth's transformation and sustenance, he forms a trinity with Heaven and Earth. 23. Those of the next level straighten out their own twistedness. Being straightened they can possess sincerity. Having sincerity, they can give form to their character. Their character having form, their sincerity becomes manifest. Being manifest it is luminous, being luminous it can function. Functioning, it changes; changing, it transforms. Only the most fully actualized sincerity is able to transform people and things. 24. Once you are in the Path of fully actualized sincerity, you have foreknowledge of things. When a nation or clan is about to rise up, there are always omens of their fortune. When a nation or clan is about to fall, there are always omens of their misfortune. It can be seen in the milfoil stalks, tortoise shells and in the movements of the body. When good or evil fortune is imminent, the perfectly sincere person will know without obstruction. With fully actualized sincerity, you are like a god. 25. Sincerity is just 'perfecting' and the Way is just 'following.' Sincerity is the beginning and end of all things. Without sincerity there is nothing. Thus the Superior Man values the process of "becoming-sincere." But sincerity is not "just-perfecting"; it
also means "perfecting all things." To perfect yourself, you need jen. To perfect others, you need wisdom. The virtue of our nature is that it is none other than the Way by which inner and outer are merged. Thus we can always use it to set things right. 26. Therefore, fully actualized sincerity is ceaseless. Ceaseless, it is eternal. Eternal, it is apparent. Apparent, it is far-reaching. Far-reaching, it is vast and deep. Vast and deep, it is high and bright. Since it is vast and deep, it can support all things. Since it is high and bright, it can cover all things. Since it is far-reaching and long-lasting, it can accomplish all things. Vastness and depth refer to the Earth. Highness and brightness refer to Heaven. Far-reaching and long-lasting refer to limitlessness. In this way, it is manifest without being seen, it changes without moving, and accomplishes without effort. The Way of Heaven and Earth can be perfectly expressed in a single phrase: "Its appearance as things is not repeated; therefore its production of things is unfathomable (or 'bottomless')." The Way of Heaven and Earth is vast and deep, high and bright, far-reaching and long-lasting. Now, Heaven is made of many single lights. But they are infinite; the sun, moon and stars are all suspended in it, and it covers the myriad things. The Earth is but a collection of numerous handfuls of dirt. But it is vast and deep. It supports Mt. Hua and Mt. Yueh without feeling their weight; it contains the seas and rivers without spilling a drop. It supports all things. The mountains are made of many small stones. But they become high and broad. Plants and trees grow on them, the birds and beasts live on them, and rare gems are stored within them. The waters are mere collections of many teaspoons. But their depth is unfathomable. Tortoises, alligators, dragons, fish and turtles live there, and all sorts of gems grow there. The Book of Odes says: The Mandate of the Heavenly Principle Has no end to its depth. This is why we call Heaven, "Heaven." It also says: Was it not apparent, The purity of King Wen's virtue?
This is how Wen made his own character--unceasing in purity. 27. How great is the Way of the sage! Superabundant, it develops all things, extending up to Heaven. How excellent it is! It embraces the three hundred rules of ceremony, and the three thousand rules of conduct; it waits for the right person and then functions. Hence it is said: "If you do not perfect your virtue, the perfect Way cannot be actualized." Therefore the Superior Man esteems his virtuous nature and follows the path of inquiry, extending himself in breadth and greatness, penetrating all subtleties, penetrating its height and brilliance, following the course of the actualization of the Mean. He reviews the old and learns the new, thickening his character through the valorization of propriety. Therefore he abides in a position of power without arrogance, and abides in a low position without being rebellious. When the government is just, he can speak and be praised. When the government is wicked, he can conceal himself by silence. The Book of Odes says: His intelligence and wit Were his protection. Does this not reflect the same meaning? 28. Confucius said: "To be ignorant and like to act as you will; to be of low rank and ignore all the rules; to be living in the present and be following the norms of the past: all these will bring you trouble." If you are not the emperor, you cannot determine the rules of propriety, set weights and measures, or create ideographs. In the present realm, carriages have the same axle-widths, documents are written with the same characters and people follow the same norms of conduct. But even if you are emperor, if you lack virtue, you cannot presume to create ritual or music. And even if you possess sufficient virtue, but you are not in the position of emperor, you cannot presume to create ritual or music. Confucius said: "I can describe the Hsia rituals, but the documents from Ch'i cannot verify it. I have learned the Yin rituals, and they are still preserved in the Sung. I have learned the Chou rituals, which are still in use. I follow the Chou." 29. In ruling the realm there are three essentials through which one can lessen his mistakes. If you are in a position of rank, even if you are good, if your goodness is not evident, you will not be trusted. Not being trusted, the people will not follow you. If you lack
rank, then you will not be respected. Lacking respect, you will not be trusted. Without trust the people will not follow you. Therefore in the Superior Man's practice of his Way, he starts with himself and then manifests his character to all the people, such that when he contemplates the ways of the three former sage-kings, he cannot feel any shame. He is established between Heaven and Earth without any discord. He presents himself before the spirits of his ancestors without doubting. He waits for a hundred generations for a sage to appear without confusion. If you can present yourself to the ancestral spirits without doubting, you know Heaven. If you can wait a hundred generations for the appearance of a sage, you know human beings. Therefore, the people regard the movement of the Superior Man as the Way of the world. They regard his actions as the norm of the world. They regard his words as the pattern for the world. When they are away from him, they long for him. When they are near him, they never get tired of him. The Book of Odes says: When he is away, he is not hated. When he is here, he is not disliked. In every situation, from morning to night, Their praise of him is unceasing. There has never been a Superior Man who gained rapid recognition from the world and who was not like this. 30. Confucius transmitted the legacy of (sage-emperors) Yao and Shun and modeled his character on that of (sage-kings) Wen and Wu. He was ruled by the Heavenly seasons from above, and combined the Earth and Waters below. He was like Heaven and Earth, which have nothing they do not support, and nothing they do not cover. His function was like the revolution of the four seasons, the alternation of sun and moon. He nourishes the myriad things and they grow up together without harming each other, and they follow their courses simultaneously without interfering with each other. His smaller power is like the rivers and streams. His great power is seen in deep transformations. This is why Heaven and Earth are called "great." 31. Only the perfect sage of the realm possesses the acumen, sharpness and insight necessary for overseeing things, and at the same time has enough generosity, openmindedness, warmth and flexibility to accept everything. He also has enough energy, strength, firmness and gumption to maintain what he has and enough self-
awareness, gravity, centeredness and correctness to be respected and enough refinement, principle, depth and analytical ability to discriminate. Extremely vast, unfathomably deep--he uses his abilities according to the situation. As vast as Heaven, as deep as an abyss, when he shows himself, there are none who do not respect him. When he speaks, there are none who do not believe him. When he acts, there are not who do not appreciate him. Therefore you can hear his name overflowing from the central kingdoms out to the uncivilized regions. Wherever boats and wagons go, wherever human power can reach to; in every place supported by the Earth; those places illuminated by the sun and moon; wherever dew and frost fall; wherever there are breathing beings, there are none who do not respect him and cherish him. Therefore he is associated with "Heaven." 32. Only that person who has fully actualized sincerity is able to adjust the strings of the Great Net of the World; is able to establish himself in the Great Root of the World; is able to understand the transformations and the nurturing of Heaven and Earth. So sincere is his jen; so unfathomable is his depth; so vast is his spaciousness. Who is able to understand this, but one who has the firm, acute, luminous sagely intelligence--who is permeated with Heavenly Virtue? 33. The Book of Odes says: She covered her brocade gown With a plain robe. She did not want to show off her finery. Therefore the Superior Man acts in a way such that he conceals himself, yet every day gains in luminosity. The inferior man shows himself and every day loses luminosity. The Way of the Superior Man is tasteless, yet you never get sick of it. Simple, yet refined, warm-hearted yet principled. He knows the closeness of the distant, knows the origin of customs. He knows the manifestation of the subtle and can enter into virtue. The Book of Odes says: Though the fish dive to the bottom They can be seen. Hence the Superior Man, finding no perversity within himself, has no evil in his intentions. Those things that the Superior Man is unable to attain to are exactly the things that others cannot perceive. The Book of Odes says: While in your own room,
You should not be ashamed if it were Opened to the world. Therefore the Superior Man does not move, and yet is respected. He does not speak, and yet is believed. The Book of Odes says: Make your offerings without words, And there will never be any disagreement. Therefore the Superior Man receives no awards, yet the people promote him. He is not angry, yet they are more in awe of him than they are of lethal weapons. The Book of Odes says: Only if you don't show it Can you develop virtue. All the princes are constrained by this. Therefore the Superior Man, through his generosity and courtesy, pacifies the realm. The Book of Odes says: I cherish shining virtue Not big noises and flashy colors. Confucius said: "In terms of transforming people, sounds and appearances don't amount to much." The Book of Odes says: Virtue is as light as a hair. Yet even a hair possesses the great principles. In the functions of Supreme Heaven, there are no sounds or smells. It is "perfect."
Notes 1. Confucius
2. There is a pun here, since "humanity" is also pronounced jen. Thus, in Chinese, this phrase says "jen is jen." 3. Used in I-Ching divination. 4. An ancient method of divination where tortoise shells were heated over a fire until they cracked. The cracks were read according to their patterns to diagnose a situation. 5. At this point in the text, one would expect a clear enumeration of three essential points. But following this are only a set of two, followed by a set of four. James Legge and Wing-tsit Chan, following Chu-hsi, say that these three essentials should be the ceremonies, regulations and formation of ideographs mentioned in the prior passage. This judgement may be questioned, since in Confucian texts, errors in rulership are generally shortcomings in the personal character or errors in judgement on moral issues. Since these are three essentials of rulership, we might look to the end of section 20 above, which says: "Loving study, you approach wisdom; loving energetic practice, you approach jen. Understanding shame, you approach courage. If you understand these three, you know how to polish your character; knowing how to polish your character, you know how to handle others; knowing how to handle others, you know how to govern a state or clan." 6. This is another passage which seems to be deficient in the necessary contextual background for solid interpretation. But again, I must differ with Chu-hsi's interpretation which reads shang 上 as "former times" and its antonym hsia 下 as "low position." Since shang and hsia are so clearly contrasted here in consecutive sentences, it seems much more sensible and natural to read them antonymically. Furthermore, though to read shang as "formerly" or "antiquity" may be possible in Classical Chinese, we rarely see it used in that way in the Analects, Great Learning or Doctrine of the Mean. The two terms almost always mean "superior" or "above" and "inferior" or "below," usually in terms of societal rank, or level of personal enlightenment. The Analects of Confucius
1. 學而 『1-1』 子曰： 「學而時習之, 不亦説乎。 有朋自遠方來, 不亦樂乎。 人不知而不慍, 不亦君 子乎 」
[1:1] Confucius said: "Isn't it a pleasure to study and practice what you have learned? Isn't it also great when friends visit from distant places? If people do not recognize me and it doesn't bother me, am I not a Superior Man?" [Comment] Superior Man is a common English translation for the Chinese term chün-tzu which originally means "Son of a Prince" —thus, someone from the nobility. In the Analects, Confucius imbues the term with a special meaning. Though sometimes used strictly in its original sense, it also refers to a person who has made significant progress in the Way (Tao) of selfcultivation, by practicing Rightness (or Justice), by loving treatment of parents, respect for elders, honesty with friends, etc. Though the chün-tzu is clearly a highly advanced human being, he is still distinguished from the category of sage (sheng-jen), who is, in the Analects more of a "divine being," usually a model from great antiquity. The character of the Superior Man, in contrast to the sage, is being taught as a tangible model for all in the here and now. And although many descriptions of the requirements for chün-tzu status seem quite out of our reach, there are many passages where Confucius labels a contemporary, or one of his disciples a "Superior Man," intending a complement. Thus, the categorization is not so rigid. One might want to compare the term "Superior Man" to the Buddhist bodhisattva, in that both are the models for the tradition, both indicate a very high stage of human development as technical terms, yet both may be used colloquially to refer to a "really good person." 『1-2』 有子曰： 「其爲人也孝弟, 而好犯上者, 鮮矣; 不好犯上, 而好作亂者, 未之有也。 君 子務本, 本立而道生。孝弟也者, 其爲仁之本與 」 [1:2] Yu Tzu said: "There are few who have developed themselves filially and fraternally who enjoy offending their superiors. Those who do not enjoy offending superiors are never troublemakers. The Superior Man concerns himself with the fundamentals. Once the fundamentals are established, the proper way (tao) appears. Are not filial piety and obedience to elders fundamental to the enactment of humaneness?" [Comment] The word "humanity" in the above line is a translation of the Chinese term jen (仁), which has also been translated into English as "benevolence," "goodness," "humaneness," etc. It is a difficult concept to translate because it doesn't really refer to any specific type of virtue or positive endowment, but refers to an inner capacity possessed by all human beings to do good, as human beings should. It is what makes humans human, and not animals.
In the Chinese "essence-function" perception, humaneness can be understood as the innate, unmanifest source of all kinds of manifestations of virtuosity: wisdom, filial piety, reverence, courtesy, love, sincerity, etc., all of which are aspects, or functions of humaneness. Through one's efforts at practicing at the function of humaneness, one may enhance and develop one's humaneness, until one may be called a Superior Man, or even better, a "humane person." In the Analects, to be called a "humane person" by the Master is an extremely high evaluation, rarely acknowledged of any human being. 『1-3』子曰：「巧言令色, 鮮矣仁」 [1:3] Confucius said: "Someone who is a clever speaker and maintains a 'too-smiley' face is seldom considered a humane person." 『1-4』曾子曰：「吾日三省吾身、爲人謀而不忠乎。與朋友交而不信乎。傳不習乎。 」 [1:4] Tseng Tzu said: "Each day I examine myself in three ways: in doing things for others, have I been disloyal? In my interactions with friends, have I been untrustworthy? Have not practiced what I have preached?" 『1-5』子曰：「道千乘之國, 敬事而信, 節用而愛人, 使民以時。」 [1:5] Confucius said: "If you would govern a state of a thousand chariots (a small-tomiddle-size state), you must pay strict attention to business, be true to your word, be economical in expenditure and love the people. You should use them according to the seasons." [Comment] "Usage of the people according to the seasons" is extremely important in an agriculture-based society, where planting, cultivating, or harvesting a certain crop during a certain few-day period can be critical. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods in China, selfish and aggressive warlords frequently pulled farmers off their land at important farming times, to use them for public works projects, or have them fight in the ruler's personal wars. 『1-6』 子曰： 「弟子, 入則孝, 出則弟, 謹而信, 凡愛衆, 而親仁。 行有餘力, 則以學文。 」 [1:6] Confucius said: "A young man should serve his parents at home and be respectful to elders outside his home. He should be earnest and truthful, loving all, but become intimate with humaneness. After doing this, if he has energy to spare, he can study literature and the arts." [Comment] In the above-mentioned essence-function view, the development of one's proper relationship with one's parents and others around her/him is
fundamental in life. Only after these things are taken care of is it proper to go off and play at whatever one likes— even if this "play" involves the serious study of some art form. 『1-7』 子夏曰： 「賢賢易色; 事父母, 能竭其力; 事君, 能致其身; 與朋友交, 言而有信。 雖 曰未學, 吾必謂之學矣。」 [1:7] Tzu Hsia said: "If you can treat the worthy as worthy without strain, exert your utmost in serving your parents, devote your whole self in serving your prince, and be honest in speech when dealing with your friends. Then even if someone says you are not learned (hsüeh), I would say that you are definitely learned." [Comment] In the Confucian tradition, learning (hsüeh) is more than intellectual, academic study, or the accumulation of facts (although this aspect is included). It is the process of manifesting one's humaneness by developing oneself in self-reflection through the various types of human relationships. 『1-8』 子曰： 「君子不重, 則不威; 學則不固。 主忠信。 無友不如己者。 則勿憚改。 過, 」 [1:8] Confucius said: "If the Superior Man is not 'heavy,' then he will not inspire awe in others. If he is not learned, then he will not be on firm ground. He takes loyalty and good faith to be of primary importance, and has no friends who are not of equal (moral) caliber. When he makes a mistake, he doesn't hesitate to correct it." [Comment] The Superior Man still makes mistakes. The difference between him and other people is that he rectifies his errors as soon as he becomes aware of them. 『1-9』曾子曰：「慎終, 追遠, 民德歸厚矣。」 [1:9] Tseng Tzu said: "When they are careful (about their parents) to the end and continue in reverence after (their parents) are long gone, the virtue of the people will return to its natural depth." 『1-10』 子禽問於子貢曰： 「夫子至於是邦也, 必聞其政, 求之與 抑與之與 子貢曰： 「夫 子温、良、恭、儉、讓以得之。夫子之求之也, 其諸異乎人之求之與 」 [1:10] Tzu Ch'in asked Tzu Kung: "When our teacher (Confucius) arrives in any country, he invariably finds out everything about its government. Does he seek this information? Or is it given to him?" Tzu Kung said, "Our teacher gets it by being cordial, upright, courteous, temperate and complaisant. His way of getting information is quite different from that of other men."
『1-11』子曰：「父在, 觀其志; 父沒, 觀其行; 三年無改於父之道, 可謂孝矣。」 [1:11] Confucius said: "When your father is alive, observe his will. When your father is dead observe his former actions. If, for three years you do not change from the ways of your father, you can be called a 'real son (hsiao).' " [Comment] In terms of the development of the character of the human being, the most fundamental practice is that of "filial piety," the English translation of the Chinese hsiao, which means to love, respect and take care of one's parents. Confucius believed that if people cultivated this innate tendency well, all other natural forms of human goodness would be positively affected by it. 『1-12』 有子曰： 「禮之用, 和爲貴。 先王之道, 斯爲美; 小大由之。 有所不行, 知和而和, 不 以禮節之, 亦不可行也。」 [1:12] Yu Tzu said: "In the actual practice of propriety, flexibility is important. This is what the ancient kings did so well— both the greater and the lesser used flexibility. Yet you should be aware: If you understand flexibility and use it, but don't structure yourself with propriety, things won't go well." [Comment] Propriety is the English rendition of the Chinese li. This is a word that also has a wide spectrum of meaning in Classical Chinese thought, and is difficult to translate by a single word. Its most basic meaning is that of "ritual" or "ceremony," referring to all sorts of rituals that permeated early East Asian society. The most significant of course, would be wedding ceremonies and funerals. But there were also various agricultural rituals, coming-of-age rituals, coronations, etc. Confucius was an expert on the proper handling of all sorts of rituals. The term li however, has, in the Analects, a much broader meaning than ritual, since it can also refer to the many smaller "ritualized" behavior patterns involved in day-to-day human interactions. This would include proper speech and body language according to status, age, sex— thus, "manners." In this sense, li means any action proper, or appropriate to the situation. For instance, in the modern context, I might go up and slap my friend on the back. But I certainly wouldn't to that to my professor, or to a student in my class whom I don't know very well. In the Analects, li, as a general category, is clearly defined in a relationship with humaneness, where humaneness is the inner, substantial goodness of the human being, and li is the functioning of humaneness in the manifest world. That is to say, li is Rightness, filial piety, fraternal respect, familial affection, etc. 『1-13』 有子曰： 「信近於義, 言可複也。 恭近於禮, 遠恥辱也。 因不失其親, 亦可宗也。 」
[1:13]Yu Tzu said: "When your own trustworthiness is close to Rightness, your words can be followed. When your show of respect is according to propriety, you will be far from shame and disgrace. If you have genuine affection within your family, you can become an ancestor." [Comment] Rightness with a capital "R" is my rendering of the Chinese i 義, which I also translate as Justice, according to the context. Although not quite as essential a concept as humaneness (jen 仁), it is a strongly internalized human capacity. Being attuned to Rightness allows people to do the proper thing in the proper situation, to give each person, place and thing its proper due. 『1-14』 子曰： 「君子食無求飽, 居無求安, 敏於事而慎於言, 就有道而正焉, 可謂好學也 已。」 [1:14] Confucius said: "When the Superior Man eats he does not try to stuff himself; at rest he does not seek perfect comfort; he is diligent in his work and careful in speech. He avails himself to people of the Way and thereby corrects himself. This is the kind of person of whom you can say, 'he loves learning.' " 『1-15』 子貢曰： 「貧而無諂, 富而無驕, 何如 」 子曰： 「可也; 未若貧而樂, 富而好禮者 , 也。 子貢曰： 」 「詩云： 『如切如磋, 如琢如磨』 其斯之謂與 」 子曰： 「賜也, 始可與言詩 已矣, 告諸往而知來者。」 [1:15] Tzu Kung asked: "What do you think of a poor man who doesn't grovel or a rich man who isn't proud?" Confucius said, "They are good, but not as good as a poor man who is satisfied and a rich man who loves propriety." Tzu Kung said, "The Book of Odes says:" Like cutting and filing, Grinding and polishing1 "Is this what you are talking about?" Confucius said, "Ah, now I can begin to discuss the Book of Odes with Tz'u. I give him a hint and he gets the whole point." 『1-16』子曰：「不患人之不己知, 患不知人也。」 [1:16] Confucius said: "I am not bothered by the fact that I am unknown. I am bothered when I do not know others."
2. 爲政 『2-1』子曰：「爲政以德, 譬如北辰居其所而衆星共之。」
[2:1] Confucius said: "If you govern with the power of your virtue, you will be like the North Star. It just stays in its place while all the other stars position themselves around it." [Comment] This is the Analects' first statement on government. Scholars of Chinese thought have commonly placed great emphasis on a supposed radical distinction between Confucian "authoritative" government and Taoist "laissez-faire" government. But numerous Confucian passages such as this which suggest of the ruler's governance by a mere attunement with an inner principle of goodness, without unnecessary external action, quite like the Taoist wu-wei are far more numerous than has been noted. This is one good reason for us to be careful when making the commonplace Confucian/Taoist generalizations without qualification. 『2-2』子曰：「詩三百, 一言以蔽之, 曰：『思無邪』。」 [2:2] Confucius said: "The 300 verses of the Book of Odes can be summed up in a single phrase: 'Don't think in an evil way.' " 『2-3』子曰：「道之以政, 齊之以刑, 民免而無恥; 道之以德, 齊之以禮, 有恥且格。」 [2:3] Confucius said: "If you govern the people legalistically and control them by punishment, they will avoid crime, but have no personal sense of shame. If you govern them by means of virtue and control them with propriety, they will gain their own sense of shame, and thus correct themselves." 『2-4』子曰：「吾十有五而志于學, 三十而立, 四十而不惑, 五十而知天命, 六十而耳順, 七十而從心所欲, 不踰矩。」 [2:4] Confucius said: "At fifteen my heart was set on learning; at thirty I stood firm; at forty I had no more doubts; at fifty I knew the mandate of heaven; at sixty my ear was obedient; at seventy I could follow my heart's desire without transgressing the norm." 『2-5』孟懿子問孝。子曰：「無違。」樊遲御, 子告之曰：「孟孫問孝於我, 我對曰, 『無 違。』」樊遲曰：「何謂也 」子曰：「生, 事之以禮; 死, 葬之以禮, 祭之以禮。」 [2:5] Meng I Tzu asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, "It means 'not diverging (from your parents).' " Later, when Fan Chih was driving him, Confucius told Fan Chih, "Meng Sun asked me about the meaning of filial piety, and I told him 'not diverging.' " Fan Chih said, "What did you mean by that?" Confucius said, "When your parents are alive, serve them with propriety; when they die, bury them with propriety, and then worship them with propriety." 『2-6』孟武伯問孝。子曰：「父母唯其疾之憂。」
[2:6] Meng Wu Po asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, "The main concern of your parents is about your health." [Comment] When we are separated from our parents for long periods of time, we can set their minds at ease by letting them know that we are in good health. 『2-7』 子游問孝。 子曰： 「今之孝者, 是謂能養。 至於犬馬, 皆能有養; 不敬, 何以別乎。 」 [2:7] Tzu Lu asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, "Nowadays filial piety means being able to feed your parents. But everyone does this for even horses and dogs. Without respect, what's the difference?" 『2-8』子夏問孝。子曰：「色難。有事, 弟子服其勞; 有酒食, 先生饌, 曾是以爲孝乎 」 [2:8] Tzu Hsia asked about filial piety. Confucius said, "What is important is the expression you show in your face. You should not understand 'filial' to mean merely the young doing physical tasks for their parents, or giving them food and wine when it is available." 『2-9』子曰：「吾與囘言終日, 不違, 如愚。退兒省其私, 亦足以發, 囘也不愚。」 [2:9] Confucius said: "I can talk with Hui for a whole day without him differing with me in any way— as if he is stupid. But when he retires and I observe his personal affairs, it is quite clear that he is not stupid." [Comment] Hui (Yen Yüan) was Confucius' favorite disciple, who is praised in many passages of the Analects. He died at a young age, probably around thirty, a fact which Confucius lamented. 『2-10』子曰：「視其所以, 觀其所由, 察其所安。人焉叟哉 人焉叟哉 」 [2:10] Confucius said: "See a person's means (of getting things). Observe his motives. Examine that in which he rests. How can a person conceal his character? How can a person conceal his character?" [Comment] People think that they are successfully hiding the devious plots that are going on in their minds. But as the Doctrine of the Mean teaches, "The sincerity on the inside shows on the outside." When someone is deceitful, everyone knows it. When someone is good and honest, everyone knows it. 『2-11』子曰：「温故而知新, 可以爲師矣。」 [2:11] Confucius said: "Reviewing what you have learned and learning anew, you are fit to be a teacher."
『2-12』子曰：「君子不器。」 [2:12] Confucius said: "The Superior Man is not a utensil." [Comment] The Superior Man is not a technician, to be used by others to do a single job. On another level, his mind is not narrowly oriented by a specific task. The chün-tzu thinks broadly and does not limit himself quickly into a certain world-view, and cannot easily be used as a cog in someone else's machine. 『2-13』子貢問君子。子曰：「先行其言, 而后從之。」 [2:13] Tzu Kung asked about the character of the Superior Man. Confucius said, "First he practices what he preaches and then he follows it." 『2-14』子曰：「君子周而不比, 小人比而不周。」 [2:14] Confucius said: "The Superior Man is all-embracing and not partial. The inferior man is partial and not all-embracing." 『2-15』子曰：「學而不思則罔, 思而不學則殆。」 [2:15] Confucius said: "To study and not think is a waste. To think and not study is dangerous." 『2-16』子曰：「攻乎異端, 斯害也己。」 [2:16] Confucius said: "To throw oneself into strange teachings is quite dangerous." 『2-17』子曰：「由、誨女知之乎。 知之爲知之, 不知爲不知, 是知也。」 [2:17] Confucius said: "Yu, shall I teach you about knowledge? What you know, you know, what you don't know, you don't know. This is knowledge." [Comment] The stage of "knowing what you know and knowing what you don't know" is not easy to attain. It has been noted in the teachings of other religious traditions to be a very high level of attainment. 『2-18』 子張學干祿。 子曰： 「多聞闕疑, 慎言其餘, 則寡尤。 多見闕殆, 慎行其餘, 則寡悔。 言寡尤, 行寡悔, 祿在其中矣。」 [2:18] Tzu Chang was studying to get an upgrade in his civil service rank. [Advising him about self-improvement,] Confucius said, "Listen widely to remove your doubts and be careful when speaking about the rest and your mistakes will be few. See much and get rid of what is dangerous and be careful in acting on the rest and your
causes for regret will be few. Speaking without fault, acting without causing regret: 'upgrading' consists in this." 『2-19』 哀公聞曰： 「何爲則民服 」 孔子對曰： 「擧直錯諸枉, 則民服; 擧枉錯諸直, 則民 不服。」 [2:19] The Duke of Ai asked: "How can I make the people follow me?" Confucius replied: "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, and the people will follow you. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, and the people will not follow you." 『2-20』 季康子問： 「使民敬、 忠以勤, 如之何 」 子曰： 「臨之以莊, 則敬; 孝慈, 則忠; 擧善 而教不能, 則勤。」 [2:20] Chi K'ang Tzu asked: "How can I make the people reverent and loyal, so they will work positively for me?" Confucius said, "Approach them with dignity, and they will be reverent. Be filial and compassionate and they will be loyal. Promote the able and teach the incompetent, and they will work positively for you." 『2-21』 或謂孔子曰： 「子奚不爲政 」 子曰： 「書云： 『孝乎惟孝, 友于兄弟, 施於有政。 』 是亦爲政, 奚其爲爲政 」 [2:21] Someone asked Confucius: "Why are you not involved in government?" Confucius said, "What does the Book of History say about filial piety? 'Just by being a good son and friendly to ones brothers and sisters you can have an effect on government.' Since this is also 'doing government,' why do I need to do 'doing government?' " 『2-22』子曰：「人而無信, 不知其可也。大車無輗, 小車無軏 , 其何以行之哉 」 [2:22] Confucius said: "If a person lacks trustworthiness, I don't know what s/he can be good for. When a pin is missing from the yoke-bar of a large wagon, or from the collar-bar of a small wagon, how can it go?" 『2-23』 子張問： 「十世可知也 」 子曰： 「殷因於夏禮, 所損益, 可知也; 周因於殷禮, 所損 益, 可知也。其或繼周者, 雖百世, 可知也。」 [2:23] Tzu Chang asked whether the state of affairs ten generations hence could be known. Confucius said, "The Shang based its propriety on that of the Yin, and what it added and subtracted is knowable. The Chou has based its propriety on that of the Shang and what it added and subtracted is knowable. In this way, what continues from the Chou, even if 100 generations hence, is knowable." 『2-24』子曰：「非其鬼而祭之, 諂也。見義不爲, 無勇也。」
[2:24] Confucius said: "To worship to other than one's own ancestral spirits is brownnosing. If you see what is right and fail to act on it, you lack courage."
3. 八佾 『3-1』孔子謂季氏, 「八佾舞於庭, 是可忍也, 孰不可忍也 」 [3:1] Confucius, speaking about the head of the Ch'i family said, "He has eight rows of dancers in his court. If he does this, what will he not do?" [Comment] In this passage and the following one, Confucius is complaining about a lower-level aristocrat using ceremonies that were officially prescribed for much higher-level nobility. "Eight rows of dancers," was the amount allowable to only the most elite of the nobility. The head of the Ch'i family is often criticized in the Analects for similar improprieties. 『3-2』三家者以雍徹。子曰：「相維辟公, 天子穆穆」, 奚取於三家之堂 」 [3:2] The Three Families used the Yung Songs at the clearing of the sacrificial vessels. Confucius said, Attended on by Lords and Princes: How magnificent is the Son of Heaven! How could these words be used in the halls of the Three Families? 『3-3』子曰：「人而不仁, 如禮何。人而不仁, 如樂何 」 [3:3] Confucius said: "If a man has no humaneness what can his propriety be like? If a man has no humaneness what can his music be like?" [Comment] Since humaneness is the essence of all positive human attributes, without it, how can they truly operate? 『3-4』林放問禮之本。子曰：「大哉問禮, 與齊奢也, 寧儉; 喪, 與其易也, 寧戚。」 [3:4] Lin Fang asked about the fundamentals of ritual. Confucius said, "What an excellent question! In ritual, it is better to be frugal than extravagant; in funerals deep sorrow is better than ease." 『3-5』子曰：「夷狄之有君, 不如諸夏之亡也。」
[3:5] Confucius said: "The tribes of the East and North (Koreans and Mongolians), though having kings, are not equal to our people, even when lacking kings," [Comment] Either Confucius is an outright ethnic chauvinist, or he is pointing to a real difference in the relative level of cultural development at that time between the central Chinese kingdoms and the peoples of the outlying regions. 『3-6』 季氏旅於泰山。 子謂冉有曰： 「女弗能救與 」 曰： 對 「不能。 子曰： 」 「嗚呼 曾謂泰 山不如林放乎 」 [3:6] The Ji family went to make a sacrifice at Mt. Tai. The master said to Ranyu: "Can't you save them from this?" Yu responded: "I can't." The master said: "Alas! Does this meant that Mt. Tai is not the equal of Linfang?" 2 『3-7』子曰：「君子無所爭。必也射乎 揖讓而升, 下而飲。其爭也君子。」 [3:7] Confucius said: "The Superior Man has nothing to compete for. But if he must compete, he does it in an archery match, wherein he ascends to his position, bowing in deference. Descending, he drinks the ritual cup. This is the competition of the Superior Man." 『3-8』 子夏問曰： 「巧笑倩兮, 美目盼兮, 素以爲絢兮。 何爲也 」 子曰： 「繪事后素。 曰： 」 「禮后乎 」子曰：「起予者商也 始可與言詩矣。」 [3:8] Tzu Hsia quoted the following: Her tactful smile charms; Her eyes, fine and clear, Beautiful without accessories. And asked its meaning. Confucius said, "A painting is done on plain white paper." Tzu Hsia said, "Then are rituals a secondary thing?" Confucius said, "Ah, Shang, you uplift me. Now we can really begin to discuss the Book of Odes." [Comment] Among all the ancient classical works available to scholars of the time, Confucius seems to place special value on the Book of Odes, for its strength in moral teachings as well as the intellectual stimulation it provided. 『3-10』子曰：「禘, 自既灌而往者, 吾不欲觀之矣。」 [3:10] Confucius said: "At the Great Sacrifice, after the pouring of the libation, I have no further desire to watch." 『3-11』 或問禘之説。 子曰： 「不知也; 知其説者之於天下也, 其如示諸斯乎 」 指其掌。
[3:11] Someone asked for an explanation of the Great Sacrifice. Confucius said, "I don't know. If there were someone who knew this, he could see the whole world as if it were this" : He pointed to the palm of his hand. 『3-12』祭如在, 祭神如神在。子曰：「吾不與祭, 如不祭。」 [3:12] "Sacrificing as if present" means sacrificing to the spirits as if they were present. Confucius said, "If I do not personally offer the sacrifice, it is the same as not having sacrificed at all." 『3-13』 王孫賈問曰： 「與其媚於奧, 寧媚於竈; 何謂也 」 子曰： 「不然; 獲罪於天, 無所禱; 也。」 [3:13] Wang Sun Chia asked: "What do you think about the saying 'It is better to sacrifice to the god of the stove than to the god of the family shrine.' ?" Confucius said, "Not so. If you offend Heaven, there is no one you can pray to." 『3-14』子曰：「周監於二代, 郁郁乎文哉 吾從周。」 [3:14] Confucius said: "The people of the Chou were able to observe the prior two dynasties and thus their culture flourished. I now follow the Chou." 『3-15』 子入大廟, 毎事問。 或曰： 「孰謂＜624 Ｆ＞人之子知禮乎 入大廟, 毎事問。 子聞 」 之, 曰：「是禮也。」 [3:15] When Confucius entered the Grand Temple, he asked about everything. Someone said, "Who said Confucius is a master of ritual? He enters the Grand Temple and asks about everything!" Confucius, hearing this, said, "This is the ritual." 『3-16』子曰：「射不主皮, 爲力不同科, 古之道也。」 [3:16] Confucius said: "In archery it is not important to pierce through the leather covering of the target, since not all men have the same strength. This is the Way of the ancients." 『3-17』子貢欲去告朔之＜6867＞羊。子曰：「賜也 爾愛其羊, 我愛其禮。」 [3:17] Tzu Kung wanted to do away with the sacrifice of the sheep on the first of the month. Confucius said, "Tz'u, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony." 『3-18』子曰：「事君盡禮, 人以爲諂也。」
[3:18] Confucius said: "If you use every single courtesy while serving your prince, the people will call you a brown-noser." 『3-19』 定公問： 「君使臣, 臣事君, 如之何 」 孔子對曰： 「君使臣以禮, 臣事君以忠。 」 [3:19] Duke Ting asked how a ruler should employ his ministers and how a minister should serve his ruler. Confucius replied, saying: "The prince employs his ministers with propriety; the ministers serve their prince with good faith." 『3-20』子曰：「關雎, 樂而不淫, 哀而不傷。」 [3:20] Confucius said: "The Kuan Tzu3 allows for pleasure without being lewd and allows for grief without being too painful." 『3-21』 哀公問社於宰我。 宰我對曰： 「夏后氏以松, 殷人以柏, 周人以栗, 曰, 使民戰栗。 」 子聞之, 曰：「成事不説, 遂事不諫, 既往不咎。」 [3:21] The Duke of Ai asked Tsai Wo about sacred temple grounds. Tsai Wo said, "The Hsia emperor planted them with pines; the Hsiang people planted them with cypress and the Chou people planted them with chestnut, thinking to cause people to be in awe of these trees." Confucius, hearing this, said, "Don't bother explaining that which has already been done; don't bother criticizing that which is already gone; don't bother blaming that which is already past." 『3-22』 子曰： 「管仲之器小哉。 或曰： 」 「管仲儉乎 」 「管氏有三歸, 官事不攝, 焉得 曰： 儉 然則管仲知禮乎 」曰：「邦君樹塞門, 管氏亦樹塞門。邦君爲兩君之好, 有反坫 , 管 氏亦有反坫 。管氏而知禮, 孰不知禮 」 [3:22] Confucius said: "Kuan Chung was quite limited in capacity." Someone asked: "Wasn't Kuan Chung frugal?" Confucius said, "Kuan had three sets of wives and his officers never worked overtime. How can he be considered to have been frugal?" "But then did Kuan Chung understand propriety?" Confucius said, "The princes of the states have a special ritual screen at their door, and so did Kuan Chung (even though he was not of the proper rank to do this). When the princes of state had a friendly meeting, they would ritually turn their cups over on the table. Kuan also turned his cups over on the table. If Kuan Chung understood propriety, then who doesn't?" 『3-23』 子語魯大師樂, 曰： 「樂其可知也：始作, 翕如也; 從之, 純如也, 皦如也, 繹如也, 以成。」
[3:23] Confucius, when talking with the Grand Music Master of Lu, said, "In my understanding of music, the piece should be begun in unison. Afterwards, if it is pure, clear and without break, it will be perfect." 『3-24』 儀封人請見, 曰： 「君子之至於斯也, 吾未嘗不得見也。 從者見之。 」 出曰： 「二三 子何患於喪乎 天下之無道也久矣, 天將以夫子爲木鐸。」 [3:24] The border guard at Yi requested an audience with the Master, saying: "Whenever a Superior Man comes here, I never miss the opportunity to see him." The disciples sent him in. When he came out, he said, "Friends, don't have any doubts about your master failing. The world has certainly lacked the Way for a long time now, but Heaven will use your master to awaken everyone." 『3-26』子曰：「居上不寛, 爲禮不敬, 臨喪不哀, 吾何以觀之哉 」 [3:26] Confucius said: "Men of high office who are narrow-minded; propriety without respect and funerals without grief: how can I bear to look at such things?!"
4. 里仁 『4-1』子曰：「里仁爲美。擇不處仁, 焉得知 」 [4:1] Confucius said: "As for a neighborhood, it is its humaneness that makes it beautiful. If you choose to live in a place that lacks humaneness, how can you grow in wisdom?" 『4-2』子曰：「不仁者, 不可以久處約, 不可以長處樂。仁者安仁, 知者利仁。」 [4:2] Confucius said: "If you lack humaneness you can't handle long periods of difficulty or long periods of comfort. Humane men are comfortable in humaneness. The wise take advantage of humaneness." 『4-3』子曰：「唯仁者, 能好人, 能惡人。」 [4:3] Confucius said: "Only the humane person is able to really like others or to really dislike them." 『4-4』子曰：「苟志於仁矣, 無惡也。」 [4:4] Confucius said: "If you are really committed to humaneness, you will have no evil in you."
『4-5』 子曰： 「富與貴, 是人之所欲也; 不以其道得之, 不處也。 貧與賤, 是人之惡也; 不以 其道得之, 不去也。君子去仁, 惡乎成名。君子無終食之間違仁, 造次必於是, 顛沛必於 是。」 [4:5] Confucius said, "Riches and honors are what all men desire. But if they cannot be attained in accordance with the Way they should not be kept. Poverty and low status are what all men hate. But if they cannot avoided in while staying in accordance with the Way, you should not avoid them. If a Superior Man departs from humaneness, how can he be worthy of that name? A Superior Man never leaves humaneness for even the time of a single meal. In moments of haste he acts according to it. In times of difficulty or confusion he acts according to it." 『4-6』 子曰： 「我未見好仁者, 惡不仁者。 好仁者, 無以尚之; 惡不仁者, 其爲仁矣, 不使不 仁者加乎其身。 有能一日用其力於仁矣乎。 我未見力不足者。 蓋有之矣, 我未之見也。 」 [4:6] Confucius said: "I have never seen one who really loves humaneness or really hates non-humaneness. If you really loved humaneness you would not place anything above it. If you really hated the non-humaneness, you would not let it near you. Is there anyone who has devoted his strength to humaneness for a single day? I have not seen anyone who has lacked the strength to do so. Perhaps there has been such a case, but I have never seen it." 『4-7』子曰：「人之過也, 各於其黨。觀過, 斯知仁矣。」 [4:7] Confucius said: "People err according to their own level. It is by observing a person's mistakes that you can know his/her goodness." [Comment] No one is perfect, free from error. But when someone makes a mistake in a human relationship, we can tell by the type of mistake, and by the person's way of dealing with it, what her/his true character is like. 『4-8』子曰：「朝聞道, 夕死可矣 」 [4:8] Confucius said: "If I can hear the Way in the morning, in the evening I can die content." 『4-9』子曰：「士志於道, 而恥惡衣惡食者, 未足與議也 」 [4:9] "A shih who is set on the way, but is ashamed of old clothes and coarse food, is not worth consulting." [Comment] The title shih is translated into English with such terms as "elite" , "knight" , "scholar," etc. While the shih of later Chinese history is more definitely a scholar than a knight, in the Analects, what Confucius is referring to is a level of spiritual/moral development, as well as academic and martial
cultivation which is clearly above that of the average person. Thus, we can understand the shih to be a person who is well on the way toward becoming a "Superior Man," but is not quite there yet. I am reluctant to render shih, as either "scholar" or "knight" because of the limitations in meaning that occur with these English words. 『4-10』子曰：「君子之於天下也, 無適也, 無莫也, 義之於比。」 [4:10] Confucius said: "When the Superior Man deals with the world he is not prejudiced for or against anything. He does what is Right." 『4-11』子曰：「君子懷徳, 小人懷土; 君子懷刑, 小人懷惠。」 [4:11] Confucius said: "The Superior Man cares about virtue; the inferior man cares about material things. The Superior Man seeks discipline; the inferior man seeks favors." 『4-12』子曰：「放於利而行, 多怨。」 [4:12] Confucius said: "If you do everything with a concern for your own advantage, you will be resented by many people." 『4-13』子曰：「能以禮讓爲國乎, 何有 不能以禮讓爲國, 如禮何 」 [4:13] Confucius said: "If you can govern the country by putting propriety first, what else will you need to do? If you can't govern your country by putting propriety first, how could you even call it propriety?" 『4-14』子曰：「不患無位, 患所以立; 不患莫己知, 求爲可知也。」 [4:14] Confucius said: "I don't worry abut not having a good position; I worry about the means I use to gain position. I don't worry about being unknown; I seek to be known in the right way." 『4-15』 子曰： 「參乎 吾道一以貫之。曾子曰： 」 「唯。子出。 」 門人問曰： 「何謂也 」 曾子曰： 「夫子之道, 忠恕而已矣。」 [4:15] Confucius said: "Shan, my Way is penetrated by a single thread." Tseng Tzu said, "Yes." When the Master left, some disciples asked what he meant. Tseng Tzu said, "Our master's Way is to be sincere and fair, and that's it." 『4-16』子曰：「君子喩於義, 小人喩於利。」 [4:16] Confucius said: "The Superior Man is aware of Rightness, the inferior man is aware of advantage."
『4-17』子曰：「見賢思齊焉; 見不賢而内自省也。」 [4:17] Confucius said: "When you see a good person, think of becoming like her/him. When you see someone not so good, reflect on your own weak points." 『4-18』子曰：「事父母几諫。見志不從, 又敬不違, 勞而不怨。」 [4:18] Confucius said: "When you serve your mother and father it is okay to try to correct them once in a while. But if you see that they are not going to listen to you, keep your respect for them and don't distance yourself from them. Work without complaining." 『4-19』子曰：「父母在, 不遠游, 游必有方。」 [4:19] Confucius said: "While your parents are alive, it is better not to travel far away. If you do travel, you should have a precise destination." 『4-20』子曰：「三年無改於父之道, 可謂孝矣。」 [4:20] Confucius said: "If, for three years (after your father's death) you don't alter his ways of doing things, you can certainly be called 'filial.' " 『4-21』子曰：「父母之年, 不可不知也：一則以喜, 一則以懼。」 [4:21] Confucius said: "Your parents' age should not be ignored. Sometimes it will be a source of joy, and sometimes it will be a source of apprehension." 『4-22』子曰：「古者言之不出, 恥躬之不逮也。」 [4:22] Confucius said: "The ancients were hesitant to speak, fearing that their actions would not do justice to their words." 『4-23』子曰：「以約失之者, 鮮矣。」 [4:23] Confucius said: "If you are strict with yourself, your mistakes will be few." 『4-24』子曰：「君子欲訥於言, 而敏於行。」 [4:24] Confucius said: "The Superior Man desires to be hesitant in speech, but sharp in action." 『4-25』子曰：「德不孤, 必有鄰。」 [4:25] Confucius said: "If you are virtuous, you will not be lonely. You will always have friends."
『4-26』子游曰：「事君數, 斯辱矣; 朋友數, 斯疏矣。」 [4:26] Tzu Yu said: "In serving your prince, frequent remonstrance will lead to disgrace. With friends, frequent remonstrance will lead to separation."
5. 公冶長 『5-1』子謂公冶長, 「可妻也。雖在縲絏之中, 非其罪也。」以其子妻之。 [5:1] Confucius said of Kung Ye Chang that he was fit for marriage. Even though he was arrested once, he had been innocent; therefore Confucius gave him his daughter in marriage. 『5-2』子謂南容, 「邦有道不廢, 邦無道免於刑戮。」以其兄之子妻之。 [5:2] Confucius said of Nan Yung that if the Way prevailed in the state he would never lack an official post. If the Way was lacking in the state, he would avoid getting into trouble. He gave him the daughter of his own elder brother in marriage. 『5-3』子謂子賤, 「君子哉若人。魯無君子者, 斯焉取斯 」 [5:3] Confucius said of Tzu Chien: "He is a Superior Man. If the state of Lu is really lacking Superior Men how could he have acquired such a character?" 『5-4』 子貢問曰： 「賜也何如 」 子曰： 「女, 器也。 曰： 」 「何器也 」 「瑚＜4 Ｃ 50＞ 曰： 也。」 [5:4] Tzu Kung asked: "What do you say of me?" Confucius said, "You are a vessel." "What kind of vessel." "A gemmed sacrificial vessel." 『5-5』 或曰： 「雍也仁而不佞。 子曰： 」 「焉用佞 禦人以口給, 屢 憎於人。 不知其仁, 焉用 佞 」 [5:5] Someone said: "Yung is a humane man, but he is not sharp enough with his tongue." Confucius said, "Why does he need to be sharp with his tongue? If you deal with people by smooth talk, you will soon be disliked. I don't know if Yung is a humane man, but why should he have to be a clever speaker?" 『5-6』子使漆雕 開仕。對曰：「吾斯之未能信。」子説。
[5:6] Confucius encouraged Ch'i Tiao K'ai to get employment as an official. He replied: "I am not yet sincere enough." The master was pleased. 『5-7』 子曰： 「道不行, 乘桴浮于海。 從我者, 其由與 」 子路聞之喜。 子曰： 「由也好勇過我, 無所取材。」 [5:7] Confucius said: "The Way is not practiced. I shall go ride a raft on the ocean— and I imagine Yu would go with me." Tzu Lu was very happy to hear this. Confucius said, "Yu likes daring more than I, but he lacks discretion." 『5-8』 孟武伯問子路仁乎 子曰： 「不知也。又問。 」 子曰： 「由也, 千乘之國, 可使治其賦也, 不知其仁也。 求也何如 」 」 「 子曰： 「求也, 千室之邑, 百乘之家, 可使爲之宰也, 不知其仁 也。」「赤也何如 」子曰：「赤也, 束帶立於朝, 可使與賓客言也, 不知其仁也。」 [5:8] Meng Wu Po asked Confucius whether Tzu Lu was a humane man. Confucius said, "I don't know." He asked again. Confucius said, "Yu could direct the public works forces in a state of 1, 000 chariots, but I don't know if I would call him a humane man." Meng again asked: "What about Ch'iu?" Confucius said, "Ch'iu could be the governor of a city of 1, 000 families, or of a clan of 100 chariots, but I don't know if he is a humane man." Meng asked: "What about Ch'ih?" The Master said, "Dressed up with his sash, placed in the middle of the court, he could make conversation with the guests, but I don't know if he is a humane man." 『5-9』 子謂子貢曰： 「女與囘也, 孰愈 」 對曰： 「賜也, 何敢望囘。 囘也, 聞一以知十; 賜也, 聞一知二。」子曰：「弗如也; 吾與女, 弗如也。」 [5:9] Confucius, speaking to Tzu Kung said, "Who is superior, you or Hui?" Tzu Kung answered, saying: "How could I compare myself to Hui? He hears one point and understands the whole thing. I hear one point and understand another." Confucius said, "You are not equal to him; you are right, you are not equal to him." 『5-10』 宰予晝寢。 子曰： 「朽木不可雕也, 糞土之牆不可朽也。 於予與何誅 」 子曰： 「始吾 於人也, 聽其言而信其行; 今吾於人也, 聽其言而觀其行。於予與改是。」 [5:10] Tsai Yu slept during the daytime. Confucius said, "Rotten wood cannot be carved; dirty earth cannot be used for cement: why bother scolding him? At first I used to listen to what people said and expect them to act accordingly. Now I listen to what people say and watch what they do. I learned this from Yu."
『5-11』 子曰： 「吾未見剛者。 或對曰： 」 「申＜4424＞。 子曰： 」 「＜4424＞也慾, 焉得剛 」 [5:11] Confucius said: "I have not yet met a really solid man." Someone said, "What about Shan Ch'ang?" Confucius said, "Ch'ang is ruled by lust. How could he be solid?" 『5-12』 子貢曰： 「我不欲人之加諸我也, 吾亦欲無加諸人。 子曰： 」 「賜也, 非爾所及也。 」 [5:12] Tzu Kung said: "What I don't want done to me, I don't want to do to others." Confucius said, "Tz'u, you have not yet gotten to this level." 『5-13』子貢曰：「夫子之文章, 可得而聞也; 夫子之言性與天道, 不可得而聞也。」 [5:13] Tzu Kung said: "What our Master has to say about the classics can be heard and also embodied. Our Master's words on the essence and the Heavenly Way, though not attainable, can be heard." 『5-14』子路有聞, 未之能行, 唯恐有聞。 [5:14] When Tzu Lu heard a teaching and had not yet put it into practice, he would be apprehensive about hearing something new in the meantime. 『5-15』 子貢問曰： 「孔文子何以謂之 『5-文』 」 也 子曰： 「敏而好學, 不恥下問, 是以謂之 『5-文』也。」 [5:15] Tzu Kung asked: "How did Kung Wen Tzu get the title 'wen' " ? (wen = learned, literary, refined) Confucius said, "He was diligent and loved to study. He was also unashamed to ask questions to his inferiors. Therefore he got the name wen." 『5-16』 子謂子産, 「有君子之道四焉：其行己也恭, 其事上也敬, 其養民也惠, 其使民也 義。」 [5:16] Confucius said that Tzu Chan had four characteristics of the Superior Man: In his private conduct he was courteous; in serving superiors he was respectful, in providing for the people he was kind; in dealing with the people he was just. 『5-17』子曰：「晏平仲善與人交, 久而敬之。」 [5:17] Confucius said: "Yen P'ing Chung was good at getting along with people. Even after a long period of acquaintance, he would continue to treat them with respect."
『5-19』 子張問曰： 「令尹子文三仕爲令尹, 無喜色; 三已之, 無慍色。 舊令尹之政, 必以告 新令尹。 何如 」 子曰： 「忠矣。 曰： 」 「仁矣乎 」 「未知; 焉得仁 」 曰： 「崔子殺齊君, 陳文 子有馬十乘, 棄而違之。 至於他邦, 則曰,『猶吾大崔子也。 違之; 之一邦, 則又曰： 』 『猶吾 大夫崔子也。 違之。 』 何如 」 子曰： 「清矣。 曰： 」 「仁矣乎 」 子曰： 「未之; 焉得仁 」 [5:19] Tzu Chang asked: "The Chief Minister Tzu Wen was appointed three times, but never showed any sign of pleasure. He was fired three times, but never showed any sign of disappointment. He would always inform the incoming minister on all the details of the prior government. What do you think of him?" Confucius said, "He was loyal." "Was he humane?" Confucius said, "I don't know what he did to deserve to be called humane." Tzu Chang again asked: "When Ch'iu Tzu assassinated the prince of Ch'i, Ch'an Wen Tzu, who had a fief of ten chariots, abandoned them and left the state. Arriving to another state, he said, 'The government here is just like that of the officer Ch'iu Tzu.' and he left it. Coming to another state he said, 'They are again just like the officer Ch'iu Tzu.' and he left. What do you think of him?" Confucius said, "He was pure." "Was he humane?" "I don't know what he did to merit being called humane." 『5-20』季文子三思而後行。子聞之, 曰：「再, 斯可矣。」 [5:20] Chi Wen Tzu contemplated something three times before acting upon it. When Confucius heard this, he said, "Twice is enough." 『5-21』子曰：「甯 武子, 邦有道, 則知; 邦無道, 則愚。其知可及也; 其愚不可及也。」 [5:21] Confucius said: "When the Way prevailed in the state, Ning Wu Tzu showed his intelligence. When the Way declined in the state, he played stupid. Someone might be able to match his intelligence, but no one can match his stupidity." 『5-22』子在陳曰：「歸與 歸與 吾黨之小子狂簡, 斐然成章, 不知所以裁之。」 [5:22] Once, when Confucius was in Ch'an, he said, "I must return! I must return! My young disciples are wild 4 and unbridled. Though they are developing well, they don't always know when to restrain themselves." 『5-23』子曰：「伯夷、叔齊不念舊惡, 怨是用希。」 [5:23] Confucius said: "Po Yi and Shu Chi did not keep others' former wrongdoings in mind, and so there was little resentment against them."
[Comment] Po Yi and Shu Chi are two ministers of antiquity, famous for their virtue. 『5-24』子曰：「孰謂微生高直。或乞醯 焉, 乞諸鄰而與之。」 [5:24] Confucius said: "Who said that Wei Shang Kai is of straight character? Someone begged vinegar from him, and he went and got some from his neighbors and gave it to him." (Rather than giving his own). 『5-25』 子曰： 「巧言、 令色、 足恭, 左丘明恥之, 丘亦恥之。 匿怨而友其人, 左丘明恥之, 丘 亦恥之。」 [5:25] Confucius said: "Clever words, a pretentious face and too-perfect courtesy: Tso Ch'iu Ming was ashamed of them. I am also ashamed of them. Concealing one's resentments and acting friendly to people: Tso Ch'iu Ming was ashamed to act this way and so am I." 『5-26』 顏淵、 季路侍。 子曰： 「盍各言爾志 」 子路曰： 「願車馬、 衣輕裘, 與朋友共, 蔽之 而無憾。 顏淵曰： 」 「願無伐善, 無施勞。 子路曰： 」 「願聞子之志。 子曰： 」 「老者安之, 朋 友信之, 少者懷之。」 [5:26] Yen Yüan and Tzu Lu were by the Master's side. He said to them: "Why don't each of you tell me of your aspirations?" Tzu Lu said, "I would like to have wagons, horses and light fur coats to give to my friends, and if they damaged them, not to get angry." Yen Yüan said, "I would like not to be proud of my good points and not to show off my works." Tzu Lu said, "What are your wishes, Teacher?" Confucius said, "I would like to give comfort to the aged, trust to my friends and nurturance to the young." 『5-27』子曰：「已矣乎 吾未見能見其過, 而自訟者也。」 [5:27] Confucius said: "It's all over! I have not yet met someone who can see his own faults and correct them within himself." 『5-28』子曰：「十室之邑, 必有忠信如丘者焉, 不如丘之好學也。」 [5:28] Confucius said: "In a hamlet of ten families there must be someone as loyal and trustworthy as I. But I doubt there will be someone as fond of study."
『6-1』子曰：「雍也可使南面。」 [6:1] Confucius said: "Yung could fulfill the role of 'facing south' (being a ruler)." 『6-2』 仲弓問子桑伯子。 子曰： 「可也簡。仲弓曰： 」 「居敬而 行簡, 以臨其民, 不亦不可乎 居簡而行簡, 無乃大簡乎 」子曰：「雍之言然。」 [6:2] Chung Kung asked about Tzu-sang Po-tzu. Confucius said, "He will do. He is easygoing." Chung Kung said, "Maybe if you are easygoing but abide in reverence it is all right. But if you abide in easygoingness and are also easygoing in your activities, wouldn't that be excessive?" Confucius said, "Yung is right." 『6-3』 哀公問： 「弟子孰爲好學」 孔子對曰： 。 「有顏囘者。 好學, 不遷怒, 不貳過。 不幸短 命死矣, 今也則亡, 未聞好學者也。」 [6:3] The Duke of Ai asked which disciple loved to study. Confucius answered: "There was Yen Hui. He loved to study, he didn't transfer his anger to the wrong person, and he didn't repeat his mistakes. Unfortunately he died young. Since then I have not yet met anyone who loves to study the way he did." 『6-6』 子謂仲弓，曰：「犁牛之子騂且角，雖欲勿用，山川其舍諸？」 [6:6] Confucius, speaking of Chung Kung said: "The calf of a brindled ox could be all red and have good horns.5 But even if we decide not to use it, would nature [lit. 'the mountains and rivers' ] cast it away?" 6 『6-7』子曰：「回也，其心三月不違仁，其餘則日月至焉而已矣。」 [6:7] Confucius said: "Hui could keep his mind on humaneness for three months without lapse. Others are lucky if they can do it for one day out of a month." 『6-8』 季康子問： 「仲由可使從政也與 」 子曰： 「由也果，於從政乎何有 」 「賜也可 曰： 使政也與 」 「賜也達，於從政乎何有 」 「求也可使從政也與 」 「求也藝，於 曰： 曰： 曰： 從政乎何有 」 [6:8] Chi K'ang Tzu asked whether Chung Yu was capable of serving in the government. Confucius said, "Yu is efficient. What problem could he have in handling government work?" K'ang asked: "Is Tz'u capable of serving in the government?"
Confucius said, "Tz'u is intelligent. What problem could he have in handling government work?" "And what about Ch'iu?" Confucius said, "Ch'iu is talented. What difficulty would he have in handling government work?" 『6-9』 季氏使閔子騫爲費宰。 閔子騫曰： 「善爲我辭焉 如有復我者，則吾必在汶上矣。 」 [6:9] The head of the Ch'i family sent to Min Tzu Ch'ien to ask him to govern P'i for them. Min Tzu Ch'ien said, "Please decline for me politely. If they pursue me further, I shall have to go live on the banks of the Wen River." 7 『6-10』 伯牛有疾，子問之，自牖執其手，曰： 「亡之，命矣夫 斯人也。 有斯疾也 斯人 也。有斯疾也。 」 [6:10] Po Niu was sick and Confucius came to see him. He held his hand through the window and said, "He is dying! How awful it is that this kind of man should be sick like this! How awful it is that this kind of man should be sick like this!" 『6-11』 子曰： 「賢哉，回也 一簞食，一瓢飲，在陋巷，人不堪其憂，回也不改其樂。 賢 哉，回也 。」 [6:11] Confucius said: "Hui was indeed a worthy! With a single bamboo bowl of rice and gourd-cup of water he lived in a back alley. Others could not have endured his misery, but Hui never changed from his happy disposition. Hui was a worthy indeed!" [Comment] In Confucian and Taoist thought, the term hsien ('worthy') means "good, kind, intelligent, courageous," etc. But it is also a technical term for a person of a high level of moral and intellectual advancement. Generally speaking, it indicates someone who is "almost perfect" but who is not a "divine being," a sage. 『6-12』 冉求曰： 「非不説子之道，力不足也。 子曰： 」 「力不足者，中道而廢。 今女畫。 」 [6:12] Yen Ch'iu said: "It is not that I don't enjoy your Way, but my strength is not enough." Confucius said, "Those whose strength is not enough give up half way. You are now limiting yourself." 『6-13』子謂子夏曰：「女爲君子儒 無爲小人儒 」 [6:13] Confucius said to Tzu Hsia: "Be a noble scholar; don't be a petty scholar."
『6-14』 子游爲武城宰。 子曰： 「女得人焉爾乎 」 「有澹臺滅明者，行不由徑，非公事， 曰： 未嘗至於偃之室也。」 [6:14] Tzu Yu became the governor of Wu Chang. The Master said, "Have you got any good men working for you?" He answered: "I have Tan-t'ai Mie-ming, who never takes short cuts in his work and does not come to my office unless he has real business to discuss." 『6-15』子曰：「孟之反不伐，奔而殿，將入門，策其馬，曰：「『非敢後也，馬不進 也。』」 [6:15] Confucius said: "Meng Chih Fan is not boastful. Once he was covering the rear during a retreat, and when he was about to enter the gate, he whipped his horse and said, 'I wasn't so brave as to be last. My horse would not run fast enough.' " 『6-16』子曰：「不有祝鮀之佞，而有宋朝之美，難乎免於今之世矣。」 [6:16] Confucius said: "Without the smooth speech of Preacher T'o or the good looks of Prince Chao of Sung, it is difficult to stay out of trouble in the present age." 『6-17』子曰：「誰能出不由戸。何莫由斯道也 」 [6:17] Confucius said: "Who can go out without using the door? So why doesn't any body follow the Way?" 『6-18』子曰：「質勝文則野，文勝質則史。文質彬彬，然後君子。」 [6:18] Confucius said: "If raw substance dominates refinement, you will be coarse. If refinement dominates raw substance, you will be clerical. When refinement and raw qualities are well blended, you will be a Superior Man." 『6-19』子曰：「人之生也直，罔之生也幸而免。」 [6:19] Confucius said: "People are straightforward at birth. Once they lose this, they rely on luck to avoid trouble." 『6-20』子曰：「知之者不如好之者，好之者不如樂之者。」 [6:20] Confucius said: "Knowing it is not as good as loving it; loving it is not as good as delighting in it." 『6-21』子曰：「中人以上，可以語上也；中人以下，不可以語上也。」
[6:21] Confucius said: "You can teach high-level topics to those of above-average ability, but you can't teach high-level topics to those of less than average ability." 『6-22』 樊遲問知。 子曰： 「務民之義，敬鬼神而遠之，可謂知矣。 問仁。 「仁者先難 」 曰： 而後獲，可謂仁矣。」 [6:22] Fan Ch'ih asked about the marks of wisdom. Confucius said, "Working to give the people justice and paying respect to the spirits, but keeping away from them, you can call wisdom." He asked about the marks of humaneness. Confucius said, "Ah yes, humaneness. If you suffer first and then attain it, it can be called humaneness." 『6-23』子曰：「知者樂水，仁者樂山。知者動，仁者靜。知者樂，仁者壽。」 [6:23] Confucius said: "The wise enjoy the sea, the humane enjoy the mountains. The wise are busy, the humane are tranquil. The wise are happy, the humane are eternal." 『6-24』子曰：「齊一變，至於魯；魯一變，至於道。」 [6:24] Confucius said: "The state of Ch'i, with one change, could be at the level of Lu. The state of Lu, with one change, could attain to the Way." 『6-25』子曰：「觚不觚，觚哉， 觚哉 。」 [6:25] Confucius said: "A cornered vessel without corners! Is it a cornered vessel or not?" 『6-26』 宰我問曰： 「仁者，雖告之曰，｢井有仁焉。 ｣其從之也 子曰： 「何爲其然也 君子 可逝也，不可陷也；可欺也，不可罔也。」 [6:26] Tsai Wo asked: "If you tell a humane man that there is humaneness at the bottom of the well, will he climb into it?" Confucius said, "Are you kidding? The Superior Man will go to the well but not fall into it. He can be deceived, but not to the point of serious loss!" 『6-27』子曰：「君子博學於文，約之以禮，亦可以弗畔矣夫 。」 [6:27] Confucius said: "The Superior Man who studies culture extensively, and disciplines himself with propriety can keep from error." 『6-28』子見南子，子路不説。夫子矢之曰：「予所否者，天厭之 天厭之。」
[6:28] The Master visited Nan Tzu (a woman known for her sexual excesses) and Tzu Lu was displeased. The Master dealt with this, saying: "Whatever I have done wrong, may Heaven punish me! May Heaven punish me!" 『6-29』子曰：「中庸之爲德也，其至矣乎 民鮮久矣。」 [6:29] Confucius said: "Even over a long period of time, there have been few people who have actualized the Mean into Manifest Virtue." 『6-30』 子貢曰： 「如有博施於民而能濟衆，何如 可謂仁乎 」 子曰： 「何事於仁 必也聖 乎 堯舜其猶病諸 夫仁者，己欲立而立人，己欲達而達人。能近取譬，可謂仁之方也 已。」 [6:30] Tzu Kung asked: "Suppose there were a ruler who benefited the people far and wide and was capable of bringing salvation to the multitude, what would you think of him? Might he be called humane?" The Master said, "Why only humane? He would undoubtedly be a sage. Even Yao and Shun would have had to strive to achieve this. Now the humane man, wishing himself to be established, sees that others are established, and, wishing himself to be successful, sees that others are successful. To be able to take one's own feelings as a guide may be called the art of humaneness."
7. 述而 『7-1』子曰：「述而不作, 信而好古, 竊比於我老彭。」 [7:1] Confucius said: "I am a transmitter, rather than an original thinker. I trust and enjoy the teachings of the ancients. In my heart I compare myself to old P'eng." 『7-2』子曰：「默而識之, 學而不厭, 誨人不倦, 何有於我哉 」 [7:2] Confucius said: "Keeping silent and thinking; studying without satiety, teaching others without weariness: these things come natural to me." 『7-3』子曰：「德之不修, 學之不講, 聞義不能徒, 不善不能改, 是吾憂也。」 [7:3] Confucius said: "Having virtue and not cultivating it; studying and not sifting; hearing what is just and not following; not being able to change wrongdoing: these are the things that make me uncomfortable." 『7-4』子之燕居, 申申如也, 夭夭如也。」 [7:4] During the Master's leisure time he was relaxed and enjoyed himself.
『7-5』子曰：「甚矣吾衰也 久矣吾不復夢見周公 」 [7:5] Confucius said: "I am really going down the drain. I have not dreamt of the Duke of Chou for a long time now." 『7-6』子曰：「志於道, 據於徳, 依於仁, 游於藝。」 [7:6] Confucius said: "Set your aspirations on the Way, hold to virtue, rely on your humaneness, and relax in the study of the arts." 『7-7』子曰：「自行束脩以上, 吾未嘗無誨焉。」 [7:7] Confucius said: "From the one who brought a bundle of dried meat (the poorest person) upwards, I have never denied a person my instruction." 『7-8』子曰：「不憤不啓, 不悱 不發。擧一隅不以三隅反, 則不復也。」 [7:8] Confucius said: "If a student is not eager, I won't teach him; if he is not struggling with the truth, I won't reveal it to him. If I lift up one corner and he can't come back with the other three, I won't do it again." 『7-9』子食於有喪者之側, 未嘗飽也。 [7:9] If the Master sat beside a person in mourning, he would not eat to the full. If he had wept on a certain day, he would not sing. 『7-11』 子謂顏淵曰： 「用之則行, 舍之則藏, 惟我與爾有是夫。子路曰： 」 「子行三軍, 則誰 與 」子曰：「暴虎馮河, 死而不悔者, 吾不與也。必也臨事而懼, 好謀而成者也。」 [7:11] Confucius said to Yen Yüan: When needed, acting When not needed, concealing. "Only you and I can do this." Tzu Lu said, "If you had to handle a major army, who would you choose to assist you?" Confucius said, "I would not select the kind of man who likes to wrestle with tigers or cross rivers on foot, who can die without a second thought (like Tzu Lu). It must be someone who approaches his business with caution, who likes to plan things well and see them to their completion." 『7-12』子曰：「富而可求也，誰執鞭之士，吾亦爲之。如不可求，從吾所好。」
[7:12] Confucius said: "If the attainment of wealth was guaranteed in its seeking, even if I were to become a groom with a whip in hand to get it, I would do so. But since its attainment cannot be guaranteed, I will go with that which I love." 『7-13』子之所慎：齊，戰，疾。 [7:13] The things with which the Master was cautious, were fasting, war and sickness. 『7-14』子在齊聞韶，三月不知肉味，曰：「不圖爲樂之至於斯也。」 [7:14] When Confucius was in Ch'i, he heard the Shao music, and for three months did not know the taste of meat. He said, "I never knew music could reach this level of excellence!" 『7-15』 冉有曰： 「夫子爲衛君乎 」 子貢曰： 「諾；吾將問之。 入，曰： 」 「伯夷、 叔齊何人 也 」 「古之賢人也。 曰： 曰： 」 「怨乎 」 「求仁而得仁，又何怨 」 曰： 出，曰： 「夫子不爲 也。」 [7:15] Yen Yu said: "Is our Teacher in favor of the ruler of Wei?" Tzu Kung said, "Well, I will go find out." He entered the Teacher's room and asked: "What kind of men were Po Yi and Shu Chi?" Confucius said, "They were ancient worthies." Tzu Kung asked: "Weren't they resented by anyone?" Confucius said, "If you seek humaneness and attain it, what resentment can you incur?" Tzu Kung came out and said, "He is not in favor of him"8 " 『7-16』子曰：「飯疏食飲水，曲肱而枕之，樂亦在其中矣。不義而富且貴，於我如浮 雲。」 [7:16] Confucius said: "I can live with coarse rice to eat, water for drink and my arm as a pillow and still be happy. Wealth and honors that one possesses in the midst of injustice are like floating clouds." 『7-17』子曰：「加我數年，五十以學易，可以無大過矣。」 [7:17] Confucius said: "If I could add 50 years to my life, I would study the Changes and become free of error." 『7-18』子所雅言，詩、書、執禮，皆雅言也。
[7:18] Topics which the Teacher regularly discussed were the Book of Odes, the Book of History, and the maintenance of propriety. These were the topics which he regularly discussed. 『7-19』 葉公問孔子於子路，子路不對。 子曰： 「女奚不曰，其爲人也，發憤忘食，樂以 忘憂，不知老之將至云爾。」 [7:19] The Duke of Sheh asked Tzu Lu about Confucius. Tzu Lu didn't answer him. The Teacher said, "Why didn't you just tell him that I am a man who in eagerness for study forgets to eat, in his enjoyment of it, forgets his problems and who is unaware of old age setting in?" 『7-20』子曰：「我非生而知之者，好古，敏以求之者也。 [7:20] Confucius said: "I was not born with wisdom. I love the ancient teachings and have worked hard to attain to their level." 『7-21』子不語怪，力，亂，神。 [7:21] The master never discussed strange phenomena, physical exploits, disorder or ghost stories. 『7-22』子曰：「三人行, 必有我師焉：擇其善者而從之, 其不善者而改之。」 [7:22] Confucius said: "When three men are walking together, there is one who can be my teacher. I pick out people's good and follow it. When I see their bad points, I correct them in myself." 『7-23』子曰：「天生德於予，桓魋其如予何 」 [7:23] Confucius said: "Heaven gave birth to the virtue within me. What can Huan T'ui9 do to me?" 『7-24』子曰：「二三子以我爲隱乎 吾無隱乎爾。吾無行而不與二三子者，是丘也。 [7:24] Confucius said to his disciples: "My boys, do you think I conceal things from you? There is nothing I conceal from you. There is nothing that I do that is not right out in front of you. That is the way I am." 『7-25』子以四教：文，行，忠，信。 [7:25] The Master taught four things: Culture, correct action, loyalty and trust. 『7-26』 子曰： 「聖人，吾不得而見之矣；得見君子者，斯可矣。 子曰： 」 「善人，吾不得 而見之矣；得見有恆者，斯可矣。亡而爲有，虚而爲盈，約而爲泰，難乎有恆矣。」
[7:26] Confucius said: "I have not yet been able to meet a sage, but I would be satisfied to meet a Superior Man. I have not yet met a man of true goodness, but would be satisfied to meet a man of constancy. Lacking, yet possessing; empty, yet full; in difficulty yet at ease. How difficult it is to have constancy!" 『7-27』子釣而不綱, 弋不射宿。 [7:27] When the Master went fishing, he did not use a net; when he hunted, he would not shoot at a perched bird. 『7-28』 子曰： 「蓋有不知而作之者，我無是也。 多聞，擇其善者而從之；多見而識之； 知之次也。」 [7:28] Confucius said: "There may be those who can act creatively without knowledge. I am not at this level. I listen widely, select the good and follow their ways. I observe broadly and contemplate. This is the second level of knowledge. (For the levels of knowledge, see Analects 16:9)." 『7-29』 互郷難與言，童子見，門人惑。 子曰： 「與其進也，不與其退也，唯何甚 人潔己 以進，與其潔也，不保其往也。」 [7:29] Since it was hard to have a worthwhile discussion with the people of Hohsiang, when one of their young men came to see the teacher, the disciples didn't know what to do with him. Confucius said, "Take people the way they come to you, not for the way they are after they leave. Why be so strict? If someone purifies his mind to approach you, accept him in his purity. Don't worry about what he does after he leaves." 『7-30』子曰：「仁遠乎哉 我欲仁，斯仁至矣。」 [7:30] Confucius said: "Is humaneness far away? If I aspire for humaneness it is right here!" 『7-31』 陳司敗問昭公知禮乎，孔子曰： 「知禮。 孔子退，揖巫馬期而進之，曰： 」 「吾聞 君子不黨，君子亦黨乎 君取於呉，爲同姓，謂之呉孟子。君而知禮，孰不知禮 」 巫馬 期以告。子曰：「丘也幸，苟有過，人必知之。」 [7:31] The Minister of Rightness in Ch'an asked whether the Duke of Chao knew the rules of propriety. Confucius said, "He did." When Confucius left, the minister bowed to (his prince) Wu Ma Ch'i and went up to him, saying: "I have heard that the Superior Man is not partisan, but maybe he can be since Prince Wu took a wife with the same surname, saying that she came
from 'the elder family of Wu.' If this prince knew the rules of propriety, then who doesn't know them?" Wu Ma Ch'i told this to Confucius. The Teacher said, "I am so lucky! When I make a mistake they always find it out." 『7-32』子與人歌而善，必使反之，而後和之。 [7:32] When the Teacher was singing with someone, and he found out that they sang well, he would make them start over again, and he would sing the harmony. 『7-33』子曰：「文，莫吾猶人也。躬行君子，則吾未之有得。」 [7:33] Confucius said: "In literature, perhaps I am equal to others. But I cannot manifest the behavior of the Superior Man." 『7-34』 子曰： 「若聖與仁，則吾豈敢 抑爲之不厭，誨人不倦，則可謂云爾已矣。 公西 」 華曰：「正唯弟子不能學也。」 [7:34] Confucius said: "I dare not claim to be a sage or a humane man. But I strive for these without being disappointed, and I teach without becoming weary. This is what can be said of me." Kung Hsi Hua said, "It is exactly these qualities that cannot be learned by the disciples." [7:34] The Master was very sick, and Tzu Lu said that he would pray for him. Confucius said, "is there such a thing?" Tzu Lu said, "There is. The Eulogies say: 'I pray for you to the spirits of the upper and lower realm.' " Confucius said, "Then I have been praying for a long time already." [7:35] Confucius said: "Luxury leads to laxity, frugality leads to firmness. It is better to be firm than to be lax." [7:36] Confucius said: "The Superior Man is always at ease with himself. The inferior man is always anxious." [7:37] The Master was mild yet strict, authoritative yet not mean, courteous, yet relaxed.
『8-1』子曰：「泰伯其可謂至徳也已矣。三以天下讓，民無得而稱焉。」 [8:1] Confucius said: "T'ai Po can be said to have had a perfected level of virtue. He declined the rule of the kingdom three times, without the people knowing about it." 『8-2』 子曰： 「恭而無禮則勞；慎而無禮則葸；勇而無禮則亂；直而無禮則絞。 君子篤於 親，則民興於仁。故舊不遺，則民不偸。」 [8:2] Confucius said: "Courtesy without propriety is wasted energy. Caution without propriety is timidity. Boldness without propriety is recklessness. Straightforwardness without propriety is rudeness. When the ruler is kind to those who are close to him, the people will be moved toward humaneness. If he does not forget his old friends, the people too, will not be fickle." [8:3] Tseng Tzu was ill. He summoned his disciples and said, "Uncover my feet and hands. The Book of Odes says:" He was cautious, Apprehensive. As if at the edge of a deep chasm; As if treading on thin ice. "From now, I know that I have gotten past this (sickness)." [8:4] While Tseng Tzu was ill, Meng Cheng Tzu went to see him. Tseng Tzu said, "When a bird is about to die, its song is melancholy. When a man is about to die, his words are excellent. The Way prized by the Superior Man has three aspects:" In his behavior and deportment he avoids brashness and arrogance. When paying attention to his facial expressions he is guided by honesty. When speaking, he avoids vulgarity and slander. As far as attending to the sacrificial tables— there are specialists hired for these jobs. [8:5] Tseng Tzu said: "Having ability, yet learning from the clumsy. Having much knowledge, but learning from the unlearned; possessing, yet seeming to lack, being full yet seeming empty, able to accept harm without retaliation: in the past I had a friend who could do this.10 " [8:6] Tseng Tzu said: "A man who can be entrusted with the care of the crown prince, who can take responsibility for a district of 100 li and who can handle a major crisis without losing touch with himself: Is he a Superior Man? He certainly is a Superior Man."
[8:7] Tseng Tzu said: "To be called a shih you must be open-minded as well as resolute, since your burden is heavy and your course is long. If you take humaneness as your burden, is it not heavy? If you continue to death, is it not long?" [8:8] Confucius said: "Be aroused by poetry; structure yourself with propriety, refine yourself with music." [8:9] Confucius said: "You might force people act according a certain principle, but you won't be able to force them to understand it." [8:10] Confucius said: "A man who enjoys boldness and hates poverty will be rebellious. If a man lacks humaneness and his dissatisfaction reaches an extreme, he will rebel." [8:11] Confucius said: "Perhaps you could be as handsome and as talented as the Duke of Chou. But if you are arrogant or stingy, those good qualities will not be noticed." [8:12] Confucius said: "It is quite rare to see someone who applies himself to the study of something for three years without having a noticeable result." [8:13] Confucius said: "Be of unwavering good faith and love learning. Be steadfast unto death in pursuit of the good Way. Do not enter a state which is in peril, nor reside in one which people have rebelled. When the Way prevails in the world, then show yourself. When it does not, then hide. When the Way prevails in your own state, to be poor and obscure is a disgrace. But when the Way does not prevail in your own state, to be rich and honored is a disgrace." [8:14] Confucius said: "If you don't have the official position, you can't plan the affairs of government." [8:15] Confucius said: "After Music Master Chih took over, the finale of the Kuan Tsu was magnificent. How it filled my ears!" [8:16] Confucius said: "I really don't know what to do with those who are ardent but not upright, frank but not careful, and naive but not honest." [8:17] Confucius said: "Study as if you have not reached your goal— as if you were afraid of losing what you have." 8:18 Confucius said: "How sublime was the manner in which Shun and Yu handled the empire, without lifting a finger!"
[Comment] Here we can see evidence of Confucius' clear understanding of governance by wu-wei or "non-manipulation," which is discussed at length in the Tao Te Ching and the Chuang Tzu. [8:19] Confucius said: "The rulership of Yao was so magnificent! He was so sublime that even though there is nothing as great as Heaven, he could accord with it. His greatness was so boundless it is beyond description. His efficacy was amazing, his writings were enlightening." [8:20] Shun, with five ministers, was able to successfully govern the empire. King Wu said, "Altogether I have ten ministers." Confucius said, "Their ability is the issue. Don't you think so? When the T'ang and Wu dynasties combined, they had as many ministers as you, with a woman and nine men. King Wen (of the Chou) controlled two-thirds of the empire, and with this, served the Yin. Indeed, the virtue of Chou can be called the epitome of virtue!" [8:21] Confucius said: "Yu was flawless in character. Surviving on the simplest food and drink, yet perfect in his piety to the ancestral spirits. Normally wearing coarse clothing, he looked magnificent in his ceremonial cap and gown. Living in a humble abode, he exhausted himself in the excavation of drainage ways and canals. I cannot find a flaw in his character!"
9. 子罕 『9-1』子罕言，利，與命，與仁。 [9:1] The master never spoke about advantage in connection with destiny or in connection with humaneness. [9:2] A man from Ta Hsiang said: "How great Confucius is! His learning is so broad. However, he is not known for expertise in any particular skill." When Confucius heard this, he said to his disciples: "What shall I take up? Shall I take up charioteering? Shall I take up archery? I think I will take up charioteering!" [9:3] Confucius said: "The linen cap is prescribed by the rules of propriety, but nowadays they use a silk one. It is economical, and I will go along with the consensus. Bowing below the hall is prescribed by the rules of propriety, but that is presumptuous. So even if I differ from the consensus, I will bow below the hall."
[9:4] There were four things the master had eliminated from himself: imposing his will, arbitrariness, stubbornness and egotism. [9:5] There was fear for the Master's life when he was in the district of Kuang. He said, "King Wen11 has already died, but his culture abides within me. If Heaven intended to destroy this 'culture,' then it would have been unattainable for later generations. If Heaven does not want to destroy this culture, what can the men of Kuang do to me?" [9:6] A high minister asked Tzu Kung: "If your master is really a sage, why does he know so many skills12 ." Tzu Kung answered, "Heaven has granted him sagehood, as well as diverse skills." The master, hearing about this, said, "What does the minister know about me? As a youth my family was poor so I had to learn many worldly skills. Is skillfulness necessary for the Superior Man? Of course it isn't." Lao quoted Confucius as having said, "I didn't have an official position, therefore, I developed various skills." [9:7] Confucius said: "Do I possess knowledge? No, I do not possess it. Yet if even simple men come to ask a question of me, I clear my mind completely and thoroughly investigate the matter from one end to the other." 13 [9:8] Confucius said: "The Phoenix has not come, a tortoise has not come out of the river with a chart on it's back. Alas, I am finished." 14 [9:9] If the master saw someone in mourning, or in full ceremonial dress, or a blind person, even if they were young, he would collect himself. If he had to pass by them, he would do it quickly. [9:10] Yen Yüan sighed in admiration saying: "Looking up to it, it gets higher. Boring into it, it gets harder. I see it in front, and suddenly it is behind me. My master is impeccable in his skillful guidance of men. He has broadened me with literature, disciplined me with propriety. I want to give up, but I can't. I have exhausted my ability, yet it seems as if there is something rising up in front of me. I want to follow it, but there is no way." [9:11] The Master was extremely ill, and Tzu Lu wanted the disciples to become Confucius' "ministers." 15 Confucius, during a remission in his illness, said, "Ah, Yu has been deceitful for a long time. Though I don't have ministers, you would make it appear that I have them? Who would I be fooling? Heaven? I would much rather die in the hands of my
disciples than in the hands of ministers. And I would prefer dying in the streets to a pompous funeral!" [9:12] Tzu Kung said: "We have a beautiful gem here. Should we hide it away, or look for a good price and sell it?" Confucius said, "Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait till I got a good price." [9:13] The Master wanted to go and stay with the Nine Tribes of the East. Someone said, "They are unruly! Why do you want to do such a thing?" Confucius said, "If a Superior Man dwells with them, how could they be unruly?" [9:14] Confucius said: "Only after I returned to Lu from Wei did the music get straightened out, with the Royal Songs and the Praises being played at the proper place and time." [9:15] Confucius said: "When out in the world, I served my ruler and ministers. At home I served my father and elder brothers. I never dared to take funerals lightly and I didn't get into trouble with alcohol. What problems could I possibly have?" [9:16] The Master, standing by a river, said, "It goes on like this, never ceasing day or night!" [9:17] Confucius said: "I have never seen one who loves virtue as much as he loves sex." [9:18] Confucius said: "It is like building a mound: If I stop before carrying a single basket of earth, it is my stopping. It is like leveling the ground: If I continue even after dumping only one basket, it is my continuation." [Comment] The process of self-development requires continual effort, even if only a bit at a time. [9:19] Confucius said: "I teach him and he never slacks off. Aah, Hui!" [9:20] The Master, speaking of Hui, said: "How rare is his type! I have seen him striving, and have never seen him rest." [9:21] Confucius said: "There are some who sprout but do not blossom, some who blossom but do not bear fruit." [9:22] Confucius said: "We should be in awe of the younger generation. How can we know that they will not be equal to us? But if a man reaches the age of forty or fifty and has still not been heard from, then he is no one to be in awe of."
[9:23] Confucius said: "Is anyone incapable of following words correct instruction? But it is self-transformation according to it that is important. Is anyone incapable of enjoying words of gentle advice? But it is inquiring deeply into their meaning that is important. If I enjoy without inquiring deeply, and follow without changing myself, how can I say that I have understood them?" [Comment] Confucian "learning" is always fully connected to selftransformation. [9:24] Confucius said: "Base yourself in loyalty and trust. Don't be companion with those who are not your moral equal. When you make a mistake, don't hesitate to correct it." [9:25] Confucius said: "You can snatch away the general of a large army, but you cannot snatch away the will of even the lowliest of men." [9:26] Confucius said: "Standing in tattered work clothes among gentlemen clothed in fine furs without any embarrassment; it is Yu!" Not harming, not coveting: How can he do wrong? 16 Tzu Lu continuously chanted this. Confucius said, "With just this, how can you attain excellence?" [9:27] Confucius said: "Only after it turns winter are we aware of the survival of the Pine and Cypress." [9:28] Confucius said: "The wise are not confused, the humane are not anxious, the brave are not afraid." [9:29] Confucius said: "There are some with whom we can study, but with whom we cannot traverse on the same path. There are some with whom we can traverse on the same path, but with whom we cannot establish ourselves. There are some with whom we can establish ourselves, but with whom we cannot agree with on future planning." [9:30] As the Almond Flowers Lean and turn, How could I not think of you? But your house is so far.
Confucius said, "If he does not think about the distance, how could it be a problem?"
10. 郷黨 『10-1』孔子於郷黨，恂恂如也，似不能言者。其在宗廟朝廷，便便然；唯謹爾 [10:1] When Confucius was in his village, he was quietly sincere, as if he could not speak. When he was in the ancestral temple or the court, he was eloquent, but extremely cautious. [10:12] There was a fire in the stables. When the Master returned from court, he asked: "Was anybody hurt?" He didn't ask about the horses. [10:14] When he entered the great ancestral temple, he asked about every detail. [10:17] When he got up into the carriage, he would stand straight, holding the straps. Once inside the carriage, he didn't look about, talk rapidly or point around with his hands.
11. 先進 子曰：「先進於禮樂，野人也；後進於禮樂，君子也。如 用之，則吾從先進。」 [11:1] Confucius said: "Common people develop their understanding of music and ritual earlier. The nobility develop these later. In terms of practicality, earlier development is better." [11:3] Confucius said: "Hui is no help to me. He simply delights in everything I say." [11:6] Chi K'ang Tzu asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied: "Yen Hui did. Unfortunately he died young, and there has been no one like him since then." [11:8] When Yen Yüan died, the master cried: "How cruel! Heaven is killing me! Heaven is killing me!" [11:9] When Yen Hui died, the Master wept uncontrollably. The disciples said, "Master, you are going overboard with this!" Confucius said, "Going overboard?! If I can't cry now, when should I cry?" [11:10] When Yen Hui died, the disciples wanted to give him a lavish funeral. The Master told them not to, but they did it anyway. Confucius said, "Hui treated me like a
father. Now I have not been able to treat him as a son, and it is the fault of you students." [11:11] Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits. Confucius said, "If you can't yet serve men, how can you serve the spirits?" Lu said, "May I ask about death?" Confucius said, "If you don't understand what life is, how will you understand death?" [11:13] The men of Lu were rebuilding the Main Treasury. Min Tzu Ch'ien said: "Why don't we keep its old style? Why do we have to change it completely?" Confucius said, "This fellow doesn't say much, but when he does, he is right on the mark." [11:14] Confucius had said, "What is the lute of Yu doing at my door?" and so the other disciples had begun to loose their respect for Tzu Lu (Yu). Confucius said, "Yu has ascended to the main hall, but has not yet entered the inner chambers." [11:15] Tzu Kung asked who was the most worthy between Shih and Shang. The Master said, "Shih goes too far, Shang does not go far enough." "Then is Shih superior?" The Master said, "Going too far is the same as not going far enough." [11:16] Even though the head of the Chi family was "wealthier than the Duke of Chou," Ch'iu collected taxes for him, and made him richer. Confucius said, "He is no disciple of mine. My students, you can beat the drum and attack him if you want." [11:18] Confucius said: "Hui is completely full, yet always possession-less. Ssu is not wealthy by fate, so he has to contrive in order to enrich himself, and is usually on the mark." [11:19] Tzu Chang asked about the Way of the Good Man. Confucius said, "If you don't follow its traces, you won't enter the Inner Chamber." [11:20] Confucius said: "Someone may have profound theories— but is he a Superior Man? Or is he only superficially impressive?" [11:21] Tzu Lu asked if it was a good idea to immediately put a teaching into practice when he first heard it. Confucius said, "You have a father and an older brother to consult. Why do you need to be so quick to practice it?"
Zan Yu asked the same question. Confucius said, "You should practice it immediately." Kung Hsi Hua said, "When Yu asked you, you told him he should consult his father and elder brother first. When Ch'iu (Zan Yu) asked you, you told him to practice it immediately. May I ask why?" Confucius said, "Ch'iu has a tendency to give up easily, so I push him. Yu (Tzu Lu) has a tendency to jump the gun, so I restrain him." [11:22] During the incident of the Master's endangerment in Kuang, Hui had fallen behind. Confucius said, "I was afraid they had killed you." Hui said, "While you are alive, how can I dare to die?" [11:25] Tzu Lu (Yu), Tsang Hsi (Ch'iu), Zan Yu (Ch'ih) and Kung Hsi Hua (Tien) were sitting with the Master. Confucius said, "Although I am a day or so older than you fellows, forget about it for the time being. You are all always saying: 'Our talents are unrecognized.' Suppose your abilities were fully acknowledged. What would you do then?" Tzu Lu jumped to reply first, saying: "I would like to be in the position of the charge of a relatively small state which was being threatened by the armies of the surrounding larger states, and suffering from crop failure. If I were in this position, within three years my people would be fearless and know how to take care of themselves." Confucius laughed at him. He turned to Ch'iu and said, "What about you?" Ch'iu said, "Let me have the government of a territory of 60 to 70 li, or maybe 50 to 60 li, for three years, and the people would have all they need. As for handling the affairs of ritual and music, I would seek a Superior Man." "Ch'ih, what about you?" Ch'ih said, "I cannot say I am capable of what the other two have proposed, though I would like to work toward it. At the services at the ancestral hall, or at the audiences with the Prince, I would like to serve as a minor assistant, dressed in the ceremonial gown and cap." "Tien, what about you?" Tien set his lute down with its strings still ringing, and stood up. "What I would like to do," he said, "is quite different from these three." The Master said, "What harm can there be? Please speak as the others have." Tien said, "At the height of spring, all decked out in spring clothes, I would like to take five or six young men, and six or seven youngsters to go for a swim in the Yi river, enjoying the cool breeze at the Rain Dance Festival, and make our way back home, singing." Confucius sighed, and said, "Ah, lovely. I am with you, Tien."
The three others left and Tien asked the Master: "What did you think about the words of those three?" Confucius said, "Each just told his wish." "But why did you laugh at Yu?" "Because to govern a state, you need propriety, and his words are totally lacking in humility. That's why I laughed at him." "But Ch'iu wasn't asking for a state." Confucius said, "Have you ever seen a territory of 60 or 70 li that wasn't a state?" "At least Ch'ih wasn't asking for a state." "Yes, but who besides the nobility can serve in the ancestral temple, or have an audience with the Prince. If Ch'ih were to be a minor assistant at these affairs, who could be a chief assistant?"
12. 顏淵 『12-1』 顏淵問 「仁」 子曰： 。 「克己復禮，爲仁。 一日克己復禮，天下歸仁焉。 爲仁由己， 而由仁乎哉 」 顏淵曰： 「請問其目 」 子曰： 「非禮勿視，非禮勿聽，非禮勿言，非禮勿 動。」顏淵曰：「囘雖不敏，請事斯語矣 」 [12:1] Yen Yüan asked about the meaning of humaneness. The Master said, "To completely overcome selfishness and keep to propriety is humaneness. If for a full day you can overcome selfishness and keep to propriety, everyone in the world will return to humaneness. Does humaneness come from oneself, or from others?" [Comment] This passage has always provided problems for translators and commentators. All of the modern English translators either alter the grammar of this sentence or reinterpret it and in such a way as to disallow the possibility that power of the mind of a single individual to bring peace to the world.17 I.e., we are expected to acknowledge that a single person obviously does not have the power to influence the whole world, and only one in a position of political power can do so. For this reason, I hesitate to rewrite the text in this case, and try to think further of what Confucius meant. For instance, do we really know what it is like to "completely overcome our selfishness" for a full day, and be perfectly guided by proper action? I would like to suggest that perhaps we do not know the level of spiritual influence that may be brought about by the actualization of one's inner perfection. Also, in the case of a ruler: can political power in itself make the people become good? It is doubtful. This is an important passage in that it shows very clearly a world-view that is common to all the philosophers whose works are contained in this volume: a
world not of isolated monads, but a world that is much more transparent, unified and connected than we of modernity perceive. We now return to the text. Yen Yüan asked: "May I ask in further detail how this is to be brought about?" Confucius said, "Do not watch what is improper; do not listen to what is improper; do not speak improperly and do not act improperly." Yen Yüan said, "Although I am not so perspicacious, I will apply myself to this teaching."
top page Mencius (Selections) Translated by Charles Muller, Tōyō Gakuen University Updated: August 14, 2003
Table of Contents 1A. King Hui of Liang (part one) 1B. King Hui of Liang (part two) 2A. Kung Sun Ch'ou (part one) 公孫丑上 3A. T'eng Weng Kung (part one) 3B. T'eng Weng Kung (part two) 4A. Li Lou (part one) 離婁上 4B. Li Lou (part two) 離婁下 6A. Kao Tzu (part one) 吿子上 6B. Kao Tzu (part two) 吿子下 7A. Chin Hsin (part one) 盡心上 7B. Chin Hsin (part two) 盡心下 Translation by Charles Muller. When citing, please refer to the URL of this page: http://www.hm.tyg.jp/~acmuller/contao/mencius.htm
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1A. King Hui of Liang (part one)
孟 子見梁惠王。 王曰， 「叟，不遠千里而來，亦將有以利吾國乎？」 孟子對曰， 「王何必 曰利？亦有仁義而已矣。 」 「王曰： 『何以利吾國？』 大夫曰： 『何以利吾 家？』 士庶人曰： 『何以利吾身？』 上下交征利，而國危矣！萬乘之國弑其君者，必千乘之家；千乘之國， 弑其君者，必百乘之家。萬取千焉，千取百焉，不爲不多 矣；苟爲後義而先利，不奪 不饜。 「未有仁而遺其親者也，未有義而後其君者也。 「王亦曰仁義而已矣，何必曰 」 」 利？」 [1A:1] Mencius went to see King Hui of Liang. The King said: "My good man, since you haven't thought one thousand li too far to come and see me, may I presume that you have something with which I can profit my kingdom?" Mencius said: "Why must you speak of profit? What I have for you is Humaneness and Rightness, and that's all. If you always say 'how can I profit my kingdom?' your top officers will ask, 'how can we profit our clans?' The elites (shi)1 and the common people will ask: 'How can we profit ourselves?' Superiors and inferiors will struggle against each other for profit, and the country will be in chaos." "In a kingdom of ten thousand chariots, the murderer of the sovereign is usually from a clan of one thousand chariots. In a thousand-chariot kingdom, the murderer of the sovereign is usually from a clan of one hundred chariots. Now, to have a thousand in ten thousand, or one hundred in a thousand is not really all that much. But if you put due-giving last and profit first, no one will be satisfied unless they can grab something." "There has never been a humane man who neglected his parents, and there has never been a just man who put his prince last in his priorities. King, can't we limit our conversation to humaneness and due-giving? Why must we discuss profit?" 梁惠王曰： 「寡人之於國也，盡心焉耳矣！河內凶，則移其民於河東，移其粟於河內； 河東凶亦然。 察鄰國之政，無如寡人之用心者；鄰國之民不加少，寡人之民不加多：何 也？」 孟子對曰：「王好戰，請以戰喩。 填然鼓之，兵刃旣接，棄甲曳兵而走，或百歩而後止， 或五十歩而後止；以五十歩笑百歩，則何如？」 曰： 「不可。 直不百歩耳，是亦走也！」 「王如知此，則無望民之多於鄰國也。 「不 曰： 」 違農時，穀不可勝食也；數罟不入洿池，魚鼈不可勝食也；斧斤以時入山林，材木不 可勝用也；穀與魚鼈不可勝食，材木不可勝用，是使民養生喪死無憾也；養生喪死無 憾，王道之始也。」 「五畝之宅，樹之以桑，五十者可以衣帛矣；雞豚狗彘之畜，無失其時，七十者可以食 肉矣；百畝之田，勿奪於時，數口之家可以無饑矣；謹庠序之教，申之以孝悌之義， 頒白者不負戴於道路矣；七十者衣帛食肉，黎民不饑不寒；然而不王者，未之有也！」 「狗彘食人食而不知檢，塗有餓莩而不知發；人死，則曰： 『非我也，歳也。 是何異於 』 刺人而殺之，曰：『非我也，兵也！』王無罪歳，斯天下之民至焉。」 [1A:3] King Hui of Liang said: "I exert my whole consciousness towards my people. When there is disaster in He-nei, I move the people to He-dong and bring grain to He-nei. When there is disaster in He-dong, I do likewise.2 Now, if you look at the
government in neighboring kingdoms, there is no one who is as dedicated to his people as I. Yet why is it that the people don't move from other states and come to mine?" Mencius replied: "Your majesty, you like war, don't you? Let me make an example with war: The drummers have psyched the soldiers into the battlefield and the battle is engaged. Some soldiers throw off their heavy armor and flee, dragging their weapons. One fellow runs a hundred paces and stops. Another runs fifty paces and stops. What would you think if the one who ran fifty paces laughs at the one who ran a hundred?" The King said: "No way. Even though he didn't run a hundred paces, he still ran." Mencius said: "If you realize this, then you shouldn't expect people to move to your kingdom. If you don't interfere with the timing of the farmers, there will be more grain than can be eaten. If fine-mesh nets are kept out of the ponds and lakes, there will be more fish and turtles than you can eat. If loggers are regulated in their woodcutting, there will be more wood than can be used. When there is more grain, more fish and turtles than can be eaten, and more wood than can be used, the people will nourish the living and mourn the dead without resentment. Nourishing the living and mourning the dead without resentment is the beginning of the road to true kingship." "If mulberry trees are planted around homesteads of an acre, then people fifty years old can be clothed in silk. If, in the raising of fowl, pigs, dogs and swine, their breeding times are not missed, then people seventy years old can eat meat. If you do not upset the farming schedule in a farm of twenty acres, then a large clan will never be hungry. Pay careful attention to education, basing it on the Rightness of filial piety and respect for elders, and the gray-haired people will not be in the streets carrying heavy burdens on their backs. There has never been a case where the people of seventy were eating meat and the black-haired people were free from cold and hunger, where the king was not well regarded." "But [in your kingdom], dogs and swine eat men's food, and you don't control it. People are dying of starvation in the streets and it doesn't occur to you to distribute grain from the storehouses. People die, and you say: 'It's not my fault; it was a bad harvest.' How is this different from stabbing a man to death and saying, 'It wasn't me, it was the knife.' If you would stop placing the blame on bad harvests, all of the people in the country would come to you." 梁惠王曰：「寡人願安承教。」 孟子對曰：「殺人以梃與刃，有以異乎？」 曰：「無以異也。」 「以刃與政有以異乎？」 曰：「無以異也。」 曰：庖有肥肉，廏 有肥馬，民有飢色，野有餓莩，此率獸而食人也。獸相食，且人惡
之；爲民父母行政，不免於率獸而食人，惡在其爲民父母也！仲尼曰： 『始作俑者，其 無後乎！』爲其象人而用之也，如之何其使斯民饑而死也。」 [1A:4] King Hui of Liang said: "I would like to quietly receive your instruction." Mencius said: "Is there any difference between killing a man with a stick or a sword?" The King replied: "No difference." Mencius said: "Is there any difference between doing it with a sword and doing it with government?" "No difference" was the reply. Mencius said: "There are loads of fat meat in your kitchen while the people in the countryside are dying of starvation. Animals are even eating people. Now, men despise animals who feed on each other. And you say you want to be 'the parent of the people.' But in the actual handling of your government, you cannot even prevent animals from feeding on men. How can you be regarded as a 'parent of the people?' " "Confucius said: 'Wasn't the first fellow who made wooden images for burial with the dead remembered forever?' This is because he made images of men and used them for such a purpose. What memory shall there be of the man who made his people die of starvation?" 梁惠王曰：「普國，天下莫強焉，叟之所知也。及寡人之身，東敗於齊，長子死焉；西 喪地於秦七百里；南辱於楚：寡人恥之，願比死者一洒之，如之何則可？」 [1A:5] King Hui of Liang said: "As you know, venerable sir, there is not a stronger state in the country than Chin. Since they attacked me, we have also lost on the east to Ch'i, where my eldest son died. On the west, we have lost one hundred li of territory to Ch'in and on the south we have been embarrassed by Ch'u. I have been shamed by this and would like to clear the slate for my ancestors once and for all. How can I do it?" 孟子對曰：「地方百里而可以王。 王如施仁政於民，省刑罰，薄税歛，深耕易耨；壯者 以暇日修其孝悌忠信，入以事其父兄，出以事其長上，可使制梃以撻秦楚之堅甲利兵 矣！」 Mencius replied: "A territory one hundred li square is enough to constitute a viable kingship. Your majesty should give a humane government to the people, be careful in punishing crime; make the taxes light; plow the fields deeply and hoe them well. Then all the strong and healthy people can in their leisure time cultivate filial piety, sibling affection, loyalty and sincerity. If they do this, then when they are at home they can serve their fathers and elder brothers, and when they are out in the world they can serve their elders and superiors. These people will be able, with [only]
sharpened sticks, to give a beating to Ch'in and Ch'u with their hard armor and sharp weapons. " 彼奪其民時，使不得耕耨以養其父母，父母凍餓，兄弟妻子離散。 彼陷溺其民，王往而 征之，夫誰與王敵！故曰：『仁者無敵。』王請勿疑。」 "Those rulers snatch the people's time so that they are unable to do the plowing and hoeing which is necessary to support their parents. Older and younger brothers, wives and children are separated and scattered. In this way these rulers trap and bury their own people. If you, King, would go and chastise them, who will oppose you? Don't doubt the ancient proverb: 'The Humane man has no one to oppose him.' " 孟子見梁襄王。 出語人曰： 「望之不似人君，就之而不見所畏焉。 卒然問曰： 『天下惡乎 定？』 [1A:6] Mencius had an audience with King Hsiang of Liang. When he came out, he said to some people: "When I saw him at a distance, he did not look like a king, and when I approached him, there was nothing to be in awe of. Abruptly he asked me: 'How can the situation of the Central Kingdom be settled down?' " 吾對曰： 『定於一。 」 』 「孰能一之？」 「對曰： 『不嗜殺人者能一之。 」 』 「孰能與之？」 "I answered: 'It can be settled down by unification.' " He said: 'Who can unify it?' "I replied: 'He who does not like killing men can unify it.' " "He asked: 'Who has the power to grant someone this ability?' " 「對曰： 『天下莫不與也。 王知夫苗乎？七八月之間旱，則苗槁矣。 天油然作雲，沛然下 雨，則苗浡然興之矣。其如是，孰能禦之！今夫天下之人牧，未有不嗜殺人者也。如有 不嗜殺人者，則天下之民皆引領而望之矣。試如是也，民歸之，由水之就下，沛然 誰 能禦之！』 "I answered again, saying: 'There is no one in the land who would not grant it. Do you know anything about farming? During the seventh and eighth months it gets dry and the plants wither. When there is a sudden downpour of rain, the plants come vibrantly to life. Your situation being like this, who will oppose you? Now, among those who are leaders in this country, there are none who dislike killing men. If there were one who disliked killing men, all the people in the country would stick their necks out merely to get a glimpse of him. If you were really like this, the people would come to you like water running downhill. Who could oppose you?' "
齊宣王問曰：「齊桓普文之事，可得聞乎？」 [1A:7] King Hsüan of Ch'i asked: "Can give me your analysis of what happened between Duke Huan of Ch'i and Duke Wen of Ch'in?3 " 孟子對曰：「仲尼之徒，無道桓文之事者，是以後世無傳焉，臣未之聞也。無以，則王 乎？」 Mencius answered: "None of Confucius' disciples talked about Huan and Wen, so I have no significant information on them. So since I can't talk about them, how about discussing kingship?" 曰：「德何如則可以王矣？」曰：「保民，而王莫之能禦也。」 The king said: "What kind of qualities are necessary for real kingship?" Mencius said: "Take care of the people, and no one can oppose you." 曰：「若寡人者，可以保民乎哉？」曰：「可。」曰：「何由知吾可也？」 The king said: "Is someone like me capable of taking care of the people?" Mencius said: "Sure." The king said: "How do you know?" 曰： 「臣聞之胡齕曰： 『王坐於堂上，有牽牛而過堂下者；王見之，曰： 「牛可之？」 對 曰： 「將以釁鐘。 王曰： 」 「舍之；吾不忍其觳觫，若無罪而就死地。 對曰： 」 「然則廢釁鐘 與？」曰：「何可廢也？以羊易之。」』不識有諸？」 "I heard this story from Hu-ho: He said you were sitting up in the main hall and a man walked past the lower part leading an ox. You saw this and asked: 'What are you doing with the ox?' He replied: 'We are going to consecrate a bell with its blood.' You said: 'Let it go—I can't stand to see the agony on its face, like that of an innocent person going to execution!' The man then answered: 'Shall we forget the consecration of the bell?' You said: 'How can it be forgotten? Substitute it with a sheep!' " Mencius then added: "I don't know if this is a true story." 曰：「有之。」曰：「是心足以王矣。百姓皆以王爲愛也，臣固知王之不忍也。」 The king said: "It is." Mencius said: "If you possess this kind of mind, you are capable of true kingship. The people all accused you of being cheap, but I am convinced that you really could not stand the sight of the ox."
王曰： 「然，誠有百姓者，齊國雖褊小，吾何愛一牛？即不忍其觳觫，若無罪而就死地， 故以羊易之也。」 The king said: "You are right. Yet the people really did think I was being cheap. But the truth is, even though Ch'i is a fairly small kingdom, how could I begrudge a lousy ox? I really couldn't stand to see the fear in its face, like that of an innocent man going to his execution. That's why I changed it for a sheep." 曰： 「王無異於百姓之以王爲愛也；以小易大，彼惡知之？王若隱其無罪而就死地，則 牛羊何擇焉！」王笑曰： 「是誠何心哉！我非愛其財而易之以羊也，宜乎百姓之謂我愛 也。」 Mencius said: "You should not think it strange that the people thought you were stingy. You changed a large animal for a small one, so how could they know your real motivation? If you were really pained at its innocently going to execution, what's the difference between an ox and a sheep?" The king laughed and said: "What was I really thinking? But I didn't change it because of the expense—no wonder the people have called me cheap!" 曰： 「無傷也，是乃仁術也，見牛未見羊也，君子之於禽獸也，見其生，不忍見其死； 聞其聲，不忍食其肉：是以君子遠庖廚也。」 Mencius said: "You have not done wrong. What you did was an act of humaneness. You saw the ox, but had not seen the sheep. When it comes to animals, if the Superior Man has seen them while alive, he cannot stand to watch them die. If he hears their screams, he cannot stand to eat their meat. Therefore he stays away from the kitchen." The king was pleased and said: "It is said in the Book of Odes: 'People have their minds, I fathom them.' What you have just said is exactly what happened with me. But when I sought within myself, I couldn't really see my own motivations. As you have shown me, there is compassion in my heart, but how can this be sufficient for kingship?" Mencius said: "Suppose someone said this to you: 'I am strong enough to lift six hundred kilos, but not strong enough to lift a feather; my eyesight is sharp enough to analyze the tip of autumn down, but I cannot see a wagon load of firewood. Can you go along with this?' " "Of course not." "Then isn't it quite odd that your compassion reaches to animals, but not down to the people? If the single feather is not lifted, it is because your strength is not used, and when the wagon-load of firewood is not seen it is because your vision is not used. The people's not experiencing your care is because your compassion is not used. Therefore your majesty's lack of true kingship is because of a lack of effort, not a lack of ability."
The king asked: "Can you clarify the difference between non-effort and inability?" Mencius replied: "If it is the case of taking Mt. T'ai under your arm and leaping over the North Sea with it, and saying: 'I am unable' , then this is true inability. If it is the case of snapping a branch off a tree for an elder and you say 'I am unable,' this is non-effort, it is not inability. Thus, your majesty's not having a kingly hold over the people is not in the category of taking Mt. T'ai under your arm and leaping over the North Sea." It is the type of not breaking a branch. If you take care of you own elders, the common people will do the same for their elders. If you are kind to your young, the common people will be kind to their young—you will hold the kingdom in the palm of your hand. The Book of Odes says: His example affected his wife. It reached to his brothers, Such that he could manage His clan and his state. This means that if you just extend your heart to all others, and extend your compassion, it will be enough to take care of all those in the continent. If you do not extend your compassion, you will not even be able to take care of your own wife and children. The Way in which the ancients have surpassed all others is none other than this: Their goodness extended through everything they did, and nothing more. "Now your compassion is sufficient to reach to animals, yet lacks the effectiveness to reach the people. Isn't that something? By weighing we know what is light and heavy. By measuring we know long and short. All things are like this, and especially the mind, so why don't you measure it, king? Nowadays you build up your armaments, endanger your soldiers and officers and instigate trouble with other heads of state. Does this give you pleasure?" "No, how could I enjoy this? I do it to get what I really want." Mencius said: "What is it that you really want?" The king just smiled and kept his mouth shut. Mencius continued: "Are all your rich and sweet foods not enough for your taste? Is your wardrobe of winter and summer clothes not enough for your body? Or do you not have enough fancy toys to satisfy your eyes? Or do you not have enough servants and concubines to come before you and satisfy you? All your numerous ministers can certainly get all these things for you, so how can you still want more of these?" The king said: "No, I don't want these." "Then it is obvious what it is you really want," said Mencius, "you want to expand your territory, make vassals of Ch'in and Ch'u, rule the Middle Kingdom, get control over the outlying tribes. Doing the kinds of things you have been doing to get what you want is like climbing a tree to catch fish." "Is it that bad?"
"Even worse. If you climb a tree to catch fish, even though you won't catch anything, there will be no great calamity. But if you completely devote all of you energies to getting what you want in this way, you are sure to meet with disaster." The king said: "Can you explain how?" Mencius said: "If there is a war between Tsou and Ch'u, who do you think will win?" "Ch'u will win." "You are right, and that means that you know that a small state cannot go up against a large state, that a few cannot oppose many, that the weak cannot contend with the strong. The continental territories of one thousand square li are nine in number and Ch'i (your kingdom) only makes for one. If with one part you try to subdue the other eight, how is this different from Tsou's fighting Ch'u? Please reflect on this essential point." "Now if you initiate a government based on goodness, all the officials in China will want to come to your court; all the farmers will want to plow your fields; the merchants will want to store their goods in your marketplaces; all the travelers will want to go by your roads, and all the people in the land who are hassled by their rulers will want to come to you for help. If they feel this way, who will be able to stop them?" The king said: "I am dull-witted, and unable to carry this out. Please help me clarify my will by instructing me. Even though I am not so sharp, I will try to do it." Mencius said: "Only a shih is able to keep a steady mind without a steady livelihood. If the common people lack a steady livelihood, they cannot be secure. If they are not secure, there is nothing they will not do in terms of criminal, depraved and selfish acts. For you to follow them up and punish them once they have committed crimes in this situation is entrapment. How could a benevolent man rule and at the same time entrap his people?" "Therefore the intelligent ruler will regulate the livelihood of his people so that they have enough to support their parents and their own children. In good years they will eat their full, and in bad years they will never starve. After this you can goad them toward the good, because they will follow easily. As it stands now, you regulate the livelihood of the people in such a way that they do not have enough to take care of their parents or their children. They suffer even in the good years, and in the bad years they cannot escape death. All they can do is try to avoid starving to death, all the time fearing that they will not make it. What kind of free time will there be to cultivate propriety and Rightness?" "If you really want to bring this about, you'd better get back to the basics. If mulberry trees are planted on plots of one acre, people in their fifties can wear silk. If you do not pull the men away for battle during the breeding times of your livestock, people in their seventies can eat meat. If the proper planting, cultivation and harvesting times are not missed, the family of eight that lives off a twenty-acre farm will not go hungry. Pay careful attention to education, teaching the Rightness of filial piety and fraternity, and the gray-haired will not be seen in the streets carrying heavy burdens on their backs."
"There has never been a case where the elderly wore silk and ate meat, and the black-haired people suffered from neither hunger nor cold, where the kingship was not genuinely respected."
1B. King Hui of Liang (part two) [1B:10] Preliminary note: Ch'i attacked the state of Yen in the northwest in the autumn of 315 BC. Yen's prince, a weakling, had resigned his throne to his prime minister, and great confusion ensued, so that the people welcomed the appearance of the troops of Ch'i and made no resistance to them. K'uang Chang, the friend of Mencius mentioned in 4B:30 and 3B:10 led the Ch'i armies. The king and Heir Apparent of Yen were both killed. [Text] Ch'i attacked Yen and conquered it. King Hsüan of Ch'i said to Mencius, "Some say I should occupy Yen and some say I shouldn't. For a major kingdom to overcome another major kingdom of approximately equal strength and do it within fifty days is beyond just the manpower of the conquering army. If I do not occupy Yen, I may experience some bad fate; but what will happen, on the other hand, if I occupy it?" Mencius replied, "If you occupy it Yen and its people are really happy, then do so. In ancient times King Wu had this experience. If you try to occupy it and its people are against you, then you shouldn't occupy it. In ancient times King Wen had this experience." "When a major power attacks another and its armies are greeted by the people with gifts of food, etc., how could there be any other reason except that they are trying to get out of awful circumstances under their own ruler? But if, on the other hand, the people see you as a greater evil than their own dictator, they will never stop their resistance." [1B:11] Ch'i, having attacked Yen, occupied it. The surrounding states began to plan to come to the aid of Yen. King Hsüan of Ch'i said, "The surrounding powers are planning to attack me. How should I deal with them?" Mencius replied, "I have heard of a king with only seventy square li ruling the whole land—that was T'ang. But I have never heard of a King with a thousand square li (like you) having to be in fear. The Book of History says:" When T'ang first began his war of punishment, he started with (the kingdom of) Ko. The whole world believed in him, and so as his campaign went east, the tribes of the west became impatient, and as he went south, the tribes of the north became impatient. They all said: 'Why does he liberate us last?'
The people waited for him the way we wait for rain after a long drought. The merchants continued their buying and selling and the farmers carried on their farming. (When he came to conquer,) T'ang punished their rulers, but took care of the common people. He was like the much-needed rainfall and the people were happy. Again, the Book of History says: "We await our King. When he comes, all will be restored." Now the prince of Yen was a tyrant, and you went and punished him. Yen's people thought you were saving them from oppression and they greeted your army with gifts of food. But now you murder Yen's family, chain up his younger relatives, destroy the ancestral temples and rob people's treasures. How can you expect them to take this? The world may fear your power, but if you keep trying to expand your influence and do not practice Humane government, the armies of the rest of the land will rise up to oppose you. You must issue orders at once to release the captives and stop the looting. Confer with the people of Yen. Appoint a ruler for them and then get out of there. Then those who are capable of hurting you will not attack.
2A. Kung Sun Ch'ou (part one) 公孫丑上 公孫丑問曰： 「夫子加齊之卿相，得行道焉，雖由此霸王不異矣。 如此，則動心否乎？」 [2A:2] Kung Sun Ch'ou asked Mencius: "Let's say you were to become the prime minister of Ch'i and have the opportunity to set up a good government. Even though your power would really not be different from that of a king, in handling this, wouldn't you lose your mental stability?" 孟子曰：「否。我四十不動心。」 Mencius said, "No. I haven't lost my mental stability since I was forty." 曰：「若是，則夫子過孟賁遠矣？」 Ch'ou said, "Then you have far surpassed Meng Pan." 曰：「是不難，吿子先我不動心。」 Mencius said, "It is not so difficult. Kao-tzu attained mental stability at a younger age than I." 曰：「不動心有道乎？」
"Is there a method for attaining mental stability?" asked Ch'ou. 曰： 「有。 「北宮黝之養勇也： 不膚撓，不目逃思以一毫挫於人，若撻之於市朝不受 」 於;;褐寬博，亦不受於萬乘之君視刺萬乘之君，若刺褐夫：無嚴諸侯惡聲至，必反之。 」 "There is. For example, Pi Kung Yu had a method of developing his courage. When attacked, he would neither flinch nor turn away his eyes. If someone touched a single hair on his body, he would regard it as if he had been publicly beaten in the marketplace. What he would not take from a bum, he would not take from a great prince. He regarded the stabbing of a prince just the same as the stabbing of a bum. He had no fear of the great nobles. If slanderous words reached his ears, he would never let it go by without revenge." 「孟施舍之所養勇也，曰： 『視不勝猶勝也量敵而後進，慮勝而後會，是畏三軍;者也。 舍豈能爲必勝哉，能無懼而已矣！』 Mang Shih She also had a method of developing his courage. He said: "I regard victory and defeat as the same. To gauge the enemy and then attack; to plan the victory and then engage—this is to be afraid of the opposing army. How can I be sure of winning? I can only be fearless, and that's all." 「孟施舍似曾子，北宮黝似子夏夫二子之勇，未知其孰賢然而孟施舍守約也。 昔者曾子 「 謂子讓子襄曰：『子好勇乎？吾嘗聞大勇於夫子矣：「自反而不縮，雖褐寬博，吾不惴 焉。自反而縮，雖千萬人吾往矣。」』 Mang Shih She was like Tseng Tzu. Pi Kung Yu was like Tzu Hsia. Among Pi Kung and Mang, I don't know who is better, but Mang Shih She focused on the essentials. For example, in former times, Tseng Tzu said to Tzu Hsiang: "So, you like bravery, do you? I have heard from our Master about Great Bravery. If I reflect on myself and find that I am not right, then won't I even fear facing a bum off the street? But if I reflect on myself and find myself to be right, then even if it be an army of one hundred thousand, I will go forward." 「孟施舍之守氣，又不如曾子之守約也。」 But Mang Shih She's attention to his ch'i is still not equal to Tseng Tzu's attention to the essentials. [Comment] The Chinese ideograph ch'i originally means "air," especially breath. Through Mencius' usage, and the usage of later Taoists, martial artists and the Neo-Confucian school, its meaning becomes quite enhanced. Here ch'i, as breath, is understood as the vital connection between body and mind. It is the life-force which animates the body to greater or lesser degrees,
depending upon its cultivation toward the vigor and vitality of the individual. In the terms with which Mencius describes it, ch'i can be compared to the prana of some Indian yogic systems, which can be cultivated through breath control and various other yogic practices. One of the most relevant points that Mencius makes in regard to the cultivation of ch'i, is that this cultivation is dependent, more than anything else, on the uninterrupted practice of Rightness. 「敢問夫子之不動心，與吿子之不動心，可得聞與？」吿子曰： 「 『不得於言，勿求 >曰： 於心不得於心，勿求於氣;。 不得於心，勿求於氣，可不得於言，勿;求於心，不可。 』 夫 志、氣之帥也氣;、體之充也。夫志至焉，氣次焉。故曰：『持其志，無暴其氣。』」 Ch'ou asked, "Will you please tell me about your 'mental stability' in relation to Kao Tzu's 'mental stability' ?" Mencius replied, "Kao Tzu says that what cannot be attained through words should not be sought for in the mind, and that what cannot be attained in the mind should not be sought for through the ch'i. This latter proposition is correct, but the first one is not. The will is the director of the ch'i, and the ch'i is something that permeates the body. So the will is primary and the ch'i is secondary. Therefore, it is said: 'Hold on to your will; do not scatter your ch'i.' " 「旣曰：『志至焉，氣次焉。』又曰：『持其志，無暴其氣』者，何也？」 Ch'ou said, "You just said that the will is primary; and the ch'i is secondary. Now you say, 'hold on to your will; don't scatter your ch'i.' Why do you say this?" 曰：「志壹則動氣，氣壹則動志也。今有蹶者趨者，是氣也，而反動其心。」 Mencius said, "The will influences the ch'i and the ch'i influences the will. For instance, jumping and running, though most directly concerned with the ch'i, also have an effect on the mind." 「敢問夫子惡乎長？」 "May I ask in what it is that you are superior?" 曰：「我知言，我善養吾浩然之氣。」 "I understand language, and I am good at nourishing my vast ch'i." 「敢問何謂浩然之氣？」 "What do you mean by 'vast ch'i' " ?
曰：「難言也。 「其爲氣也，至大至剛以直養而無害，則塞于天地之間。 」 其爲氣也，配 義與道無是，餒矣。 是集義所生者，非義襲而取之也。 行有不慊於心，則餒矣。 我故曰： 『吿 子未嘗知義，』 以其外之也。 必有事焉而勿正，心勿忘，勿助長也。 無若宋人然。 宋 人有閔其苗之不長而揠之者芒芒然歸，謂其人曰：『今日病矣，豫助苗長 矣。 其子趨 』 ; 而往視之，苗則槁矣。 天下之不助苗長者寡矣。 以爲無益而舍之者，不耘苗者也。 助之長 者，揠苗者也。非徒無益，而又害之。」 "That is difficult to explain. Ch'i can be developed to great levels of quantity and stability by correctly nourishing it and not damaging it, to the extent that it fills the space between Heaven and Earth. In developing ch'i, if you are connected with Rightness and the Tao, you will never be in want of it. It is something that is produced by accumulating Rightness, and is not something that you can grab from superficial attempts at Rightness. If you act without mental composure, you will become ch'i-starved." "Therefore I would say that Kao Tzu has not yet understood Rightness, since he regards it as something external. You must be willing to work at it, understanding that you cannot have precise control over it. You can't forget about it, but you can't force it to grow, either." "You don't want to be like the man from Sung. There was a man from Sung who was worried about the slow growth of his crops and so he went and yanked on them to accelerate their growth. Empty-headed, he returned home and announced to his people: 'I am so tired today. I have been out stretching the crops.' His son ran out to look, but the crops had already withered. Those in the world who don't 'help their crops by pulling' are few indeed. There are also those who regard all effort as wasteful and don't even weed their crops. But those who think they can hurry their growth along by forcing it, are not only not helping their ch'i, but actually harming it!" 「何謂知言？」 Ch'ou asked, "What do you mean when you say 'I understand language' ?" 曰：「詖辭知其所蔽，淫辭知其所陷，邪辭知其所離，遁辭知其所窮。生於其心，害於 其政發於其政，害於其事;。聖人復起，必從吾言矣。」 Mencius said, "When I hear deceptive speech, I know what it is covering up. When I hear licentious speech, I know its pitfalls. When I hear crooked speech, I know where it departs from the truth. When I hear evasive speech, I know its emptiness. Once born in a person's mind, these words harm the government. Spreading through the government, they damage all sorts of affairs. When a future sage appears, he will attest to my words." Ch'ou said: "Tsai Wo and Tzu Kung were eloquent. Zan Niu, Min-tzu and Yen Yüan also spoke well but were known for their virtuous conduct. Confucius embodied both, but when questioned about it, said, 'When it comes to speaking, I am not so good.' In this case are you (Mencius) a sage?"
Mencius said: "How can you ask me this? When Tzu Kung asked Confucius if he was a sage, Confucius said, 'Sagehood is beyond me. I study without getting bored and teach without getting tired.' Tzu Kung said: 'Studying without boredom is wisdom, teaching without weariness is Humaneness. Having Humaneness and wisdom, you are a sage indeed, Master!' " Now if Confucius could not accept the name of "sage," how can I? Ch'ou said, "I once heard this: Tzu Hsia, Tzu Lu and Tzu Chang all had one piece of sagehood, and Zan Niu, Min Tzu and Yen Yüan embodied it fully, though in an unmanifest way. May I ask where you stand among these men?" "Let's leave this aside for now." said Mencius. Ch'ou then asked, "What about Po Yi and I Yin?" Mencius said, "They had different ways. The way of not serving a ruler he didn't respect, not taking charge of a people whom he didn't approve; coming forward when there was good government and retiring when there was disorder— this was the way of Po Yi." "Serving any ruler, taking charge of any people; coming forward when there was good government, coming forward when there was disorder—this was the way of I Yin." "Serving when it was proper to serve, retiring when it was proper to retire; continuing long when it was proper and finishing quickly where it was proper—this was the way of Confucius. I have not yet been able to conduct myself in the way of the ancient sages. But if I could study with one of them, I would choose Confucius." "Were Po Yi and I Yin comparable to Confucius?" "No way" Mencius replied. "Since the beginning of human existence, there has never been anyone like Confucius." "But weren't there at least some ways in which these men were equal to him?" "Sure. If any of them were to be the ruler of a territory of one hundred li, they would be able to get all the nobles to come to their court, and soon they would have control of the whole realm. And if the acquisition of the realm required a single unjust act, or the murder of one innocent man, they would not do it. In this, they would be the same." "Then may I ask how they would differ?" Mencius said: "Tsai Wo, Tzu Kung and Yu Jo all had enough wisdom to recognize a sage. If any one of them were in a low position, they would never have resorted to flattery to get something more desirable." "Tsai Wo said, 'From what I have seen of our Master, he was far superior to Yao and Shun.' " "Tzu Kung said, 'I have seen his propriety and have understood his ways of government. I have heard his music and recognize his virtue. From a hundred generations after, through a hundred generations of kings, none will be able to improve on him. From the beginning of human existence, there has never been anyone like the Master.' " "Yu Jo said, 'How it be so only among men? Among mammals there is the Ch'i-lin; among birds there is the phoenix; among hills, Mt. T'ai; among puddles and
rivulets, the rivers and oceans. Now, each of these are of the same species, and the sage is of the same species as man, but he emerges from the group and stands out from the crowd. From the beginning of human existence, there has never been one as outstanding as Confucius.' " [2A:3] Mencius said, "He who uses force as a pretense of Humaneness is the defacto strongman among the princes. But such a strongman must have a large state in order to be effective. The man who uses his virtue to practice Humaneness is the true king. To be a real king you don't need an especially large territory. T'ang did it with only seventy li and King Wen did it with only one hundred li. When you use your power to force people into submission, they will never submit with their hearts; it is only because they don't have enough strength to resist. When people submit to virtue, they are happy from the bottom of their hearts, and they submit sincerely, the way the seventy disciples submitted to Confucius. The Book of Odes says:" From the west, from the east, From the south, from the north; No one thought of not-submitting. This is what I am talking about. [2A:4] Mencius said: "Humaneness brings glory and non-Humaneness brings disgrace. So if you hate disgrace but still involve yourself in what is not Humaneness, it is like hating moisture and living in a basement. If you really hate it, you should honor virtue and respect the good. Install good men into positions of rank and give jobs to people of ability. During the breaks in warfare, you should take the opportunity to clarify your governmental procedures and legal codes. If you do this, even larger states will have a healthy respect for you. In the Book of Odes there is the verse that goes:" Before the sky was dark with rain I collected branches from the mulberry grounds And built doors and windows for my nest. Now, you all below, Who will laugh at me?4 "Confucius said, 'Did not the writer of this poem understand the Tao of government?' If you are able to govern well your state or clan, who will dare to take you lightly?" "But when modern princes have any kind of respite they spend it on indolent pleasure-seeking and gratification, which is to invite misfortune. Fortune and misfortune come from no place other than yourself. The Book of Odes says:" Always speak according to the Mandate And you will invite much fortune.Odes, 241
The T'ai Chia (a section in the Book of History) says: The calamities sent from Heaven can still be changed. But the calamities brought on by yourself—from these you cannot escape with your life. These two citations reflect my point. 孟子曰：「尊賢使能，俊傑在位，則天下之士，皆悅而願立於其朝矣。 [2A:5] Mencius said: "Respect the worthy and employ the capable; put talented people in key positions, then all the shih of the realm will be pleased and will want to be members of your court." 「市廛而不征，法而不廛，則天下之商，皆悅而願藏於其市矣。 In the market-places, charge land-rent, but don't tax the goods; or make concise regulations and don't even charge rent. Do this, and all the merchants in the realm will be pleased, and will want to set up shop in your markets. 「關，譏而不征，則天下之旅，皆悅而願出於其路矣。 At the borders, make inspections but don't charge tariffs, then all the travelers in the realm will be pleased and will want to traverse your highways. 「耕者，助而不稅，則天下之農，皆悅而願耕於其野矣。 If the farmers merely have to help each other with the government fields, and do not have to pay an additional tax, then all the farmers in the realm will be pleased, and will want to till your fields. 「廛，無夫里之布，則天下之民，皆悅而願爲之氓矣。 If you do not charge fines to the unemployed in your marketplaces, then all the people in the realm will be pleased, and will want to become your subjects. 「信能行此五者，則鄰國之民，仰之若父母矣。率其子弟，攻其父母，自生民以來，未 有能濟者也。 如此，則無敵於天下。 無敵於天下者，天吏也。 然而不王者，未之有也。 」 "If you are really able to put these five points into practice, then the people from the neighboring states will look up to you as a parent. Now, there has never been a case of someone being able to consistently succeed in making children attack their own parents. This being the case, you will have no enemies in the realm.
The one who has no enemies in the realm is the vicegerent of Heaven. There is no case of one who attained to this level, and who did not attain to true kingship." 孟子曰： 「人皆有不忍人之心。 「先王有不忍人之心，斯有不忍人之政矣。 以不忍人之心， 行不忍人之政，治天下可運之掌上。 [2A:6] Mencius said: "All people have a heart which cannot stand to see the suffering of others. The ancient kings had this heart which could not stand to see the suffering of others, and, with this, operated a government which could not stand to see the suffering of the people. If, in this state of mind, you ran a government which could not endure people's suffering, you could govern the realm as if you were turning it in the palm of your hand." 「所以謂人皆有不忍人之心者：今人乍見孺子將入於井，皆有怵惕惻隱之心非所;以內 交於孺子之父母也，非所以要譽於鄕黨朋友也，非惡其聲而然也。 "Why do I say all human beings have a heart which cannot stand to see the suffering of others? Even nowadays, if an infant were about to fall into a well, anyone would be upset and concerned. This concern would not be due to the fact that the person wanted to get in good with the baby's parents, or because s/he wanted to improve his/her reputation among the community or among his/her circle of friends. Nor would it be because he/she was afraid of the criticism that might result from a show of non-concern." 「由是觀之，無惻隱之心，非人也無羞惡之心，非人也無辭讓之心，非人也;;;無是非之 心，非人也。 "From this point of view, we can say that if you did lack concern for the infant, you would not be human. Also, to lack a sense of shame and disgust would not be human; to lack a feeling of humility and deference is to be "in-human" and to lack a sense of right and wrong is to be inhuman." 「惻隱之心，仁之端也羞惡之心，義之端也辭讓之心，禮之端也是非之心，;;;智之端也 "The sense of concern for others is the starting point of Humaneness. The feeling of shame and disgust is the starting point of Rightness. The sense of humility and deference is the starting point of Propriety and the sense of right and wrong is the starting point of Wisdom." 「人之有是四端也，猶其有四體也。 有是四端而自謂不能者，自賊者也謂其君不;能者， 賊其君者也。 凡有四端於我者，知皆擴而充之矣。 若火之始然，泉之始達。 茍能充之，足 以保四海茍不充之，不足以事父母;。」
"People's having these four basic senses is like their having four limbs. Having these four basic senses and yet claiming inability to act on them is to cheat yourself. To say that the ruler doesn't have them is to cheat the ruler. Since all people have these four basic senses within themselves, they should all understand how to enhance and develop them. It is like when a fire just starts, or a spring first bubbles out of the ground. If you are able to develop these four basic senses, you will be able to take care of everybody within the four seas. If you do not develop them, you won't even be able to take care of your own parents." 孟子曰： 「矢人豈不仁於凾人哉！矢人惟恐不傷人，凾人惟恐傷人。 巫匠亦然。 故術不可 不愼也。 [2A:7] Mencius said: "How is it that the arrow-maker is being less Humane than the armor-maker? The arrow maker is worried about people not getting hurt, while the armor-maker is worried if people do get hurt. The situation is the same with the healer and the coffin maker. Therefore, you should be careful about choosing your occupation." "Confucius said: 'It is the degree of Humaneness in a village that determines its beauty. If you choose not to abide in Humaneness, how will you ever attain wisdom?' " Now Humaneness is that which Heaven prizes above all else, and it is the proper abode for human beings. Nobody can be hindered from being Humane by anyone else—this is merely a hindrance to wisdom. To be not-Humane and not wise is to lack propriety and Rightness and become a slave to others. Being a slave to others and being ashamed of it is like the bow-maker being ashamed of making bows and the arrow-maker being ashamed of making arrows. If you are ashamed of these things you should work at your Humaneness. The Humane person is like an archer. The archer prepares himself before shooting. If, upon shooting, he misses the bull's-eye, he does not blame the man who beat him. He turns and reflects on himself. [2A:8] Mencius said: "When someone told Tzu Lu about one of his faults, he was happy. When Yu heard words of goodness, he would bow in respect. The great Shun surpassed even these men. He regarded the goodness of others to be the same as his. He let go of his arbitrariness and followed others, happily learning from them in order to develop his goodness. From the time when he was a farmer, a potter and a fisherman, up until he became emperor, he never stopped learning from others." "To learn from others to develop one's goodness is also to develop goodness together with others. Therefore, for the Superior Man, there is nothing greater than to develop goodness together with others."
孟子曰：「伯夷非其君不事，非其友不友，不立於惡人之朝，不與惡人言立於惡;人之 朝，與惡人言，如以朝衣朝冠，坐於塗炭。 推惡惡之心，思與鄕人立，其冠不正，望望 然去之，若將浼焉。是故，諸侯雖有善其辭命而至者，不受也不受也;者，是亦不屑就 已。 [2A:9] Mencius said: "Po Yi would not serve a ruler he did not respect, and would not hang around with people he didn't like. He wouldn't attend the court of an evil prince and wouldn't converse with an evil person. To attend the court of an evil prince, or converse with an evil person, would be the same for him as wearing the ceremonial gown and cap and sitting in mud and charcoal. Furthermore, if he were standing with a villager who hat was on crooked, he would leave him in embarrassment, as if he would be polluted by it. Therefore, even if one of the nobles sent him something with good intentions, he would often not accept it. Indeed, he would not let anything near him that he considered dirty." 「柳下惠不羞汙君，不卑小官進不隱賢，必以其道，遺佚而不怨，阨窮而不憫;。 故曰： 『爾爲爾，我爲我雖袒裼裸裎於我側，爾焉能浼我哉！』 故由由然與之偕而不自失焉。 援 而止之而止援而止之而止者，是亦不屑去已。」 Hui Liu Hsia was not ashamed to be associated with an impure prince, and was not embarrassed to hold a low-level job. He would show himself without concealing his worth, always keeping to what he considered to be the right way. When he was let go from a job, he did not get resentful, and when in dire straits, he did not complain. Therefore, he used to say: 'You are you and I am I. Even if you stand right next to me wearing no shirt, you cannot pollute me.' Thus he associated with people freely, without losing himself. When pressed to stay in government he would stay. In this lack of a need to escape, we can see that he did not need to avoid that which he considered unclean. 孟子曰：「伯夷隘，柳下惠不恭，隘與不恭，君子不由也。」 Po Yi was rigid and Hui Liu Hsia was too relaxed. The Superior Man does not like to be too rigid or too relaxed.
3A. T'eng Weng Kung (part one)
3B. T'eng Weng Kung (part two) [3B:2] Ching Ch'un said: "Are not Kung Sun Yen and Chang I great men? If they get angry just once, all the nobles are afraid. If they are relaxed, then the realm is quiet." Mencius said: "How can you call them great just because of this? Have you not studied the Record of Rites? When a young man is capped (reaches manhood)
his father instructs him. At the marriage of a young woman, the mother instructs her as she walks her to the door. She admonishes her, saying, 'When you go to your husband's house, you must respect him and be careful not to be disagreeable. To be properly obedient is the way of wives and concubines.' " If you dwell in the great house of the world, are established in your correct position in the world, walk the great Path of the world; if you attain your ambitions for office, and then share your goodness with the people—or, not attaining your ambitions for office and walking alone on your own Path; if wealth and honor do not dissipate you, poverty and low status do not make you move from your principles; authority and might do not distort you: Then you can be called a "great man."
4A. Li Lou (part one) 離婁上
4B. Li Lou (part two) 離婁下 孟子曰： 「天下之言性也，則故而已矣；故者，以利爲本。 所惡於智者，爲其鑿也。 如智 者若禹之行水也，則無惡於智矣。 禹之行水也，行其所無事也。 如智者亦行其所無事， 則智亦大矣。 天之高也，星辰之遠也。苟求其故，千歳之日至，可坐而致也。」 [4B:26] Mencius said: "What the people in the world call 'the nature of people' is based on what they have done, and nothing more. In the case of what people have done, we take as most fundamental whether the acts were beneficial or not. The reason the [present-day] so-called wise men are disliked, is because of the way they bore into things [to try to bring about some conclusions]. If these wise men would just do something [of benefit] like Yu did when he handled the water works projects [and stopped the flooding], then there would not be such a dislike of wise men. When Yu handled the flooding problems, he did it as if it was not a big deal. If our wise men could, in the same way, do things as if they were not a big deal, then there wisdom would be considered to be great. Heaven is so high; the stars are so distant. If we investigate their works, through the solstices of a thousand years, we can sit and attain them."
6A. Kao Tzu (part one) 吿子上 吿子曰：「性，猶杞柳也義，猶桮棬也以人性爲仁義，猶以杞柳爲桮棬。」 [6A:1] Kao Tzu said: "Human nature is like a willow tree (the wood of which is good for making vessels) and Rightness is like the cups and bowls that are carved out of the wood. To make human nature to be Humane and Right is like making the willow wood into cups and bowls."
孟子曰： 「子能順杞柳之性，而以爲桮棬乎？將戕賊杞柳，而後以爲桮棬也？將戕賊杞 柳而以爲桮棬，則亦將戕賊人以爲仁義與？率天下之人而禍仁義者，必子之言夫！」 Mencius said: "Can you make cups and bowls while keeping the nature of the willow? It is by destroying the willow that you make cups and bowls. If we destroy the willow to make cups and bowls, should we also destroy the human being to make Humaneness and Rightness? This kind of talk from you will certainly lead the people to see Humaneness and Rightness as anathema." 吿子曰： 「性，猶湍水也決諸東方則東流，決諸西方則西流;。 人性之無分於善不善也， 猶水之無分於東西也。」 [6A:2] Kao Tzu said: "Human nature is like whirling water. If you let it out on the east side, it will go east. If you let it out on the west side, it will go west. Similarly, human nature has no predisposition for good or evil, just as water has no predisposition for east or west." 孟子曰：「水信無分於東西，無分於上下乎？人性之善也，猶水之就下也人無有;不善， 水無有不下。 今未水：搏而躍之，可使過顙激而行之，可使在山;。 是豈水之性哉，其勢 則然也。人之可使爲不善，其性亦猶是也。」 Mencius said: "It is true that water has no predisposition for east or west. But doesn't it have a predisposition for up and down? The goodness of the human nature is just like the downward tendency of water. Just as all water has a down-going tendency, all people have a tendency toward goodness." "Now you can splash water and make it fly over your head, or you can dam it and force it uphill, but these are after all, forcing it. You can push people into doing evil, but that is not their basic nature." 吿子曰：「生之謂性。」 [6A:3] Kao Tzu said: "What we mean by life is nature." 孟子曰： 「生之謂性也，猶白之謂白與？」 「然。「白羽之白也，猶白雪之白白雪之 曰： 」 白，猶白玉之白與？」 Mencius said: "If life is nature, then this the same as saying white is whiteness?" "Yes." "Then is the whiteness of a feather the same as the whiteness of snow? And is the whiteness of snow the same as the whiteness of a pearl?" 曰：「然。」
"Yes." 「然則犬之性，猶牛之性牛之性，猶人之性與？」 "Then is the nature of a dog the same as the nature of a cow? And is the nature of a cow the same as the nature of a person?" 吿子曰：「食、色，性也。仁，內也，非外也，義，外也，非內也。」 [6A:4] Kao Tzu said: "By nature we desire food and sex. Humaneness is internal and not external, Rightness is external and not internal." 孟子曰：「何以謂仁內義外也？」 Mencius said: "How can you say Humaneness is internal and Rightness is external?" 曰： 「彼長而我長之，非有長於我也。 猶彼白而我白之，從其白於外也。 故謂之外也。 」 Kao Tzu replied: "If there is an old man and I regard him as old, it is not because the age is in me. It is like seeing something white. I regard it as white because the whiteness is outside of me. Therefore, I say Rightness is external." 曰：「異於白馬之白也，無以異於白人之白也。不識長馬之長也，無以異於長人之長與？ 且謂長者義乎？長之者義乎？」 Mencius said, "Maybe there is no difference in acknowledging the whiteness of a white horse and the whiteness of a white man, but is there no difference between the acknowledgement of the age of an old horse, and the age of an old man? And does Rightness consist in perceiving the age or acknowledging it?" 曰：「吾弟則愛之，秦人之弟則不愛也：是以我爲悅者也，故謂之內。長楚人之長，亦 長吾之長：是以長爲悅者也，故謂之外也。」 Kao Tzu said: "I love my younger brother, but I might not love the younger brother of a man from Ch'in. This depends on me, so I call it 'internal.' I respect the age of a man of Ch'u the same way I respect the age of a man of my family. Since this depends on the age, I say it is 'external.' " 曰：「耆秦人之炙，無以異於耆吾炙。夫物則亦有然者也，然則耆炙亦有外與？」
Mencius said, "Our enjoyment of the roast beef of Ch'in does not differ from that of our own roast beef. If such a thing as roast beef is like this, then is our enjoyment of roast beef also 'external?' " 公都子曰： 「吿子曰： 『性無善無不善也。 」 「或曰： 『性可以爲善，可以爲不善。 是故， 』 文、武興，則民好善，幽、厲興，則民好暴。 [6A:6] Kung Tu-tzu said: "Kao Tzu says that human nature is neither good nor evil. Others say that human nature can be made good or evil. That is why when Kings Wen and Wu were in power, the people loved goodness, and when Yu and Li were in power, they enjoyed inflicting pain." 「或曰： 『有性善，有性不善。 是故，以堯爲君而有象，以瞽瞍爲父而有舜，以紂爲兄 』 之子，且以爲君，而有微子啟、王子比干。 "Still others say that some people are inherently good and some are inherently evil. Therefore, under a good ruler like Yao, there was such an evil man as Hsiang; and to such a bad father as Ku-sou, a good son Shun was born; and with a nephew of the senior branch as evil as Chou on the throne, such good uncles as Ch'i, Viscount of Wei, and Prince Pi Kan lived." 「今曰性善，然則彼皆非與？」 "Now you say that human beings are inherently good. Then are all the others wrong?" 孟子曰：「乃若其情，則可以爲善矣，乃所謂善也。「若夫爲不善，非才之罪也。 Mencius said: "When I say human beings are inherently good, I am talking about their most fundamental emotional qualities. If someone does evil, it is not the fault of their natural endowment. Everyone has the feeling of concern for the wellbeing of others; everyone has the sense of shame and disgust at their own evil; everyone has the sense to treat others courteously and respectfully; everyone has the sense of right and wrong." The feeling of concern for the well-being of others is Humaneness. The sense of shame and disgust is Rightness; the sense to treat others with courtesy and respect is Propriety. The sense of right and wrong is Wisdom. Humaneness, Rightness, Propriety and Wisdom are not forced onto us from the outside. They are our original endowments—you have really not thought it through, have you? Thus it is said: 'If you strive for it, you will gain it; if you ignore it, you will lose it.' Men differ in terms of actualization: some are double, some fivefold and some manifest it to an incalculable degree. This difference is because some are not able to fully develop their natural endowments. The Book of Odes says:
Heaven gives birth to all men And each thing possesses its principle When people maintain this norm They come to love its splendid virtues. "Confucius said, 'The writer of this poem certainly knew what he was talking about.' Therefore, wherever there is anything, there is a concomitant principle. When the people embrace the norms of goodness, they can enjoy its splendid virtues." [6A:7] Mencius said: "In years of good harvest the children are wholesome; in years of bad harvest, they are incorrigible. This is not because Heaven sends down different endowments of ability, but because their minds being sunk in depression." Now if you plant wheat and barley and cover them, and the soil is the same and the cultivation times are the same, they will all grow strongly. When it comes to their ripening time and there are differences, it is because of differences in soil fertility, the nourishment from rain or the amount of care-taking done by the farmers. So whenever things are of the same species, they will resemble each other. This being so, how could we doubt that it is the same with men? I and the sage are of the same species. Therefore, Lung-tzu said: 'Even if I don't know the foot-size when making sandals, I know enough that I won't make bushel baskets.' The similarity in sandals is because of the similarity in feet. We also have similarities in taste. That's how Yi Ya5 knows what I like beforehand. Imagine if his taste was inherently different than that of others like that of another species such as dog or horse. How could everybody love the taste of Yi Ya's cooking? The fact that everybody agrees that Yi Ya's cooking is the best shows the sameness in people's taste. It is the same with the ear. The fact that everyone takes the music of Conductor K'uang as the best, shows the sameness in the ears of everyone. It is the same with the eyes. Everyone knows that there is no one in the world as attractive as Tzu Tu. And if you don't think she is beautiful, you are blind. Therefore I say, there is a standard for taste, there is a standard for music, and there is a standard for beauty. Shouldn't it also be so with the things of the mind? What is it that is the same with people's minds? It is that they know the same principle and the same Rightness. The sage knows the sameness of our minds beforehand. Therefore his principles and Rightness fit to our minds, in the same way that the meat of grain-eating animals fits our taste. [6A:8] Mencius said, "The greenery on Niu Mountain was once beautiful, but since it was near a large city, it was attacked by lumberjacks. How could it retain its beauty? Still, by breathing in the sunlight and rain, how could new buds and sprouts not appear? But then cattle and sheep came and fed themselves, and by the time they were done, it was completely barren."
If people saw this barrenness, they might have imagined that there had never been any greenery. How could the mountain be inherently like this? In the case of people, how could they lack the mind of Humaneness and Rightness? But the daily damaging of the goodness of their mind is just like the lumberjacks on the mountain. Being chopped down day after day, how can it manifest its natural beauty? One may breathe in fresh air day and night, but if you allow the enjoyment of evil doings with people to close in on you, the air gets thin, and your daytime activities stifle you. Because of this stifling, the fresh air is insufficient. Being insufficient, your goodness of mind is not nourished, and there will be little difference between you and the animals. People see our animalistic nature and assume that we have never had great endowments. How could this be our real nature? Therefore, if it is properly nourished, there is nothing that will not grow. If it is not nourished, there is nothing that will not die. Confucius said: "Use it and you will keep it; ignore it and you will lose it. No one knows the times of its coming or going, nor its location." What else could he be talking about but the mind? [6A:9] Mencius said, "No wonder the king is not wise. With even the hardiest plants in the world, if you expose them to a day of heat and ten days of cold, they will not be able to grow. I rarely have a chance to see the king, and after I leave he is approached by the cold ones. How can I make his wisdom grow?" Now chess is actually a minor art, but if you don't concentrate well while learning it, you'll never be any good. Chessman Ch'iu is the best player in the country, and let's say two men are learning from him. One man concentrates completely on everything Ch'iu says, while the other one, while listening, is thinking about that goose over there and how he would string up a retrievable arrow and shoot it. Even though he is learning together with the other man, he will never be equal to him. Is this because of a difference in intelligence? Of course not. [6A:10] Mencius said, "I like fish and I like bear's paw, but if I have to choose between them, I will let go of the fish and take the bear's paw. I like life and I like Rightness. But if I have to choose between them I will let go of life and take Rightness." I want life, but there are things more important to me than life. Therefore there are things that I won't do just to live. I hate death, but there are things that I hate more than death, and thus there are certain kinds of suffering that I won't avoid. If you teach a man to value nothing more than life, then what means will he not use in order to save his life? If you teach people to hate nothing more than death, then what will they not do, in order to avoid death? But there are some things that people will not do to save their lives and some things that people will not do to avoid death. This means that there are things more important to them than life, and more hateful to them than death. It is not only the
worthy who have this capacity. All people have it, but the worthy are able to be consistent in it. When a bowl of rice or a cup of soup lies between life and death, and you offer it in a nasty way, even a bum off the street will not accept it. If you kick it at him with your feet, even a beggar will not take it. Yet a man will accept a huge sum of money without any consideration of propriety. What can the money add to his person? I can beautify my house, gain the favors of wives and concubines, or gain the attention of greedy acquaintances. Yet before, I would not receive a bowl of rice to save my life, but now I will accept lots of money for the beautification of my home, for the favors of wives and concubines or to give to greedy acquaintances. Was it also not possible to decline this? This is called "losing one's original mind." [6A:11] Mencius said, "Humaneness is the mind of human beings. Rightness is their path. To abandon the path and not follow it, or to lose the mind and not know enough to seek it: this is a pity indeed!" When people lose their chickens and dogs, they know enough to look for them, but when they lose their mind, they do not know enough to seek it. The way of study and inquiry is none other than the search for the lost mind. [6A:12] Mencius said, "Let's say there is a man whose fourth finger is crooked and will not straighten. It does not cause him pain or hinder his work, yet if he heard of someone who could fix it, he would easily travel as far as Ch'u to get it fixed, so that he might be like other men." We know enough to be bothered when our finger is not right, but don't know enough to be bothered when our mind is not right. This is called "not knowing the relative importance of things." [6A:15] Kung Tu Tzu said, "If all men are equal, how is it that there are greater and lesser men?" Mencius said, "Some follow their greater part and some follow their lesser part." "Why do some follow their greater part and some follow their lesser part?" Mencius said, "The organs such as the eye and ear cannot discriminate and are thus confused by things. Things are interconnected with other things, which lead one further away. The function of the mind is to discriminate—if you discriminate you will attain it. If you don't discriminate, you won't attain it. These are what Heaven has bestowed upon us. If you first establish yourself in the greater part, then the small part cannot be snatched away from you. This is the essential of being a great man." [6A:16] Mencius said: "There is a nobility that belongs to Heaven and a nobility that belongs to man. Humaneness, Rightness loyalty, truthfulness and a tireless delight in the good—these are the nobility of Heaven. Duke, Premier and Minister—these are the nobility of man."
The ancients cultivated the Heavenly nobilities and the human nobilities naturally followed. Modern men cultivate the Heavenly nobilities in order to gain the human nobilities, and once they have these, they throw away the other. How mixed up they are! In the end they will lose everything. [6A:17] Mencius said, "All men desire honor, and though they all have something truly honorable within themselves, they do not reflect on it. The honor dispensed by people is not true honor. Those honored by Chao Meng can also be debased by Chao Meng. The Book of Odes says:" He has made us drunk with his wine And filled us with virtue. "This means they have been satiated with Humaneness and Rightness, and therefore they do not need to taste the fine foods of man. He has received broad and far-reaching praise and therefore has no desire for the finery of men." [6A:18] Mencius said: "Humaneness overcomes non-Humaneness just as water overcomes fire. But those of modernity who attempt the practice of Humaneness are like a person who tries to put out a burning wagon-load of wood with a cup of water. When it doesn't work, they say that water cannot put out fire. It is the same situation as those who attempt to deal with non-Humaneness in a similar fashion. In the end, they will be completely lost." 「五穀者，種之美者也；苟爲不熟，不如荑稗。 夫仁，亦在乎熟之而已 [11.19] 孟子曰： 矣。」 [6A:19] Mencius said: "The seeds of the five grains are the best. But if they do not ripen, they are not even as good as wild grasses. The value of Humaneness also resides in its being brought to maturity." [6A:20] Mencius said: "When Yi taught archery, he always pulled the bow to its maximum. His students also had to strive to do this. A master carpenter, when teaching, always uses a compass and square. The students must also use a compass and square."
6B. Kao Tzu (part two) 吿子下 [6B:2] . . . Mencius said, "The Tao is like a great road. How difficult is it to know about it? The problem with people is that they do not even seek for it. If you just return home and seek it, you will find teachers in excess." [6B:12] Mencius said, "If a Superior Man lacks integrity, to what shall he hold?"
[6B:13] The prince of Lu invited Mencius' disciple Yo Chang to run his government. Mencius said, "When I heard about it, I was so happy that I couldn't sleep." Kung Sun Ch'ou asked, "Is Yo Chang so strong?" Mencius said, "No." "Is he so wise?" "No." "Is he broadly learned?" "No." "Then what made you so happy that you couldn't sleep?" Mencius said, "He is a man who loves goodness." "Is just loving goodness enough?" "Loving goodness is enough to excel throughout the whole realm. How much more so in just the state of Lu! If the ruler loves goodness, then the people from within the whole area inside the four seas will not consider far to travel one thousand li in order to share their own goodness with him. But if he dislikes goodness, then people will say 'He's a scoundrel and we know it.' " The speech and face of a rogue will keep people a thousand li away. If the good shih stay a thousand li away, then all the back-stabbers and brown-nosers in the realm will come to the ruler. Surrounded by back-stabbers and brown-nosers, can you really run a government? [6B:15] Mencius said, "Shun rose up from the grain fields; Fu Yüeh was found as a construction laborer, Chieh Ko was pulled up from his fish and salt; Sun Shu Ao from the sea, and Pai Li Hsi from the marketplace." Thus, when Heaven is going to give a great responsibility to someone, it first makes his mind endure suffering. It makes his sinews and bones experience toil, and his body to suffer hunger. It inflicts him with poverty and knocks down everything he tries to build. In this way Heaven stimulates his mind, stabilizes his temper and develops his weak points. People will always err, but it is only after making mistakes that they can correct themselves. Only when you have been mentally constricted can you become creative. It will show in your face and be heard in your voice, such that you will affect others. In your own state, if you don't have legal specialists and impartial advisors, and outside your state, you don't have enemy states to harass you, your own state will certainly fall to ruin. From this we can know that life is stimulated from adversity and anxiety, and death results from relaxation and pleasure. [6B:16] Mencius said: "There are many kinds of teaching techniques. Sometimes I teach by not teaching."
7A. Chin Hsin (part one) 盡心上
孟子曰： 「盡其心者，知其性也；知其性，則知天矣。 存其心，養其性，所以事天也。 殀 壽不貳，修身以俟之，所以立命也。」 [7A:1] Mencius said: "If you fully explore your mind, you will know your nature. If you know your nature, you know Heaven. To preserve your mind and nourish your nature is to serve Heaven. Not seeing duality between short life and long life, cultivate yourself by awaiting it. This is the way to set up your destiny." 「莫非命也，順受其正。 是故，知命者，不立乎岩牆之下。 盡其道而死者， (13:2) 孟子曰： 正命也。桎梏死者，非正命也。」 [7A:2] Mencius said: "There is nothing that does not have a destiny, so follow your own and accept it as it is. If you do this, when you understand what destiny is, you will not stand under the wall of a high cliff. To fully traverse one's course and then die —this is correct destiny. To die in handcuffs and chains is not correct destiny." 孟子曰： 「求則得之。 舍則失之；是求有益於得也，求在我者也。 求之有道，得之有命； 是求無益於得也，求在外者也。」 [7A:3] Mencius said: "Search for it and you gain it. Ignore it and you lose it: this is the searching that has increase in its attainment, the seeking that adds to the self. "Search for it, keeping the Way, attain it, keeping with destiny. In this searching, there is no increase upon attainment. This is the searching through which you get rid of things." (13.4) 孟子曰﹕「萬物皆備於我矣。反身而誠，樂莫大焉。彊恕而行，求仁莫近焉。」 [7A:4] Mencius said: "All things are prepared within me. If I reflect on myself and find that I am sincere, shouldn't I be overjoyed? If I conduct myself on the principle of reciprocity, will my search for Humaneness not be close at hand?" (13.5) 孟子曰﹕「行之而不著焉，習矣而不察焉，終身由之而不知其道者衆也。」 [7A:5] Mencius said: "Acting without being clear, practicing without close observation: doing this to the end of their lives without ever understanding their own course. This is the way most people are." (13.6) 孟子曰﹕「人不可以無恥﹔ 無恥之恥，無恥矣。」 [7A:6] Mencius said: "A person cannot do without shame. If you are ashamed of your shamelessness, you will not need to be ashamed. "
(13.7) 孟子曰﹕「恥之於人大矣。爲機變之巧者，無所用恥焉。不恥不若人，何若人 有！」 [7A:7] Mencius said: "Shame is something important for people. Those who operate by clever opportunism have no use for shame. Not having shame, you will not be like others. What will you have in common with them? " (13.8) 「古之賢王，好善而忘勢，古之賢士，何獨不然！樂其道而忘人之勢。故王公不 致敬盡禮，則不得亟見之。見且猶不得亟，而況得而臣之乎？」 [7A:8] Mencius said: "The worthy kings of antiquity were impressed by goodness and not by power. How could the worthy shi be different? They delighted in their path and were oblivious to power in others. Therefore, if a king or duke did not treat them with full respect and thorough propriety, he would not have too many chances of seeing them. Not having much chance to see them, how could he gain their services?" 「子好游乎？吾語子游。 人知之亦囂囂，人不知亦囂囂。 曰﹕ 」 (13.9) 孟子謂宋句踐曰﹕ 「何如斯可以囂囂矣？」 「尊德樂義，則可以囂囂矣。 曰﹕ 故士窮不失義，達不離 道。 窮 不失義，故士得已焉﹔達不離道，故民不失望焉。 古之人得志，澤加於民﹔不得志，脩 身見於世。窮則獨善其身，達則兼善天下。」 [7A:9] Mencius, speaking to Sung Kou Chien, said, "You like traveling to different courts, don't you? Let me speak with you about this kind of traveling. If you are acknowledged, just be content, and if you are not acknowledged, just be content." Chien asked, "How do you go about 'just being content.' ?" Mencius said, "If you value virtue and enjoy Rightness, you can be content. Hence the gentleman in dire straits does not lose his sense of Rightness, and when successful, does not lose the Path. Since he does not lose his sense of Rightness when in dire straits, the gentleman is able to keep a grasp on himself. Since he does not lose the Path when he becomes successful, the people are not disappointed in him." "When the ancients achieved their aims, they shared it with the people. Not attaining their aims, their self-discipline was an example to succeeding generations. In dire straits they could only develop their own goodness. Successful, they could share their goodness with the whole world." (13.10) 孟子曰﹕「待文王而後興者，凡民也。若夫豪杰之士，雖無文王猶興。」 [7A:10] Mencius said: "Almost all people wait for someone like King Wen to come and uplift them. But the truly outstanding gentleman will uplift himself, even if a King Wen doesn't appear."
(13.11) 孟子曰﹕「附之以韓、魏之家，如其自視欿然，則過人遠矣。」 [7A:11] Mencius said: "If, after receiving the wealth of the families of Han and Wei, you see yourself as still being unsatisfied, then you far surpass others." (13.12) 孟子曰﹕「以佚道使民，雖勞不怨﹔ 以生道殺民，雖死不怨殺者。」 [7A:12] Mencius said: "If you employ people with a sincere motive to make their life more comfortable, then even if they have to work hard, they won't blame you. If you execute people with the true motive of saving lives, then even if there is death, no one will blame the executioner." 「霸者之民，驩虞如也！王者之民，皞皞如也。 殺之而不怨，利之而不 (13.13) 孟子曰﹕ 庸﹔民日遷善而不知爲之者。 夫君子所過者化，所存者神﹔上下與天地同流，豈曰小補 之哉！」 [7A:13] Mencius said: "When someone at least has control over the political situation the people can be relaxed. If there is a true king, then they can be completely content. He can conduct executions without blame, and make profit without their feeling abused. The people return to the good every day, without knowing who is making them do so." "So wherever the Superior Man passes through, people are transformed; the place where he stays is spiritualized and Heaven and Earth blend harmoniously. How could you say 'he is of little help' ?" 「仁言不如仁聲之入人深也。 善政不如善教之得民也。 善政民畏之，善 (13.14) 孟子曰﹕ 教民愛之﹔善政得民財，善教得民心。」 [7A:14] Mencius said: "Good words do not enter as deeply into a person as does a reputation for Goodness. Good government is not as effective as good teaching in terms of gaining the support of the people. If you have a good government, the people will be in awe of you. If you teach them well, they will love you. Good government gains people's wealth. Good teaching gains their hearts." 「人之所不學而能者，其良能也﹔所不慮而知者，其良知也。 孩提之童 (13.15) 孟子曰﹕ 無不知愛其親也﹔及其長也，無不知敬其兄也。親親，仁也﹔敬長，義也。無他，達之 天下也。」 [7A:15] Mencius said: "When people who have not studied have abilities, these are inherent abilities. When people who have not deliberated have knowledge, this is inherent knowledge. An infant carried in the arms has no lack of knowledge of how to love its parents, and when it gets older, it knows automatically how to respect its
older brothers. Loving one's parents is Humaneness, respecting one's older brothers is Rightness. This is because these principles penetrate all people." (13.17) 孟子曰﹕「無爲其所不爲，無欲其所不欲，如此而已矣。」 [7A:17] Mencius said: "Don't do what shouldn't be done and don't desire what shouldn't be desired. That's all there is to it." 「人之有德慧術知者、 恆存乎疢疾。 獨孤臣孽子，其操心也危，其慮患 [13.18] 孟子曰： 也深，故達。」 [7A:18] Mencius said: "When people have penetrating wisdom and practical knowledge it is usually because they have spent a long time in difficulty. The orphaned servant and the concubine's son handle situations with caution and think deeply when in distress. Therefore, they handle things well." 「有事君人者，事是君則爲容悅者也。 有安社稷臣者，以安社稷爲悅者 (13.19) 孟子曰﹕ 也。有天民者，達可行於天下而後行之者也。有大人者，正己而物正者也。」 [7A:19] Mencius said, "There are those who serve the prince, and do so to receive his favor. There are those who serve the land, and do so because it makes them happy. There are Heavenly people, who, once their excellence can be actualized in the world, actualize it. There are great men who rectify themselves—and others are rectified." 「廣土衆民，君子欲之﹔所樂不存焉。 中天下而立，定四海之民，君子 (13.21) 孟子曰﹕ 樂之，所性不存焉。君子所性，雖大行不加焉，雖窮居不損焉，分定故也。君子所性， 仁義禮智根於心﹔其生色也，□然見於面，盎於背，施於四體，四體不言而喻。」 [7A:21] Mencius said, "The Superior Man may enjoy the possession of a large territory with many people, but this is not what he takes delight in. He may delight in being established in the realm and stabilizing the people within the four seas, but this has nothing to do with the essence of his character. The essence of his character is not something that can be enhanced by great success, or be hindered by poverty. These are one's lot." "The essentials of the Superior Man's character are Humaneness, Rightness, Propriety and Wisdom, which are rooted in the mind, and give rise to one's external appearance. Their luster can be seen in his face, their fullness can be seen in his back and are released into his four limbs. The four limbs reveal this without speaking."
「楊子取』 拔一毛而利天下，不爲也。 墨子兼愛，摩頂放踵利天下，爲 (13.26) 孟子曰﹕ 之。子莫執中，執中爲近之﹔執中無權，猶執一也。所惡執一者，爲其賊道也，擧一而 廢百也。」 [7A:26] Mencius said, "Yang-tzu believed in 'every man for himself.' If he could have helped the whole world by plucking out a single hair, he would not have done it. Mo Tzu believed in 'universal love.' If he had to rub his whole body smooth in order to benefit the world, he would have done it. Tzu Mo believes in holding to the center. Now 'holding to the center' comes close, but still, if you hold to the center, you have no adaptability, since you are just holding to one thing. What is bad about holding to one thing is that it robs from the Way. You hold to one, and let go of a hundred." 「飢者甘食，渴者甘飮﹕是未得飮食之正也，飢渴害之也。 豈惟口腹有 (13.27) 孟子曰﹕ 飢渴之害，人心亦皆有害。人能無以飢渴之害爲心害，則不及人不爲憂矣。」 [7A:27] Mencius said, "For the hungry any food is tasty and for the thirsty any drink is tasty. But they are not getting the true taste of the food and the drink, since their deprivation has perverted their sensitivity. How could only one's mouth and belly suffer from the afflictions of hunger and thirst? Peoples' minds are also afflicted." "When you are able to keep the afflictions of hunger and thirst from affecting your mental state, you need never be concerned about being the equal of others." (13.29) 孟子曰：「有爲者辟若掘井，掘井九軔而不及泉，猶爲棄井也。」 [7A:29] Mencius said, "Working at a project is like digging a well. If you dig sixty feet and stop without hitting water, you are just throwing away the whole well." 「士何事？」 孟子曰﹕ 「尚志。 曰﹕ 」 「何謂尚志？」 「仁義而已矣。 曰﹕ (13.33) 王子墊問曰﹕ 殺一無罪，非仁也。 非其有而取之，非義也。 居惡在？仁是也。 路惡在？義是也。 居仁由 義，大人之事備矣。」 [7A:33] The king's son, Tien, asked Mencius, "What does a gentleman do?" Mencius said, "He elevates his motives." "What does that mean?" Mencius said, "To live by Humaneness and Rightness and nothing else. If you kill a single innocent man, you are not Humane. If something is not yours and you take it, you are not Righteous. Wherever you dwell, make it Humane; whatever course you travel, make it righteous. Abiding in Humaneness and acting through Rightness—this is how the great man completes his work." 「食而弗愛，豕交之也﹔愛而不敬，獸畜之也。 恭敬者，幣之未將者也 (13.37) 孟子曰﹕ 恭敬而無實，君子不可虛拘。」
[7A:37] Mencius said, "To feed someone and not love them is the same as dealing with swine. To love someone but not respect them is like raising domesticated animals. Now courtesy and respect should come before the presentation of gifts. If courtesy and respect are not genuine, the Superior Man will never be trapped by them." (13.38) 孟子曰﹕「形色，天性也。惟聖人然後可以踐形。」 [7A:38] Mencius said, "Characteristics such as form and color are assigned by Heaven. Only after you are a sage can you completely suit yourself to your own form." [7A:40] Mencius said, "The Superior Man in teaches in five general ways according to these five types of students:" Those who are transformed by the deluge of a seasonal rain. Those whose virtue he develops. Those whose abilities he uncovers. Those whose questions he answers. Those who develop themselves by their own reflection. According to these, the Superior Man teaches in five ways. (13.41) 公孫丑曰﹕「道則高矣美矣，宜若登天然，似不可及也﹔何不使彼爲可几及， 而日孳孳也？」 孟子曰﹕ 「大匠不爲拙工改廢繩墨，羿不爲拙射變其彀率。 君子引而不發， 躍如也﹔中道而立，能者從之。」 [7A:41] Kung Sun Chou said: "The Way is so lofty and exquisite, so when we try to ascend to it, we cannot reach it. Can you not make the people feel that somehow they can reach it so that they will keep trying every day?" Mencius said, "A master carpenter does not give up using the plumb line because of a clumsy helper, and Archer Yi would never change his principles of bowmanship for a clumsy archer. The Superior Man leads the student along without giving away the whole thing. He dances lightly, established in the Way. Those who can, follow him." 「天下有道，以道殉身﹔天下無道，以身殉道。 未聞以道殉乎人者也。 」 (13.42) 孟子曰﹕ [7A:42] Mencius said, "When the Way prevails in the realm, people should abandon themselves to the Way. When the Way is lost in the realm, the Way should be abandoned in favor of people. I have not heard of case where those who utilize the Way abandon themselves for other men."
「勝更之在門也，若在所禮而不答，何也？」 孟子曰﹕ 「挾貴而問， (13.43) 公都子曰﹕ 挾賢而問，挾長而問，挾有勛勞而問，挾故而問﹕皆所不答也。勝更有二焉。」 [7A:43] Kung Tu Tzu said: "When Kang of Tang last came to see you, even though his approach was not improper, you would not answer him. May I ask why?" Mencius said, "One who asks presuming upon his rank, his ability, his seniority; who presumes on what I might owe him, or presumes on our former acquaintance, I will not answer. In Kang Tang's case two of these apply." 「於不可已而已者，無所不已。 於所厚者薄，無所不薄也。 其進鋭者， [13.44] 孟子曰： 其退速。」 [7A:44] Mencius said, "If you stop once when you shouldn't, you will always stop short. If you take one essential thing lightly, you will take everything lightly. If you advance too sharply, you will subside quickly." [7A:45] Mencius said, "The Superior Man cares about creatures but does not love them as if they are people. He loves people as people, but not in the intimate way he loves his parents. He loves his parents intimately and loves people as people. He loves people as people and cares about creatures." 「知者無不知也，當務之爲急，仁者無不憂也，急親賢之爲務。 堯、 舜 [13.46] 孟子曰： 之知而不遍物，急先務也；堯、舜之仁不遍愛人，急親賢也。不能三年之喪，而緦小功 之察；放飯流歠，而問無齒決：是之謂不知務。」 [7A:46] Mencius said, "There is nothing the wise cannot understand, but they will focus on the important things. There is no one the Humane person cannot love, but s/he will focus on cultivation of intimacy with the Good. The understanding of Yao and Shun did not include everything, but they took care of what was important. Their Humaneness did not extend to every single person, but they were concerned about being intimate with the Good." "Those who are meticulous about the details of minor mourning for distant relatives, but who can't carry out the heavy mourning required for their parents, or the people who suck down food and drink, yet ask questions about the propriety of tearing meat with the teeth—these are people who don't know what is important."
7B. Chin Hsin (part two) 盡心下 [7B:1] Mencius said, "King Hui of Liang is the antithesis of Humaneness. The Humane man takes what he loves and brings it to that which he does not love. The non-Humane man take what he does not love and brings it to that which he loves." Kung Sun Ch'ou said, "What do you mean?"
Mencius said, "King Hui, just for the sake of gaining more territory, ravaged his own people and then sent them into battle. Even when they were being beaten badly, he would just send them back in again. Afraid of losing the engagement, he sent his beloved son into the fray, who was also killed. This is what I mean by 'taking that which you don't love and bringing it to that which you love.' " [7B:4] Mencius said, "There are men who say, 'I am good at arranging troops' and say 'I am good at military strategy.' They are great criminals. If the ruler of the state loves Humaneness, he will have no enemies in the realm . . . " [14.5] 孟子曰：「梓匠輪輿，能與人規矩，不能使人巧。」 [7B:5] Mencius said, "A carpenter or a carriage-maker can give someone a compass or a square, but cannot give them skills." [7B:9] Mencius said, "If you don't practice the Tao yourself, it will not be practiced in the family. If you don't use the Tao in your dealings with others, you will not be able to use the Tao in your family life." [7B:10] Mencius said, "If you really understand how to take advantage of things, you cannot die in a year of bad harvest. If you really understand virtue, you cannot be subverted in an age of corruption." [7B:13] Mencius said, "There are cases of evil men possessing a kingdom, but there has never been a case where an evil man got possession of the whole realm." [7B:15] Mencius said, "The Sage is a teacher of one hundred generations. For example, Po Yi and Hui Liu Hsia. When people hear of the ways of Po Yi, the twisted become clear and the dispirited arouse determination. When they hear of the ways of Hui Liu Hsia, trivial people become people of substance and the narrow-minded become wide-open.6 They have encouraged people for the last one hundred generations and those of the next hundred generations who hear of them will certainly be aroused. Could they have such an effect if they were not sages? And can you imagine the amount of influence they had on those closely associated with them?" [7B:16] "Ren" means "humanity." The harmonious combination of the two is called the Tao." [7B:20] Mencius said, "The worthies made people clear with their own clarity. Nowadays the people are made clear through ignorance." [7B:21] Mencius said to the disciple Kao, "If mountain trails are well used, then they will become like roads. But if they are not used for a while, they become overgrown with weeds. Now weeds are overgrowing in your mind." [7B:24] Mencius said, "The enjoyment by the tongue of flavor, the enjoyment by the eye of color, the enjoyment by the ear of music, the enjoyment by the nose of
perfumes and the enjoyment by the body of comfort, are natural and endowed by Heaven. But the Superior Man doesn't regard these as his innermost nature." The experience of love between parents and children, the practice of righteousness between ruler and minister, the observance of proper manners between host and guest, the possession of the wisdom for discerning Goodness and the sage's intimacy with the Tao are endowed and natural, but the Superior Man doesn't consider them as his endowments. [7B:25] Hao-shang Pu-Hai asked, "What kind of man is Yo Cheng Tzu?" Mencius said, "He is good, and he is genuine." "What do you mean by good, and genuine?" "A man that people like to be with is good. A man who keeps this goodness in himself is genuine. One who fully develops his goodness is called 'excellent.' One whose full development of goodness shines forth is called 'great.' One whose greatness transforms others is called a sage. A sage who is unfathomable is called 'transcendent.' Yo Cheng fits in the first two levels, but is not up to the last four." [7B:26] Mencius said, "Those who leave the Mohist school usually go to the school of Yang. Those who leave the Yang school usually come to us." "If they come, they should be received without hesitation. Those who participate in the current Yang-Mo debate are like someone chasing a stray pig and after it is in the pen, tying it up." [Comment] Anyone who has worked on a farm and has had to get a hold of a stray pig and then try to tie it, can appreciate Mencius' simile. [7B:27] Mencius said, "There is tax by hemp and silk; there is tax by grain; and there is tax by manpower. The smart ruler will just use one and let go of the other two. If you use two of these, there will be starvation among the people; if you use all three, families will be torn apart." [7B:29] Pan Ch'ang Kuo obtained an official position in Ch'i. Mencius said: "Pan Ch'ang Kuo—he's finished." Pan Ch'ang Kuo did indeed meet his death in Ch'i, so the disciples asked Mencius, "How did you know he would be killed?" Mencius said: "He was a man of little ability who had not learned of the great Way of the Superior Man. Thus, he knew enough to get himself killed, and that's it." [7B:31] Mencius said, "All people have something that they cannot stand to see. When this feeling penetrates to those things which they can stand, this is Humaneness. All people have something that they will not do. When this attitude penetrates to those things that they will do, this is Rightness. When people fully develop a heart which is unable to harm others, then their Humaneness is beyond the point of ever being challenged. If they are able to fully develop the kind of
constitution in which theft is inconceivable, then their Rightness is beyond the point of ever being challenged. When a man can fully develop his dislike for being addressed, "Hey, you," there is no place he will go and not be Righteous. When the shih should not speak, but does, this is beguilement by speaking. When he should speak, but doesn't, this is beguilement by silence. Both can be considered as thievery." [7B:32] Mencius said, "Down-to-earth speech, which has far-reaching meaning is good speech. To preserve the essentials yet learn extensively—this is the good way. The words of the Superior Man are not hidden, yet the Tao is contained in them. The Superior Man concentrates on the cultivation of his own character. The common error of people is that they forget about their own garden and try to cultivate the other man's garden. They expect much from others and little from themselves." [7B:33] Mencius said, "What Yao and Shun had by nature, T'ang and Wu returned to. When your every action and expression operate perfectly in propriety, your virtue will be overflowing." Grief at funeral ceremonies is not for the purpose of the living. Holding to virtue without lapse is not for the purpose of recognition by your superiors. Speech that is truly sincere is not so in order to be called "right behavior." The Superior Man acts according to the pattern of the world in order to summon forth his destiny. That's all he does. [7B:35] Mencius said, "For cultivating the mind, there is nothing better than to lessen desire. If you have few desires, even if there are things you don't have, they will seem few. If you have many desires, even if you attain them, they will seem few." [7B:37] Wan Chang asked: "When Confucius was staying in Ch'an and said 'Let me return home, my student shih are ardent7 and impatient—they go and get what they want. I cannot forget that they are beginners.' Now, what made Confucius worry about his ardent students in Lu?" Mencius said, "When Confucius could not get a hold of students who followed the Middle Way, he had no recourse but to select from the ardent and the prudent. The ardent will go and get what they want. The prudent can limit themselves. Of course Confucius wanted students who could follow the Middle Way, but not necessarily being able to find such people, he had to think of his next option." "May I ask who he was thinking of when he said 'ardent' ?" "Men like Ch'in Chang, Tsang Hsi and Mu Pei." "Why did he call them 'ardent' ?" "With grandiose aspirations they would say 'The ancients did this, the ancients did that.' Boldly planning their actions, they often couldn't make good on them. Now, if the daring cannot be gotten hold of, then Confucius would try to find those shih who would not let themselves be defiled. These are the prudent, who are next best."
Chang asked, "Confucius said: 'When someone passes by my gate and does not enter, the only time I don't regret it is when it is a "conventional townsman." These conventional townsmen are thieves of virtue.' What sort of people were these, that he called 'conventional townsmen' ?" Mencius said, "They criticize the ardent, saying 'How can they be so grandiose such that their words do not reflect their actions and actions do not reflect their words, and how can they justify themselves with 'the ancients did this, and the ancients did that.' ' " "And they criticize the prudent, saying, 'How can they be so aloof and cold? We are all born in this world, so we should be part of it. Being good here and now is sufficient.' They obsequiously flatter their contemporaries. These are the so-called 'conventional townsmen.' " Wan Chang said, "The whole town calls them 'acceptable men' —there is no place where they can go where they will not be regarded as 'acceptable men.' Why did Confucius call them 'thieves of virtue' ?" Mencius answered: "If you want to blame them for something, there is nothing in particular that you can blame them for. If you want to correct them, there is nothing in particular that you can correct them for. They follow the current customs and consent to the vices of the age. They seem to abide in loyalty and honesty, and their actions seem pure. Everyone follows them and because people follow them, people become incapable of entering the Tao of Yao and Shun. Thus, they are called 'thieves of virtue.' " "Confucius said, 'I don't like simulacra.8 I don't like tares (grain weeds) because they can be confused with real grain. I don't like eloquence, because it can be confused with Rightness. I don't like sharpness of tongue, because it might be confused with honesty. I don't like the music of Chang, because it might be confused with good music. I don't like purple, because it might be confused with vermilion and I don't like conventional townsmen, because they might be confused with the virtuous.' " "The Superior Man returns to the constant and nothing more. Once the constant is properly apprehended, the people will be awakened. Once they are awakened, there will be no more of their evil deception."
Notes 1. The title shih is translated into English with such terms as "elite" , "knight" , "scholar," etc. While the shih of later Chinese history is more definitely a scholar than a knight, in the Analects, what Confucius is referring to is a level of spiritual/moral development, as well as academic and martial cultivation which is clearly above that of the average person. Thus, we can understand the shih to be a person who is well on the way toward becoming a "Superior Man," (君子) but is not quite there yet. 2. He-nei and He-dong were neighboring regions separated by a large river.
3. Two somewhat infamous rulers of the 7th century BCE. 4. From the Book of Odes, 231. This verse is from a story about a small bird who is being harassed by an owl, and who used a moment of respite to provide some selfprotection. 5. A legendary famous cook in ancient China. 6. Po Yi fled from the tyrant Chou but returned to serve King Wen. Liu Hsia Hui was a statesman of Lu, famous for his integrity (Analects. 18:2). 7. Wan Chang is referring to the story in Analects 5:21. For a discussion of the term "ardent" (kuang), see the comment to Analects 13:21. 8. A simulacrum is something which resembles closely something else, and can be mistaken for it.
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