STANDARDS / MANUALS / GUIDELINES FOR SMALL HYDRO DEVELOPMENT

      SPONSOR:  MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY   GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

VERSION 2

GUIDELINES FOR MONITORING CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF SHP STATIONS

LEAD ORGANISATION:   ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE  INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE 
 

1   

CONTENTS
ITEMS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 OBJECTIVE GENERAL REFERENCES AND CODES PAGE NO. 1 1 1 2

SECTION – I

GENERAL TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PREPARING SPECIFICATIONS
1.0 MONITORING OF SHP 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING REQUIREMENTS OF MONITORING SYSTEM LEVELS OF MONITORING

3

3 3 5 6 6 17 31 31 32 33 33

CONTROL OF UNITS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT 1.5 PROTECTION OF SHP GENERATING UNITS 1.6 GENERATOR CONNECTED IN PARALLEL TO GRID 1.7 GENERATORS CONNECTED IN PARALLEL ON A COMMON BUS 1.8 PROTECTION GROUPS 1.9 1.10 PROTECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

SECTION – II

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONTROL, PROTECTION & METERING ( MICRO HYDEL UPTO 100 KW)
2.1 SCOPE 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 APPLICABLE STANDARDS DESIGN CRITERIA PROTECTION AND METERING TESTS

36

36 36 36 37 39

SECTION - III

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CONTROL, PROTECTION AND METERING
(FOR SHP ABOVE 100KW TO 1000KW)

40 40 40 40 41 41

3.1 SCOPE 3.2 CONTROL EQUIPMENT 3.3 SYNCHRONIZATION 3.4 ALARM AND ANNUNCIATION 3.5 METERING

ITEMS

PAGE NO.

3.6 PROTECTION RELAYS 3.7 UNIT CONTROL BOARD 3.8 COMPLETENESS 3.9 SPARE PARTS & TOOLS 3.10 DOCUMENTATION 3.11 STANDARDS 3.12 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 3.13 UNIT CONTROLLERS 3.14 PROTECTION AND METERING DETAILS 3.15 METERING SYSTEM 3.16 UNIT CONTROL BOARD/CONTROL PANEL 3.17 SYNCHRONIZING PANEL 3.18 ANNUNCIATION SYSTEM 3.19 FACTORY TESTING 3.20 SITE TESTING 3.21 DRAWINGS 3.22 SPARE PARTS & TOOLS SECTION -IV TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL PROTECTION, METERING, SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA AQUISITION SYSTEM (SCADA)
4.0 SCOPE 4.1 4.3 APPLICABLE STANDARD

41 41 41 41 42 42 44 44 45 47 48 48 49 50 50 51 51 52

52 52 52 54 75 84

4.2 CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM CONTROL AND MONITORING OF PLANT EQUIPMENT 4.4 MANUAL CONTROL, METERING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM 4.5 SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM SECTION -V TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL PROTECTION, METERING AND SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (SCADA)

95

5.0

SCOPE
5.1 APPLICABLE STANDARD 5.2 CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM 5.3 CONTROL AND MONITORING OF PLANT EQUIPMENT 5.4 MANUAL CONTROL, METERING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM

95
95 96 96 123

8 FIELD TESTS FOR UNIT CONTROL SWITCHBOARDS 5.9 ADDITIONAL FACTORY AND FIELD TESTS FOR DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS 5.ITEMS 5.5 5.10 DATA/ DOCUMENT TO BE FURNISHED BY THE BIDDER .7 SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM COMMUNICATION LINK PAGE NO.6 5. 138 147 150 151 151 152 FACTORY TESTS FOR UNIT CONTROL SWITCHBOARDS 5.

1 INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES This guide is intended to assist in preparation of specification for monitoring of various parameters of various operations. guide & books. monitoring & protection system. therefore. Mini & micro power stations are generally provided system suiting to these being run unattended or with few attendants while bigger machines up to 5 MW capacity have more elaborate arrangement of control monitoring and protection. This guide. Usually small hydro units up to 5 MW are expected to require minimum amount of field assembly and installation work.2 GENERAL The generating units of a small hydropower plant may have its shaft vertical. horizontal or inclined with the type of turbine selected to suit the site’s physical conditions. generator. Section-IV Technical Specification for SHP having capacity above 1MW to 5 MW Section -V Technical Specification for SHP having capacity above 5MW to 25 MW. This guide will serve as a reference document along with available national & international codes standards.GUIDE LINES FOR TECHNICAL SPECIFICTION FOR MONITORING CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF SHP STATIONS 1. Machine having capacity up to 25 MW and provision of parallel operation with other systems will have more comprehensive control. transformer and other associated auxiliaries. Section-III Technical Specification for SHP having capacity above 100KW to1000KW. head and discharge available.0 1. For the purpose of convenience Section-I of this guide has been subdivided as follows • • • Monitoring Control Protection  1  .II Technical Specification for MHP having capacity upto100KW. describes control. Small hydro-generator are of the alternating current type and may be either synchronous or induction type. 1. large diameter and with split generator stator that require final winding assembly in the field. monitoring and protection requirement of small hydro power plants in following categories: Section-I General technical considerations for preparing specifications Section. While machine having capacity from 5 MW to 25 MW may have slow speed. Small hydro turbines may be selected as per site conditions. control and protection of main generating equipment viz turbine.

1249 IEEE std. C 5012 IEEE std 4214 ANSI/ IEEE std 242:1996 - ANSI/ IEEE std C 372-1987 ANSI/ IEEE std C 37. C 37101 IEEE std.1. CR AHEC/PFC/FINAL REPORT 2002 -  2  .102:1987 MASON.95 : 1974 ANSI/ IEEE std C 37.3 REFERENCES AND CODES IEEE guide for control of small hydro electric power plants IEEE guide for control of hydro electric power plants Guide for commissioning operation and maintenance of Hydraulic Turbines Electro mechanical guide for small hydroelectric installations IEEE application guide for distributed digital control and monitoring for power plants IEEE guide for computer–based control for power plant automation IEEE guide for generator ground protection IEEE standard for salient pole 50 Hz and 60 Hz synchronous generator and generator / motors for hydraulic turbine application rated 5 MVA and above IEEE guide for preparation of excitation system specification IEEE recommended practice for protection and coordination of industrial and commercial power systems IEEE standard electrical power systems device function numbers (R1980) IEEE guide for protective relaying of utility IEEE guide for generator protection Art & science of protective relaying 1956 IEEE Std 1020 IEEE Std 1010 IEEE Std 60545:1976 IEC 61116:1992 IEEE std 1046 IEEE std.

The efficient running of unit require regular monitoring.2 Hydro-mechanical Parameters • Turbine and accessories o Pressure and levels in oil pressure system o Bearing temperatures (oil & pads) o Oil level in bearing sumps (if provided) o Cooling water pressure and temperatures o Clean water pressure for shaft gland o Vibration in shaft for large machines o Status of inlet and other valves.1 Water Conductor System • • • • • • • • Storage level at dam / barrage / weir River discharge Headrace channel discharge Discharge at outlet of disilting basin Forebay level Discharge of spillway Penstock pressure Tail water level 1.1 SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING 1.SECTION – I GENERAL TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PREPARING SPECIFICATIONS 1. The primary input data and generation output data are monitored periodically. 1. The details of data required for monitoring performance of a generating station is as following.1.0 MONITORING OF SHP Monitoring of operating parameters of the generating unit and their auxiliaries is very important for the life and optimum utilization of available discharge for generation.1. Generator and accessories o Stator winding temperature o Rotor winding temperature o DE/NDE end bearing temperatures o Cooling water and air temperatures o Air gap monitoring Transformers o Winding temperature o Oil temperature o Oil level o Cooling water temperature and pressures • •  3  .

o Air compressors – HP /LP pressures and running hours o OPU system Running hours of pumps Level in pressure accumulators Pressure of oil • • • •  4  .3 • Electro-mechanical Operating Parameters Turbine & accessories o Speed o Guide vane opening & limits (precent) o Runner blade opening in Kaplan Turbine (percent) o Nozzle opening in impulse turbine (percent) Generator & auxiliaries o Governor actuator balance current (Amp) o Generated power (kW or MW) o Generated hour (kWh) o Kilovolt ampere (kVA) o Kilovolt ampere reactive (kVAR) o Power factor (PF) o Frequency (Hz) o Excitation voltage (Volts) o Excitation current (Amp) o Recorder for kW.Regular monitoring as per manufacturers recommendations o Battery chargers & distribution boards – voltage current etc.1. kWh etc Transformers o Tap position o HV/LV current o Primary/ secondary voltage Grid system & transmission line o Grid voltage o Grid frequency o Power export / import (kW) o Current (Amp) o Kilowatt hour (kWh) export / import Station auxiliaries o Voltage and current on LT AC system o Kilowatt hour (kWh) o Diesel generator running hour. Hz. kWh & other parameters o Drainage & dewatering system Running hours of pumps Water level in sump o Fire extinguisher – periodical testing o Battery set.1.

levels speed are installed at the proper location.2 REQUIREMENTS OF MONITORING SYSTEM 1. voltmeters. electrical equipment like breaker. 1. AC/DC supply system etc. Digital multifunction meters are now in use. Lists of such indication and relays are enclosed as Annexure-I&II. 1. Alarm and trip annunciation indicate the fault and advise operating personnel of the changed operating conditions.1.6 PLC Based System Recently control of machine and auxiliaries is done through PLC based control system automatically in addition to manual systems with local and remote facilities. as well as provides routine display. separate for each parameter with selector switches etc were being used earlier installed on control panels. are provided and installed on the generator control panels.2 Indicating Meters Analogue type of meters. 1. ameters with selector switches are provided for operational facilities. These scanners get the signals from the sensor installed at specific location preferably through screened cables. bearing pads.2. only one meter provides several parameters an selection. The data  5  . Now a days digital meters are being used for such parameters. 1.2.4 Indicating Lamps Indicating lamps of suitable colours as per code and practices should be provided on control panels for indication status of machine and various auxiliaries.2.2.1 Instrument Transformers & Sensors CTs & VTs Current and voltage transformers of rated voltage and appropriate ratio.3 Temperature Scanners Digital temperature scanners indicating the temperatures of stator winding. 1.5 Alarm & Annunciations The protection system relays and auxiliary relays also provided signals to alarm and annunciation system.2. oil coolers etc. class of accuracy is selected as per the requirement of the system.2. A set of annunciation windows are provided on control panels for each fault clearing relay with accept test and reset facility through push buttons. Few analogue meters like power meters (kW). pumps. isolator. pressures. Sensors The sensors for temperatures.

The PLC will acquire data from generating units. Simplicity of control is desirable to keep total cost of installed equipment as well as cost of maintenance. Small hydropower plants will certainly require unattended automatic synchronizing. 1.4 CONTROL OF UNITS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT 1. In addition the speed of some types of turbines under no load conditions is so sensitive to small adjustments in runner blade angle or inflow as to make only automatic synchronizing practical. however. Normally both manual and automatic synchronizing of generator are provided. For sending output signal PLC will use relays for operating breakers etc and comparators for giving ON/OFF signal. the sophistication of control should be based on the complexity and size of the installation. when done perfectly no current surge will occur. transformers. Transducers or signal transmitters are provided either at the control panel or at the equipment. noise level is high shielded cables should be used for carrying data / signals. But in case of unattended power plant direct tripping command will be initiated and shut off the facility to avert possibility of any damage to the plant.  6  .4.are acquired through sensors and operation of machine is achieved on present values through PC Monitors etc. 1. repair and tests at economical level.4. frequency. Moreover a simpler system is more reliable as compared to complex one. by closing generator circuit breaker or contactor. without compromising unit dependability and personal safety. Manual synchronizing necessitates availability of continuous display of voltage. 1.1 Synchronous Generator For conventional method of synchronizing the generator is started.2 GENERATOR CONNECTION TO SYSTEMS 1. The levels are: • • Alarm Tripping In case of manned power plant ‘alarm’ comes first so as to make the operator alert if no corrective action is possible then tripping command with indication / hooter and annunciation will be there. The voltage and the frequency are matched and unit is synchronized to the system. accelerated to near synchronous speed and excitation is applied.1 GENERAL For small hydro installation simplicity of control system is advised. phase angle and devices to control voltage and speed on the control panel.3 LEVELS OF MONITORING Normally two levels of monitoring is provided in SHP as per recommendation of IEC 1116.4. switchgears auxiliaries through transducers / sensors/ CTs/ VTs wherever signals are week.2.

1.4. Now the generator is connected with the grid and running at no load.3 Status and Alarm Requirements • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Unit ready to start Breaker position (no alarm if manual operation only) Intrusion alarm Fire alarm Emergency status alarm (requires immediate attention0 General status alarm (response can be differed) Trash rack differential alarm Unit stopped (when not required) Unit turning (when not required) High bearing temperatures Loss of lubrication or cooling or both Low hydraulic system pressure Incomplete start or stop sequence Loss of power 1.2 Induction Generator For conventional method of connecting induction generator to the grid. computer.1. At this stage grid power factor is to be checked and capacitor banks are switched on as per requirement to provide necessary reactive power and further loading of unit is done upto full load. In fact. programmable controllers microprocessor based systems or a combination of these. For smaller machines which are unattended provision of integrated digital control & SCADA system is preferred. All these functions can be performed manually as well as automatically through PLC. the rotor speed of generator shall be (1% slip) more than grid frequency.2. Once the generator frequency matches with grid frequency the generator breaker is closed.3 UNIT CONTROL The control logic system for small hydro start stop sequencing can be provided by hardwired relay logic.2. The unit control system should be designed to perform following functions: • • • • • Data gathering and monitoring Start stop control sequence Annunciation & alarm conditions Temperature monitoring Metering & instrumentation  7  .4. the generator is started and accelerated to synchronous speed.4. microprocessor based control system. This is done to avoid monitoring action of generator.

in order to control and monitor various control sequences. in order that the potential damage from over speed is avoided. 1-3 for a Francis turbine unit. solenoids & brake control Excitation – setters. are shown as including synchronous generator and governing system. the unit is started and stopped in manner that produces minimal disturbance to the system. for the sake of illustration. For certain mechanical troubles the unit is unloaded as quickly as possible before tripping. Under normal conditions. The unit control system. contactors and circuit breakers Typical startup and shutdown sequence are shown in fig. the generator breakers or contactor is tripped. including the following: • • • Auxiliary system – pumps & valves Governor load control rollers – setters.  8  . For instance of normal stop sequence entails a controlled unloading of machine and when completely unloaded. On the other hand protective relay operation will initiate immediate tripping of the unit and complete shutdown as quickly as possible.• • • Event recording Synchronizing and connecting the unit to grid Control of real & reactive power The unit control system must be able to provide startup and shutdown sequencing under both normal and abnormal conditions. must interface with number of plant systems. which.

1: Typical Start Sequence of Synchronous Generator  9  .Fig.

2: Typical Normal Shut Down and Mechanical Trouble Stop Sequence of Synchronous Generator  10  .Fig.

remote control startup or water level control and data acquisition and retrieval covers such operation as relaying plant operating status.  11  .4 CONTROL FUNCTIONS There are many functions to be controlled in a small hydropower system.1 Turbine Control This is the speed / load control of turbine in which governor adjusts the flow of water through turbine to balance the input power with load.4.Fig. 1. For example turbine governor controls the speed of turbine.4. instantaneous system efficiency or monthly plant factor.4. auto synchronization. plant automation covers operations as auto start. 3: Typical Electrical Trouble Stop Sequence for Synchronous Generator 1.

the governor controls the frequency of the system.In case small plants in the category of micro hydel (100 kW unit size). The excitation is an integral part of synchronous generator which is used to regulate operation of generator. With an isolated system. where excess load is diverted to dummy load to maintain constant speed. It includes sequential operation like startup. the governor may be used to regulate unit load and may contribute to the system frequency control. Fig. The main functions of excitation system of a synchronous generator are: • • Voltage control in case of isolated operation and synchronizing Reactive power or power factor controls in case of inter connected operation.4. excitation control.4. loading unit under specified conditions. synchronization.4. Figure 4 shows the different types of control applicable to turbines. normal shutdown. emergency shutdown etc.2 Generator Control This is the excitation control of synchronous generator. The different generator controls are shown in fig. In interconnected system.3 Plant Control Plant control deals with the operation of plant. 4: Turbine Control 1.4. load controllers are used. 5. 5: Generator Controls 1. The mode of control may be manual or automatic and  12  . Fig.

Different plant controls are given in fig 6. 7: Hierarchy of Controls of Hydropower Plants  13  .5. 6: Overview of Plant Automatic Control 1.4.may be controlled locally or from remote location.5 CONTROL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS 1. Plant control usually include monitoring and display of plant conditions.4. Fig. Fig.1 Vertical Array of Control System For hydroelectric power plants the components of the control system can be shown in vertical array as shown in fig 7.

This system can also be applicable to any Microprocessor of the above three locations Controlled) Operation (supervision) a. governor. relays instrument transformer signal conditioner.Each operation requires a separate and distinct initiation. Manual . At middle level there is control interface equipment which sends signals to the apparatus from controlling equipment and for apparatus to transmit data back to controlling equipment.Operators are all the time available at the plant to perform control action either locally or centralized control b. There may be occasional visits by operation & maintenance people to ensure security of plant.control is local at the controlled equipment within the sight of the equipment . but within the plant . Off site • Control mode: a. motors. generator exciter. Digital inputs provides digitalized values of variable quantities from the equipment Digital outputs – command signals from control boards to equipment Analog outputs – transmit variable signals from control to equipment e. valve etc is being controlled.g.4. RTDs. At this level itself human-machine interface is included.5. level. Unattended . Automatic . 1. voltage regulator etc.2 Categorization of Control System The control system can further be defined by identifying following three categories of control: • Location: a. Attended . Centralised c. vibration etc. flow.control is at other place. turbines. Local b.4.control is at remote place which may be quite far from the plant (Remote) • . switchgears. pressure. 1. pumps.With single initiation several operations in appropriate (PLC/ computer/ sequence are done. transducers or other interface devices. At top level there is controlling system which initiates control signals and receives the data transmitted from apparatus control interface equipment. Auxiliary contacts of motor starter. VTs.  14  .5.• • • At lowest level (process level) process which includes. However it may be applicable for any of the three locations b.3 Information and Control Signals Following four types of signals are provided between control board and particular equipment • • • • Analog inputs for variable signals from CTs.Operating staff is not available at the plant.

since the hydro-generator is source of fault current.  15  .4. Turbine Unit transformer Circuits breaker and switches Generator Intake gates or main inlet valve and draft tube gates Turbine governing system Generator excitation system The communication link between control board and equipment should be reliable. As such suitable mitigation has to be provided. Communications with Auxiliaries Data and control signals of following auxiliaries/ equipments will be required to be transmitted between control board and equipments. GPR is also caused by lightening transmitted through power lines entering the power plant. • • • • • • • • • • Generator neutral and terminal equipment Head water and tail water level equipment Water passage shut off or bye pass valves gates etc. utilizing power frequencies and micro wave radio can be practical if hydro plant owner has an existing microwave system. b.5.4 Communication Links a. optical cables etc. • • • • • • Communication links with remote control Following methods are available for implementing control from a remote location: Hardwired communication circuits (telephone type line. Space radio can be used. Power line carrier including insulated ground wire system can be used for communications purposes. Communication with control boards Data and control signals of following equipments will be required to be transmitted between control board & equipments.) Leased telephone lines Power line carries communication system Point to point radio Microwave radio Satellite Metallic circuit in hardwire communication circuits and leased telephone lines.1. requires special protection for equipments and personals against ground potential rise (GPR) due to electric system fault. c. This method couples a high frequency signal on the power line or insulated ground wire and is decoupled at an offsite point.

Specific hardware or software to be utilized for implementation is not however addressed in these standards.• • • • • • • Fire protection AC Power supply DC Power supply Service water Service air Water level monitoring Turbine flow monitoring 1.4. can be used for small hydropower generation control.2 Modern Practice Modern digital integrated control and protection system including programmable logistic controller (PLCs). distributed computer control system or personal computer control system not only provide supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) but also flexibility in control.1 Previous Practice Control of a hydro plant generating unit was typically performed from central control board located in centralize control room. 1991. know as SI (open system interconnection) – ISO mode. the International Organisation for standardistion developed a model for open architecture and protocol. 1990’. alarm. “ANSI/IEEE standard 1011.6. The control board contained. • • • • Iron vane meters Hardwired control switches A large number of auxiliary relays to perform unit start / stop operations All the sensors and controls required to operate unit or units were hardwired to control panels allowing control of power station from cotnralised control room 1. under UNDP – GEF projects. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) type plant controllers combine with PC based SCADA systems are used as Governors and for plant control & data acquisition. In 1990.4. remote communication in a cost effective manner and has been specifically recommended for SHPs in India. sequencing. IEEE guide for control of small hydro electric plants. Architecture and communication are two potential problem area for computerized control system.6.6 MODERN PRACTICE REGARDING GOVERNOR AND PLANT CONTROL 1.  16  .4. Control functions of small hydro plants are standardized in following US standards a. b. IEEE guide for control of hydroelectric power plants “ANSI/IEEE standard 1010. This makes the system less costly and reliable and therefore.

hydraulic and thermal damage that may occur as a result of abnormal conditions in the plant or in the utility system to which the plant is electrically connected. etc. This greater isolation tends to increase the protection demands of the smaller plants. generator. (2) the type of power system. and type of units in the plant. Many auxiliary equipment problems may necessitate loss of generation until the abnormal conditions has been determined and corrected by operating or maintenance staff. (4) the owner’s dependence on the plant for power. Small hydroelectric power plants generally contain less complex systems than large stations. (5) manufacturer’s recommendations.5 PROTECTION OF SHP GENERATING UNITS 1. number. Loss of individual items of auxiliary equipment may or may not be critical to the overall operation of the small plant. On the other hand. and (7) control location and extent of monitoring. may be utilized in the detection of abnormal conditions. electrical. Where programmable controllers are provided for unit control. Alarm indicators could be used to advise operating personnel of the changed operating conditions. the very small stations should be typically unattended and under automatic control. so as to minimize the extent of damage and yet retain the maximum amount of equipment in service. Operating problems with the turbine. (3) interconnecting utility requirements. temperature sensors. The type and extent of the protection provided will depend upon many considerations. depending upon the extent of redundancy provided in the auxiliary systems. unit control. These devices in turn operate other electrical and mechanical devices to isolate the equipment from the system. pressure or liquid level sensors. protection and also data acquisition & storage and are more economical and reliable.  17  . 1. Relays (utilizing electrical quantities). some of which are: (1) the capacity. and mechanical contacts operated by centrifugal force. the design of the protective systems and equipment is intended to detect abnormal conditions quickly and isolate the affected equipment as rapidly as possible. The abnormal operating conditions that may arise should be detected automatically and corrective action taken in a timely fashion to minimize the impact.Personal computer based dedicated digital control system can perform all functions of governing. or associated auxiliary equipment require an orderly shutdown of the affected unit while the remaining generating units (if more than one is in the plant) continue to operate.5. they can also perform some of the desired protective functions. though. These dedicated systems with back up manual control facility of turbine control in emergency by dedicated semi automatic digital controllers can be a low cost option for small hydropower station.1 GENERAL Small hydro turbine-generators should be protected against mechanical. and therefore tend to require less protective equipment. Overall. (6) equipment capabilities. and frequently have little control and data monitoring at an off-site location..

5.5.1 Plant Mechanical Equipment Troubles 1.1 Turbines (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 1.2.5.2.2 Excessive vibration Bearing problems Over speed Insufficient water flow Shear pin failure Grease system failure Hydraulic Control System (a) Low accumulator oil level (b) Low accumulator pressure (c) Electrical.An inherent part of the power plant protection is the design of the automatic controls to recognize and act on abnormal conditions or control failures during startup.5.2 Plant Electrical Equipment Troubles 1. Close coordination of the unit controls and other protection is essential.5.1.1.2.2.5.3 (a) (b) (c) (d) Water Passage Equipment Failure of head gate or inlet valve Head gate inoperative Trash rack blockage Water level control malfunction 1.5.2 (a) (b) (c) (d) Insulation failure High temperature Abnormal oil level Fire  18  . 1.1. electronic or hydraulic malfunctions within the governing or gate positioning system 1.1 Generator (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Abnormal electrical conditions Stator winding high temperature Low frequency Bearing problems Motoring Fire Excessive vibration Cooling failure Over speed Main Transformer 1.2.2.2.2.2 EQUIPMENT TROUBLE 1.52.

b.1 Protective Devices 1.5. however each station should have specific design suitable for protection requirements of the power plant equipment as well as the interconnection. particularly for line fault detection.2.3. The following section describes components of a typical protection system that might be applied to a small hydro plant. possibly incorporating display and contacts for alarm annunciation and tripping to monitor bearing stator and transformer winding temperatures.2.5.1 Temperature A temperature device. While standard devices are generally available that can provide the protective functions required.2. 1.1.5.2.5.3.5. 1.2. Ground or phase faults Single phasing Abnormal voltage System separation (islanding) Coordination with the utility is needed in selecting specific protective equipment. c.1. d.3 DEVICES USED IN A TYPICAL PROTECTION SYSTEM There are numerous ways of providing the functional protective requirements of the plant.1 Station Service (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Transformer failure Unbalanced current DC System Trouble Station Air System Trouble Service Water System Trouble Flooding Fire Unauthorized Entry Protection or Control Logic System Malfunction Water level Monitoring System Malfunction 1.4 Utility System Troubles Utility line faults and other abnormal utility system conditions should be detected and the plant be disconnected from the utility system.3.5.5.  19  .3 General Plant Troubles 1. Discussions and diagrams are included to illustrate location and arrangement of relays. Abnormal utility system conditions include the following situations: a.3 Generator Switchgear and Bus (a) Electrical fault (b) Mechanical failure (c) Loss of control power 1.

1. with alarm and trip contacts.5.  20  .1 Features of relays The protective relays stand watch and in the event of failures short circuits or abnormal operating conditions help de-energize the unhealthy section of power system and restrain interference with rest of it and limit damage to equipment and ensure safety of personals. 1. to alarm. such as automatic greasing system. 1.3 Over and under speed Direct-connected or electrically driven speed switches for alarm.3. and tripping.5.5. 1.3.1.1. block startup.1.3. to alarm.7 Miscellaneous mechanical Sensing devices are integral to the protected systems. Selectivity – To ensure that only the unhealthy part of system is disconnected Sensitivity – Detection of short circuit or abnormal operating condition. 1. or trip.5.3.3.5 Water level A measuring system incorporating level sensors and monitoring equipment. cooling and station sump drainage system.5.1. control. since they are not usually enclosed.5.3.5. or control turbine output on limiting values of headwater or tail water level. or head. transformer. wicket gate shear pins.2.1.3. 1.2 Pressure and Level Pressure and level switches installed in the turbine air and oil systems.Resistance temperature devices operating relays can also be used to detect generator stator overheating. trip. Speed – To prevent and minimize damage and risk to instability of rotating plant.2 Protective Relay and Protection System 1.1.6 Fire Sensors located in areas where fire can occur and connected to a central fire monitor for alarm. The protective relays should possess following features: • • • • Reliability – To ensure correct action even after long period of inactivity and also to offer repeated operation under sever condition.4 Vibration Vibration detectors monitoring turbine or generator shaft sections. Small generators usually do not have fire sensors or suppression equipment. as necessary. 1.5.3.

However.• Stability – The ability to operate only under those conditions that calls for its operation and to remain either passive or biased against operation under all other conditions. some individual electromagnetic conventional / static relays for few important protections are recommended to be provided as standby relays. These microprocessor based relays have different protections elements and therefore a separate relay for each protection is not required. trip status for different protection elements. Type of relays 1. PARAMETER Accuracy Burden Setting Ranges Multi Functionality Size Field Programmability Parameter Display System Flexibility Co-ordination Tools Communication Remote Control Special Algorithms Special Protections Self Diagnostics NUMERIC 1% <0. A list of protections generally available in these microprocessor based relays is enclosed as Annexure-II. Following annexure are enclosed for ready reference  21  . Numerical relays are more user friendly and are gaining popularity everywhere. • Advantages of numerical relays It has been a practice to use electro-mechanical / solid state relays for all above protections.2 There are several types of relays being used for protection systems Electromagnetic relays Static relays Numerical relays The old conventional electromagnetic relays are now being replaced with static relays with are much faster and maintenance free.2. over the earlier technology.5% >5 VA Limited No Large No No No Two No No Limited No No The user’s worry that numerical relays are very expensive is now removed due to continuous production. with features listed as above. improvement in techniques which have made numerical relays above all.5. The present trend is to use numerical relays which offer many advantages as follows.5 VA Wide Yes Small Yes Yes Yes Many Yes Yes Many Yes Yes CONVENTIONAL 5%/7.3. time / current characteristics selected and contacts for trip signals. The numerical relays are having LED indications for power ON. These relays are more reliable and sensitive.

1. tripping will eventually follow. It is recommended two independent devices must be provided for over speed shut down on larger machines. i. g and h only alarm and annunciation is required to alert the operator and take corrective action.3. One for alarm mostly at 110% and other for tripping at 140%. While for item b. The total loss of generator may not be catastrophic if it represents a small percentage of the investment in an installation.List of protection elements in Microprocessor based relays 1. c. e.3.5. 415 V hydro machine will have less protection as compared to 25 MW base load hydro electric machine.3. Elements to be considered are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Speed rotation Oil levels in bearing Circulation of lubricants Oil level of the governing system Oil level of speed increaser (if provided) Bearing temperatures Oil temperature of governing system Oil temperatures of speed increasers Oil pressure of governing system Pressure of cooling water Immediate tripping is required for a.5. f. However. but in case corrective action is not taken.5.3 Criteria of selection of protection system The designer must balance the expense of applying a particular relay against the consequences of losing a generator. State of the art. the impact on service reliability and upset to loads supplied must be considered. Accordingly there is no standard solution based on MW-rating.4 Requirements of Protection of Generator Elements to be considered normally are  22  . However. 1. micro controller based protection schemes offer a range of economical.2. it is rather expected that a 500 kW. Applying brakes at a particular speed (30% of full speed) is done to reduce time to achieve stand still position of machine. d. efficient and reliable solution to address the basic protection and control requirements depending upon the size and specific requirement of the plant. stress on cost reduction and trends towards automation. utility regulation.• • Annexure-I Annexure-II . specially for machines which are not designed for continuous run away speed. and j.3 Requirements of Protection of Turbine Two level protection is recommended as per IEC 1116. generating unit protection has become a high focus area. With increasing complications in power system. Damage to equipment and loss of product in continuous processes can be dominating concern rather than generating unit.List of SHP Generator panel indications & relays .

e & f while for items a. f.3. Every generator is provided with a set of lightening arrestors / surge diverter of appropriate rating and generated voltage.3.5.5. i.5. 1.a.5.5.3. h. It is advisable to provide heating arrangement to prevent condensation in generator. g. d.3. 1.1 Categorisation In view of the economy and plant requirements generator protection for small hydropower stations is categorized a follows: • • • • Generator size less than 300 kVA Generator size 300 to 1000 kVA Generator size 1 MVA to 10 MVA Generator size above 10 MVA Transient overvoltage and surge protection 1.5.5. e. Surge capacitors are provided to restrict rate of rise of surge voltages and their magnitudes. c. g. d. Stator temperature Over current (stator and rotor) Earth fault with current limits (stators & rotor) Maximum and minimum voltage Power reversal Over/ under frequency Oil level in bearing sumps Pad & oil temperature of bearings Cooling air temperature Immediate tripping is required for items b. c. b.3 Minimum protection for a small machine with low resistance grounding are proposed as follows: Device No.5 Generator Protection System and Relay Selection 1. h and i first alarm and annunciation is required for taking correcting measure and then tripping if correcting measure is not taken within permissible time.2 Transient over-voltages and lightning surges are controlled by lightning arrestors. 51V 51GN Description Basic Package Voltage-restrained time over current relay Neutral ground over current relay Options Under voltage relay Reverse power relay Loss of excitation relay Negative phase sequence relay Stator over temperature relay Ground sensor over current relay Voltage controlled over current relay  23  27 32 40 46 49R 50GS 51VC .

3.4 Minimum protection for a large machine with high resistance grounding Basic Package Distance Over excitation Under voltage Third harmonic under voltage Reverse power Loss-of-excitation Current unbalance (negative sequence) Ground over current (backup to 64G) Voltage-restrained over current Over voltage VT fuse failure detection Stator ground Ground (field)-I Under/ Over frequency 21 24 27 27TN 32 40 46 51GN 51V 59 60V 64G 64F 81L/H  24  .64B 81 L/H 86G 87G 12 Generator ground over voltage relay (in place of 51GN where generator is ungrounded) Under / over frequency relay Lockout auxiliary relay Self-balancing current differential relay Over speed relay 7.5.

utility regulations. generator protection has become a high focus area.5.5. microcontroller based protection schemes from various manufactures offer a range of solutions to customers to address the basic protection and control requirements depending upon the size and plant requirements.  25  .5 Typical schemes With increasing complications in the power system. State of the art.87G 50/27 95 86G 12 Percentage differential Accidental energisation protection Trip circuit monitoring Lockout auxiliary relay Over speed relay Options System backup distance relay (in place of 51V) Stator over temperature relay (RTD) Voltage ground relay-II Out-off step relay 21G 49R 60V2 78 1.3. stress on cost reduction and trend towards automation.

 26  .5.3.5. Many organizations have already made E/F protection as mandatory. which offer O/C and short circuit protections.5. the system needs more automation and fool proof protections.1. 1. Since these units are very remotely located and less manpower is available for operation and maintenance. Therefore. • IDMT over current + E/F relay will be required in addition to normal MCCB or ACB releases – since the generator may need shorter trip time for faults in the range 100% to 400% level.7 Generators – size 300 to 1000 kVA There are two major differences when compared with the small machines considered above.3. E/F protection (51 N): This will protect the generator from hazardous leakages and ensure operator safety.6 Generators-size less than 300 kVA Normally these generators are controlled by MCCBs. It is advisable to have following protections in addition to MCCB. recently several optional protections are also being used for micro/mini units including over speed (12) protections.5.

Two levels of over current protection are required – low set and high set (for short circuit protection). Such internal faults must be cleared instantaneously. o Thermal overload (49) This protection is a must – it monitors the thermal status of machine for currents between 105% to the low set O/C level (Normally 150%) o Current unbalance (46) Generators are expected to feed unbalanced loads-whose level has to be monitored. which may cause reverse power flow at certain times. the differential relay scheme will not be possible. This necessitates voltage and frequency related protections as well. there would be a drop in terminal voltage.8 • Stator side protections o Voltage restrained over current protection (50V/51V) Normal IDMT O/C will not work here-when an over current fault occurs. A high impedance differential relay scheme. In this case a restricted E/F scheme is the solution.3.• • By virtue or larger power level. any faults inside the stator or fault between the neutral of the machine and the breaker terminals can reach very high intensity. o Loss of excitation (40) When excitation is lost in a running generator. due to higher current levels. This condition is detected from the stator side CT inputs – by monitoring the internal impedance level & position of the generator. it will draw reactive power from the bus and get over heated. A two level monitoring for unbalance is preferred-first level for alarm and the second level for trip. During synchronization PF change due to load/ grid fluctuations Prime mover failure  27  . If the unbalance exceeds 20%. Consequently normal IDMT may not pick up. it may cause over heating of the windings. It is necessary to have a relay whose pick up setting will automatically reduce in proportion to terminal voltage. Care should be taken to provide adequate number of CTs.5. This heating will not be detected by the thermal overload relaysince the phase currents will be well within limits. If the neutral is formed inside the machine.5. is the best suited for this purpose. o Reverse Power (32) Generators for this size may operate in parallel with other sources. Generators – size 1 MVA to 10 MVA 1. the fault current will reduce (with respect to terminal voltage) to a level below the pickup setting. Hence the over current protection must be voltage restrained. For the same fault impedance. Normal IDMT over current E/F relays are not adequate to monitor this internal fault status-otherwise the machine can circulate very high fault currents resulting in severe damage. Machine of this size are likely to have external controls for frequency and excitation – so that they can be run in parallel with other power sources (other generators on the same bus or the local grid).

o Under/ over voltage (27/59) This will protect the machine from abnormal voltage levels. This protection is very impartment since the machines of this size have to be protected for severe damages that may occur due to internal faults. Percentage biased differential protection with dual slope characteristics REF protection element (87 N). o Stator earth fault (64F) This element tuned to the fundamental frequency can be used for the protection of stator winding from earth fault. like opening of bus coupler or feeder breaker etc. it is necessary to have a percentage biased. This will also help in load shedding schemes for the generator. o Under Power (37) It may not be economical to run generators below a certain load level. o Under/ over frequency (81) This will protect the machine from abnormal frequency levels. which will monitor the generator for internal earth faults Over current protection. particularly during synchronization and load throw off conditions. This may however be optional. the generator along with prime mover will undergo violent mechanical shock – hence reverse power protection is necessary. low impedance differential relay. with which more drastic measures can be taken. o PT Fuse failure protection This relay will detect any blowing of PT secondary fuse and give a contact which can be used to lock the under voltage trip. Considering the large power levels. o Breaker failure protection This protection detects the failure of breaker to open after receipt of trip signal. as a back up  28  . particularly during synchronization and load throw off conditions. These relays generally have following advantages.When reverse power happens. Another trip contact is generated under breaker fail conditions. This protection will monitor the forward power delivered by the machine and give alarm when the level goes below a set point.

it will detect the first earth fault occurred in the winding and provide an alarm. Diode failure relay will monitor the condition of these diodes.  29  . The relay employs proven DC rejection method for the detection of E/F. which can become short or open during operation. there are other two methods as shown in the diagram for field ground detection. for both open circuit and short.• Rotor side protections Generators of this size will need rotor side protections listed below: o Diode failure relay Brushless excitation systems will have rotor mounted diodes. o Rotor excitation voltage This is a DC voltage relay which will monitor rotor voltage The above three protections are normally part of the excitation system of the generator. o Rotor earth fault Relay for this protection will monitor the rotor winding status for the earth fault. and give alarm o Rotor excitation current This is a DC current relay which will monitor the excitation current.

13 Field ground detection using pilot brushes   1. the philosophy of main protection and back up protection has to be followed.    FIELD EXCITER FIELD BREAKER BRUSH C1 C2 AC 64F R R Fig.  30  .5.3.5.9 Generator above 10 MVA For large generators above 10 MVA size. In addition to the protections listed above following extra protections are to be considered.

o 100% earth fault protection This will help in sensing earth faults close to neutral. Third harmonic content in the zero sequence voltage will be detected by the replay for the above protection. o Inadvertent breaker closure This will avoid closing of generator to bus during process to stop, or when stand still or before synchronism. o Under impedance This will be required as a backup protection for the whole system including the generator transformer and the associated transmission line. If the distance relay fails to pick for some reason, this under impedance function will pick up and save the generator. o Over excitation This will protection the generator from over fluxing conditions 1.6 GENERATOR CONNECTED IN PARALLEL TO GRID

Whenever generators are running parallel to grid, a comprehensive auto synchronizing & Grid islanding scheme will be required. This scheme will help in synchronizing the generator to the bus and opening the incomer breaker of the plant whenever there is a severe grid disturbance, thus protecting the generator from ill effects of disturbed grid. • Grid disturbances Under-voltage / Over-voltages Under-frequency/Over-frequency Rapid fall/ rise of frequency (df / dt), Grid failure or other faults

Generator may not be able to operate below a certain power-factor. At low powerfactor, reverse reactive power flow may damage the generator. • Grid fault detection Over current and directional earth fault, Rapid fall/ rise of frequency (df/dt), Vector surge relay, GENERATORS CONNECTED IN PARALLEL ON A COMMON BUS

1.7

Whenever more than one generator is operating in parallel, it is necessary to see that the plant load is equally shared by the generators in parallel. If there is unequal sharing, there would be sever hunting amongst the generators and eventually this will lead to cascaded tripping of all generators, causing a total black out. Specific load sharing relays are available in the market which provide the most effective, online load sharing system for generators in parallel.

 31 

1.8

PROTECTION GROUPS

The protective relays and devices of generator and turbine are proposed to be grouped into following four categories for an orderly shutdown of the affected unit with the remaining generating units and auxiliaries continue to operate. 1.8.1 CONTROLLED ACTION SHUT DOWN Controlled action shutdown will be initiated by any of the following conditions • • • • • Generator thrust bearing pads temperature very high Generator guide bearing pads temperature very high Turbine guide bearing pads temperature very high Governor OPU oil level low stage-II Governor OPU oil pressure low stage-II

1.8.2 EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN • • • • • Emergency shutdown will be initiated by any of the following conditions. Sped 115% and deflector/ guide vanes/ runner blades apparatus not moved to closing Deflector etc. fails to close in preset time Unit over speed (electrical) > 140% Unit over speed (mechanical)>150% Stop push button on control panel in control room is pressed Emergency shutdown system will perform following functions: • • • • • • Trip generator breaker Stop turbine by governor action Trip generator field circuit breaker Operate trip alarm in control room Energizes emergency solenoid valve in governor cubicle to stop the turbine by bypassing governor Close main inlet valve

1.8.3 IMMEDIATE ACTION SHUT DOWN Immediate action shut down will be initiated by any of the following conditions • • • • • • Generator differential protection operates Generator stator earth fault protection operates Generator field failure protection operates Generator transformer stand by earth fault protection operates Over current in stator Over current instantaneous protection in the excitation circuit The immediate action shut down perform following function

 32 

Trip generator breaker Trip field breaker Initiates controlled action shut down stop turbine by governor action Trip annunciation in control room 1.8.4 ELECTRICAL SHUT DOWN Electrical shutdown system will be initiated by any of the following conditions • • • • • • Over current in the excitation circuit Generator back up protection operates Generator over voltage protection operates Excitation failure protection operates Reverse power protection operates Generator T/F IDMT over current, over current instantaneous & earth fault protection operates Electrical shut down system will perform following functions • • • 1.9 Trip generator breaker Trip field breaker Governor brings the unit to spin at no load PROTECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS Following protections are generally provided on transformers I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. Fuses Sudden pressure protection (Buchholtz Relay) Oil temperature high Winding temperature high Over current/ earth fault Over frequency Differential protection Restricted earth fault protection Over flux protection (in large grid) Over all differential protection (Gen. Trans. Both in large machines) Fire protection system Fire extinguishers Mulsyfire protection Fire buckets-sand filled

1.10

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

For large generators, fire protections system will use CO2 as the quenching medium which will operate automatically. Hot spot/ smoke detectors are provided all around the periphery of generator winding. Bank of CO2 cylinders with control panel etc. are provided common for all the generators. The individual pipes let the CO2 enter in the faulty generator and quench the fire. Generator is isolator from the bus bar and machine stopped. The system is more effective in closed cycle cooling systems of generators.
 33 

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Designation L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 R Y B IPB PB1 PB2 TS DMF H ANN T A R BAPB 27 32P 51V 59 60 64S 46 40 95 87G 52G KWTR BL 86G1 86G2 86G3 86G4 Aux Relays Inscription DC Supply on AC Supply on Generator Circuit Breaker Close Generator Circuit Breaker Open Generator Circuit Breaker Trip Generator Circuit Spring Charge Trip Coil Healthy DC Supply Failed Spare R Phase Bus Healthy Y Phase Bus Healthy B Phase Bus Healthy Immediate Action Trip Push Button Controlled Action Shut Down Push Button Spare Push Button Temperature Scanner Digital Multi Function Meter Hooter Annunciator Test Push Button Accept Push Button Reset Push Button Bell Accepted Push Button Under Voltage Relay Reverse Power Relay Voltage Controlled Over Current Relay Over Voltage Relay PT Fuse Failure Relay Stator Earth Fault Relay Negative Phase Sequence Relay Loss of Field Relay Trip coil Supervision relay Generator Differential Relay Generator Circuit Breaker Kilowatt Transducer Electrical Bell Master Trip Relay Master Trip Relay Master Trip Relay Master Trip Relay As Required Colours Yellow Red Red Green Amber Blue Yellow Red Red Red Yellow Blue Red Green Red Black Black Black Yellow  34  .ANNEXURE-I LIST OF GENERATOR PANEL INDICATION AND RELAYS Sl.

ANNEXURE-II LIST OF PROTECTION ELEMENTS IN MICRO PROCESSOR BASED RELAYS Symbol 21 24 26 27 27NT 32 38 40 46 49 50BF 50P 50N 50/27 51P 51N 51N 59 59N 64R 78 81 87G CTS VTS Description Under Impedance Over Fluxing Field Winding Temp Under Voltage 100% Stator E/F Reverse Power Bearing Temp Loss of Field Negative Phase Sequence Stator Winding Temp Breaker Failure Instantaneous Phase Over Current Instantaneous Neutral Over Current Unintentional Energisation at Stand Still Time Delayed Phase Over Current Time Delayed Neutral Over Current Voltage Controlled Over Current Over Voltage Residual Over Voltage Restricted E/F Pole Slipping Protection Over/ Under Frequency Generator Differential Current Transformer Supervision Voltage Transformer Supervision  35  .

SECTION II TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONTROL. manufacture. annunciation. manual and auto synchronizing. The main power unit will work on 24 V DC and the hot standby power unit will take power from a UPS at 240 V AC. Automation system shall have capability to provided diagnostic information in the event something fails to operation during the start sequence/running.’s for all the units protection and metering shall be subject to approval by purchaser. The Panel shall incorporate components for generator protection. metering and emergency stop as per enclosed drawing (to be enclosed by Purchaser). All the protective equipment will be housed in the Power Plant main control room. 2. Manual control and manual synchronization shall be provided in addition to PLC/computer based auto control and auto synchronization . Design Criteria The control will have provision for start. protection.  36  .1. shop testing. stop.2. testing. For Turbine –Generator unit one Panel shall be provided. metering and other components for making the system complete and to ensure a trouble free and safe operation on turnkey basis. synchronization. indication & alarm devises and meters for metering various parameters. The Air Circuit Breaker for generator may also be incorporated in this panel.IEEE Guide for Control of Hydroelectric Power Plants (ii) IS/IEC/ISO Standards mentioned in the text 2. commissioning and training of purchaser personnel for PLC/ computer based automation system with manual control facility for the operation of power plant from power house. PLC/computer based controller system will have a dual power unit.T.3. The scope also includes protection. delivery erection. The details of C. Scope The scope includes design.Applicable Standards (i ) ANSI / IEEE 1010-1987. The requisite functions for ELC can also be incorporated in this control panel. PROTECTION & METERING ( MICRO HYDEL UPTO 100 KW) 2. Standard control scheme of turbine suitable for micro hydro plants will be adopted.

Stator b. The complete metering and protection scheme is shown in Drawing (to be enclosed by Purchaser0. recording and shutdown of the unit for stator & bearing temp control Over speed for normal and emergency shutdown. RTD (PT-100) in stator core and bearing for indication. Generator bearing C. Annunciation System  37  . protection and metering system will be based on state of art technologies. 6. Metering System The power generated shall be metered at generator terminal through metering CT and PT. 3. Following metering instruments shall be provided on relevant panels. 5. Turbine bearing c. 1. A. kW Meter kWH Meter kV Meter Ampere Meter PF Meter Frequency/Speed Meter Temperature Meter for (To be provided only on generator panel) a. (12) Over Voltage Protection (59) Under voltage protection (27) Following Mechanical Protections will be provided on Generator • • B. This protection scheme is tentative and is for the general guidance of the tenderer and does not restrict the tender to give offer for better scheme. 2.4.2. PROTECTION AND METERING Electrical control. PLC based automation systems for the operation of power plant will be adopted. 4. 7. alarm. Generator Protections • • • • • Voltage restraint over current (51V) Stator earth fault relay (64 S) Over speed electrical/Mech.

D. Current Transformers The current transformers should be suitable for metering & protection circuits shall be epoxy cast resin. off etc. operated.C on. surge arrestors shall confirm to the latest Indian standard. 1 No. IS-3156 (1992) F. class ‘F’ insulation dry type units. D. The current transformer will be wound primary or bar primary as the case may be. E. The current transformers shall confirm to the latest Indian standard. D.A multipoint microprocessor based annunciator with suitable number of ways for projecting visual signals and audible alarm in case of fault shall be provided on the control panels suitably. Breaker off. B/F Valve open. dust tight and tropicalised and shall be complete with audible warning device. Potential Transformers The potential transformers to be used for metering & protection circuits shall be epoxy cast resin. The indication lamps should be 24 V D.) Voltmeter 0 – 500V & Voltmeter S/S Relays Voltage restraint over current (51V) Stator earth fault relay (64 S) Over speed electrical/Mech. switches and alarms 1 No.C. i ii iii 415 V --. class ‘F’ insulation dry type units. The L. Unit control Board Following components shall be provided on UCB (the list is tentative). H. interchangeable and replaceable from the front of the panel. IS–2705 (1992) G.C. The potential transformers shall be protected on primary and secondary side by current limiting fuses. The potential transformers shall confirm to the latest Indian standard.C. B/F Valve close.T surge arrestors shall be provided in the control panel.A Circuit Breaker for generator (MCCB with shunt trip may be used. and apparatus as required to complete the annunciator system.T. It shall be suitable for operation on 24 V. 1 No. (12) Over Voltage Protection (59) Under voltage protection (27) Other meters. Each iv  38  . The annunciator shall be back connected flush mounting. if required for proper operation of unit. Breaker Trip. Indication System The control panel shall incorporate the visual indication such as Breaker on. supply. Bidder shall have to provide additional component. D. Surge Arrestors The L.

1 No. 1 No. 2 Nos. Metering instruments as per IS shall be submitted for approval of the purchaser. Relays. 2 Nos.C. 1 No. metering and AVR Current Transformers for Protection & Metering Frequency meter 45-50-45 HZ Auto manual change over switch Power Factor meter Emergency Push Button Annunciation Window for faults & Buzzer/alarm Electronic load controller. 3 No.  39  . 3 Nos.Ammeter (0-50 A) & Ammeter Selector Switch Kilo-Wattmeter ( 0-30 kW) Energy Meter (kWH meter). 2.ON / OFF ( if provided) Indication Lamps for B/F Valve open/close Potential Transformer for protection. Indication Lamps Generator Breaker OFF/ON/TRIP Indication Lamps D. 1 No. 1 No. LAs.5 Tests Routine and type test certificate of CTs. 1 No. 1No. 1 No. 7 Nos. PTs.

 40  .kVA 0.III TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CONTROL. Automatic control of generating units from unit control boards by PLC based unit controllers. ii.1 SCOPE The scope includes design.kW Synchronous Generating units.Nos. commissioning and training of purchasers’ personnel for computer based automation systems for the operation of power plant from powerhouse.SECTION . Static excitation and governing systems being digital. annunciation and synchronization. 11 kV feeders controlled by 11 kV vacuum circuit breakers. --.2 CONTROL EQUIPMENT The control equipment shall comprise of the following:    Generating Units Control   i. -.kW Diesel set for station supplies ii. The power station will comprise the following major components: i. Following drawings show tentatively the main scheme (to be supplied by the Purchaser) : Single Line Diagram Metering and Protection System 3. shop testing. The scope also includes protection. PROTECTION AND METERING (FOR SHP ABOVE 100KW TO 1000KW) 3.Nos. iii. manufacture. delivery. Local/Manual control of generating units from hard wired control panels.3 SYNCHRONIZATION Manual synchronization shall be provided in addition to computer based autosynchronization with an appropriate change-over switch on the control panel. --. iv.415 kV Station Transformer and --. testing. metering and other components for making the system complete and to ensure a trouble free and safe operation on turn key basis.415/11 kV Ynd11 50 Hz 3 phase transformers. -. A check synchronizing relay will be provided. Francis Turbine being the prime mover and synchronized at 415 V. 1 No.kVA 11KV/0. 3. –x--. erection.

required for site assembly.7   UNIT CONTROL BOARD The Unit control board for each unit fitted with necessary devices and appropriately wired using standard accessories shall be provided.6 PROTECTION RELAYS i. ii. 3.5 METERING i. Digital Multi-functions Meter alongwith analogue type three ammeter and voltmeter with selector switch shall be required for each generator circuit.4 ALARM AND ANNUNCIATION Window annunciation shall be provided on the unit control board and the same shall be complete with audio and video alarm system. 3.  41  . The system shall be designed to have low DC power consumption.8 COMPLETENESS All such systems/equipment/components/works which are necessary for the completeness of the system but not mentioned explicitly shall also be a part of the scope of the contractor. 3.0 or better. Instruments required for turbine control. 3.9 SPARE PARTS & TOOLS The contractor shall ensure supply of the spares for all the offered equipment/components (at least one module of every type) for use for 5 years and any special tools & plants. iii. at least three-anda-half digit LED display and accuracy class of 1. erection. Energy metering shall be provided on the 11 kV feeders and generators with electronic energy meter of an accuracy class of 1.0 or better. operation & maintenance of the equipment. Digital relays shall be provided for the protection of 11 kV feeders and --kVA 415 V/11 kV Generator Transformers.3. ii. All panel meters shall be digital with at least 2 cm digit size. monitoring and protections shall be provided by turbine manufacturer for which close liason shall be required between different manufactures. testing. commissioning. 3. spanners etc. Each generator shall be provided with static digital numeric type of relays for the protection system.

10 DOCUMENTATION The contractor shall provide all necessary drawings. Software: User and reference manuals related to complete software shall be supplied by the contractor. diagrams and documentation of equipment and software. The extent of the documentation to be furnished shall be to the satisfaction of the Purchaser.11 STANDARDS Standard and codes to which the equipment must conform are given below. Hardware: The necessary user.3. 3. reference and service manuals along with the technical specifications for all the hardware systems/sub-systems shall be supplied by the contractor. The documentation in original shall also include six hard copies and one soft copy of the following: a. The extent of documentation to be furnished shall be to the satisfaction of the Purchaser.    IEEE Std IEEE Std 1249 – 1996 1020 – 1988 Guide for computer based control of hydroelectric plant automation Guide for control of small hydro plant Guide for Control of Hydro Electric Power Plant Power Quality Alternating current static watt-hour meters for active energy Electric relays IEEE Std1010 – 1987 IEEE 2519 IEC 687 IEC 225  42  . b.

IEC 68 IEC 60255-21-1 IEC 60255-21-2 IEC 60255-1-3 IEC 801-2/4 IEC 801-3/3 IEC 801-4/4 IEC 801-5 IEC 801-3 EN 5501/COSPR11 EN 55011/CISPR11 IEC 62000-4-6 IEC 61000-4-3 IEC 61000-4-4 IEC 61000-4-5 IEC 61000-4-11 IEC 60255-22-1 IEC 68-2-1 & 68-2-2 IEC 68-2-30 IEC 68-2-6 IEC 68-2-27 ASTM D999-75 ASTM D775-80 IEC 1000-4-2 IEC 1000-4-3 IEC 1000-4-5 IEC 1000-4-4 IEC 1000-4-6 CISPR 11 (EN55011) UL94V Environmental testing Vibration National Electrical Code Earthquake Static discharge test Electromagnetic fields Transient fast burst test Surge withstand test Dielectric tests Emission. terminal disturbance Emission. radiation disturbance Electromagnetic fields Fast transients/Bursts Surge voltage Voltage dips 1MHz Burst disturbance Temperature Humidity Vibration of Unpackaged Products Shock of Unpackaged Products Vibration of Packaged products Shock of Packaged products Electrostatic Discharge Immunity Radiated Electromagnetic Immunity Surge Transient Immunity Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity Conducted Electromagnetic Immunity Radiated Emissions Flammability and Resistance to Electrical Ignition  43  .

Back up manual control shall also be provided for each unit. Automatic start and synchronization Automatic stop Control action shut down Emergency shut down Governor control Excitation control (AVR and APFC) Sequence control Alarm and annunciation Input from transducers & sensors Active power control  44  .13. vi.12.    3.1 3.13 UNIT CONTROLLERS For each generating unit.c. iv. Each PLC/computer based controller system will have a dual power unit. viii.13. and the hot-standby power unit will take power from a UPS at 240 V a.c.12 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 3.1. iii. 3.1 Automation System and Control Options Computer-based automation systems shall permit operation of the power plant from local (Machine hall).1 Unit Control Control Functions The unit controllers will control the generating units individually and shall perform following functions: i. there will be an independent PLC based unit controller. 3. ix. x. Local manual control shall also be provided in the equipment as a backup. ii. vii. The main power unit will work on 24 V d. v.

g.13. Diagnostic Information Automation system shall have capability to provide diagnostic information in the event something fails to operate during the start sequence/running. shall be obtained from one set of station battery.1.C.1. (If provided) Guide Vane limit positions. power at 24 V for all controls.1 Protection and Metering Scheme Requirements of metering and protection/scheme and the function performed by various relays is indicated in tentative drawing for Protection and Metering System: All the protective relays will be housed on the unit control board. (If provided) Excitation equipment. Governor hydraulic oil system. b.1.1. i.7 D. Protective relaying status.13. Unit alarms. 3. d. Guide Vane positions.1.1. 3.5 Back up Control Back up control including black start should be provided as per IEEE-1249.  45  . Cooling water system. 3. The black start shall be accomplished by providing manual pumping of the oil pressure system. j. -----.  3.C.14 PROTECTION AND METERING DETAILS 3. relays and meters etc.4 Control Scheme Of Turbine Standard control scheme of turbine suitable for mini hydro plants will be adopted. Unit breaker status.2 Auto Start/Stop The equipment controlled and monitored during the start/stop sequence will generally include the following: a.3 Main inlet valve.13.13. h. Unit speed. Supply The D. 3. 3. circuit breakers. Calculations for the capacity of batteries shall be submitted by the bidder for the consideration of the purchaser. e. c.13.7 Auxiliary Power The auxiliary power at 415 V shall be taken from the 415 V generator bus and 15 KW 3 φ diesel generating set as shown in drawing No. 3.14.13. The battery bank shall have 200 AH capacity tentatively and shall be float and boost charged from rectifier units. f.

the bidder should have full range of manufacture of the system offered. 3. 3. v. ii.The final drawings for the protection & metering shall be submitted by the contractor and will be subject to the approval by the Purchaser. iv. and shall be subject to approval of the Owner. 3.14.14.3 Special Features of Proposed Protection System i. iii.4 Generator Protection(electrical) 3.1 i. knee point voltage. v. The offered system shall have proven record of satisfactory performance for at least 2 years and in two power stations. All these relays shall have potential free contacts for trip and alarm purposes and externally hand reset type of flag indicators.4. vi. vi. viii. Moreover.14. Necessary certificates to this effect shall be a part of the offer. saturation factor and characteristics suitable for the application. Wide setting ranges with fine setting steps for each protection shall be available. The protective relays shall preferably be housed in draw out type of cases with tropical finish.2 CTs/VTs All current and voltage transformers required for protection system of the unit shall have adequate VA burdens. ix.14. Following generator protection relays shall be provided for each generator: Differential Relays (87) IDMT over current and instanteous over current in stator (50/51) Stator earth fault protection (64G) Phase unbalance Relay (46) Field Failure Relay (40) Reverse Power Relay (32) Over voltage protection (59) Under voltage (27) Over Speed (12)  46  . iv. iii. The protection system shall be built on latest technology and the bidder has to guarantee for supply of spares for at least 5 years. Common tripping relays (each for similar functions) will be provided with lock-out facilities. vii. The relays shall be static/digital/numeric type. ii.

14. Over current protection with high set instantaneous on 11 kV side (50/51).14. Digital Multi-functions Meters alongwith analogue type ammeters and voltmeter shall be provided.14. RTD’s are to be provided by Generator Suppliers (optional. The power transferred to 11 kV feeder shall also be metered through CTs and PT. 3. Temperature meter with selector switch  47  . d.7 Station Transformer Over current/earth fault protection for this transformer shall be provided on generator bus side. 3. kWh meter 3. alarm and recording. Turbine and generator bearing. i. kW meter 2.3.5 Generator Protection(mechanical) 3. c. a. b. Following metering instruments shall be provided on generator control panel and 11 kV vacuum circuit breaker panel for feeders.1 Following mechanical protections shall be provided for each unit.5. Resistance temperature detectors (Pt-100) in stator core and in the bearings for indication. Oil temperature high – alarm/trip (OT).6 Generator Transformer Following static relays shall be provided for Generator Transformer Protection.alarm/trip (WT) Bucholz relay – alarm/trip (B). 3. Governor oil pressure low to block starting and very low for emergency tripping (If Governor oil pressure unit is provided for governing system) Over speed for normal and emergency shutdown depending upon its extent. iv. 3. if available in standard generator).15 METERING SYSTEM The power generated shall be metered at generator terminal through metering CTs and PT. It is presumed that diesel generator protection shall be provided on control panel of the set. v. metal and oil temperatures – alarm/shutdown (optional.7 11 kV Feeder Protection Static over current and earth fault relay with high set unit shall be provided (50/51. Winding temperature high. Stand by earth fault protection (64S) on 11 kV side.1 Generator Control Panels 1.15. iii.14. ii.64) alongwith over/under frequency relay (81) for feeders protection. Voltmeter with selector switch 4. Frequency meter 7. 3.14. Ampere meters separate for each phase 5. Power factor meter 6. if available in standard generator).

50 mm. dimensions. 2.16 UNIT CONTROL BOARD/CONTROL PANEL 3. shall be as per relevant Indian Standards.1 Constructional Features i. 5. Panels shall be painted by dry electro-static powder coating process. Panels shall be of simplex types (devices mounted on the front panel and double door on the back side). control switches. The generating units shall be controlled from this control panel during starting. annunciator. kW meter kWh meter Voltmeter with selector switch Ampere meters with selector switch Power factor meter Frequency meter 3. All accessories mounted on the front panel shall be flush mounting type. control unit.17 SYNCHRONIZING PANEL Synchronizing equipment with check feature shall be provided for synchronization of the generating units at the 415 V bus bars and shall comprise of a centrally positioned panel. Voltmeter with selector switch Ampere meters with selector switch 3. temperature scanner etc.2 11 kV Feeder Panels 1. vii.15. The wires and wiring accessories. iii.15.16.3 Generator Transformer Panel 1. Each panel will have mimic diagram painted or embossed on its front. stopping and normal running in manual and auto modes. 6. iv.4 Station Transformer Panel 1. materials and sheet thickness of not less than 2. kWh meter Voltmeter with selector switch Ampere meters with selector switch 3. vi. indicators.  48  . 3.3. Each panel will have arrangements for internal lighting and heating. ii. 4. The unit control board for each generating unit shall accommodate necessary relays. 2. 3. v. measuring instruments. 2. All the indicating meters with associated switches and fuses should be mounted on the upper half of Central panel so that it is easily visible to the operator. for the operation of the generating units. terminations etc. All panels shall be of standard construction.15. 3.

18 ANNUNCIATION SYSTEM A multipoint microprocessor based annunciator with suitable number of ways for projecting visual signals and audible alarm in case of fault shall be provided on the control panels suitably. if required. clamps and other accessories for satisfactory synchronizing operation shall be provided by the contractor.Synchronising switch shall be mounted near each generator circuit breaker control switch on the respective unit control panel. A “test” button shall be provided close to the “acknowledge” and “reset” buttons to illuminate all the facias on the associated display unit for as long as the test button is held in pressed condition. All necessary interlocks.  49  . wiring of the synchronizing bus inside the control panel. auxiliary relays.C. supply. An “acknowledge” push button shall be provided on the annunciator unit which when pressed shall stop the audible signal and cause the facia to remain illuminated steadily. The annunciator facia illumination shall normally be designed to retain the indication after the re-opening of the initiating contact. Switches shall be arranged so that the handle will be locked only in the ‘OFF’ position and check synchronizing relay shall be provided. The synchronizing scheme is subject to purchaser’s approval. Provision for closing the breaker without synchronising check should also be made with the check synchronising switch in OFF position. A “reset” push buttom shall restore the annunciator to the normal condition. It shall be suitable for operation on 24 V. The operation of the annunciator system shall be as follows: (i) (ii) When an external initiating contact is closed. The annunciator shall be back connected flush mounting. auxiliary potential transformers. so that the breaker could be closed only when voltage. Computer based auto synchronization shall also be provided in addition to manual synchronization with an appropriate change over switch on the control panel. In case there is a second fault on a system when the first is already being shown by the facia. dust tight and tropicalised and shall be complete with audible warning device. the annunicator shall show the second fault also even when the first is existing on facia. frequency and phases are properly matched. It shall also be possible to use a few “Normally closed” type of initiating contacts. Contacts provided in each switch shall be connected in the closing circuit of the respective breaker so that the breaker can not be closed until the switch is turned to the “Synchronising” position.D. 3. and apparatus as required to complete the annunciator system. (iii) (iv) (v) The following facility shall be provided with each of the annunciator points: It shall be possible to use “Normally open” type contacts as initiating contacts for the annunciator. the audible warning shall sound continuously and the appropriate facia shall be illuminated by flashing light. fuses.

Verification of all control sequences from unit controllers with power and control circuits energised.  50  . vii. ii. operated relay with A. Calibration checks/acceptance tests on all devices and equipment connected to the unit control boards. iv. Response times iv. necessary hardware and any other auxiliary equipment required to complete the annunciation system shall be provided.19. viii. buzzer and A. Calibration checks (on sample basis) on all factory calibrated meters and transducers. indicating lamp with reset push button shall be supplied for annunication of D.C.19 FACTORY TESTING 3.19. IR tests on panels. v.2 System Tests The contractor shall organize and execute a complete factory test of the system. Operating characteristics iii. vi. 3. Operation requirements ii.1 Equipment Tests Each individual equipment shall be routine tested as per IEC/IS at the work’s of supplier in presence of Owner. x. supply failure. An A.20 SITE TESTING The contractor shall carryout tests at site as per relevant IEC/IS standards as follows in the presence of and to the entire satisfaction of the owner: i. Functional checks on unit controllers with power circuits de-energised.C. The Supplier shall submit routine test reports of each equipment and the total system. iii. Watch up each generating unit and perform all start/stop sequences on it.C. Deficiencies Various process signals shall be simulated for carrying out above system tests. flicker light relays. 3.It will be the responsibility of the contractor to provide all the alarms and annunciations required for the safe and efficient operation of the power station. ix. Functional checks on each equipment/object controlled from unit controllers with control circuits de-energised. The system shall be erected in his workshop in the engineered configuration and shall be tested for the following: i. 3. Verification of all manual control functions from unit control board. v. Continuing and IR tests on external cablings. Software functions used in PLC based unit controller. Alarm horns. Acceptance tests on all other devices fitted on the unit control boards and earlier tested in factory.C.

3.21 DRAWINGS (i) (ii) (iii) The tenderer shall submit three sets of drawings of the equipment offered along with illustrated and descriptive literature for scrutiny and record. Certified copies of type test certificates. Detailed dimensions drawings along with mounting details.

3.22

SPARE PARTS & TOOLS The tenderer shall supply spares required for maintenance for a period of five years and special tools required for site assembly, erection, testing and commissioning, operation and maintenance.

 51 

SECTION -IV
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL PROTECTION, METERING, SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA AQUISITION SYSTEM (SCADA) (FOR SHP ABOVE 1 MW TO 5 MW CAPACITY) 4.0 SCOPE The Contractor shall design, fabricate, assemble, test at manufacturers works, supply, deliver, erect, test at site, Commission and train owner’s operating personnel for the Control, Protection and Metering Equipment and System for power generation, transformation and transmission and comprising of following. A (i) (ii) Manual (conventional) Control and Protection System. Unit control, metering and protection relay panels (For units 1 & 2). 33 kV Feeders and bus sectionaliser C.B. control, metering and protective relay panels. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System

B 4.1

APPLICABLE STANDARD 1. 2. ANS/IEEE 1020 – 1987 – IEEE Guide for Control of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants IS/IEC/ISO Standard Mentioned in Text

4.2

CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM General Considerations Considerations involved in providing control and monitoring systems for the power plant and the switchyard are as follows:
 

a)

b)

c) d)

Main Single Line Diagram is shown in drawing (to be supplied by Purchaser); Metering and Relaying as proposed is shown in drawings(to be supplied by Purchaser). The power house is proposed to be controlled supervisory control from centralised control room Accordingly provision is to be made for manual and automatic control for unit starting, unit stopping and running control and data acquisition at the power house in centralized control room. Control of unit operation is detailed in para 1.2.1. Dependable digital controls for system control with conventional manual control as backup are proposed.

 52 

e)

f) g) j)

The turbines, generators, transformer and other equipment proposed for the unit will be provided with necessary sensors and actuators. Control shall meet the operational requirement of Butterfly valve which is closed by weight under emergency. The generators are proposed to be provided with static excitation system. Two number 3.3/33 kV unit transformers of -- MVA capacity each are proposed to step up the generated power to 33 kV. A single 33 kV bus is proposed.

The scheme will be designed in accordance with ANS/IEEE – 1020 and will be subject to approval by owner. 4.2.1 CONTROL OF UNIT OPERATION The generation units of power plant are proposed to be controlled by push button from the main centralized control Board in the power Station with provision of control from SCADA system in the control room. Suitable interlocks shall be provided to safe guard the machine against inadvertant faulty operations and to ensure correct operation of all sequences when starting the machine from the power stations or from remote station. Normal Starting The normal starting and stopping of each unit is proposed effected through local remote switches to energize a sequence controller installed on the control panel of each unit. The master controller switch in the first step of its sequence, shall open-turbine inlet valve and start unit auxiliaries. In the second step of the sequence the turbine shall be started and field breaker is closed. Synchronization shall be by auto-synchronization as part of SCADA after second step. Provision of standby manual synchronization in the third step is also required. Loading of generating unit shall be in the fourth by remote control of the limiter motor and speed level motor. Normal stopping of the unit is similarly achieved in steps. Unit Stopping on Emergency

 53 

It is tentatively proposed that emergency stopping of the units should occur in the following cases:- a). exciter. and other equipment to start or shutdown the unit. the exciter. etc. depending upon the magnitude of abnormality.3 CONTROL AND MONITORING OF PLANT EQUIPMENT 4. d). throughout the plant.1 General The control system shall receive input signals from main equipment such as the turbine or the generator. c). and from various other equipment. provide an alarm or initiate its shutdown. such as the governor. The proper combination of these inputs to the control system logic will provide outputs to the governor. The unit control boards should be designed to perform the following functions: (i) (ii) (iii) Information receipt and monitoring Start/stop sequencing control Annunciation of alarm conditions  54  . Electrical protection operation Mechanical protection operation. b).Automatic protective devices shall be provided to detect failures in normal operating conditions of the various equipments and secure an emergency stop of the unit whenever necessary and actuate alarms. or if already on-line. level and function switches indicative of pressure. Turbine speed 140% (tentative figure) Hydraulic Control It is proposed to provide a system of water level controls based the for transmission of storage reservoir laves to the power plant and actuate alarms/shutdown whenever the levels goes beyond abnormal values and trail-race level by means of sensor installed in tailrace well for actuating runner blade angle. Status inputs shall be obtained from control switches. Turbine speed 115% Turbine over speed 130% (tentative figure) Emergency closing of turbine inlet valves is proposed in the following case: a).3. Any abnormalities in the inputs must prevent the unit’s startup. position etc. 4.

4.1.1. Automatic change over of entire unit auxiliaries to alternate source of supply is also proposed.1.1 33 kV line Control Manual remote control of the 33 kV Vaccum/ SF6 breaker is proposed in the powerhouse in the centralized control room. All motors will be direct on line starting and are therefore high starting torque. The normal annunciators consisting of indicating lamp and relay assembly is proposed to be provided on the unit control boards in the powerhouse.  55  .4 Auxiliaries Control Centralized controls of the power distribution and control boards is proposed for attended automatic operation.3. when required Synchronizing and connecting the unit to the system The unit control board is the central control means and communicates with the main and associated equipment through hard wire or multiplexing.3.(iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Temperature information monitoring Metering and instrumentation signals display Event recording.3 Annunciation Annunciation system is proposed to be designed for control of the unit from the powerhouse in centralized control. 4.2 Station Service System The unit auxiliaries are proposed to be provided automatic control to suit the unit control as proposed for manual/supervisory control room centralized control room. 4.3. Data logging – Data will be stored in hard disc and printed every half an hour for which printer will be provide at centralized control room.3.3. Automatic switching of selected standby and emergency auxiliaries on failure of running auxiliaries is proposed. The opening/closing time of switchgear may not exceed 8 cycles so that stalling of motors on change over does not take place. 4.5 Switchgear and Motors Air break switchgear is proposed to reduce fire hazard. 4.1.1.

Service Water.1 to 3. with direct reading visual indicator 38QTG 71QTGH 71QTGL T.A. Service Air shall be provided as per IEEE – 1020.I A A  56  . Sensor in bearing oil reservoir.1 to 2.A.1 to 5. with direct reading visual indicator Sensor in bearing oil reservoir.3.1 to 1.3 3 Generator Table – 3. Abnormal conditions of this equipment will be alarmed. Provision for mounting two sensors in bearing shell. This is tentative and may be increased or decreased as required with owner’s approval.P. Auxiliary AC Power Supply.1 to 4.Control and Status Dat a Transmit t ed f orm Turbine t o U n it C ont rol Sw it chboard   SIGNAL  38TG DESCRIPTION Turbine guide bearing temperature Turbine guide bearing oil temperature Turbine guide bearing oil level high Turbine guide bearing oil level low TYPE T. DC Power supply.1.2 Control and Status Data Control and status data to be transmitted from various equipment to Unit Control Board and from Unit Control Board to the equipment etc is detailed below.4 4 Generator excitation system Table – 4.     Table.3 8 U/S and D/S water level Additionally. control signal shall also be from Auxiliary equipment.3 5 Unit transformer Table – 5.P.  4. These equipment blocks represent auxiliary service equipment needed for the proper operation of the generating plant.I NOTES Temperature detectors.1 . Temperature detector in bearing oil reservoir.1 to 6. Information and control signals will be needed between the control board and each of the following: 1 Turbine Table – 1.2 6 Circuit breaker and switches Table – 6.6.3 2 Turbine speed governor Table – 2.2 7 Intake valve and draft tube gate Table . Fire Protection.

C SCWP Water pressure in Intake P. shutdown if loss of pressure in running unit Direct reading on transducer operated gauge Alarm if lubrication cycle not completed 80WB A 71WTH A. C C TYPE C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunciation/Event Recording = Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog. Unit startup interlock. I DTWP Draft tube water pressurevaccum Turbine greasing system failure ( if greasing system provided ) Turbine greasing system low voltage( if greasing system provided ) Wicket Gate Servomotor Position Runner Blade Servomotor Position I 48TG A 74TG A Detects failure of power supply to solenoid valve used to control greasing cycle. Senses excessive water level in turbine pit due to plugged drains or major seal failure. Direct reading on transducer operated gauge. digital. obstructed piping or pipe rupture. Feedback to the governor control system.33SP Wicked gate shear pin failure Bearing cooling water low flow Turbine pit water high level A Shear pin failure while closing wicket gates due to obstruction Pump failure. One contact operates submersible pump. status lamps)  57  . Feedback to the governor control system.

Table. Type C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunc iation/Ev ent Recording = Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog.2 .1.Control and Status D a t a T r a n s m i t t e d f ro m U n i t Control Sw itchboard to Turbine SIGNAL DESCRIPTION TYPE NOTES 1GS Turbine grease system Start/Stop (if greasing system provided) Turbine lube oil system start/stop C Enables grease system when unit is r unning. 1TL C Enable turbine lubricatio n prior to unit run. digital. status lamps)    58  .

3 ‐ Operating Power. Water supply for bearing oil coolers and turbines seals TYPE DC NOTES AC A W Power supply for Lubricating oil system AC for bearing May be alternately fed from DC.1 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from Governor to Unit Control Switchboard Signal N Description Speed indication Type I Notes Methods of developing the speed signal include the following : Hall-effect. magnetic sensors operated in conjunction with toothed wheels or other devices directly connected to the generator shaft (speed signal generator – SSG) Voltage transformers connected to the generator output leads must be capable of operating at very low residual voltages in absence of field excitation -  59  . eddy current.Table‐1. Air and Water from Service Equipment to Turbine     DESCRIPTION Power supply for control and protection devices Power supply for turbine pit water pump Air supply for shaft maintenance seal. Type AC DC A W = AC Power = DC Power = Air = Water Table 2.

P Loss of speed signal may initiate control action i. 39C 65Ss Start/stop solenoid auxiliary contacts or gate limiter limit switches Speed-no-load solenoid aux. Used to seal in remote controls and provide remote indication. Typical uses of gate position switches for control and indication: .Generator brake application (that is. P 12-X1 13-X 14-X Over-speed. apply brakes at low speed if gates at 0%) .P. P Over-Speed Switch should be actuated mechanically by means of a centrifugal device mounted on the turbine shaft. Electrically actuated speed relays by comparing the speed signal to a reference signal 65SF A.Release brakes .Start thrust/guide bearing HP oil pump .Incomplete stop detection . WG C.C Control action upon detection of shaft movement after shutdown may include any or all of the following : . contacts or gate position Wicket gate position indication C.Alarm .Turbine gate lock (apply at 0% gate position) .Initiate time delay for stopping auxiliaries . Synchronous speed and under speed switches Speed signal failure Creep detector operation C.I 65SNL C.C.Drop intake gates . I Typically derived from potentiometer or LVDT coupled to restoring connection from wicket gate servomotor.Trip generator breaker as gates pass through speed-no-load position (auto-stop.Unit running detection .Start turbine guide bearing oil pump Provides information of starting /stopping process.e. A. protective shutdowns without overspeed) .I Provides confirmation of 65SNL operation.I  60  .Reenergize starting relays to provide restart after momentary loss of power 33WG Wicket gate position switches C.12-X Over-speed C. shutdown of the unit and annunciation.

63AB Generator air brakes applied Generator air brake supply pressure low Wicket gate automatic lock applied/released Wicket gate automatic lock failure Manual control indication 63ABS A 33WGL C.C. 71 QS A Alarms for high and low oil levels. alarms for low and extreme low pressures. shutdown for extreme low pressure.71 QP Governor Oil Pressure Unit – oil level switches in Pressure Vessel Governor Oil Pressure Unit pressure switches on Pressure Vessel Governor Oil Pressure Unit – level switches for oil level in sump tank Governor Oil Pressure Unit – sump tank oil temperature high Governor Oil Pressure Unit – standby pump operation Governor power supply failure A. I Indicates status of the gate lock (applied on shutdown when gates at 0%) 65WGLF A Indicates that the gate lock has not been fully applied on shutdown 65M/LS I Provides remote indication that the governor is in manual control at the governor cubicle  61  . P Pump control. May result in unit shutdown depending upon level of power supply redundancy.I Indication and auto-start interlock. low and extreme low levels. 63Q A.P Indicates failure of input AC or DC power or failure of regulated DC power supplies. Shutdown for extreme low level. P Alarms for high. 6Q A Indicative of excessive governor action or pump failure 27PS A. air admission for high level. 26QS A Indicative of excessive governor action. C.

Some installations may utilize input reference analog or digital signal rather than raise / lower commands Typically relay contact closures when unit on –line. Some installations may utilize input reference analog or digital signal rather than raise/ lower commands Typically relay contact closures. speed raise/lower operable only off-line.C = Control P = Protection trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication (analog.positioning GL to 0%prior to starting to permit controlled opening of the gates upon energization of the start / stop solenoid 65SS Raising GL to turbine breakaway gate position after energization of 65SS Rapid unloading of the machine during certain stop and protection shutdown sequences 15FR. status lamps) Table 2.2 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from Unit Control Switchboard to Governor Signal 39 Description Creep detector enable Type C Notes Enables rotor creep detector after a fixed time following application of brakes on shutdown Typically relay or switch contact closures. Primary function of the gate limit (GL) is to limit the maximum opening of the wicket gates under operator control to prevent overloading the unit at the prevailing head. Other control and protection applications include: Pre. 15FL Speed reference C raise /lower commands 65PR. If power reference also provided. 65PL Power reference raise /lower commands C 65GLR. digital. route to reversing drive motor. Gate limit raise/lower commands C -  62  .

or return them. or both .Intake gate not fully open . provides backup to the electric governor .De-energized whenever unit circuit breaker trips to restore unit to near rated speed.Generator brake shoes not cleared or brake air pressure not off.P The start/stop solenoid 65SS typically operates as follows : .De-energized to initiate complete closure of the wicket gates at maximum rate and block subsequent opening of the gates. that is. “deenergized to stop” Typical functions that will block start and/or initiate stop are . i.Operator-initiated stop . Used to switch between on-line and off-line gains in compensation circuits (PID) and to switch between  63  .De-energized to unload the unit for certain protection operations (that is over speed to 112% during opening of unit circuit breaker) Inputs to power transducer (for governors utilizing power feedback rather than gate feedback) V.Unit protection operation (includes all electrical and mechanical fault detectors that initiate shutdown of the unit) .Energized when unit circuit breaker closes to allow generator to be loaded . “energized to start and run” .Turbine shaft maintenance seal on or low gland water flow .Energized to allow wicket gates to open and close under control of the electric governor.Generator thrust bearing high pressure oil pump failed to achieve full pressure .3SS On-off command to start/stop solenoid 65SS or gate limiter motor C.Wicket gate lock not released 3SNL On/off command to partial shutdown (speed-no-load) solenoid C.P The partial shutdown solenoid 65SNL (if used) is typically de-energized to limit the opening of the wicket gates.Generator and turbine bearing cooling water not available . gate limit or manual gate control. I Generator voltage and current Unit on-line C 52 C Generator circuit breaker auxiliary contact. to a position slightly above the speed-no-load position and is controlled as follows : .e.

Air and Water from Service Equipment to Governor Description Power supply for DC control Type DC Notes   One or more separate supplies depending on power distribution arrangement One or more separate supplies depending on number of pumps and required redundancy.speed and power references 3AB Generator air brakes on/off command Level difference between headwater and tailwater C Air brakes automatically applied on shutdown if wicket gates close and speed below a predetermined level Used for optimum turbine blade positioning and optimum gate position/ power generation. Power supply for Oil Pressure Unit pumps Alternate supply for governor power supplies Air supply for generator air brakes Air supply for Oil Pressure Unit Cooling water for Oil Pressure Unit oil sump AC AC A A W (Optional) Type AC DC A W = = = =  64  AC Power DC Power Air Water . 71NH C Type C = Control P = Protection Trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication analog.3 – Operating Power. digital. status lamps) Table 2.

P Temperature monitoring system for continuously monitoring field temperature. P NOTES Temperature detectors (typically 12) embedded in stator winding accordance with ANSI C50. A.Table 3. 71QBH A 71QBL Bearing oil level low A 33AB Air brake position indication Neutral end and terminal end current transformers C. Temperature detectors. Temperature reservoir. A. CT-G P. Temperature detectors embedded in wells in the shoes or segments with provision for interchanging sensors between segments. A.1 – Control and status data Transmitted from Generator to unit control     Switchboard  DESCRIPTION Stator winding temperature TYPE T. A. Bearing oil temperature Generator field temperature. equipped with direct reading visual indicator. Two hottest RTDs connected to thermal overload relay 49G. I TYPE C = Control P = Protection trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording  65  . Bearing oil level high T. One sensor for oil reservoir. equipped with direct reading visual indicator One sensor for each separate oil reservoir. detectors in bearing for SIGNAL 26GS 38THT Thrust bearing temperature T. 10-1977 (1). P 38GT Guide bearing temperature. P oil 26GF T. P 38QB T. I Start interlock indicating all brake shoes have cleared runner plate. Provision mounting sensors in all segments. Furnished in quantities and ratings compatible with the metering and primary/standby protection requirements. A.

T I

= Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog, digital, status lamps)

Table 3.2 – Control and st atus dat a Transmit t ed f rom Generat or to unit control

 

 

Switchboard 
DESCRIPTION  Thrust bearing high pressure oil pump start/ stop command. Generator lube oil system start/stop command. TYPE C NOTES Start pump prior to starting unit. Confirmation of pump starting via63QTH (Table 3A-1) Enables generator lubrication prior to unit run. When forced air cooling is used for the generator. Turned off when unit is on-line. TYPE C = Control P = Protection trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication (analog, digital, status lamps)

SIGNAL 2THS

1GL

C

T a b l e 3 . 3 – O p e r a t i n g P o we r , A i r a n d W a t e r f r o m S e r v i c e E q u i p m e n t t o G e n e rat o r

DESCRIPTION Air supply for brakes and rotor jacking system Water supply for fire extinguishing system Power supply for generator housing space heaters. Power supply for generator lube oil system. TYPE

TYPE A

NOTES Control valve may be located in governor cubicle/ generator brake panel. May also be atomized.

W

AC AC

Thermostatically controlled, for reducing condensation on windings when generator is shut down. May be fed alternatively from DC source.

C = Control

 66 

P = Protection trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication (analog, digital, status lamps)

Table 3.4 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from Generator Terminal Equipment to Unit Control Switchboard Signal CT VT A F V W/VAR Type Notes

Description  Current signal for relaying and metering Voltage signal for relaying and metering Current indication Frequency indication Voltage indication Metering

I I I I,A Analog signals for indication and/or recording. Analog signal from a VT.

AVR

Voltage signal for automatic voltage regulator (AVR) Governor speed sensing Power transducer

C

N XDCR

C C Unit power input to electric governor.

TYPE C = Control P = Protection Trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication, analog, digital, status lamps)

 67 

Table 4.1 –

C o n t r o l a n d S t a t u s D a t a T r a n s m i t t e d f r o m e xc i t a t i o n s y st e m t o u n i t c on t r o l s wi t c h b o a r d

Signal 51ET

Description Exciter transformer o/c protection

Type P

Notes

49 GF

Field overload

1

Set to coordinate with field winding thermal characteristic

If Vf 64 F

Field voltage indication Field voltage indication Field ground detection

1 1 P or A

Transuded from DCCT ( satiable reactor )

27 FF

Failure of preferred field flashing source

A

Provision of this alarm assumes 2 sources provided AC and DC. AC should be preferred source to minimize chance of back feeding field voltage onto battery if blocking diode fails. Automatic transfer to alternate source on failure of preferred source

41/a,41/ b 31/1,31/ b 48E

Field breaker position

C,I

Field flashing contactor position I

Exciter start sequence incomplete

P,A

Set to operate after normal time required for field flash source to build terminal voltage to level sufficient for exciter gating to commence.

63F-1 27PS

Cooling fan failure DC power supply failure

A/P P or A

Failure of redundant fan (s). Trip or alarm depending on level of power supply redundancy. Indicating unit with dial contacts typical.

26ET-I

Exciter transformer over temperature –Stage I

A

26ET-2

Exciter transformer temperature –Stage 2

P

 68 

or gating failure. Quantity variable depending on number of secondary winding and whether transformer is 3 phase or 3 x 1 phase. 2 70V/LS3 90V/LS3 89LS 90 V End-of –travel indication I Same as 70V/LSI. closed system. 2 90V 70V End-of travel indication I Signal generated by limit switches coupled to 70V motor drive Auto voltage adujster with position I Same as 70V. - 58-2 49 HE Rectifer failure –Stage 2 Heat exchanger failure P A Various heat exchanger arrangements are possible Once-through. 70V preset position 90V preset position Station service A. conduction. etc 26RTD Exciter transformer temperature indication I Temperature detectors . 90V/LSI.2. Optional MAN Indication mismatch between auto & manual I To ensure bumpless transfer from AUTO to Manual AUTO Voltage regulator output and manual I MAN and MAN to AUTO Balanc e Balanc e Voltage setpoint Voltage setpoint TYPE C = Control P = Protection Trip A = Annunciation /Event recording T= temperature Monitoring  69  .C test supply switch position C C I Interlock in start sequence Interlock in start sequence. 70V/LSI. 70V Manual voltage adjuster with I Signal generated by potentiometer coupled to 70V motor drive.58-1 Rectier transformer temperature A Thyristor fuse.

Back logic 90V Rum. digital. unit separated form system Transfer exciter from auto voltage control to manual control IE Exciter de-excite C 83VT Voltage transformer potential C 43AM Close contact transfer exciter to manual voltage regulator control Close contact to transfer exciter to auto voltage regulator control Run 70V to preset position preparation for unit starting Run 90V to preset position preparation for unit starting Raise manual voltage adjuster Lower manual voltage adjuster Raise auto voltage adjuster C 43VA C 70V Rum. Back logic 70 V raise 70 V lower 90 V raise C C C C C  70  . status lamps) Table 4.I = indication (analog.2 – Control and Status Data transmitted from unit control Switchboard to excitation DESCRIPTION Field tripping from generator P TYPE NOTES SIGNAL 41 protective trips 41 control Field breaker tripping from manual control and unit shutdown sequence logic Field breaker closing from manual control and unit start sequence logic Exciter de-excite C 41 close C IE C Close contact to initiate field flashing at 95% speed during auto start or under manual control Open contact to initiate phase back below 95% speed.

status lamps) Table 4.3– Operating Power.excite control. I Signal CT Notes  Current signal for relaying and metering  71  . Auto transfer to dc if ac not available NOTES TYPE C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunciation /Event recording = Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog.1 – C on trol and St at us Da t a T r a n s m i t t e d f r o m S t e p u p T r a n s f o r m e r t o U n i t C o n t r o l S wi t c h b o a r d Description Type A. disable power system stabilizer of-line. digital. digital. P. status lamps) T a b l e 5.90 V lower 52G/a Wicket gate position Lower auto voltage adjuster Generator CB Auxiliary switch Analog signal representing wicket C C C De. Used to develop accelerating power input to PSS if required TYPE C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunciation /Event recording = temperature Monitoring = indication (analog. Air and Water from Service Equipment to Excitation system DESCRIPTION Battery-fed field flashing Station service field flashing source TYPE DC AC AC preferred source.

tripping optional. Water supply for fire extinguishing system W Type AC =AC Power =DC Power  =Air             DC   A Ta b l e 6.1 – Sign als T ransmit t e d f r om Plant Equipm e nt t o Ge ne r at or Breaker Signal 4 Description Unit control Type C Notes  Normal shutdown  72  . RTD are in each winding because of the possibility of unbalanced loading. Second stage tripping Dial type indicator with maximum and minimum indicating levels. Event recording Hand reset contact (local). pumps. A i r a n d W a t e r f r o m S e r v i c e Equipment to transformer Description Type Notes  Power supply for DC control circuits Power supply for fans. T 71QC Conservator tank oil level indicator A T a b l e 5 . Dial type oil temperature indicator at the transformer. For FA. P A. First stage annunciation. FOA transformers. P Event recording (optional).71G 63G 63Q Gas accumulation detection Gas pressure device Main tank sudden pressure relief device A A. If an FOW transformer is used. ac control circuits DC AC For uninterruptible systems. T. Tripping optional. P A. 63T 49-1W 49-2W Main tank over pressure switch Transformer winding temperature thermal device in each separate winding A. 2 – O p e r a t i n g P o we r . P 26Q Top oil temperature indicator A. additional information and control signals may be needed. Event recording Trip generator breaker Temperature detectors embedded in each separate winding for first stage temperature control. such as monitoring of the pressure difference between the oil and water systems.

C. A C P. trip/close Generator overspeed Synchronizing equipment Wicket gate position switch Generator bearing temperature Turbine bearing temperature Breaker test switch Step-up transformer over temperature Step-up transformer sudden pressure Kaplan low oil Turbine bearing oil Generator winding temperature Unit synchronizing selector switch C P C C P P C P P P P P C Permissive switch Permissive switch Table 6.2 – Signals Transmitted from generator Breaker to Unit C o n t r o l S wi t c h b o a r d Signal 52a. Permissive switch.1XJ 12G 25 33 38GB 38TB 43XJ 49T 63T 71K 80TBQ 38G 43S Breaker control switch. b 27CB Description Breaker open-close Generator breaker loss of dc control power 61 63a 63A Generator breaker pole failure Breaker air pressure switch Generator breaker low air pressure Type C =Control             P =Protection Trip  A =Annunciation/Event Recording T =Temperature Monitoring I =Indication (analog. digital. I A Type Notes   73  . status lamps) P. A Trip is isolate breaker.

3 – Inlet Valve and Draft Gate  Controls for automatic operation of the Inlet Valve shall as follows: 1 Unit Control Board • • • • • Indicating lights for fully open/fully Position indication showing actual position of the gate Open/Close control switch Failure of valve to open or close in response to an automatic signal Hydraulic system trouble 2 3 Local Annunciation  74  .                                      Table 6.

2 Standards All materials and equipments shall comply in every respect with the requirements of the latest edition of the relevant Indian. All the protective equipment will be housed in the Power Plant main control room.E. may be mounted on 3.4.3 kV switchgear panels’ alongwith relays. v. iii. 3.A. commissioning of manual control. copies of the relevant standard specification in English language must be attached. I. They should preferable be housed in drawout type of cases with tropical finish. stop. manual control and metering of the Power House. Standards or any other recognized International standards.4.T. British equivalent N.3 kV C.’s located in switchyard is proposed as 1 amp.T. except in so far as modified by this specification.T. The secondary current of C. testing.4 4. 4. Main Single Line Diagram Interconnection with Grid Protection & Metering Single Line Diagram Auxiliary Power Single Diagram Unit Metering and Relaying Single Line Diagram Common tripping relays for similar functions have been provided with lockout facilities. 4. METERING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM Scope of Supply and Design Criteria Design. ii. Sequencing will be as per control of unit operation as given below: 4. Where standards offered are other than the Indian or British standards. All these relays shall have potential free contacts for trip and alarm purposes and externally hand reset type of flag indicators.’s for all the unit protection and metering are given in Drawings No-----. metering and protection system which includes Electrical protection by conventional relay. iv.  75  .E. manufacture.4.4 Protection and Metering Scheme Requirements of metering and protection/scheme and the function performed by various relays are explained in following drawings(to be enclosed by Purchaser). manual synchronizing and emergency stop..4.C. i. M.1 MANUAL CONTROL.s and P. because of long leads so as to ensure efficient and accurate operation of their protective scheme. The details of C.4.T.3 Design Criteria The control will have provision for start.

Construction b. C. A suitable voltage relay with continuous coil rating with proper setting is proposed to be provided. ii) Generator ground fault protection (64G) The generator neutral will be earthed through the primary winding of a distribution transformer of proper capacity and ratio. single phase.4. The relay shall be insensitive to voltage at third harmonic frequencies. corrosion resistant. and temperature rise not exceeding 300 deg. Necessary provision shall be made in the relay to ensure that the relays do not operate for faults external to the protected zone. The relays shall not maloperate due to harmonics in spill current produced by through faults or due to saturation on one set of current transformers during an external fault. Enclosure with IP:22 degree of protection.4. -----.5 Protective Relays A brief description of protective relay proposed is given below: 4.5. Natural air cooled. Housing  76  .C.4. However. The relays will be of high speed type and shall be immune to A. Provision shall also be made for alarm /indication in case of current transformt fault. The relay operation actuates lockout relay for complete shutdown of the unit Drawing No. The secondary will be loaded by a suitable resistor rated for 60 seconds. punched stainless steel grid elements provided with necessary installations. transients. Between generator neutral and ground Non-ageing. The relay operation actuates lockout relay for complete shutdown of the unit. Type Connection Loading Resistor a.1 Generator Protection i) Generator Differential Protection (87G) The generator primary protection is proposed by high impedance type of circulating current relays having proper setting range. iii) Neutral Grounding Transformer and Loading Resistor Neutral Grounding Transformer Dry type. b. a.

The relay is set to trip lockout relay for partial shutdown to speed no load position. The relays shall be immune to frequency variation. The relay is proposed to be set to trip lockout relay to speed no load position. The relay setting range is proposed from 110% to 150%. The relay is set to operate lockout relay for partial shutdown to speed no load position.transformer and resistor can be housed in same container with metallic partition. The relay is set to operate the lockout relay for partial shutdown to speed no load position. The current transformer for this protection is proposed to be located on the generator neutral side.  77  . v) Negative phase sequence current protection (46) Protection will detect unbalance in the outgoing lines which will be detected and operate the relay. Provision of instantaneous tripping element at some suitable setting is also proposed. iv) Generator over-voltage protection (59) A set of single phase relays is proposed with suitable time delay setting so that operation of relay under transient conditions is avoided. vi) Voltage restraint over current protection (51V) This backup protection for the generator operates for over current which are accompanied by dip in voltage so that false tripping due to through faults are avoided. viii) Check Synchronising relay (25) Check synchronising relay is provided to ensure the closing of the circuit breakers on synchronising at a phase angle not greater than about 7 degrees so as to prevent damage to circuit breaker especially in case of auto synchronising. The relay is set to give an alarm only. vii) Reverse power relay (32) This relay is proposed because of grid connection. ix) Potential transformer fuse failure protection (60) Suitable voltage balance relays are proposed to monitor the fuse failure of 3 sets of potential transformers and to block the relays (50/51 V or 40) or other devices that may operate incorrectly on the voltage due to fuse failure of potential transformers.

Contractor will co-ordinate with Generator and Turbine supplier for mechanical protection. RTD’s are to be provided by Generator Suppliers. g. UAT breaker. The second stage with a higher range shall carry out tripping of the gen. h. & UAT breaker and shut down the turbine on immediate shut down mode. metal and oil temperatures – alarm/shutdown. C. This relay is set to trip excitation circuit breaker and bring the unit to rated speed at no load.4.x) Mechanical Protections Following mechanical protections are proposed for the generator: e.B. Resistance temperature detectors in stator core (12 no. iv) Over excitation relay (OER) in the DC circuit and excitation relay (31) in the field flashing circuit are other relays proposed in the excitation system. The first stage with a lower range shall be arranged to give alarm and annunciation.) and in the bearings for indication. Turbine and generator bearing. i. iii) Over current relay (51 EX) This over current instantaneous relay in the excitation circuit before the excitation transformer will cater to rectifier transformer faults and other excitation system faults. 4.5. f.. C. 33 kV trans.4.B.2 Exciter Protection i) Generator field failure protection (40) The tripping of the relay is set to open the excitation breaker main generator C.B.5. 4.3 Station Service System i) Over Current Protection (51)  78  .. alarm and recording. Governor oil pressure low to block starting and low-low for emergency tripping. Over speed for normal and emergency shutdown depending upon its extent. ii) Generator rotor earth-fault protection (64F) The protection shall consist of two stages. field breaker and shut down the turbine on immediate shut down mode.

The C.4 Step up 3.Suitable relays are proposed to be provided for unit auxiliary transformers over load protections.3 kV side of the auxiliary transformer. The relay will operate from the three current transformers on the Low Voltage side of the transformer and will be arranged to trip the Low Voltage breaker. ii) Standby earth fault protection (64T) For this protection Inverse Definite Minimum Time Lag type relay having suitable setting range and operating time is proposed. Provision shall also be made for alarm/indication in case of current transformer secondary circuits faults. Transformer oil level and temperature for alarm & trip Winding temperature for alarm & trip  79  . ii) Phase sequence relay (47) This relay on the station service system trips the LV circuit breaker so as to prevent operation of the three phase motors in the reverse direction . The relay is set to operate lockout relay for shutdown.3 kV side are proposed be located in the Generator neutral side and on 33 kV side in the switchyard.4.T. It shall have harmonic restraint feature to prevent its mal-operation due to magnetising in-rush surges encountered in normal power system operation. The relay will be co-ordinated with line earth fault protection.3/33 kV Transformer Protection i) Generator Transformer Differential Protection (87 GT) A sensitive percentage biased differential relay is proposed to be provided for each step up transformer protection with proper operating and bias setting. This relay is proposed to trip the unit circuit breaker and bring the unit to speed no load. The auxiliary/interposing current transformers as required for the protection shall also be provided. iii) iv) v) Bucholz gas pressure relay for first stage alarm and second stage trip.   iii) Under voltage relay (27) These relays have been provided to trip the LV circuit breaker   4.’s on 3. An instantaneous time over current relay is proposed from the CT’s on the 3. This relay at a higher setting will cater to transformer faults and the tripping of the relay is set to bring the unit to rated speed at no load.5.

cores shall be provided at the incoming and outgoing circuits for check features. which shall be connected across the bus wires of each protected zone.5. The supervision relay will be capable of detecting open: Cross or broken C. The sensitivity of protection shall be such that it does not operate for faults on the C.4. High speed tripping relays shall be provided to trip the connected circuit breakers connected to the faulty bus bar.5 33 kV Line Protection Protective relay design for the 33 kV line is important because of high fault power from 33 kV grid sub-stations.4 Bus Bar Protection Bus Zone Differential Protection (87 B1. `No volt’ relays to indicate failure of D. 4.T.4. 4. and 87 B2) A high speed. high impedance type bus-bar differential protections proposed to be provided for each 33 kV bus zone.4. These are summarised below: 4.6.C. secondary wiring of the most heavily loaded circuit. alarm and trip supply to the bus-bar protection scheme is also proposed to be provided. Main features of fast acting protection system is tentatively proposed as follows: Directional overcurrent and ground fault (51 D) 4. It shall be capable of taking the protection of the effected zone out of service by shorting the appropriate bus-wires. The scheme shall have separate and independent check and supervision features incorporated in it.   The protection requirement with respect to characteristics operating principle. tripping schedule and type of relays shall be discussed during detailed engineering stage. The main zonal relay and check relay scheme will have their contacts connected in series in the trip circuit.T.4.’s on one side of the bus coupler/section breaker are proposed and inter-locked overcurrent relay will be provided.5. and Bidder shall provide the same to the satisfaction and approval of the Owner.T.6 Metering Meters as shown in Schematic drawing(to be enclosed by Purchaser shall be provided on unit control boards. C. secondary and pilots by employing sensitive alarm relay.6 Over under voltage relay/Over under frequency relay This relay shall be provided on the line and the bus to indicate grid failure conditions. Necessary separate C. The protection will be capable of detecting all type of faults on the bus-bar.4.4.1 Generator (Unit Control Board)  80  .T.5.

CTs/PTs used for different applications shall have following accuracy class: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Differential protection CTs Protection CTs other than differential protection Generator AVR/metering CTS for generator circuit Metering CTs for 33 kV. ii. 4.i. Power Factor meter vi.) 4.2 Auxiliary Transformer i.6. All other annunciation will be on SCADA system. 3 ammeters (each phase) Power factor and kW meter kVAR Voltmeter with voltmeter switch kWH meter Frequency Meter 4. knee point voltage.7 Annunciation Conventional 16 window annunciator for each generator turbine faults. kWh meter Ammeters (3 No.1.4.4.4.9 CTs/PTs and General Surge Protection Equipment 4.5 Class 0. instrument safety factor and characteristics suitable for the application.4. ii. Schedule for these windows may  be proposed for approval by purchaser. 33 kV CTs are detailed in separate section. v. iii. iv. vi. and shall be subject to approval of the Owner. iii.4.   4.3 kV and 415 V switchgear CTs for performance testing and low forward power Relay Core balance CTs Protection PTs PTs for generator metering.9. 12 window each for  feeder faults and Bus Coupler is proposed for important faults.2 33 kV Feeder Panel i.4. AVR synchronisation  81  Class PS Class 5P10 Class 0. 3.5 .W. ii. iv.6. Recording kVAR k.  4.5 Class 0. v.  kWh import / export meter.8 Recorder All recording will be done on SCADA disk. Voltmeter with voltmeter switch Ammeters (each phase).2 Class PS Class 3P Class 0.9.1 All current and voltage transformers required for protection system of the unit are detailed in generator specifications shall have adequate VA burdens.1.

while the test plugs are being inserted removed. Test blocks shall be rated not less than 250V at 10 amps and shall be capable of withstanding a di-electric test of 1500 V.12 Factory Tests for Unit Control Switchboards 1.2 CTs and PTs details proposed will be submitted for approval by purchaser.4.9. The test blocks shall be of the back connected semi-flush mounted switchboard type with removable covers.i) PTs for performance testing and low forward power relays Class 0. 1) 2) 3) Generator transformer control and relay panel 33 kV feeder control and relay panel Synchronising panel -. The details of the panel and equipment will be supplied for approval by purchaser. Check each item of equipment for proper location and verify the instrument/catalog number is correct per the specification.  82  . 4.2 Generator Line Terminal and Neutral Grounding Cubicles These shall be provided as per detailed given in generator specifications.10 Control and Relay Panels Floor mounted. sheet steel simplex type control and relay panels with the following equipment mounted on them shall be as follows. 4. The generator suppliers shall supply suitable current transformers for the protection scheme and these shall be in the neutral grounding cubicles.3 33 kV Current Transformers and Potential Transformers The technical requirement and location of the CTs are given in the unit metering and relaying drawing (enclosed). -.9.T. secondary circuits cannot be open circuited in any position. 50c/s for one minute.11 Test Blocks Test blocks shall be provided on switchboards where test facilities are required but are not provided by use of drawout type meters or relays.Sets. Review front and rear elevations versus the final approved drawings.4. 4. All test blocks shall be arranged to isolate completely the instruments or relays from the instrument transformers and other external circuits so that no other device will be affected and provide means for testing either from an external source of energy or from the instrument transformers by means of multiple test plugs. The test blocks and plugs shall be arranged so that the C. 4.Sets. The potential transformers should be suitable for metering and protection scheme enclosed.4.4. 1 no. 4. All test blocks shall be provided with suitable circuit identification. The cases shall be dust tight.4.

11. 3. and control block logic diagrams in front of you. • Manual start/stop sequence (does not apply to redundant PLC control schemes). and potential transformers. Verify that the following items conform to the drawings : • Cable numbers. • Automatic emergency stop sequence (usually performed by activating one of the lockout relays while in the “normal running” mode ). PLC checks: • • • • • • Check the I/O racks for type and number of analog and digital I/O cards. 8. 10. current transformers. Review the PLC ladder diagram viewed on the video display terminal versus the final approved PLC software coding documentation. PLC software coding. and • Equipment identification nameplates. including electronic speed relays. 6. determine whether chassis and logic grounds are the same or separate (this will affect the type and quantity of external surge protection required). and Verify that modem connections are provided and functional. Check approximately 5 to 10 percent of the internal cabling. Check for surge protection provided on the I/O rack and I/O cards. current and potential transformers.2. Check anchor channels and cable entrances. verify the lighting is adequate and grounding connections are provided. 4. All premissives and interlocks should be provided by using the “dummy” toggle switchboard to provide these inputs. Review test certificate or witness the insulation resistance test of all wiring. Confirm they are in accordance with the drawings. • Auto start/stop sequence. and vibration monitors. • Change position of all control switches as follows (typically done while in the normal running mode). Check all annunciation points. • Manual emergency stop sequence. Confirm that the appropriate lockout relay is energized and the correct annunciation and/or printout occur. Perform the function checks listed below with the final approved schematics. Activate all protective relays. 5. • Raceway layouts. Local control to remote control Remote control to local control  83  . Confirm that settings of all protective relays are in accordance with approved documents. In addition. Check factory calibration of all devices possible. 7. 9. • Terminal block designations. Check for future expansion capabilities on the I/O racks. • Terminal designations on individual components such as control switches and lockout relay. Review the interior of the UCS in the same manner as the elevations. Identify grounding connections for the PLC and the I/O rack.

4. Methodically document steps 1 through 7 to ensure that no cables. 5. Check all external interconnection wiring against the approved power house/equipment drawings. or control systems have been overlooked. protective relays. main computer.13 Field Tests for Unit Control Switchboards 1. 4. verifying the following items : • • • 3. and Raceway layouts 8. 2.4.5.5 4. display unit with keyboard. annunciation and sequence of event recorder. metering protection data logging data recording. Perform functional checks on unit start/stop sequences. Perform point-to-point continuity and megger tests on all external cabling. 6. “Bench test” all protective relays to ensure proper settings.0 and control in grid mode and isolated mode operation of the Hydel Power station centralized control room. Perform functional checks tests on all unit and station auxiliary equipment controlled from the UCS to verify proper operation. Calibrate all remaining instrumentation devices. testing. Cable numbers and type. 9. duplicating the factory sequences. These check should be performed first with the associated power circuits de-energized. manufacture. 7. Water-up the unit and perform all start/stop sequences. 4. and then with both power and control circuits energized. instrumentation devices. ♦ Reliable safe control of the unit with very high availability  84  .1 SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM Scope of Supply and Design Criteria Design. commissioning of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system which includes all equipments required for measurement.• Manual control to automatic control Headwater level control “OFF” to “ON” Headwater level control “ON” to “OFF” Excitation manual control to excitation automatic control Excitation automatic control to excitation manual control. control. Verify tags on all factory-calibrated instrumentation devices. Terminal block designations. and Verify the performance of the automatic synchronizing circuit and the manual sync-check relay (if provided). The SCADA system required should provide monitoring of parameters listed in section 7.

 85  . and status of devices. local panels. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Acquire data from primary sensors. on-load control and shutdown of units by operators. application software etc.♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Automatic startup. on-load control and shutdown of the units by the control system Control of auxiliary equipment Remote monitoring of all plant status and alarm information Remote normal startup. excitation system. Sequence of event logging. interposing relays etc. sensors. Supervisory control of auxiliaries. a health/condition monitoring and analysis system. erection hardwares. interposing relays. Process and retain data for each primary sensor. compiler. Data logger/sequence of events recorder. local instruments. governing system. The transducers required for the measurement of electrical parameters. Common Plant Controller/Supervisory Controller at Power House control room The SCADA system where it is proposed to be set up in this specifications shall be designed for safe. 19” Colour graphic monitors with key boards System console Hard copy plotter/printer Complete field instruments like transmitter/transducers. The output of transducers will be 4-20 mA. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Main microprocessor based computer system. Report machine performance in tabular and graphical format. The SCADA system shall consist of a microprocessor based computer system. The SCADA system shall be capable of performing the following functions in real time. fault. Perform detailed thermal and vibration analysis. operation in at least four power house for more than 3 years and will be subject to approval by purchaser and will consist of following. The SCADA to be supplied shall be of proven design. reliable. efficient and easy operation of Hydro Turbine Generator and its associated auxiliaries and transmission lines. Display software including system monitoring alarm processing and display of data. system cabinets. sensors. Bidder shall supply all necessary software required for the SCADA system including operating system. erection hardwares all interconnecting cables etc. a dedicated sequence of events recording system. SCADA system should have following controllers ♦ ♦ Unit Controller. circuit breakers. including synchronising.

Data logging and report generation.3 Equipment Architecture and Protocol Open architecture system shall be followed. auxiliaries and feeders shall be performed in three different ways as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) PLC based governor control panel for unit and plant control Control from Power House control room Manual control panel  86  . data to it. 4.5.h) i) j) k) l) m) n) Application software including state estimation. Overall time duration to process and lag an alarm once it is received at the computer. Report alarms. from it and send generation etc. Methodology by which these “times” were verified must be given. 4. Bidder will intimate following: (a) (b) (c) Time duration required to update a graphical display from the instant a field contact changes state. Time duration from the instant a control is activated at the operator station until the command is implemented at the field device. 4. Predict need for shut down and maintenance of equipment. bad data detection. • • • • Communications Operating system User Interface Data base Each of these elements should be capable of being replaced by or communicate with system elements provided by other vendors. The SCADA software shall run in co-ordination with SCADA software for gate control operation.2 Response Time Fast response time of computer system is required.5. shut down and emergency operations of the hydro turbine generator. Interface or operating standards for the following shall be intimated and should comply with ISO/IEC 12119. Software shall be such that the monitoring system will take care of the transient parameters during system run-up and shut down.5. and on line power flow.4 Plant Operation Philosophy The normal. Acceptable time shall be verified at the factory acceptance test. Software shall be modular and upgradable. start-up. It can receive data of Gate positions etc.

At 90% unit speed. The control engineer shall be able to set up all pre-start check of devices from the CRT/keyboard for unit starting such as : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) e) The wicket gate control The control of generator brakes Power supply to the governor Load/frequency device selection on speed setting mode. When no output power is sensed unit breaker shall be tripped. With opening of wicket gate unit speed shall rise. When unit frequency and phase voltage is matched to that of existing power system.  87  . The blades at fully open position etc. data display. When downstream gate is closed and unit speed is 30%.The Control Engineer shall be able to perform the following operations from the CRT through keyboards. wicket gate shall be stopped and its position maintained by energizing governor relays speed adjustment. shall be applied. Call up control display to carry out control operations for hydro turbine generators and its associated auxiliaries and main & electrical power supply systems controlled from CRT/key board. brakes. When the oil pressure is established in the governor circuit. logs. The selection of speed droop equal zero. wicket gate shall be allowed to close. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Level control on governor shall put off Blades shall close When blades are closed. blades/movements shall be achieved. governor parameters shall be set to automatic mode. report including performance calculation reports. Demand. unit circuit breaker shall be closed. c) d) The control engineer shall be able to set the interlocks to start the unit from the CRT/key board and once the start command is given following sequence shall take place through the SCADA system. After unit breaker is connected to the system. a) b) Call up mimic. After unit breaker is open. 7) 8) f) The control engineer shall be able to shut down the unit during normal condition in the following sequence. trends and plots for hydro-turbine generator and its auxiliaries and main & auxiliary electrical power supply system. blades shall set at the starting position. sumaries. Release generator brakes. blades shall open again. After having ensured that the bakes are released and blades are in starting position command shall be given to open the wicket gates. alarm. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The governor pump shall start. generator shall be excited.

annunciation.5 Parameter to be monitored from SCADA The SCADA system shall be complete with all primary sensors. 4. monitors. analyzers/ transmitters. Generator winding temperature. to monitor/ control the parameters for control. Guide bearing oil level. Level indicator for level in the fore bay/Tailrace. Lube oil temperature Radio frequency interference Generator air gap monitoring. If in his opinion. current. 1) 2) 3) Unit breaker shall be tripped. Generator bearing temperature. power factor. Generator terminal voltage. KWH. KVA. KVAR. Guide vane bearing oil temperature.6 Hardware Requirement The key hardware features of the controller should be as follows:  88  . Other sequence of operation as per the normal shut down. event recording etc different equipments including. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Generator stator and rotor winding temperatures. Frequency. oil pressure indicator and low pressure switch. an enhancement in condition monitoring capability can be attained by use of additional sensors these should be provided and details to be indicated in the bid. Turbine speed. Annunciation Bidder shall provide suggestions relating to measurement points and sensors. Governor oil pumps.g) The control engineer shall also be able to trip the unit during emergency condition with the following sequence. Generator speed. Annunciation for violation of permissible limits of the above parameters. Guide bearing temperature. Inlet pressure gauge at inlet of turbine. 4. Wicket gate shall be closed. Acoustic levels Level measurement Turbine blade tip clearance Governor control monitoring of turbine speed. protection. Vacuum gauge for draft tube pressure. system hardware/ software and peripherals etc. cables.5.5. KW. field voltage and field current. Turbine bearing temperature.

All shutdown hardware should be powered by the station battery.6. Controller input modules should be strappable for 24 Volt station batteries. The stop relay should drop the start relay whenever a contact input which is strapped for shutdown on a digital input module is closed.5. The start relay circuitry should provide for auto and manual control capability. 4. Unit controller should support remote management and remote programming for supervisory controller. The controller should accept station battery voltage level inputs.5.3 Digital Status And Alarm Inputs The controller should be capable of connecting to at least 60 contact type inputs representing digital status and alarms. The modular design of the controllers should be such that they are easily integrated into the control system requiring the minimum of engineering. The type of controllers to be used in the SCADA system should be selected to meet specific plant requirements described below including availability. A controller fail relay should drop out the start relay when the auto relay is on. It should have following hardware features. This circuit should include start and stop relays for controlling the turbine. 4. It should have a console and keyboard to program the controller as well as communicate with Supervisory controller. over-voltage and differential generator protection. Controller digital input modules should also have straps to allow any contact input to cause a hardware shutdown directly to the stop relay. All contact inputs should be sensed through optical couplers with an isolation voltage of at least 1500 Volts.6. cycle time and type of communications link.♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Standardized hardware technology Highly modular design Expandable Operation over a wide voltage range Intelligent I/O modules Central and distributed I/O Communication with other controllers and computers Remote fault diagnostics It should include all transient suppression. It should have lock to prevent unauthorized modification and be capable of detecting hardware and software failures. filtering and optical isolation necessary to operate in a power plant environment. number of plant I/O.6.2 Shut down Hardware The controller should have a conventional relay logic shutdown circuit.5.  89  . It may also have digital relays for over current. It should have capability to implement closed loop PID function for governing. 4.1 Unit Controller Redundant microprocessor based/PLC based governor system control should be interfaced with SCADA powerful enough to perform all the required functions mentioned above. The scan time of the complete sequence for each process should be less than 100 msec.

5.7 Control outputs  The controller should provide control relays to operate the circuit breaker. Each switch/LED should be clearly marked as to its function.6. Two contacts should be available from the DPDT relay and either should be strappable as normally closed or normally open. Next to the indicating LED should be a switch to operate the relay manually.1% and the phase shift accuracy should be to .  4. The DC analog signals should be converted to digital signals using at minimum 12 bit analog to digital converter in the controller with all conversion errors considered the controller should maintain an accuracy of 0. The controller should be able to measure the magnitude of the voltage with a true RMS to DC converter and measure the phase shift of the voltage with respect to current.1% or better of full scale and a resolution of 1 part or less in 2000.5. The controller should induce a burden of less than 1 VA in each potential transformer that it connects to.  90  . It should withstand up to 200V AC continuously.25 amps.1% and the phase shift accuracy should be to .6.6. An optional high-powered relay should be available that provides one normally open contact rate 150 VDC at 10A. The controller should be able to measure DC analog signals with as much as 5 volts common mode signal with differential inputs. The controller should accurately measure voltage inputs from 80 to 150V AC.1 degree.1 degree.5. on or off.5VA on each current transformer it connects to. and other equipment.5 A. It should withstand 10 amps continuously and 50 amps for 1 second. The contacts should be DPDT rated 125 VDC at 0. The controller should accurately measure all current inputs from 0-6. The voltage measuring accuracy should be to . voltage regulator. The controller should be able to measure magnitude of the current with a true RMS to DC converter and its phase shift with respect voltage. The controller should also provide selective terminating resistors for 1ma and 20ma signals. 4. 4.5.6 AC voltage inputs The controller should connect directly to the potential transformers. The controller should induce a burden of less than . The current measuring accuracy should be to . The controller should provide ground straps that can be inserted on the negative lead of any input signal that should be grounded at the controller. 4.5 AC current inputs The controller should connect directly to current transformers.6. All DC analog inputs should be protected from transient spikes and voltages with circuitry that meets the IEEE surge withstand test. 4-20ma or 1-5V DC analog signals. 0-5V. Each relay should have an LED indicator mounted on a manual control panel to indicate the status of the relay.4 DC Analog Inputs  The controller should accept 0-1ma.

generator amps. The correct linearizing curve should be selected by configuring.8 RTD inputs  The controller should have provisions to connect directly to RTDs. and current.5. 4. The controller should be capable of deriving the generator voltage (line to line and line to neutral). any of the RTD inputs should be able to be used as a 4-20 mA analog input.7 Supervisory Controller Standard Desktop Personal Computer having fast speed should be used as Supervisory Controller and should at minimum have following configuration: 4. generator frequency and bus frequency from the CTs and PTs: The controller should be configurable for open delta (line to line) or star (line to neutral) connected CTs and PTs. The signals should be isolated outputs with 1000 common mode voltage capability.6. generator Power factor. 4.5. The contact rating for these alarms should be 1 Amp. The temperature range should be 0-160oC.25%. at 24 VDC.6. The controller must have a 10. generator VARS. 4. frequency. 100 and 120 ohms 8 input RTD module.11 Electrical transducers The controller should connect directly to current transformers (CTs) and potential transformers (PTs).5.6.8 Speed Sensor A speed sensor to be mounted on generator unit shaft giving output as 4 to 20 mA / 05 V DC is to be provided.10 Alarm outputs (option) The controller should be capable of outputting contacts for alarms that it generates internally. kVARS.5.9 Analog outputs  The controller should output 4-20ma signals for calculated signals such as kW.4. RTD readings should be corrected for nonlinearly and readings should be accurate to + 0. If eight RTDs are not required. voltage.6.90. The accuracy of these outputs should be better than . power factor.   4. 4.5. two high alarm set points and one low alarm set point.5.25oC. generator kVA. All digital inputs should be capable of meeting the surge withstand capability in accordance with ANSI/IEEE C37. The controller should be capable of reading temperatures from eight RTDs. Each of the eight inputs should be assigned three alarm set points.9 Wicket gate position transducer  91  . generator WATTS.5.

current transformers. Confirm they are in accordance with the drawings. 4. verify the lighting is adequate and grounding connections are provided.5. Verify that the following items conform to the drawings : • • • • • Cable numbers.14 Factory Tests for Unit Control Switchboards 1.It should comprise of LVDT mounted on hydraulic cylinder for actuating wicket gate. 4. Generator temperature etc. overspeed tripping and creep at 30%.5. 4 mA should correspond to 0% and 20 mA to 100% stroke of the servomotor. 5.e.10 Head water/Tail water level transducer Two level sensors. 4. Confirm that the appropriate lockout relay is energized and the correct annunciation and/or printout occur. In addition. and potential transformers. one for Headwater and one for Tail water should be provided.  92  . Activate all protective relays. Check anchor channels and cable entrances. Check each item of equipment for proper location and verify the instrument/catalog number is correct per the specification. 6. Review test certificate or witness the insulation resistance test of all wiring.12 Printers Printer/Hard copy units must be provided with supervisory and unit controllers. Check approximately 5 to 10 percent of the internal cabling. 4. 112% and 5% of the rated speed respectively. and Equipment identification nameplates. It should convert linear movement of cylinder into 4-20 mA signal. 2. Raceway layouts. Review front and rear elevations versus the final approved drawings.5. 3.5. Review the interior of the UCS in the same manner as the elevations. Terminal designations on individual components such as control switches and lockout relay. 4.13 Recorders The plant control system should include video recording system of selected parameters i.5. 4.11 Speed switches Speed switches should be provided for application of brake. Terminal block designations.

including electronic speed relays. and control block logic diagrams in front of you. • • • • • Manual start/stop sequence (does not apply to redundant PLC control schemes). • Terminal block designations. PLC software coding. Confirm that settings of all protective relays are in accordance with approved documents. • 4. Automatic emergency stop sequence (usually performed by activating one of the lockout relays while in the “normal running” mode ). Check all annunciation points. verifying the following items : • Cable numbers and type. current and potential transformers. Review the PLC ladder diagram viewed on the video display terminal versus the final approved PLC software coding documentation.5. determine whether chassis and logic grounds are the same or separate (this will affect the type and quantity of external surge protection required). Local control to remote control Remote control to local control Manual control to automatic control Headwater level control “OFF” to “ON” Headwater level control “ON” to “OFF” Excitation manual control to excitation automatic control Excitation automatic control to excitation manual control. PLC checks: • • • • • • Check the I/O racks for type and number of analog and digital I/O cards. 2. Check factory calibration of all devices possible. 11. and Verify that modem connections are provided and functional.15 Field Tests for Unit Control Switchboards 1. Verify tags on all factory-calibrated instrumentation devices. Perform the function checks listed below with the final approved schematics. Check for surge protection provided on the I/O rack and I/O cards. 9. and Verify the performance of the automatic synchronizing circuit and the manual sync-check relay (if provided).7. 8. and vibration monitors. Check for future expansion capabilities on the I/O racks. Change position of all control switches as follows (typically done while in the normal running mode). Manual emergency stop sequence. All premissives and interlocks should be provided by using the “dummy” toggle switchboard to provide these inputs. 10. and • Raceway layouts  93  . Check all external interconnection wiring against the approved power house/equipment drawings. Identify grounding connections for the PLC and the I/O rack. Auto start/stop sequence.

Response times during normal loading and high activity loading scenarios for: • Graphical display updates.5. ♦ List of essential spares. Calibrate all remaining instrumentation devices. 6. Man-machine interface (MMI) user capabilities. 2. 4. etc. ♦ List of application software. instrumentation devices. 8. 4. Perform functional checks on unit start/stop sequences. 7.16 Additional Factory and Field Tests for Distributed Control Systems 1. ♦ Input/ Output list. ♦ Type of Cables. Methodically document steps 1 through 7 to ensure that no cables.5. 4.3.  94  . 6. ♦ All technical parameters such as baud rate. Application software functionality. 4. 5. Perform point-to-point continuity and megger tests on all external cabling. • Alarm processing and logging. frequency. These checks should be performed first with the associated power circuits de-energized. 3. ♦ Experience list. ♦ List of parameters to be monitored from CRT/key board and the details of the same. duplicating the factory sequences. ♦ Bill of material ♦ Price schedule as per the enclosed schedule. and • Sequence of events recording Communications connectivity/protocols. ♦ Manual/ catalogues of every equipment supplied by him. ♦ Plant operation philosophy. and then with both power and control circuits energized. Point-by-point database check. “Bench test” all protective relays to ensure proper settings. or control systems have been overlooked. 9. memory capacity input/output capacity of modules expansion capacity of the SCADA system.17 Data/ Document to be furnished by the Bidder Bidder shall furnish the following data/documents with the Bid. • Control sequence implementation. Perform functional checks tests on all unit and station auxiliary equipment controlled from the UCS to verify proper operation. protective relays. Database linkage to graphical displays. Water-up the unit and perform all start/stop sequences. ♦ Redundancy provided for any of the equipment. 5.

kV Feeders control. test at manufacturers’ works. erect.kV Bus coupler control and relay panel. A programming and training console at centralized control room . metering and protection relay panels (For each unit). (i) Manual (conventional) Control and Protection System. Unit control. Protection and Monitoring Equipment and System for power generation.SECTION -V TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL PROTECTION. supply. --. METERING AND SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (SCADA) (FOR SHP OF ABOVE 5 MW TO 25 MW CAPACITY) 5.1 APPLICABLE STANDARD 1. The SCADA equipment will be provided in the centralized control room of offsite station. 2. assemble. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Equipment Redundant Personal Computer/Mini computer based SCADA for supervisory control Offsite supervisory control and data acquisition. test at site. fabricate. Commission and train owner’s operating personnel for the Control. metering and Protective relay panels. interlinking grid substation and offsite centralized control room. Voice communication between control room. deliver. --.0 SCOPE The Contractor shall design. transformation and transmission and comprising of following. Communication Link Dedicated communication system between control room to off-site control centre alongwith terminal equipment for control and local area network for distributed control and for voice communication. ANS/IEEE 1010 – 1987 – IEEE Guide for Control of Hydroelectric Power Plants IS/IEC/ISO Standard Mentioned in Text  95  . A (iii) (iv) (v) B (i) (ii) (iii) C. (ii) 5.

or if already on-line. etc.) will be taken care of by operating regulating Bypass Gates. generators.number 11/--. Status inputs shall be obtained from control switches. such as the governor. 5.5.kV grid as shown in enclosed drawing. The generators are proposed to be provided with static excitation system. and from various other equipment. Entire power is to be fed into --. unit stopping and running control at the power house with provision for supervisory control and data acquisition at power house as well as in centralized offsite control room. Emergency conditions (power house unit tripping etc. For this purpose suitable provisions will be made in the control.MVA capacity each are proposed to step up the generated power to --. exciter. Any abnormalities in the inputs must prevent the unit’s startup. the exciter. position etc. Dependable digital controls for system control with conventional manual control as backup are proposed.3.  96  .kV. Intake gates/MIV with capability of gravity closing under emergency shall also be provided on upstream side. Power house units operation and loading is proposed to be Canal/HRC water level controlled The turbines. transformer and other equipment proposed for the unit will be provided with necessary sensors and actuators. The proper combination of these inputs to the control system logic will provide outputs to the governor. level and function switches indicative of pressure. and other equipment to start or shutdown the unit.1General The control system shall receive input signals from main equipment such as the turbine or the generator. throughout the plant.3CONTROL AND MONITORING OF PLANT EQUIPMENT 5. The scheme will be designed in accordance with ANS/IEEE – 1010 and will be subject to approval by owner.kV unit transformers of --. ---.2 CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM General Considerations Considerations involved in providing control and monitoring systems for the power plant and the  switchyard are as follows:   h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) k) Main Single Line Diagram is shown in drawing (to be enclosed by Purchaser). The power house is proposed to be controlled by supervisory control from control room of powerhouse as well as from offsite control centre.kV bus is proposed for reliability. Accordingly provision is to be made for manual and automatic control for unit starting. A single sectionalised --. Metering and Relaying as proposed is shown in drawings(to be enclosed by Purchaser).

Data logging – Data will be stored in hard disc and printed every half an hour for which printer will be provide at centralized control room as well as off-site.provide an alarm or initiate its shutdown.3.1 Level Controlled Operation of Power Units : The power units operation is proposed to be level controlled so that in case of variation in canal/HRC water level due to discharge variation.kV SF6 breaker is proposed in the power house and supervisory control in the centralized control room as well as at offsite control centre. 5.1.3.3.3.site control. unnecessary gate operation avoided and canal water level maintained between permissible limits. loading on the power units is automatically adjusted to available water and energy output is optimised. 5. 5. 5.1. Redundant level monitoring system – one float operated and the other non float operated shall be provided.3 Station Service System The unit auxiliaries are proposed to be provided automatic control to suit the unit control as proposed for manual/supervisory control centralized control room and off. The remote annunciation for supervisory control will be part of digital control system. The unit control boards should be designed to perform the following functions: (ii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) Information receipt and monitoring Start/stop sequencing control Annunciation of alarm conditions Temperature information monitoring Metering and instrumentation signals display Event recording.4 Annunciation Annunciation system is proposed to be designed for control of the unit from the powerhouse as well as supervisory control in centralized control and offsite control.2 --. The normal annunciators consisting of indicating lamp and relay assembly is proposed to be provided on the unit control boards in the power house.kV line Control Manual control of the --.1.1. depending upon the magnitude of abnormality. when required Synchronizing and connecting the unit to the system The unit control board is the central control means and communicates with the main and associated equipment through hard wire or multiplexing.  97  .

6.3.3.2 Intake gate/MIV and draft gate Table . All motors are direct on line starting and are therefore high starting torque.1 to 5.1 to 5. This is tentative and may be increased or decreased as required with owner’s approval.3 Turbine speed governor Table – 5.1 to 5.2 Control and Status Data Control and status data to be transmitted from various equipment to Unit Control Board and from Unit Control Board to the equipment etc is detailed below.5 Auxiliaries Control Centralized controls of the power distribution and control boards is proposed for unattended automatic operation and for remote control from power house no.5. 5. DC Power supply. Information and control signals will be needed between the control board and each of the following: Canal/HRC water level Turbine Table – 5.5.3 Unit transformer Table – 5.2. control signal shall also be from Auxiliary equipment.4. Abnormal conditions of this equipment will be alarmed. Service Air shall be provided as per IEEE – 1010.1 to 5.7 Generator excitation system Table – 5. These equipment blocks represent auxiliary service equipment needed for the proper operation of the generating plant.5. Auxiliary AC Power Supply.  98  . Automatic switching of selected standby and emergency auxiliaries on failure of running auxiliaries is proposed.6.2.1 to 5. 5. The opening/closing time of switchgear may not exceed 8 cycles so that stalling of motors on change over does not take place.4. Service Water. 4.1.1.3 Circuit breaker and switches Table – 5.3.3.3.1 to 5.5. Fire Protection.7 Additionally.1.6 Switchgear and Motors Air break switchgear is proposed to reduce fire hazard.1. Automatic change over of entire unit auxiliaries to alternate source of supply is also proposed.3 Generator Table – 5.

C 63AMS Turbine shaft air maintenance seal applied A. Senses excessive water level in turbine pit due to plugged drains or major seal failure. Used in conjunction with probes on generator guide bearing. Temperature detector in bearing oil reservoir.P 33SP Wicked gate shear pin failure Bearing cooling water low flow Turbine pit water high level A 80WB A 71WTH A. P SCWP Water pressure in Intake P. obstructed piping or pipe rupture. One contact operates submersible pump. Unit startup interlock.P. Sensor in bearing oil reservoir.A.I A 71QTGL A 39 TV A. Shear pin failure while closing wicket gates due to obstruction Pump failure. shutdown if loss of pressure in running unit Direct reading on transducer operated gauge Alarm if lubrication cycle not completed 38QTG 71QTGH T.Control and Status Data Transmitted form Turbine to U n i t C o n t r o l S wi t c h b o a r d SIGNAL  38TG DESCRIPTION Turbine guide bearing temperature Turbine guide bearing oil temperature Turbine guide bearing oil level high Turbine guide bearing oil level low Bearing / shaft vibration detector TYPE T.1 .1. I DTWP Draft tube water pressurevaccum Turbine greasing system failure ( if greasing system provided ) I 48TG A  99  . Sensor in bearing oil reservoir. with direct reading visual indicator .5. Contact blocks unit startup and initiates shutdown if seal applied during running Direct reading on transducer operated gauge. with direct reading visual indicator Vibration probes installed on guide bearing housing at 90º. to each other. for detection of excessive bearing and shaft vibrations.P.Table.A.I NOTES Temperature detectors. Provision for mounting two sensors in bearing shell.

74TG Turbine greasing system low voltage( if greasing system provided ) Wicket Gate Servomotor Position Runner Blade Servomotor Position A Detects failure of power supply to solenoid valve used to control greasing cycle. Type C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunc ia tion/Eve nt Re c or ding = Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog.5 .C o n t r o l a n d S t a t u s D a t a Tr ansm it t e d f r om Unit Cont r o l S wi t c h b o a r d t o T u r b i n e SIGNAL DESCRIP TION Turbine grease system Start/Stop (if greasing system provided) Turbine lube oil system s t a rt / st o p TYPE C NOTES E n a b l e s gr e a s e s ys t e m w h e n unit is running . digital. digital. 1GS 1TL C E n a b l e t ur b i n e l u b r i c a t i on p r i o r t o u n i t run. Feedback to the governor control system. status lamps)    100  . Feedback to the governor control system. C C TYPE C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunciation/Event Recording = Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog. 1 . 2 . status lamps) NOTE – Wi c k e t g a t e a u t o ma t i c l o c k fu n c t i ons are described in section 3H T a b l e .

2. Water supply for bearing oil coolers and turbines seals TYPE DC NOTES AC A W Power supply for Lubricating oil system AC for bearing May be alternately fed from DC. P 12-X1 Over-speed.1 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from Governor to Unit Control Switchboard Signal N Description Speed indication Type I Notes Methods of developing the speed signal include the following : Hall-effect.Operating Power.Voltage transformers connected to the generator output leads must be capable of operating at very low residual voltages in absence of field excitation Over-Speed Switch should be actuated mechanically by means of a centrifugal device mounted on the turbine shaft.3 . C.Table-5. eddy current.1. Electrically actuated speed relays by comparing - 12-X Over-speed C. P  101  . magnetic sensors operated in conjunction with toothed wheels or other devices directly connected to the generator shaft (speed signal generator – SSG) . Air and Water from Service Equipment to Turbine DESCRIPTION Power supply for control and protection devices Power supply for turbine pit water pump Air supply for shaft maintenance seal. Type AC DC A W = AC Power = DC Power = Air = Water Table 5.

Typical uses of gate position switches for control and indication: .Alarm .Incomplete stop detection . protective shutdowns without overspeed) .Turbine gate lock (apply at 0% gate position) . apply brakes at low speed if gates at 0%) .Trip generator breaker as gates pass through speed-no-load position (auto-stop.I Provides confirmation of 65SNL operation. Shutdown for extreme low level.Unit running detection .P. contacts or gate position WG Wicket gate position indication C. low and extreme low levels. I Typically derived from potentiometer or LVDT coupled to restoring connection from wicket gate servomotor.Initiate time delay for stopping auxiliaries .Start turbine guide bearing oil pump Provides information of starting /stopping process.C Control action upon detection of shaft movement after shutdown may include any or all of the following : .C.I 65SNL Speed-no-load solenoid aux. 39C 65Ss Start/stop solenoid auxiliary contacts or gate limiter limit switches C. C. Used to seal in remote controls and provide remote indication.Start thrust/guide bearing HP oil pump .P Loss of speed signal may initiate control action i.e.Generator brake application (that is. 33WG Wicket gate position switches C. A. shutdown of the unit and annunciation.13-X 14-X Synchronous speed and under speed switches Speed signal failure Creep detector operation the speed signal to a reference signal 65SF A.Drop intake gates .I 71 QP Governor Oil Pressure Unit – oil level switches in Pressure Vessel A. air admission for high level.Reenergize starting relays to provide restart after momentary loss of power Alarms for high. P  102  .Release brakes .

P Pump control. I Indicates status of the gate lock (applied on shutdown when gates at 0%).I Indication and auto-start interlock. 65M/L S 63QP V 49F I Provides remote indication that the governor is in manual control at the governor cubicle. May result in unit shutdown depending upon level of power supply redundancy.63Q Governor Oil Pressure Unit pressure switches on Pressure Vessel Governor Oil Pressure Unit – level switches for oil level in sump tank Governor Oil Pressure Unit – sump tank oil temperature high Governor Oil Pressure Unit – standby pump operation Governor power supply failure A.P Indicates failure of input AC or DC power or failure of regulated DC power supplies. 6Q A Indicative of excessive governor action or pump failure 27PS A.C. 63AB Generator air brakes applied Generator air brake supply pressure low Wicket gate automatic lock applied/released Wicket gate automatic lock failure Manual control indication Pilot valve strainer obstruction Fire detection system operation/trouble 63AB S A 33WG L C.  103  . 71 QS A Alarms for high and low oil levels. shutdown for extreme low pressure.P Operation or failure of detection/ extinguishing system. C. 26QS A Indicative of excessive governor action. and extreme low pressures. 65WG LF A Indicates that the gate lock has not been fully applied on shutdown. alarms for low. Alarm for attending strainer A A.

Typically relay contact closures. indication of electrichydraulic transducer input voltage.2 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from Unit Control Switchboard to Governor Signal 39 Description Creep detector enable Type C Notes Enables rotor creep detector after a fixed time following application of brakes on shutdown. digital.BAL Governor balance indication I For electric governors. 65PL Power reference raise /lower commands C 65GLR. Typically relay contact closures when unit on –line. Some installations may utilize input reference analog or digital signal rather than raise / lower commands. status lamps) Table 5.2. route to reversing drive motor. Other control and protection applications include: Pre. 15FL Speed reference C raise /lower commands 65PR. Typically relay or switch contact closures. Type C = Control P = Protection trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication (analog.positioning GL to 0%prior to starting to permit controlled opening of the gates upon energization of the start / stop solenoid 65SS Raising GL to turbine breakaway gate position after energization of 65SS Rapid unloading of the machine during certain stop and protection shutdown sequences 15FR. speed raise/lower operable only off-line. Gate limit raise/lower commands C -  104  . If power reference also provided. Primary function of the gate limit (GL) is to limit the maximum opening of the wicket gates under operator control to prevent overloading the unit at the prevailing head. Some installations may utilize input reference analog or digital signal rather than raise/ lower commands.

e.Energized to allow wicket gates to open and close under control of the electric governor.De-energized to unload the unit for certain protection operations (that is over speed to 112% during opening of unit circuit breaker) Inputs to power transducer (for governors utilizing power feedback rather than gate feedback). V.Operator-initiated stop . “energized to start and run” . provides backup to the electric governor . or return them.Generator and turbine bearing cooling water not available.3SS On-off command to start/stop solenoid 65SS or gate limiter motor C.Generator thrust bearing high pressure oil pump failed to achieve full pressure . i. gate limit or manual gate control. Used to switch between on-line and off-line gains in compensation circuits (PID) and to switch between  105  . or both.P The start/stop solenoid 65SS typically operates as follows : . that is.Generator brake shoes not cleared or brake air pressure not off. to a position slightly above the speed-no-load position and is controlled as follows : .De-energized whenever unit circuit breaker trips to restore unit to near rated speed.Energized when unit circuit breaker closes to allow generator to be loaded. .Unit protection operation (includes all electrical and mechanical fault detectors that initiate shutdown of the unit) . .Intake gate not fully open . .Wicket gate lock not released 3SNL On/off command to partial shutdown (speed-no-load) solenoid C. . “deenergized to stop” Typical functions that will block start and/or initiate stop are .De-energized to initiate complete closure of the wicket gates at maximum rate and block subsequent opening of the gates. I Generator voltage and current Unit on-line C 52 C Generator circuit breaker auxiliary contact.Turbine shaft maintenance seal on or low gland water flow.P The partial shutdown solenoid 65SNL (if used) is typically de-energized to limit the opening of the wicket gates.

3 – Operating Power. 71NH C Type C = Control P = Protection Trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication analog. Air and Water from Service Equipment to Governor Description Power supply for DC control Type DC Notes   One or more separate supplies depending on power distribution arrangement One or more separate supplies depending on number of pumps and required redundancy.speed and power references. digital.2. 3AB Generator air brakes on/off command Level difference between headwater and tail water C Air brakes automatically applied on shutdown if wicket gates close and speed below a predetermined level. Used for optimum turbine blade positioning and optimum gate position/ power generation. Power supply for Oil Pressure Unit pumps Alternate supply for governor power supplies Air supply for generator air brakes Air supply for Oil Pressure Unit Cooling water for Oil Pressure Unit oil sump AC AC A - A W (Optional)  106  . status lamps) Table 5.

Type AC DC A W = = = = AC Power DC Powe r Air Water  107  .

) Temperature detectors. A.Ta b l e 5 . Two hottest RTDs connected to thermal overload relay 49G. One sensor for each separate oil reservoir. (Quantity dependent on number of coolers and desired level of coverage. for detection of water buildup or emulsified. Eddy current probes installed in guidebearing segments at 90 degrees to each other. detectors in bearing for 38THT Thrust bearing temperature T. Provision mounting sensors in all segments. Temperature detectors embedded in wells in the shoes or segments with provision for interchanging sensors between segments. Temperature reservoir. equipped with direct reading visual indicator. A.A. P. One sensor for each separate oil reservoir. P 71QBH A 71QBL Bearing oil level low A 38QW Bearing water contamination detector Bearing/shaft vibration detector A 39V A.P NOTES Temperature detectors (typically 12) embedded in stator winding accordance with ANSI C50. 26AI Air cooler inlet air temperature. A 26GF Generator field temperature. equipped with direct reading visual indicator. Bearing oil temperature Air cooler outlet air temperature. One sensor for oil reservoir. Bearing oil level high T. A. P 38QB T. Temperature detectors. A Temperature detectors. for detection of equipment defects and rough zone operation. A.1 – C on trol an d st at us dat a Tr ansm it t e d f r om Ge ne r at or t o unit control board SIGNAL 26GS DESCRIPTION Stator winding temperature TYPE T.) Temperature monitoring system for continuously monitoring field temperature. Used in  108  . T. T. P 38GT Guide bearing temperature. (Quantity dependent on number of coolers and desired level of coverage. 10-1977 (1). P oil 26AO T. 3.

P Pump Failure. pipe rupture TYPE C P A T I = Control = Protection trip = Annunciation/Event Recording = Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog. Pressure switch provides confirmation that the oil pump motor has established sufficient pressure to allow the start sequence to proceed. C. C. Furnished in quantities and ratings compatible with the metering and primary/standby protection requirements. Back trip generator protection. May also be used to generate an extinguishing system failure alarm if system is initiated but pressure fails to establish within a fixed time. Pressure switches installed downstream of actuating valve. supply valve closed. I 33CW or C. Start interlock and status indication. Used also to generate alarm if pressure fail to establish after pump is commanded to start. Used to initiate fire extinguishing system in conjunction with fault detecting equipment. I CT-G P. A. 63FG Fire extinguishing system operation P. I 80CW A. pipe obstruction. digital. detectors mounted in stator end turn area. A 33AB Air brake position indication Neutral end and terminal end current transformers Cooling water valve position Cooling water flow low C. status lamps)  109  .63QTH Thrust bearing high pressure oil system start interlock/failure alarm. A Fixed temperature or rate-of-rise of temperature or both. Start interlock indicating all brake shoes have cleared runner plate. I conjunction with probes on turbine guide bearing. 26G Temperature detectors for fire protection system P.

Confirmation of water flow via 33CW or 80CW (Table 3A-1). 3. When forced air cooling is used for the generator. P 20AL Air louver operate command Generator lube oil system start/stop command. Close discharge and inlet air louvers in generator housing in event of a fire. Generator cooling water system start/ stop command. 20CWS C 20FGS C. digital. Enables generator lubrication prior to unit run. Confirmation of pump starting via 63QTH (Table 3A-1) Open valve or start pump prior to starting unit. C. status lamps)  110  .2 – C on trol an d st at us dat a Tr ansm it t e d f r om Ge ne r at or t o unit controlbord SIGNAL 2THS DESCRIPTION  Thrust bearing high pressure oil pump start/ stop command. Turned off when unit is on-line. TYPE C NOTES Start pump prior to starting unit. Open valve upon detection of fault + excessive heat. Fire extinguishing system operate command.Ta b l e 5 . P 1GL C TYPE C = Control P = Protection trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication (analog. Confirmation of valve operation via 63Fg (Table 3A-1).

Control valve may be located in governor cubicle/ generator brake panel. AC 415 volts 3 phase AC. 3 – O p e r a t i n g P o we r . digital. fire protection. Air supply for operating discharge and inlet air louvers Power supply for CO2 fire extinguishing system. Water supply for generator air coolers and bearing oil coolers. May also be atomized. TYPE C = Control P = Protection trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication (analog. DC For uninterruptible systems such as air cooler temperature control system. W A DC AC May be fed alternatively from DC source. A i r a n d W a t e r f r o m S e r v i c e E q u i p m e n t t o G e n e ra t o r DESCRIPTION TYPE NOTES Power supply for thrust bearing highpressure oil pump. Power supply for generator lube oil system.T a b l e 5 . A W AC Thermostatically controlled. status lamps)  111  . Air supply for brakes and rotor jacking system Water supply for fire extinguishing system Power supply for generator housing space heaters. 3 . for reducing condensation on windings when generator is shut down. Power supply for DC control circuits.

Table 5.4 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from Generator Terminal Equipment to Unit Control Switchboard Signal CT VT A F V W/VAR Type Notes Description  Current signal for relaying and metering Voltage signal for relaying and metering Current indication Frequency indication Voltage indication Metering I I I I. digital. AVR Voltage signal for automatic voltage regulator (AVR) Governor speed sensing Power transducer C N XDCR C C Unit power input to electric governor. status lamps)  112  . Analog signal from a VT. TYPE C = Control P = Protection Trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication analog.A Analog signals for indication and/or recording.3.

P Notes Deluge valve upon differential operation and high temperature detection. TYPE C = Control P = Protection Trip A = Annunciation/Event Recording T = Temperature Monitoring I = Indication analog. Air and Water from Service Equipment to Generator Terminal Equipment Description Power supply from DC control circuits Power supply for forced air bus duct circulation system Water supply for fire extinguishing system and forced air cooling Type DC AC Notes For uninterruptible systems such as fire protection.3.6 – Operating Power. digital. status lamps) Table 5.5 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from Unit Control Switchboard to Generator Terminal Equipment Signal 20 Description Fire extinguishing system command Type C.Table 5. W TYPE AC DC A W = AC Power = DC Power = Air = Water  113  .3.

7.Control and Status Data Transmitted to and from the Cooling System and Unit Control System Description Conventional Fan failure Raw water low flow Strainer differential pressure A. A A Trip occurs on multiple fan failures resulting in insufficient air flow Trip is accomplished by winding temperature Type Notes Type A = Annunciation C = Control P = protective trip T = temperature monitoring  114  .3.Table 5.P.

AC should be preferred source to minimize chance of back feeding field voltage onto battery if blocking diode fails. 41/b 31/1. Failure of redundant fan (s).Table 5. Automatic transfer to alternate source on failure of preferred source 41/a.A Set to operate after normal time required for field flash source to build terminal voltage to level sufficient for exciter getting to commence.I Field flashing contactor position I Exciter start sequence incomplete P. Indicating unit with dial contacts typical. 31/b 48E Field breaker position C. 78 E 63F-1 63F-2 27PS Pole slip protection Cooling fan failure –Stage I Cooling fan failure –Stage 2 DC power supply failure P A P P or A Trip or alarm depending on level of power supply redundancy.1 – C ontrol an d S tatus Dat a Tr a n s m i t t e d f r o m e x c i t a t i o n s y s t e m t o u n i t c o n t r o l s wi t c h b o a r d Signal 51ET Description Exciter transformer o/c protection Type P Notes 49 GF Field overload 1 Set to coordinate with field winding thermal characteristic If Vf 64 F Field voltage indication Field voltage indication Field ground detection 1 1 P or A Transuded from DCCT ( satiable reactor ) 27 FF Failure of preferred field flashing source A Provision of this alarm assumes 2 sources provided AC and DC.4. 26ET-I Exciter transformer over temperature –Stage I A  115  .

2 90V 70V End-of travel indication I Signal generated by limit switches coupled to 70V motor drive Auto voltage adjuster with position I Same as 70V. Optional MAN Indication mismatch between auto I To ensure bumpless transfer from AUTO to AUTO Voltage regulator output and manual I MAN and MAN to AUTO Balanc e Balanc e Voltage setpoint Voltage setpoint  116  . 2 70V/LS3 90V/LS3 89LS 90 V End-of –travel indication I Same as 70V/LSI. 70V preset position 90V preset position Station service A.26ET-2 Exciter transformer temperature –Stage 2 P 58-1 Rectifier transformer temperature A Thyristor fuse. closed system. - 58-2 49 HE Rectifier failure –Stage 2 Heat exchanger failure P A Various heat exchanger arrangements are possible Once-through.2. Quantity variable depending on number of secondary winding and whether transformer is 3 phase or 3 x 1 phase. 90V/LSI. etc 26RTD Exciter transformer temperature indication I Temperature detectors. conduction. 70V/LSI.C test supply switch position C C I Interlock in start sequence Interlock in start sequence. 70V Manual voltage adjuster with I Signal generated by potentiometer coupled to 70V motor drive. or gating failure.

unit separated form system Transfer exciter from auto voltage control to manual control IE Exciter de-excite C 83VT Voltage transformer potentil C 43AM Close contact transfer exciter to manual voltage regulator control Close contact to transfer exciter to auto voltage regulator control Run 70V to preset position preparation for unit starting Run 90V to preset position preparation for unit starting Raise manual voltage adjuster C 43VA C 70V Rum. digital.TYPE C = Control P = Protection Trip A = Annunciation /Event recording T= temperature Monitoring I = indication (analog.4. Back logic 70 V raise C C C  117  .2 – Control and Status Data transmitted from unit control Switchboard to excitation SIGNAL 41 protective trips 41 control DESCRIPTION Field tripping from generator P TYPE NOTES Field breaker tripping from manual control and unit shutdown sequence logic Field breaker closing from manual control and unit start sequence logic Exciter de-excite C 41 close C IE C Close contact to initate field flashing at 95% speed during auto start or under manual control Open contact to initiate phaseback below 95% speed. status lamps) Table 5. Back logic 90V Rum.

Used to develop accelerating power input to PSS if required TYPE C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunciation /Event recording = temperature Monitoring = indication (analog.70 V lower 90 V raise 90 V lower 52G/a Wicket gate position Lower manual voltage adjuster Raise auto voltage adjuster Lower auto voltage adjuster Generator CB Auxiliary switch Analog signal representing wicket C C C C C De.excite control. digital. disable power system stabilizer of-line. status lamps)  118  .

status lamps)  119  .3– Operating Power. Air and Water from Service Equipment to Excitation system DESCRIPTION TYPE NOTES Used for exciter testing and emergency operation if exciter transformer out of service (optional) Battery-fed field flashing Station service field flashing source Cooling water supply for heat exchanger W DC AC AC preferred source.4. digital.Table 5. Auto transfer to dc if ac not available Station service as test supply AC TYPE C P A T I = Control = Protection Trip = Annunciation /Event recording = Temperature Monitoring = Indication (analog.

Dial type oil temperature indicator at the transformer.5.5. Event recording Hand reset contact (local). P Event recording (optional). Event recording Trip generator breaker Temperature detectors embedded in each separate winding for first stage temperature control. T 71QC Conservator tank oil level indicator A Table 5. P 26Q Top oil temperature indicator A. P A. First stage annunciation. status lamps)  120  . Second stage tripping Dial type indicator with maximum and minimum indicating levels.1 – Control and Status Data Transmitted from T r a n s f o r m e r t o U n i t C o n t r o l S wi t c h b o a r d Description Type A. P A. P. I Signal CT Notes  Current signal for relaying and metering 71G 63G 63Q Gas accumulation detection Gas pressure device Main tank sudden pressure relief device A A. digital. Tripping optional. P Notes  Actuated upon differential relay operation or sudden pressure relief device. Fire detection sensors shut off the transformer fan and pumps Type C =Control                         P =Protection Trip  A =Annunciation/Event Recording T =Temperature Monitoring I =Indication (analog. RTD are in each winding because of the possibility of unbalanced loading. T. tripping optional. 63T 49-1W 49-2W Main tank over pressure switch Transformer winding temperature thermal device in each separate winding A.2 – Control and Status D a t a t r ans m i t t e d f r o m U ni t Control Sw itchboard to Transformer Signal 20 Description Fire extinguishing system command Type C.Table 5.

If an FOW transformer is used. 6 . such as monitoring of the pressure difference between the oil and water systems. For FA. 3 – O p e r a t i n g P o we r . 1 – S i g n a l s T r a n s m i t t e d f r o m P l a n t E q u i p m e n t t o G e ne r a t o r Breaker Signal 4 1XJ 12G 25 33 38GB 38TB 43XJ 49T 63T 71K 80TBQ 38G 43S Description Unit control Breaker control switch. FOA transformers. 5 . additional information and control signals may be needed. Water supply for fire extinguishing system Water supply for cooling W W Type AC =AC Power =DC Power  =Air =Water             DC   A W T a b l e 5 . trip/close Generator overspeed Synchronizing equipment Wicket gate position switch Generator bearing temperature Turbine bearing temperature Breaker test switch Step-up transformer over temperature Step-up transformer sudden pressure Kaplan low oil Turbine bearing oil Generator winding temperature Unit synchronizing selector switch Type C C P C C P P C P P P P P C Permissive switch Permissive switch Notes  Normal shutdown  121  . pumps. ac control circuits DC AC For uninterruptible systems such as fire protection.T a b l e 5 . A i r a n d W a t e r f r o m S e r v i c e E q u i p m e n t to transformer Description Type Notes  Power supply for DC control circuits Power supply for fans.

b 27CB Description Breaker open-close Generator breaker loss of dc control power 61 63a 63A Generator breaker pole failure Breaker air pressure switch Generator breaker low air pressure Type C =Control             P =Protection Trip  A =Annunciation/Event Recording T =Temperature Monitoring I =Indication (analog. Permissive switch. 2 – S i g n a l s T r a n s m i t t e d f ro m g e n e r a t o r B r e a k e r t o U n i t C o n t r o l S wi t c h b o a r d Signal 52a. No. digital. I A Type Notes  Table 5. I. A C P. A Trip is isolate breaker.I Type Notes   122  .7 – Intake Gate/MIV and Draft Gate  Controls for automatic operation of the Intake gate shall as follows: 1 Raise/lower control switch Indicating lights for fully open/fully Position indication showing actual position of the gate 2 Local • Raise/lower control switch • Mechanical device showing gate position 3 Annunciation • Failure of gate to open or close in response to an automatic signal • Failure of gate to maintain partial closure position during sluice operation • Hydraulic system trouble T a b l e 5 . 6 . 1 2 Description Breaker open-close Generator breaker loss of dc control power C. C. status lamps) P. 8 – C a n a l / H R C W a t e r L e v e l S i g n a l f or G o v e r no r C o n t r o l Unit Control Board • • • S.T a b l e 5 .P C.

except in so far as modified by this specification. commissioning of manual control.2 Standards All materials and equipments shall comply in every respect with the requirements of the latest edition of the relevant Indian. They should preferable be housed in drawout type of cases with tropical finish.E. British equivalent N.4.4 Protection and Metering Scheme Requirements of metering and protection/scheme and the function performed by various relays are explained in following tentative drawings (to be enclosed by Purchaser).’s for all the unit protection and metering are given in Drawings  123  . stop. ii. Sequencing will be as following tentative Drawings (to be enclosed by Purchaser).    5. I.4 5.4. 5.A. All the protective equipment will be housed in the Power Plant main control room. All these relays shall have potential free contacts for trip and alarm purposes and externally hand reset type of flag indicators. iv Single Line Diagram Main Metering and Relaying Single Line Diagram (sheet 1 of 2) Metering and Relaying Single Line Diagram (sheet 2 of 2) Unit tripping and annunciation block diagram Common tripping relays for similar functions have been provided with lock-out facilities.4. METERING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM Scope of Supply and Design Criteria Design. Standards or any other recognized International standards.5.3 Design Criteria The control will have provision for start. iii.E.4. manufacture. • • • Start Sequence for synchronous generator Normal Stop and Mechanical Trouble Stop Sequence for Synchronous Generator Electrical Trouble Stop Sequence for Synchronous Generator Final drawings will be submitted for approval by the Purchaser 5. i. metering and  protection system which includes Electrical protection by conventional relay. copies of the relevant standard specification in English language must be attached. manual  control and metering of the Power House. Where standards offered are other than the Indian or British standards.C. The details of C.1 MANUAL CONTROL. manual synchronizing and emergency stop. testing.T. M.

5.T.s and P.T.4. ----.1 Generator Protection Generator Differential Protection (87G) The generator primary protection is proposed by high impedance type of circulating current relays having proper setting range. The relays will be of high speed type and shall be immune to A. Neutral Grounding Transformer and Loading Resistor Neutral Grounding Transformer Dry type. The drawings for the proposed system will be subject to approval by the Purchaser. because of long leads so as to ensure efficient and accurate operation of their protective scheme.No. a. ----.’s located in switchyard is proposed as 1 amp.C. may be mounted on 11 kV switchgear panels alongwith relays. Type  124  . transients.5. Necessary provision shall be made in the relay to ensure that the relays do not operate for faults external to the protected zone.5 Protective Relays A brief description of protective relay proposed is given below: 5.T. The relay operation actuates lockout relay for complete shutdown of the unit. The secondary current of C. A suitable voltage relay with continuous coil rating with proper setting is proposed to be provided. Provision shall also be made for alarm /indication in case of current transformer secondary circuit fault. 11 kV C. The relay operation actuates lockout relay for complete shutdown of the unit including release of CO2 as shown in Drawing No.4. The secondary will be loaded by a suitable resistor rated for 60 seconds. Generator ground fault protection (64G) The generator neutral will be earthed through the primary winding of a distribution transformer of proper capacity and ratio. The relays shall not maloperate due to harmonics in spill current produced by through faults or due to saturation on one set of current transformers during an external fault. The relay shall be insensitive to voltage at third harmonic frequencies. Natural air cooled.

Voltage restraint over current protection (51V) This backup protection for the generator operates for over current which are accompanied by dip in voltage so that false tripping due to through faults are avoided.  125  . The relay is set to operate lockout relay for partial shutdown to speed no load position. The relay setting range is proposed from 110% to 150%. Housing Generator over-voltage protection (59) A set of single phase relays is proposed with suitable time delay setting so that operation of relay under transient conditions is avoided. C. Between generator neutral and ground Non-ageing. transformer and resistor can be housed in same container with metallic partition.b. However. The relay is set to trip lockout relay for partial shutdown to speed no load position. Negative phase sequence current protection (46) A two stage protection complete with filter network is proposed for this purpose. corrosion resistant. The relays shall be immune to frequency variation. The current transformer for this protection is proposed to be located on the generator line side. The relay is set to operate the lockout relay for partial shutdown to speed no load position. Provision of instantaneous tripping element at some suitable setting is also proposed. and temperature rise not exceeding 300 deg. Loading Resistor a. Construction b. as shown in the drawing E230-3. Enclosure with IP:22 degree of protection. punched stainless steel grid elements provided with necessary installations. The first stage with a lower suitable range shall be instantaneous and shall be arranged to give alarm and annunciation and the second stage with higher range will energise a timer which shall perform the various tripping functions in two stages at different time settings. Connection single phase.

k.2 Exciter Protection Generator field failure protection (40) An offset mho type of relay having its circular characteristics adjustable both in offset and diameter. n. Signal to canal regulating gates to avoid channel overtopping due to emergency shut down of unit. Potential transformer fuse failure protection (60) Suitable voltage balance relays are proposed to monitor the fuse failure of 3 sets of potential transformers and to block the relays (50/51 V or 40) or other devices that may operate incorrectly on the voltage due to fuse failure of potential transformers. along the X-axis of the R-X plane. Mechanical Protections Following mechanical protections are proposed for the generator: j. Contractor will co-ordinate with Generator and Turbine supplier for mechanical protection. RTD’s are to be provided by Generator Suppliers. is proposed for this purpose.5. Check Synchronising relay (25) Check synchronising relay is provided to ensure the closing of the circuit breakers on synchronising at a phase angle not greater than about 7 degrees so as to prevent damage to circuit breaker especially in case of auto synchronising. o. alarm and recording. The relay is set to give an alarm only.4. Turbine and generator bearing. The relay is proposed to be set to trip lockout relay to speed no load position. m. Resistance temperature detectors in stator core (12 no. Governor oil pressure low to block starting and low-low for emergency tripping.Reverse power relay (32) This relay is proposed because of grid connection. Over speed for normal and emergency shutdown depending upon its extent.) and in the bearings for indication. metal and oil temperatures – alarm/shutdown. l.    126  . 5.

Failure of A. The second stage with a higher range shall carry out the tripping functions as shown in the Drawing --. The tripping of the relay is set to open the excitation breaker and bring the unit to speed no load. Phase sequence relay (47) This relay on the station service system trips the LV circuit breaker so as to prevent operation of the three phase motors in the reverse direction (Refer Drg. An instantaneous time over current relay is proposed from the CT’s on the 11 kV side of the auxiliary transformer.  127  . injection supply. This relay is set to trip excitation circuit breaker and bring the unit to speed no load. Over excitation relay (OER) in the DC circuit and excitation relay (31) in the field flashing circuit are other relays proposed in the excitation system. The relay will operate from the three current transformers on the Low Voltage side of the transformer and will be arranged to trip the Low Voltage breaker as shown in the Drawing E-230-3.C. The relay will be suitable for the field system voltage and be capable of detecting deterioration of insulation level below about 0. 110 Alternating current potential transformer auxiliary supply will be available but the relay will have its own internal rectifiers etc. to drive the D. The first stage with a lower range shall be arranged to give alarm and annunication.The protection shall consist of two stages.2 Mega-ohms.4. 5. This relay at a higher setting will cater to transformer faults and the tripping of the relay is set to bring the unit to speed no load as shown in Drawing E-230-5. Generator rotor earth-fault protection (64F) Direct current injection type of protection is proposed for this purpose.C.3 Station Service System Over Current Protection (51) Suitable relays are proposed to be provided for unit auxiliary transformers over load protections.5. auxiliary supply will not totally incapacitate the protection. Over current relay (51 EX) This over current instantaneous relay in the excitation circuit before the excitation transformer will cater to rectifier transformer faults and other excitation system faults. -----).

Transformer oil level and temperature Winding temperature 5.5.5. This relay is proposed to trip the unit circuit breaker and bring the unit to speed no load.4.T. The relay will be co-ordinated with line earth fault protection. and 87 B2) A high speed. The relay shall be energized by zero sequence current supplied to it through current transformer in the power transformer neutral.kV – Bus Bar Protection Bus zone Differential Protection (87 B1.-----.kV Transformer Protection Generator Transformer Differential Protection (87 GT) A sensitive percentage biased differential relay is proposed to be provided for each step up transformer protection with proper operating and bias setting. The C.T.Under voltage relay (27) These relays have been provided to trip the LV circuit breaker (Refer Drg. Necessary separate C.’s on 11 kV side are proposed be located in the Generator neutral side and on ----. Provision shall also be made for alarm/indication in case of current transformer secondary circuits faults. It shall have harmonic restraint feature to prevent its mal-operation due to magnetising in-rush surges encountered in normal power system operation.4. ------).kV bus zone. The scheme shall have separate and independent check and supervision features incorporated in it.4 Step up 11/---. Bucholz gas pressure relay for first stage alarm and second stage trip. The auxiliary/interposing current transformers as required for the protection shall also be provided. The relay is set to operate lockout relay for shutdown as shown in Drawing No. cores shall be provided at the incoming and outgoing  128  . 5.kV side in the switchyard. high impedance type bus-bar differential protections proposed to be provided for each ---.5 ----. Standby earth fault protection (64T) For this protection Inverse Definite Minimum Time Lag type relay having suitable setting range and operating time is proposed.

device identification. Following Relays are provided.T.4.T. One potential device per phase has each line with separate secondary winding (independently fused) for primary and back up relay.C.5. alarm and trip supply to the bus-bar protection scheme is also proposed to be provided. 5.7 Under voltage relay (27) Under voltage relay shall be provided on the line and the bus to indicate live line conditions. Relays with separate flush/semi-flush drawout cases and having individual in-built testing facilities shall be preferred.kV line is important because of high fault power from 66 kV grid sub-stations. Separately fuse D.6 --.’s on one side of the bus coupler/section breaker are proposed and inter-locked overcurrent relay will be provided. C.Backup protection (FPR) Separate current transformers for two main protections.kV Line Protection Protective relay design for the --. terminals blocks. Main features of fast acting protection system are tentatively proposed as follows: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Main.5. The protection will be capable of detecting all type of faults on the bus-bar. shall be provided. `No volt’ relays to indicate failure of D. secondaries and pilots by employing sensitive alarm relay. High speed tripping relays shall be provided to trip the connected circuit breakers connected to the faulty bus bar. tripping with separate auxiliary tripping relay.circuits for check features.Phase comparison static carrier relay (185) Backup.C. The sensitivity of protection shall be such that it does not operate for faults on the C. The panels shall be complete and all necessary name plates.Directional overcurrent and ground fault (51 D) Local backup. which shall be connected across the bus wires of each protected zone.  129  .4.T. It shall be capable of taking the protection of the effected zone out of service by shorting the appropriate bus-wires. But modular drawout construction and equivalent facilities would also be accepted. fuses etc. The main zonal relay and check relay scheme will have their contacts connected in series in the trip circuit. secondary wiring of the most heavily loaded circuit. The supervision relay will be capable of detecting open: Cross or broken C. Provision of local back up protection for failure of Main and back up relay and on breaker failure. 5.

ix.4.) 5. and Bidder shall provide the same to the satisfaction of the Owner. These are summarised below: 5. knee point  130  .  5. kWH meter Ammeters (3 No. 12 window each for feeder faults and Bus Coupler is proposed for important faults.  Voltmeter with voltmeter switch 3 Ammeters (each phase).W.4. xi.4.9.4.4.2 Auxiliary Transformer iii.6.kV Feeder Panel v.9 CTs/VTs and General Surge Protection Equipment 5. 5.7 Annunciation Conventional 16 window annunciator for each generator turbine faults. x.The protection requirement with respect to characteristics operating principle. Recording kVAR (MVAR) K. 3 ammeters (each phase) Power factor and kW meter KVAR Voltmeter with voltmeter switch KWH meter 5.3 Bus Coupler Panel No Metering is required on this panel .6. 5. viii.1 All current and voltage transformers required for protection system of the unit are detailed in generator specifications shall have adequate VA burdens. iv.4.4.6. v. 5.4.         vi. viii. 5. All other annunciation will be on SCADA system. Schedule for these windows may be proposed for approval by purchaser. tripping schedule and type of relays shall be discussed during detailed engineering stage.8 Recorder All recording will be done on SCADA disk.4. Power Factor meter kWH import / export meter.4 ---.6. vii.6 Metering Meters as shown in Schematic drawing (to be enclosed by Purchaser) shall be provided on unit control boards.1 Generator (Unit Control Board) vii. vi.

11 kV CTs are as detailed below.2 Generator Line Terminal and Neutral Grounding Cubicles These shall be provided as per detailed given in generator specifications. (a)Generator neutral side – Three core Core 1 Core 2 -6 Nos.4.5 Class 0. The current transformers should be suitable for metering and protection scheme attached . 5. CTs/VTs used for different applications shall have following accuracy class: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Differential protection CTs Protection CTs other than differential protection Generator AVR/metering CTS for generator circuit Metering CTs for --. 5. 11 kV and 415 V switchgear CTs for performance testing and low forward power Relay Core balance CTs Protection VTs VTs for generator metering. 5.9.5 Class 0.2 List of all CTs and PTs is enclosed in these specifications. Details of --.5 Class 0.3 ---.4 The technical requirement and location of the CTs are given in the unit metering and relaying drawing (enclosed).kV(Feeder) CTs are to be given by the Purchase .voltage.e. 11 kV Current Transformers 1 11 kV Current Transformers of ratio 600/5A. 32.51V.9.4. PS class for differential protection relay 87G. AVR synchronisation VTs for performance testing and low forward power relay Class PS Class 5P10 Class 0. The generator suppliers shall supply suitable current transformers for the protection scheme and these shall be in the neutral grounding cubicles.9.kV (feeder) Current Transformers and Potential Transformers They will be provided as per detailed specifications of switchyard equipment. instrument safety factor and characteristics suitable for the application. PS Class for Differential Protection relay of  131  Core 3 .kV.46.2 Class PS Class 3P Class 0.4.40. 5P10 class for General protection relay i. and shall be subject to approval of the Owner.

1 G e n e r a t or t r a n s f or m e r c o nt r o l a n d r e l a y p a n e l s Floor mounted. Control panels   132  . 5P10 class for over current protection of Unit Aux.11 Details of Control and Relay Panels 5.11. Core 1 Core 2 2 Class 0.4.5 for AVR.4. interposing CTs . T/F 50/51 relay. – 6 Nos.Generator Transformer 87GT with three Nos.4. sheet steel simplex type control and relay panels with the following equipment mounted on them shall be supplied for Generator Transformer control and protection.10 Control Panel Layout Layout of Control panel is shown in enclosed drawings 5. 11 kV CT ratio 600/5A in 11 kV cubicle Single core PS class for Differential Protection of Generator 87G relay. 5. 3 11 kV CT 11kV cubicle .6 Nos. 4 11 kV CT ratio 30/5A in 11 kV cubicle Single core – 6 Nos. Class 1 for metering. (b)Generator Transformer side – Two core -6 Nos. (Ratio to be decided after capacity of Rectifier Transformer decided) Single core 5P10 class for over current protection of Rectifier Transformer circuit 51EX relay .

1No. 1 set 1No. 1No.B. 1 No. 1 Set Description Mimic diagram of bus –bars and connections.C. 6. 1 No.5 Polyphase indicating kW meter of range 0 to 15000 kW Polyphase indicating KVAR meter of range 0-6000 kVAR Frequency meter 0-75 Hz Field current meter 0-200 A Field voltage meter 0-300 V Speed indicator 0-1000 rpm Gate limit indicator Remote/ local selector switch Auto/manual selector switch C. 1No 1N. 22. 1 No. 11. 1 No. Semphore indicators for circuit breakers. 12. 10. 1 No. No. 15 16. 2. 1. 1 No.5 to 0 to +0.S. 5. N o m e n c l at u re BI CB AG VG VS PF KW KVAR FM AF VF SI SL SW A/M S1 S2 S4 S5 SS T 86 G 30 X 30 Y KWH Quantity 1 set 1 set 3 Nos. 1No 1 No. 1 No. 1No. Dial type A. 23 24 25 26. 17 18 19 20 21. voltmeter for measuring generator voltage in kV range 0-15 kV Voltmeter selector switch. 1 No. Bus Isolator control switch with indicating lamps Gate limiter control switch (Raise/lower ) Speed level control switch (Raise/lower). indicator with selector switch High speed tripping relay Emergency stop switch with cover Stop reset push Button Energy meter with test block Annunciation block with 16 windows complete with alarm cancellation lamps reset and lamp test push buttons    133  . Semphore indicators for isolators. ammeters for measuring generator current in Amperes range 0-800A Dial type A. 1No 1 no. 1No. 1No. 1 No. control switch with indicating lamps including healthy trip supply indication. 3. 13. 8.C. 9. 4. Polyphase indicating power factor meter range – 0. 7. Synchronising switch with locking key Temp. 14.

Rotor earth fault relay Over speed relay (electrical) Under voltage relay Phase sequence voltage relay Generator trip relay Auxiliary and locking relays 5. Backup protection relay ( over current voltage restraint.2 --. 6. Generator ground protection relay. 8. 1No. 1No. Semphore indicator for Bus isolators. Polyphase indicating kW meter of range 0 to ---------kW  134  . 5. Control panels  S. 2. 3.11. 7. 1. Overcurrent Earth fault relay for Generator transformer. 1No 1 No. 1 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 N o m e n c l at u re 87 G 50/51T 51 V 64 G 64T 59 25 32 46 40 87 GT 64 F 12 G 27 47 84 Quantity 1 Set 1 No. Description Mimic diagram of bus –bars and connections. voltmeter for measuring voltage in kV range 0 to------kV Voltmeter selector switch. No. 4.C. No. 1 No. ammeters for measuring feeder current in Amperes range 0-200A Dial type A. 1 No.kV feeders control and relay panels Floor mounted. 1No.C. Dial type A. 3 Set. 1 set 3 Nos. Description Tripple pole generator differential protection relay including auxiliary relay etc. 1No.4. 1No. Transformer ground protection relay Over voltage relay Check synchronising relay Reverse power relay Negative phase sequence relay Field failure relay Generator Transformer differential protection relay including auxiliary relay etc. 1No. 1No.Relay panels  S. 1No. 1No. 1No. Semphore indicator for line insulator Semphore indicators for circuit breakers. Nomencl at ure BI LI CB A V VS KW Quantity 1 set 1N0. sheet steel simplex type control and relay panels with the following equipment mounted on each of them shall be supplied for Mukerian stage I and Dasuya feeders control and protection. 1 No.

control switch with indicating lamps including healthy trip supply indication.3 B us Couple r c ont r ol and r e lay pane l Floor mounted. 2. 4. 1 set 1set 1No. 12.B.9.C. 5. N o m e n c l at u re BI CB AB S1 S2 A/B Quantity 2 sets 1 set 3 Nos.11. 1 No.B. Bus Isolator control switch with indicating lamps  135  . 10. 1No. Dial type A. KVAR S1 S2 S3 SS 86 G KWH 1No. Polyphase indicating KVAR meter of range 0 to-----. Semaphore indicator for circuit breaker. 5. N o m e n c l at u re 51D 27 185 81H/L Quantity 1 No. Control panel  S. 1. No. 3. 4. 1No. 11. ammeters for measuring current in Amperes range 0-500A C. 1 Set 13.4. 16. 15. No. 3. 2 sets Description Mimic diagram of bus –bars and connections. 6. Semaphore indicators for isolators. sheet steel simplex type control and relay panels with the following equipment mounted there on shall be supplied for Bus Coupler control and protection. 1 No. 5. 1set 1set 1 set Description Directional overcurrent Earth fault relay Under voltage relay Phase comparison relay High / Low frequency relay Auxiliary relays as per actual requirement. Other protections relays as decided by feeder protection designer . control switch with indicating lamps including healthy trip supply indication. 2. Bus Isolator control switch with indicating lamps Line Isolator control switch with indicating lamps Synchronising switch with locking key High speed tripping relay Export/ Import Energy meter with test block Annunciation block with 16 windows complete with alarm cancellation lamps reset and lamp test push buttons Relay panels  S. 14.kVAR C. 1.

1No. 86 G 1 No. Test blocks shall be rated not less than 250V. 8. Interlocked overcurrent relay Other Auxiliary relays as per requirement 7.13 Factory Tests for Unit Control Switchboards  136  . secondary circuits cannot be open circuited in any position .11. N o m e n c l at u re 87 B1/B2 51 Quantity 2 Sets I No. No.4 Synchronizing Panel Sheet steel swinging panel mounted on the side of the switchboard complete with internal wiring connections equipped as synchronizing panel with the following equipment mounted there on. voltmeter of suitable range for measuring voltage in kV. at 10 amps and shall be capable of withstanding a di-electric test of 1500 V. while the test plugs are being inserted removed.7. 2 Nos.4.4. Synchro-scope. All test blocks shall be arranged to isolate completely the instruments or relays from the instrument transformers and other external circuits so that no other device will be affected and provide means for testing either from an external source of energy or from the instrument transformers by means of multiple test plugs. The test blocks shall be of the back connected semi-flush mounted switchboard type with removable covers. 1 Set High speed tripping relay Annunciation block with 16 windows complete with alarm cancellation lamps reset and lamp test push buttons Relay panel  S.-2.C. Description Triple pole Bus Bar differential protection relay including check and auxiliary relays etc. 1No.12 Test Blocks Test blocks shall be provided on switchboards whore test facilities are required but are not provided by use of drawout type meters or relays. The test blocks and plugs shall be arranged so that the C. Dial type frequency meters of suitable range.T. 1. All test blocks shall be provided with suitable circuit identification. Quantity 2 Nos. Synchronization selector switch (Auto / Manual). The cases shall be dust tight. 5. 2Nos 1 No. 50c/s for one minute. Synchronizing lamps control switch (ON/OFF) Synchronizing lamps. Description Dial type A.4. 5. 3.

• Automatic emergency stop sequence (usually performed by activating one of the lockout relays while in the “normal running” mode ). Check anchor channels and cable entrances. determine whether chassis and logic grounds are the same or separate (this will affect the type and quantity of external surge protection required). Confirm that the appropriate lockout relay is energized and the correct annunciation and/or printout occurs. 14. 17. • Manual start/stop sequence (does not apply to redundant PLC control schemes). Identify grounding connections for the PLC and the I/O rack. 20. current and potential transformers. Review the PLC ladder diagram viewed on the video display terminal versus the final approved PLC software coding documentation. and Verify that modem connections are provided and functional. Confirm they are in accordance with the drawings. and potential transformers. 16. All premissives and interlocks should be provided by using the “dummy” toggle switchboard to provide these inputs. • Terminal designations on individual components such as control switches and lockout relay. Check factory calibration of all devices possible.  137  . Confirm that settings of all protective relays are in accordance with approved documents. Review the interior of the UCS in the same manner as the elevations. Activate all protective relays.12. 13. 15. • Raceway layouts. 18. Check all annunciation points. including electronic speed relays. and vibration monitors. PLC software coding. and control block logic diagrams in front of you. 22. 19. Check for future expansion capabilities on the I/O racks. PLC checks: • • • • • • Check the I/O racks for type and number of analog and digital I/O cards. • Terminal block designations. • Auto start/stop sequence. Check each item of equipment for proper location and verify the instrument/catalog number is correct per the specification. Check for surge protection provided on the I/O rack and I/O cards. Perform the function checks listed below with the final approved schematics. In addition. • Manual emergency stop sequence. and • Equipment identification nameplates. Verify that the following items conform to the drawings : • Cable numbers. 21. current transformers. Review front and rear elevations versus the final approved drawings. verify the lighting is adequate and grounding connections are provided. Review test certificate or witness the insulation resistance test of all wiring. Check approximately 5 to 10 percent of the internal cabling.

and Raceway layouts 17. Perform point-to-point continuity and megger tests on all external cabling. verifying the following items : • • • 12. 5. 15. The SCADA system required should provide monitoring of parameters listed in section 7. Check all external interconnection wiring against the approved power house/equipment drawings.5. protective relays. Verify tags on all factory-calibrated instrumentation devices. 13.0 and control in grid mode and isolated mode operation of the Hydel Power  138  .4. annunciation and sequence of event recorder. main computer. 11.5 5.1 SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM Scope of Supply and Design Criteria Design. “Bench test” all protective relays to ensure proper settings. testing. 16. 18. 14. Cable numbers and type. commissioning of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system which includes all equipments required for measurement. Local control to remote control Remote control to local control Manual control to automatic control Headwater level control “OFF” to “ON” Headwater level control “ON” to “OFF” Excitation manual control to excitation automatic control Excitation automatic control to excitation manual control.14 Field Tests for Unit Control Switchboards 10.• Change position of all control switches as follows (typically done while in the normal running mode). and Verify the performance of the automatic synchronizing circuit and the manual sync-check relay (if provided). manufacture. instrumentation devices. • 5. or control systems have been overlooked. Terminal block designations. Perform functional checks on unit start/stop sequences. display unit with keyboard. These checks should be performed first with the associated power circuits de-energized. metering protection data logging data recording. Methodically document steps 1 through 7 to ensure that no cables. control. duplicating the factory sequences. Water-up the unit and perform all start/stop sequences. Perform functional checks tests on all unit and station auxiliary equipment controlled from the UCS to verify proper operation. Calibrate all remaining instrumentation devices. and then with both power and control circuits energized.

erection hardwares. Common Plant Controller/Supervisory Controller at Power House control room Remote Supervisory Controller The SCADA system where it is proposed to be set up in this specification shall be designed for safe.station centralized control room at EL 246. The SCADA system shall consist of a redundant microprocessor based computer system. a dedicated sequence of events recording system. local panels. on-load control and shutdown of units by operators. The SCADA to be supplied shall be of proven design. efficient and easy operation of Hydro Turbine Generator and its associated auxiliaries and transmission lines. interposing relays. through dedicated fibre optic cable and redundant power line carrier communication (PLCC) system. sensors.0 m. system cabinets.  139  . 19” colour graphic monitors with key boards System console Hard copy plotter/printer Complete field instruments like transmitter/transducers. on-load control and shutdown of the units by the control system Control of auxiliary equipment Remote monitoring of all plant status and alarm information Remote normal startup. erection hardwares all interconnecting cables etc. The transducers required for the measurement of electrical parameters. The output of transducers will be 4-20 mA. operation in at least six power house for more than 5 years and will be subject to approval by purchaser and will consist of following. application software etc. sensors. local instruments. interposing relays etc. compiler. This SCADA system should have following features: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Reliable safe control of the unit with very high availability Automatic startup. Bidder shall supply all necessary software required for the SCADA system including operating system. Modem and Communication system Data logger/sequence of events recorder. (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) Main microprocessor based computer system. SCADA system should have following controllers ♦ ♦ ♦ Unit Controller. reliable. It should also provide remote monitoring and control of the Power House from Mukerian stage I power house 7 km from this power plant. a health/condition monitoring and analysis system.

Report alarms. excitation system. Bidder will intimate following: (d) (e) (f) Time duration required to update a graphical display from the instant a field contact changes state. All proposals should clearly indicate which of sub-sections of the above standards is complied with. Display software including system monitoring alarm processing and display of data.5. 2. Acceptable time shall be verified at the factory acceptance test.1010 1987 I. The SCADA software shall run in co-ordination with existing/proposed SCADA software for gate control operation. Trending of turbine and generator efficiencies Sequence of even logging. .E. and on line power flow. Process and retain data for each primary sensor. Supervisory control of auxiliaries.  140  .3 Response Time Fast response time of computer system is required. o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) x) y) z) aa) bb) cc) Acquire data from primary sensors. if any. Report machine performance in tabular and graphical format. Methodology by which these “times” were verified must be given.C.2 Applicable Standards 1. circuit breakers. 5. governing system.O.E.S. including synchronising. from it and send generation etc./I.E. Data logging and report generation. data to it. 12119 Applicable National and International standards for software & hardware which will be listed.The SCADA system shall be capable of performing the following functions in real time. Software shall be such that the monitoring system will take care of the transient parameters during system run-up and shut down. and status of devices. Application software including state estimation. 3.5. bad data detection. Time duration from the instant a control is activated at the operator station until the command is implemented at the field device. Overall time duration to process and lag an alarm once it is received at the computer.E. Perform detailed thermal and vibration analysis. I. fault. Predict need for shut down and maintenance of equipment. 5. It can received data of Gate positions etc. Software shall be modular and upgradable.

trends and plots for hydro-turbine generator and its auxiliaries and main & auxiliary electrical power supply system. Demand. shut down and emergency operations of the hydro turbine generator. h) i) The control engineer shall be able to set the interlocks to start the unit from the CRT/key board and once the start command is given following sequence shall take place through the SCADA system. auxiliaries and feeders shall be performed in three different ways as follows: (j) (iv) (v) Redundant PLC based governor control panel for unit and plant control Remote Control from Power House control room Manual control panel The Control Engineer shall be able to perform the following operations from the CRT through keyboards. report including performance calculation reports.5. alarm. f) g) Call up mimic. logs. Interface or operating standards for the following shall be intimated and should comply with ISO/IEC 12119. start-up.5 Plant Operation Philosophy The normal. summaries. 1) 2) Level control shall be put off. Communications Operating system User Interface Data base Each of these elements should be capable of being replaced by or communicate with system elements provided by other vendors.5. The control engineer shall be able to set up all pre-start check of devices from the CRT/keyboard for unit starting such as : 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) j) The wicket gate control The control of generator brakes Power supply to the governor Load/frequency device selection on speed setting mode. The blades at fully open position etc. data display. The governor pump shall start. 5. Call up control display to carry out control operations for hydro turbine generators and its associated auxiliaries and main & electrical power supply systems controlled from CRT/key board.5. The selection of speed droop equal zero.4 Equipment Architecture and Protocol Open architecture system shall be followed.  141  .

After having ensured that the bakes are released and blades are in starting position command shall be given to open the wicket gates. blades/movements shall be achieved. After unit breaker is open. With opening of wicket gate unit speed shall rise. When no output power is sensed unit breaker shall be tripped. annunciation. event recording etc different equipments detailed in 7. cables. . Acoustic levels Vibrations Flow measurement. g) The control engineer shall also be able to trip the unit during emergency condition with the following sequence. to monitor/ control the parameters for control. blades shall set at the starting position. governor parameters shall be set to automatic mode. Turbine efficiency. When down stream gate is closed and unit speed is 30%. Cavitation of turbine blades Level measurement  142  . f) The control engineer shall be able to shut down the unit during normal condition in the following sequence. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Level control on governor shall put off Blades shall close When blades are closed. 5.1 and including. blades shall open again. shall be applied. At 90% unit speed. analyzers/ transmitters. wicket gate shall be stopped and its position maintained by energizing governor relays speed adjustment. • • • • • • • • • • • Generator stator and rotor winding temperatures. 1) 2) 3) Unit breaker shall be tripped. generator shall be excited. brakes. After unit breaker is connected to the system.5. . system hardware/ software and peripherals etc. monitors. unit circuit breaker shall be closed. Wicket gate shall be closed.6 Parameter to be monitored from SCADA The SCADA system shall be complete with all primary sensors. Other sequence of operation as per the normal shut down.3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) When the oil pressure is established in the governor circuit. protection. When unit frequency and phase voltage is matched to that of existing power system. Release generator brakes. wicket gate shall be allowed to close. Lube oil temperature Radio frequency interference Generator air gap monitoring. Status of generator coolant condition.

5. If in his opinion. Generator winding temperature. filtering and optical isolation necessary to operate in a power plant environment. field voltage and field current. Turbine bearing temperature. number of plant I/O. Cooling water pumps. Guide vane bearing oil temperature. 5. KVA. Vacuum gauge for draft tube pressure. Turbine speed.5. an enhancement in condition monitoring capability can be attained by use of additional sensors these should be provided and details to be indicated in the bid. Guide bearing temperature. Level indicator for level in the forebay. Inlet pressure gauge at inlet of turbine.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Turbine blade tip clearance Governor control monitoring of turbine speed. oil pressure indicator and low pressure switch.7 Hardware Requirement The key hardware features of the controller should be as follows: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Standardized hardware technology Highly modular design Expandable Operation over a wide voltage range Intelligent I/O modules Central and distributed I/O Communication with other controllers and computers Remote fault diagnostics It should include all transient suppression. Guide bearing oil level. suction and discharge pressure switch/ gauge. current. Generator speed.7. Weir type flowmeter for measurement of flow. The modular design of the controllers should be such that they are easily integrated into the control system requiring the minimum of engineering. cycle time and type of communications link. Annunciation Bidder shall provide suggestions relating to measurement points and sensors. Governor oil pumps. KWH. Frequency. power factor. 5. Generator bearing temperature. Generator terminal voltage. The type of controllers to be used in the SCADA system should be selected to meet specific plant requirements described below including availability. Annunciation for violation of permissible limits of the above parameters. KVAR.1 Unit Controller  143  . KW.

2 Digital Status And Alarm Inputs The controller should be capable of connecting to at least 60 contact type inputs representing digital status and alarms. 5. The scan time of the complete sequence for each process should be less than 100 msec.1. This circuit should include start and stop relays for controlling the turbine. Controller digital input modules should also have straps to allow any contact input to cause a hardware shutdown directly to the stop relay. A controller fail relay should drop out the start relay when the auto relay is on.7. The controller should provide ground straps that can be inserted on the negative lead of any input signal that should be grounded at the controller.1. The controller should accept station battery voltage level inputs. 0-5V. All contact inputs should be sensed through optical couplers with an isolation voltage of at least 1500 Volts. The controller should also provide selective terminating resistors for 1ma and 20ma signals.7.5. The start relay circuitry should provide for auto and manual control capability. It should have a console and keyboard to program the controller as well as communicate with Supervisory controller.5.   5. The stop relay should drop the start relay whenever a contact input which is strapped for shutdown on a digital input module is closed. over-voltage and differential generator protection.1. The DC analog signals should be converted to digital signals using at minimum 12 bit analog to digital converter in the controller with all conversion errors considered the controller should maintain an accuracy of 0. All DC analog inputs should be protected from transient spikes and voltages with circuitry that meets the IEEE surge withstand test. It should have following hardware features. It should have capability to implement closed loop PID function for governing.7. 48 or 110 Volt station batteries. The controller should be able to measure DC analog signals with as much as 5 volts common mode signal with differential inputs.5.1 Shut down Hardware The controller should have a conventional relay logic shutdown circuit.Redundant microprocessor based/PLC based governor system control should be interfaced with SCADA powerful enough to perform all the required functions mentioned above. Unit controller should support remote management and remote programming for supervisory controller. 5.3 DC Analog Inputs  The controller should accept 0-1ma. It should have lock to prevent unauthorised modification and be capable of detecting hardware and software failures. All shutdown hardware should be powered by the station battery. Controller input modules should be strappable for 24.  144  .1% or better of full scale and a resolution of 1 part or less in 2000. It may also have digital relays for over current. 4-20ma or 1-5V DC analog signals.

Each relay should have an LED indicator mounted on a manual control panel to indicate the status of the relay. The correct linearizing curve should be selected by configuring. any of the RTD inputs should be able to be used as a 4-20 mA analog input.1% and the phase shift accuracy should be to . If eight RTDs are not required.4 AC current inputs The controller should connect directly to current transformers.1 degree.7. The controller should be capable of reading temperatures from eight RTDs.5 A. It should withstand 10 amps continuously and 50 amps for 1 second.1. The voltage measuring accuracy should be to .5 AC voltage inputs The controller should connect directly to the potential transformers.25 amps. Each of the eight inputs should be assigned three alarm set points. on or off.25oC. Two contacts should be available from the DPDT relay and either should be strappable as normally closed or normally open.1. The controller should accurately measure voltage inputs from 80 to 150 VAC. two high alarm set points and one low alarm set point. The controller should be able to measure magnitude of the current with a true RMS to DC converter and its phase shift with respect voltage.5VA on each current transformer it connects to. 5. 5. The controller should accurately measure all current inputs from 0-6.1% and the phase shift accuracy should be to .1. Next to the indicating LED should be a switch to operate the relay manually.7. The controller should induce a burden of less than 1 VA in each potential transformer that it connects to.7.1. The controller should induce a burden of less than . The temperature range should be 0-160oC. The current measuring accuracy should be to .5. The controller should be able to measure the magnitude of the voltage with a true RMS to DC converter and measure the phase shift of the voltage with respect to current.1 degree.5.5. voltage regulator. Each switch/LED should be clearly marked as to its function. RTD readings should be corrected for nonlinearly and readings should be accurate to + 0. The controller must have a 10.  145  .5.6 Control outputs  The controller should provide control relays to operate the circuit breaker.5.7 RTD inputs  The controller should have provisions to connect directly to RTDs. The contacts should be DPDT rated 125 VDC at 0. 5. 100 and 120 ohms 8 input RTD module. It should withstand up to 200 VAC continuously. and other equipment.7. An optional high-powered relay should be available that provides one normally open contact rate 150 VDC at 10A.

1.9 Speed Sensor A speed sensor to be mounted on generator unit shaft giving output as 4 to 20 mA/0-5 V DC is to be provided. generator WATTS. The controller should be capable of deriving the generator voltage (line to line and line to neutral). 5. The signals should be isolated outputs with 1000 common mode voltage capability.7. 5. generator kVA.10 Wicket gate position transducer  146  . 5.5.90. The accuracy of these outputs should be better than . generator Power factor.7. generator amps.5.7.1.10 Electrical transducers The controller should connect directly to current transformers (CTs) and potential transformers (PTs). at 120 VDC. generator frequency and bus frequency from the CTs and PTs: The controller should be configurable for open delta (line to line) or star (line to neutral) connected CTs and PTs. power factor.9 Alarm outputs (option) The controller should be capable of outputting contacts for alarms that it generates internally.8 Supervisory Controller Standard Desktop Redundant Computer/Mini computer should be used as Supervisory Controller and should at minimum have following configuration: Intel Pentium IV Processor 500 MHz (or more recent) / Desktop Mini computer with support for running windows 2000. generator VARS.44 MB FDD 40 GB Ultra ATA HDD 40X CD-ROM drive AGP integrated graphic controller with 4 MB VRAM 17" Digital Colour Monitor Keyboard.5. and current. The contact rating for these alarms should be 1 Amps. 5.5.  5.8 Analog outputs  The controller should output 4-20ma signals for calculated signals such as KW. voltage. 512 KB second level cache 128 MB SDRAM 1.5. All digital inputs should be capable of meeting the surge withstand capability in accordance with ANSI/IEEE C37.1. frequency.5.25%. Mouse 5. KVARS.

112% and 5% of the rated speed respectively. Interlocking should be provided to permit only one console to be in control at a time.e. 5. Site. 5.5.It should comprise of LVDT mounted on hydraulic cylinder for actuating wicket gate.13 Programming & Training Console The Console should permit software development and operator training while providing backup hardware for use where the manual operator interface is out of service.5. 5. 5. 4 mA should correspond to 0% and 20 mA to 100% stroke of the servomotor.6 i) Communication Link Scope Design. It should convert linear movement of cylinder into 4-20 mA signal. delivery. 5.5.12 Speed switches Speed switches should be provided for application of brake. Generator temperature etc. overspeed tripping and creep at 30%.  147  .5. 5. communication and training of personnel for communication links between the power house and Mukerian Stage I for off-site control and communication and between power house and dasuya grid substation (interlinking points) for voice communication.11 Upstream water level transducer Two level sensors.5. erection.15 Recorders The plant control system should include video recording system of selected parameters i. supply. The level controller should be redundant to each other.14 Printers Printer/Hard copy units must be provided with supervisory and unit controllers. One level transducer may consist of a diaphragm type sensor and internal signal conditioning system and should be able to provide standard output such as 4 to 20 mA/0-5 V DC. one float operated and other non-floated should be provided for level controlled operation of the machine.

ii)

Code Standards • • •

ANSI/IEEE 1010 – 1987 US Army of Engineers Engineering Manual Relevant National / International Standards

The contractor shall furnish detailed design and calculation for approval by purchaser.

iii)

Regulatory Requirement Govt. regulatory requirement and sanctions for the communication system shall be obtained by Contractor. Necessary assistance will be provided by Purchaser.

5.6.1 Dedicated Communication by Fiber Optic System Cable

Dedicated communication system for SCADA, voice communication and code call paging system from power house to offsite control at Power House IV of stage I shall be by Fiber optic cable. Code call facility shall be provided for paging key personnel.

Fiber optic cable

A fiber-optic cable system consisting of a terminal with multiplexing equipment, and a transmitter and receiver coupled to fiber-optic light conductors that are routed to the other terminal, which also has a receiver, transmitter, and multiplexing equipment shall be provided. Because the transmission medium is nonmetallic, it offers the advantage of electrical isolation between terminals and immunity from electromagnetic interference.

The Fiber optic cable shall be laid along the canal bank and no right of way problem is anticipated.

Repeaters

Repeaters if needed shall be provided. Necessary equipment at sending and receiving and for interfacing remote supervisory controller at Power House IV with SCADA. Centralized SCADA system to remote supervisory control in the control room of Power House No. IV of stage I shall be provided by the dedicated Fiber optic couple. The

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design will be subject to approval by purchaser and will confirm to latest relevant standard.

Local area network (LAN)

Local area network if proposed inside the Power House for distributed control otherwise shall also connected by Fiber optic cable.

5.6.2

PLCC System

Two sets of PLCC system, line matching units and protective device shall also to be supplied, installed and commissioned for communication and control between Power House (emergency link) and Grid Substation for voice communication. Coupling voltage transformer and Wave trap have been covered in switchyard equipment. The equipment to be supplied should have got the facility of transmission of speech and data simultaneously. Data transmission speed should be 9600 bps. To design the PLCC system following line parameters are to be taken for a single circuit ---- kV line.

a) b)

Conductor

-

ACSR with a cross sectional area as ----mm2

Line impedances i) L = -------- ohm/km per phase ii) Inductive Reactive = -------- ohm/km per phase iii) A.C. Resistance = --------- ohm/km at 20o C Transmission Voltage Range of transmission Distance between switchyard and control room Input voltage to the system ---- kV ---- km ---- meters 48 V DC

c) d) e) f)

Above parameters are to be worked-out taking configuration of --- kV line as right angled with Base = ---- m and perpendicular as ---- m. These parameters may please also be verified at Tenderers end also. PLCC is to be interfaced with supervisory controller with serial/parallel interfaces. Interconnection of outdoor equipment with PLCC should be done via shielded coaxial cable.

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5.7

Factory Tests for Unit Control Switchboards 12. Review front and rear elevations versus the final approved drawings. Check each item of equipment for proper location and verify the instrument/catalog number is correct per the specification. 13. Review the interior of the UCS in the same manner as the elevations. In addition, verify the lighting is adequate and grounding connections are provided. 14. Check anchor channels and cable entrances. Confirm they are in accordance with the drawings. 15. Review test certificate or witness the insulation resistance test of all wiring, current transformers, and potential transformers. 16. Check approximately 5 to 10 percent of the internal cabling. Verify that the following items conform to the drawings : • • • • • Cable numbers; Terminal block designations; Terminal designations on individual components such as control switches and lockout relay; Raceway layouts; and Equipment identification nameplates.

17. Activate all protective relays. Confirm that the appropriate lockout relay is energized and the correct annunciation and/or printout occurs. 18. Confirm that settings of all protective relays are in accordance with approved documents. 19. Check all annunciation points. 20. Check factory calibration of all devices possible, including electronic speed relays, current and potential transformers, and vibration monitors. 21. PLC checks: • • • • • • Check the I/O racks for type and number of analog and digital I/O cards; Check for future expansion capabilities on the I/O racks; Check for surge protection provided on the I/O rack and I/O cards; Identify grounding connections for the PLC and the I/O rack; determine whether chassis and logic grounds are the same or separate (this will affect the type and quantity of external surge protection required); Review the PLC ladder diagram viewed on the video display terminal versus the final approved PLC software coding documentation; and Verify that modem connections are provided and functional.

22. Perform the function checks listed below with the final approved schematics, PLC software coding, and control block logic diagrams in front of you. All premissives and interlocks should be provided by using the “dummy” toggle switchboard to provide these inputs. • • Manual start/stop sequence (does not apply to redundant PLC control schemes); Auto start/stop sequence;

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 151  . 17. • Terminal block designations. Response times during normal loading and high activity loading scenarios for: • Graphical display updates. 10. 9. protective relays. • Control sequence implementation. 12. and • Sequence of events recording Communications connectivity/protocols. Verify tags on all factory-calibrated instrumentation devices. 5. and then with both power and control circuits energized. These checks should be performed first with the associated power circuits de-energized. 14. 11. • 5. Water-up the unit and perform all start/stop sequences. 12. Database linkage to graphical displays. and Verify the performance of the automatic synchronizing circuit and the manual sync-check relay (if provided).• • • Manual emergency stop sequence. verifying the following items : • Cable numbers and type.9 Additional Factory and Field Tests for Distributed Control Systems 7. 13. Perform functional checks tests on all unit and station auxiliary equipment controlled from the UCS to verify proper operation. Application software functionality. 10. Calibrate all remaining instrumentation devices. 8. • Alarm processing and logging. instrumentation devices. and • Raceway layouts 11. duplicating the factory sequences.8 Field Tests for Unit Control Switchboards 1. 15. 16. Local control to remote control Remote control to local control Manual control to automatic control Headwater level control “OFF” to “ON” Headwater level control “ON” to “OFF” Excitation manual control to excitation automatic control Excitation automatic control to excitation manual control. Change position of all control switches as follows (typically done while in the normal running mode). “Bench test” all protective relays to ensure proper settings. Check all external interconnection wiring against the approved power house/equipment drawings. Automatic emergency stop sequence (usually performed by activating one of the lockout relays while in the “normal running” mode ). or control systems have been overlooked. Man-machine interface (MMI) user capabilities. Perform functional checks on unit start/stop sequences. Methodically document steps 1 through 7 to ensure that no cables. Point-by-point database check. Perform point-to-point continuity and megger tests on all external cabling.

♦ Type of Cables ♦ List of essential spares ♦ Experience list.10 Data/ Document to be furnished by the Bidder Bidder shall furnish the following data/documents with the Bid ♦ All technical parameters such as baud rate. etc. ♦ Redundancy provided for any of the equipment.5. ♦ Plant operation philosophy. ♦ Input/ Output list. frequency.  152  . ♦ List of parameters to be monitored from CRT/key board and the details of the same. ♦ List of application software. ♦ Bill of material ♦ Price schedule as per the enclosed schedule. memory capacity input/output capacity of modules expansion capacity of the SCADA system. ♦ Manual/ catalogues of each equipment supplied by him.

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