CMrujkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa eRkayeBl

cUlCasmaCikGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμ
BiPBelak
eRkamKMerag TARP ]btßmÖeday AusAid
shRbtibtþikar CamYyRksYgBaNiC¢kmμkm<úCa
GñkdwknaMRsavRCav ³ elak can; b‘unñivtþn_
GñkRsavRCav ³ elak kan; visidæ
elak Ey:m supl
GñkENnaM ³ elak ém:EXl y:ag

-2007-

matikarGtßbT
k> esckþIepþIm
x> rcnasm<½n§bc©úb,nñénkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa ¬elak can; b‘unñivtþn_ nig elak Ey:m
supl¦
1> BaNiC¢kmμGgárGnþrCati
2> KMrUGtItkalénBaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa
3> KMrUbc©úb,nñénBaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa ¬éf evotNam Gaemrik nigshKmn_GWr:ub¦
4> cMnYnnaMecj nigTIpSarGgárenAkUer:xagt,Úg cin Cb:un nigshrdæm®nþI
K> PaBRbkYtRbECgrbs;km<úCacMeBaHBaNiC¢kmμGgár ¬elak can; b‘unñivtþn_¦
1> FnFan nigktþaGMeNayplEdlBak;B½n§nwgBaNiC¢kmμ
2> sUcnakrm:aRkUesdækic©Edlman\T§iBlelIBaNiC¢kmμGgár ³ éfø nigGRtabþÚrR)ak;
3> neya)aysMrab;CMrujplitkrRsUv
4> neya)aysþIBIesrIkmμBaNiCkmμcMeBaHBaNiC¢kmμGgár
5> neya)ayBaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCaeRkamkic©RBmeRBogsþIBIksikmμrbs; WTO (AOA)
6> karsnüarbs;km<úCa cMeBaHKMeragBaNiC¢kmμtMbn; nigkic©RBmeRBogeTVPaKI
7> karsMrYlBaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa
X> karebIkcMhrTIpSarénkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa ¬elak kan; visidæ¦
1> karsnüaBhuPaKIeRkamkic©RBmeRBogsþIBIksikmμén WTO
2> rebobvir³GPivDÆn_RkugdUha
3> karcrcarksikmμbc©úb,nñén WTO
4> karebIkcMhrTIpSarEdlGnueRKaH nigGas‘an÷KMeragnana
5> Bn§ nigr)aMgBaNiC¢kmμEdlBMuEmnCaBn§

g> karlM)akkñúgRsuk nigbNþajTIpSar ¬elak Ey:m supl¦
1> rcnasm<½n§EdlTak;TgnwgplitkmμGgár
2> karEkrécñGgár nigbBaðaKuNPaB
3> bNþajksidæan-TIpSar
4> kardwkCBa¢Ún nigkarbg;tMélkEnøgsþúkTMnij
5> m:aXItTIgGgár
c> CMerIsCaneya)ay rWk¾viFankarN_sMrab;CMrujkarnaMecjGgár
¬elak can; b‘unñivtþn_/ elak Ey:m supl nig elak kan; visidæ¦
1> PaBRbkYtRbECgkñúgRsuk
2> karlM)akkñúgRsuk nigbNþajTIpSar
3> karebIkcMhrTIpSar
C> esckþIsnñidæan

bBa¢IGkSrkat;
ASEAN
ACFTA
AMS
AOA
AQSIQ
ASEAN
CARDI
CCC
CDC
CEDAC
CEPT
CIF
CLMV
CSE
CSQ
DDR
DF & QF
EPA
EU
FAO
FOB
GATT
GDP
GTC

tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an
tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an-cin
viFankarN_KaMRTbBa©ÚlKña
kic©RBmeRBogsþIBIksikmμ
rdæ)alTUeTAénGPi)alkic©KuNPaB GFikarkic© nigctþaLIs½k
smaKmRbCaCatiGasIuGaeKñX_
viTüasßanRsavRCav nigGPivDÆn_ksikmμkm<úCa
GgÁPaBGFikarkic©PaBsmRsbrbs;RbeTscin
RkumRbwkSaGPivDÆn_km<úCa
mCÄmNÐlsikSa nigGPivDÆn_ksikmμkm<úCa
Bn§GnueRKaHd¾manRbsiT§iPaBrYm
karbg;tMél karFanar:ab;rg nigpÞúkTMnij
km<úCa Lav PUma nigevotNam
karsniñdæanénkarKaMRTGñkeRbIR)as;
kUtatamRbePTRbeTs
karRbCMukarGPivDÆn_RkugdUha
KμanBn§Ky nigKμankUta
kic©RBmeRBogédKUresdækic©
shKmn_Gwur:ub
GgÁkares,ógGahar nigksikmμ
karbg;tMélTMnijrYcCaeRscmkdl;Rck;naMecjénRbeTsnaMecj
kic©RBmeRBogTUeTAsþIBIBaNiC¢kmμ nigBn§Ky
plTunCatisarub
Rkumh‘unRKWneRtd

HS
HYV
ICC
IMF
IPM
ITC
JICA
KIEP
MAFF
MFN
MMA
MOFCOM
MOWRAM
NFIDCs
NDRC
NGO
OECD
PSE
RCB
RGC
ROCB
SAC
S&D
SGS
SPS

RbB½n§suxkþúmnIykmμ
RKab;BUCEdlmanTinñplx<s;
sPaBaNiC¢kmμGnþrCati
mUlniFirUbIyvtßúGnþrCati
karRKb;RKgbBa©ÚlKñaénstVcéRg
mCÄmNÐlBaNiC¢kmμGnþrCati
Pñak;garshRbtibtþikarGnþrCatiCb:un
viTüasßankUer:sMrab;neya)ayGnþrCati
RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT
RbCaCatiEdlRtUvGnueRKaHbMput
karebIkcMhrTIpSarGb,rima
RksYgBaNiC¢kmμcin
RksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniym
RbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_EdlnaMcUles,ógGaharsuT§
KNkmμaFikarEkrTMrg; nigGPivDÆn_Cati
GgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al
GgÁkarsMrab;shRbtibtþikaresdækic© nigGPivDÆn_
karsnñidæanénkarKaMRTplitkr
GgÁPaBcuHbBa¢IviBaØabnb½Rt
raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa
GgÁPaBcuHbBa¢IviBaØabnb½RteRkARbeTs
rdæ)alsþg;danIykmμénRbeTscin
Biess nigedayELk
Rkumh‘unRtYtBinitüTUeTA
Gnam½y nigPUtþKamGnam½y

SRI
TBT
TIFA
TRQs
UNCTAD
URAA
USAID
USDA
US
VAT
WFP
WTO

RbB½n§énRsUvRbBlvb,kmμ
rnaMgbec©keTsénBaNiC¢kmμ
kic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmμ nigRkbx½NðvinieyaK
GrtaBn§kUta
snñisiT§shRbCaCatisMrab;BaNiC¢kmμ nigGPivDÆn_
kic©RbCMuGUr:ahÁayGMBIkic©RBmeRBogsþIBIksikmμ
TIPñak;garGaemriksMrab;GPivDÆn_GnþrCati
RksYgksikmμshrdæGaemrik
shrdæGaemrik
Bn§tMélbEnßm
kmμviFIes,ógGaharBiPBelak
GgÁkarBaNiCk¢ mμBiPBelak

bBa¢Itarag
taragTI 1
taragTI 2
taragTI 3
taragTI 4
taragTI 5
taragTI 6
taragTI 7
taragTI 8
taragTI 9
taragTI 10
taragTI 11
taragTI 12
taragTI 13

karnaMcUl nignaMecjGgár nigCI 1993-1999
karnaMecjGgárRbcaMqñaMrbs;km<úCa
karnaMcUlGgárRbcaMqñaMrbs;km<úCa
épÞdIdaMduH Tinñpl nigplitkmμéndMNaMRsUv ³ 1993-2004
plitPaBksikmμkm<úCa enAkñúgtMbn; ¬2003¦
TMhMépÞdI nigcMeNj
karsnñidæanénkarbg;tMélplitkmμénRsUvnagmøiH
plitPaBkMlaMgBlkmμenAkñúgvis½yplitkmμRsUvrvagRbeTskm<úCa evotNam nigéf
plitplEdlCakmμvtßúeGaymanviBaØabnb½RtnaMcUl
kalviPaKénGRtaBn§rbs;smaCikGas‘anfμI
Gas‘an nigkUer: tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrI ³ GRtaBn§GnueRKaHsMrab;Gas‘an 6
Gas‘an nigkUer: tMMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrI ³GRtaBn§GnueRKaHsMrab;km<úCa Lav nigPUma
bBa¢IénplitplRsUvCamYynwgGRtaBn§enAkñúgRbeTscin Cb:un kUer:xagt,Úg nig shrdæ
Gaemrik
taragTI 14 karEbEckénkarebIkcMhrTIpSarGb,rimasMrab;qñaM 2005-2014 ³ kalbriecäT RbePTkUta
tamRbeTs
taragTI 15 GRtapøas;bþÚrBIRsUveTACaGgár
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
bBa¢IrUbPaB
rUbPaBTI 1
rUbPaBTI 2

BaNiC¢kmμRsUvBiPBelak
karsnñidæanénkarKaMRTplitkr nigkarsnñidæanénkarKaMRTGñkeRbIR)as;cMeBaHRbeTskUer:xag
t,Úg

k> esckþIepþIm
RsUvedIrtYnaTIya:gsMxan;enAkñúgesdækic©rbs;km<úCa. RbCaksikrRbmaNCag 80° EdleFVIkardaMduHRsUv
KWCaBiesskareFVIERstamEbbbUraN. RsUvCaRbPBcMNUld¾sMxan;sMrab;ksikrPaKeRcIn CacMNIGarhar
nigCamUldæankñúgkarbegáItnUvneya)aysMrab;vis½yksikmμRbePTepSgeTot. plitkmμRsUvenARbeTs
km<úCakñúgeBlbc©úb,nñenHmankarekIneLIgy:agqab;rh½skñúgTsvtSknøgmkedaysar
karbegáInnUv
plitPaB nigkarBRgIknUvdIdaMduH. km<úCa )anGPivDÆn_cUlkñúgbNþajGñknaMGgárecj ehIyesÞIEtral;
karnaMecjTaMgGs; CakareFVICMnYjeRkApøÚvkarCamYyRbeTsevotNam nigéf. bc©úb,nñenHkm<úCaCaGñk
RbkYtRbECgmYyenAkñúgTIpSarGgárBiPBelaknwgeKEdr Etfakm<úCanaMecjRsUvrbs;xøÜneTARbeTs evotNam
ehIykin b¤EkécñenATIenaH rYceTIbnaMecjbnþeTATIpSarBiPBelak.
enAeBlEdlkgVl; xages,ógRtUv)anedaHRsay km<úCaepþatkarykcitþTukdak;eTAelIkareRCIs
erIsBUC karGnuvtþn_eRkayeBlRcUtkat; edIm,IbegánI plitPaB nigkarpþl;eGaynUvKuNPaBCab;;lab;
sMrab;eFVIkarsþúkTuk nigEkécñ. elIsBIenaHeTot km<úCamanskþanuBlkñúgkarbegáInplitplRsUv k¾dUcCa
karnaMecjeRBaHkm<úCaenAmandITMenrCaeRcInEdlGaceFVCI atMbn;daMduH nigenAman»kassMrab;begáInplitPaB
nigkarnaMecjtamry³karbegáInnUvbec©kviTüasmRsb karbegáInRbB½n§eRsacRsB karEkTRmg; nigkar
RKb;RKgKeRmagc,ab;kñúgRsuk nigkareFVIesrIPavUbnIykmμTIpSarCaedIm.
Etya:gNa vis½yRsUv Ggár enAkm<úCa enARbQmnwgPaBlM)akmYycMnYnCasMxan;enAeLIy.
plitPaBvis½yksikmμenATabebIeFobeTAnwgRbeTsepSg²enAkñúgtMbn; edayTinñplCamFümRbEhlEt
2etanbu:eNÑaHkñúgmYyhicta. kéRm)anmkBIplitplRsUv enATab¬ticCagBak;kNþal¦énkéRm
Edl)anmkBIkareFVIbEnø sENþkesog sENþk)ay sVaycnÞI tMLÚg)araMg fñaMCk; nigkb,as CaedIm.l.
kareRbIR)as;dICabBaðamYyd¾sMxan;sRmab;dMNaMRsUv nigdMNaMksikmμCaTUeTA. dIksikmμRbmaN1/2lan
hicta RtUv)aneRbIR)as;kñúgeBlbc©úb,nñenH. c,ab;PUmi)alfμIRtUv)anbegáItenA qñaM2001 edIm,IbBa¢ak;
nUvkmμsiT§i edaHRsayCemøaH nigeFVICamUldæan sRmab;RbsiT§PaBTIpSardI nigsRmab;kareRbIR)as;dI
CaKUrrYmnwgRbtibtþikarhirBaØvtßú. mankargarCaeRcInEdlRtUveFVI kñúgkardak;c,ab;enHeTAkñúgkarGnuvtþ
RbcaMéf¶. vaRtUvkarpSBVpSayc,ab;enHTUlMTUlay TUTaMgRbeTsedIm,IeGaymankaryl;dwg kareRCamERCg
nigGnuvtþedayRbCaCnRKb;rUb nigrdæ)alkñúgRsukpgEdr.

éføénkardwkCBa¢Únx<s; edaysarKuNPaBénpøÚvfñl;Gn;. kgVHxatxagehdæarcnasm<½n§dwkCBa¢Ún
eFVIeGaykarEbgEckes,ógenAkñúgRbeTsmin)anRKb;RCugeRCay dUcCatMbn;xøHsl;GgársMrab;eFVIkarnaMecj
xN³eBlenAtMbn;xøHkMBugEtmankarxVHxates,óg.
shB½n§eragma:suInkinRsUvRtUv)anbegáIteLIgkñúgeBlfI²enH edIm,IsagTMnak;TMngCamYyksikr
kñúgkarpþl;eGayBYkeKnUvBt’man smtßPaB nigkarelIkTwkcitþepSg²edIm,ICMrujeGayBYkKat;Gacplit)an
nUvRsUvEdlmanKuNPaBsßitesßr. mankarRsavRCav nigGPivDÆn_elIvis½yRsUvenHya:gTUlM TUlaytamry³
viTüasßanRsavRCavrbs;rdæaPi)al dUcCa viTüasßanRsavRCav nigGPivDÆn_ksikmμkm<úCa (CARDI) Edl
plit)anBUCCaeRcInRbePT bu:EnþenAminTan;)anpSBVpSayEckcayeGay)anBaseBjRbeTsenAeLIyeT.
\LÚvenH karRsavRCavRtUv)anbEgVrBIkarepþatelIkarbegáInTinñpl eTAelIkarRKb;RKg eRkayeBlRcUtkat;
vij.
esvaRbBlvb,kmμEdlpþl;edayrdæaPi)al nigGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al (NGOs) mYycMnYndl;ksikr
CakarmYysmehtuplbMputeRBaHRbeTseyIgxVHxatFnFan nigsmtßPaB ehIyk¾mankarecaTsYrd¾sMxan;
mYyTak;TgeTAnwgkarrkmeFüa)ayd¾l¥mYykñúgkarepÞrBt’maneGay)andl;ksikr.
GaCIvkmμenAtamCnbTmYycMnYn rYmnwgksikrpgEdrGacx©IluyBIRbPBpøÚvkar)an bu:Enþkarx©Itam
RbB½n§FnaKar KWenAmanGRtakarR)ak;éføenAeLIy. dMeNIkarénkic©snüarbs;ksikrKWCamUldæanén
suvtßiPaB\NTan. kar]btßmFnrbs;rdæaPi)aleTAelIkareRbIR)as;CIRtUv)andkecjtaMgBIqñaM1997 emø:H
dUecñHbc©úb,nñenHral;vtßúFatuedImRtUv)anpÁt;pÁg;edayvis½yÉkCn. rdæaPi)alenACab;Bak;B½n§kñúgkarEckcay
es,ógse®gÁaHenAeLIy Edlkic©karenHTTYlxusRtUvedayRkumh‘unRKIneRdD EdlCashRKasrdæ
CaGñkRbmUlTij nigsþúkTukRsUvGgárTaMgGs;sMrab;FananUvsnþisuxes,óg. KμankarykBn§ nigkMNt;
brimaNnaMecjenARsUvGgáreLIy
b:uEnþral;GñknaMecjtMrUveGaymanlixitGnuBaØatinaMecjedayKμankar
ykkMér:BIkarpþl;viBaØabnb½RtnaMecjenaHeLIy bu:EnþkMér:esvakmμsMrbsMrYlkargarGacnwgRtUvykEdlkMér:
enaH eKKitfaCakarkRmitmYyd¾F¶n;eTAelIkarnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCa.
karEkécñ nigkarEckcayGgár RbQmnwgPaBlM)akCacMbgmYycMnYn. bec©kviTüaénkarkinRsUv
vahYssm½yEdleFVIeGayGgármankMrit)ak;x<s;. müa:gvijeTotma©s;ma:suInkinRsUvKμanmUlFnRKb;RKan;
EdleFVIeGayBYkKat;KμanlT§PaBRKb;RKan;kñúgkarRbmUlTijRsUvBIksikrsMrab;sþúkTuk nigeRKOgcRkTMenIb²

Tan;sm½yedIm,IeRbIR)as;eGay)anRKb;RKan;enAeLIy. kgVHxatenHehIyEdlCaktþaeFVIeGaymankarnaMecj
RsUvCalkçN³eRkApøÚvkareTAkan;TIpSarevotNam nigéfCaedIm CaehtueFVIeGaykm<úCaxagbg;BIkarTTYl)an
nUvtMélbEnßm nigkarbegáItkargarCUndl;BlkmμkñúgRsukBIkarEkécñCaedIm. \NTanEdlmanGRta
karR)ak;x<s; eFVIeGayFøak;Twkcitþdl;karvinieyaKÉkCnBIksikr nigm©as;ma:suInRsUvnigCaehtuCMrujeGay
ksikrsVHEsVgrk\NTan BIRbPBepSg²eTotCaBiessBIGñkcgkarR)ak;eRkApøÚvkar. ehdæarcnasm<½n§min
RKb;RKan;eFVIeGayraMgsÞHplitkmμ nigkareRCotcUlTIpSar. témøeRkamtu tamkEnøgRtYtBinitü nigéføQñÜl
kMBg;Epk¾CaktþamYyEdleFVIeGayéføGgárekIneLIg nigeFVIeGayPaBRbkYtRbECgfycuH enAelITIpSar
naMecj.
smaCikPaBrbs;kmú<Cakñúg WTO nwgman\T§iBlelIvis½yneya)ayBIrya:g ³ CMhanTImYy
KWkarnaMykeRKagkarsßab½n nigc,ab;rbs;km<úCaeGayRsbeTAnwgbTbBaØtirbs; WTO. TIBIr³ km<úCaRtUveFVI
karsnüaebIkRckTIpSarrbs;xøÜneTAelIvis½yBaNiC¢kmμTMnij nigesvakmμ. tamBiteTA km<úCamanTIpSard¾
sMxan;mYy KWTIpSarGas‘anEdlCaRbeTsCitxagrbs;xøÜnEdlmanGñkeRbIR)as;rhUtdl;eTA550lannak;
bu:EnþlkçxN½Ðesdækic© nigplitplksikmμRbhak;RbEhlKñaCaehtu eFVIeGaykm<úCamankarlM)akkñúgkar
naMecjplitplrbs;xøÜneTAlk;kñúgTIpSarTaMgenaH. CagenHeTot km<úCacg;BRgIk nigbe®Ba¢ótesdækic©
rbs;xøÜneTAkñúgRbB½n§esdækic©BiPBelak. dUecñHkm<úCacaM)ac;RtUvEtsMlwgemIlTIpSarrbs;smaCik WTO
TaMgmUlkñúgkarEsVgrkPaBeRbobQñHénplitplrbs;xøÜn CaBiessTIpSarshrdæGaemrik shKmn_GWr:ub
RbeTsCb:un kUer:xagt,Úg nigRbeTscinCaedIm. kic©RBmeRBogelIvis½yksikmμ pþl;nUvGtßRbeyaCn_CaeRcIn
dl;km<úCa. kic©RBmeRBogenaHtMrUveGayReTsCasmaCik lb;bM)at;ecalnUvr)aMgminEmnBn§KyTaMgGs;.
kñúgzan³CaRbeTsRkIRk km<úCaGacrkSaBn§elIkarnaMcUlelIplitpl ksikmμTaMgGs;tamry³karcUlcrcar.
ktþaTaMgenHpþl;eGaykm<úCanUvlT§PaBkñúgkarBRgIkkarnaMecjplitplksikmμrbs;xøÜn nigkar
Tak;TajvinieyaKelIvis½yenHEdr. kic©RBmeRBog niglT§plénkarcrcarbs;GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak
kñúgeBlfμI²enH )anpþl;nUvRbRBwtþkmμBiess nigedayELk ( Special & Differential Treatment)
dl;RbeTsRkIRk nUveBlevlaRKb;RKan;edIm,IerobcMeFVIkarGnuvtþ nUvkic©RBmeRBogTaMgenaH nigTTYl)annUv
CMnYybec©keTsedIm,IGPivDÆn_smtßPaB nigKMeragkarc,ab;elIvis½yBaNiC¢kmμrbs;xøÜnk¾dUcCaTTYl)annUv

karnaMcUledayesrIedayKμankarbg;Bn§ (Duty Free & Quota Free) edIm,IsRmbsRmYlplitkmμ
nigrcnasm<½n§BaNiC¢kmμrbs;xøÜnpgEdr.
eTaHbICamankarRbQmCamYybBaðaCaeRcIndUc)anerobrab;CUnxagelIkþI km<úCaenAEtmankþIsgÇwm
nwgedIrtYnaTIsMxan;EfmeTotkñúgTIpSarsklelakkñúgTsvtSxagmuxenH enAeBlEdlkm<úCa)anbegáInnUv
Tinñplrbs;xøÜntamry³karBRgIktMbn;daMduH nigkareFVIeGayRbesIeLIgnUvEpñkepSg²eTot dUcCakar
kat;bnßynUv]bsKÁénkarnaMecjCaedIm. GaRs½yedaykm<úCaCasmaCikrbs; WTO nigenAmanbBaða
RbQmCaeRcIn dUecñHehIyEdleFVIeGaykarRsavRCavrbs;eyIgepþateTAelIkarGPivDÆn_eKalneya)ay
nigCeRmIsnana edIm,ICMrujnUvBaNiC¢kmμrbs;xñÜneRkayeBlEdlkm<úCacUlCasmaCikrbs;GgÁkarBaNiC¢
kmμBiPBelak. eKalbMNgénkarRsavRCavenH KWrkeGayeXIjnUvPaBRbKYtRbECgQñHénkar eFVICMnYj
elIGgárrbs;km<úCa karcUlTIpSarrbs;Ggárkm<úCa PaBlM)akénkareFVICMnYjrbs;Ggárkm<úCa nigcugeRkaybMput
EdlCacMnucsMxan;énKMeragRsavRCavenHKWkarrkeGayeXIjKeRmageKalneya)ay nigCeRmIskñúgkar
GnuvtþedIm,ICMrujnUvkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa.
edayeyageTAelIeKalbMNgrbs;eyIg KMeragRsavRCavenHnwgEckecjCa 5EpñkKW³ EpñkTI1
eyIgnwgBüayamrkeGayeXIjrcnasm<½n niglkçx½NÐénkareFVICMnYjelIGgárEdleFVIkarelIkykmkbgðaj
nUvrUbPaBénkarnaMecj nignaMcUlGgárkñúgkm<úCabc©úb,nñ. EpñkTI2 KWCaEpñkd¾sMxan;énKMeragRsavRCav
eRBaHvaTak;TgeTAnwgkarRsavRCavelIrcnasm<½n§énplitkmμ
nigBaNiC¢kmμénvis½yGgárenAkñúgRbeTs
km<úCa. müa:geToteyIgGacniyayfaeyIgnwgBüayameFVIkar)a:n;sñaneTAelIPaBRbkYtRbECgénBaNiC¢kmμ
Ggárrbs;km<úCa. EpñkTI3 KWeFVIkarRsavRCav )a:n;sμanelIkarcUleTAkñúgTIpSarrbs; shrdæGaemrik Cb:un cin
nigkUer:xagt,ÚgEdlCaTIpSareKaledAEdleyIg)aneRCIserIssMrab;lk;plitplGgárrbs;km<úCaeyIgenAeB
lGnaKt. EpñkTI4 nwgeFVIkarviPaKeTAelIPaBlM)aknana énkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgárEdlGacbgáeLIgeday
FmμCati edaykMhus nigbraC½ykñúgkarGnuvtþn_ nigkareFVIEpnkarCaedIm .l. nigEpñkTI5 EdledIrtYnaTI
sMxan;enAkñúgKMeragRsavRCavenH KWkarrkeGayeXIj b¤kareFVIeGayRbesIeLIgnUvKeRmagneya)ay
b¤k¾CeRmIsnanaedIm,ICRmuj nigBRgwgkarnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCaenAeBlGnaKt.
x> rcnasm<½n§énkarnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCanaeBlbc©úb,nñ
1-kareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGnþrCatielIGgár

karnaMecjGgárrbs;BiPBelak
TIpSarGgárBiPBelakKWCaPaKcMENkmYyd¾tUcTak;TgeTAnwgplitkmμsrubTaMgGs;.
eTaHbICa
plitplRsUvmanRbEhl 400lanetan k¾edaymanEt 25lanetan b:ueNÑaHRtUv)aneFVIBaNiC¢kmμ
CaGnþrCati ¬ 6°énplitplsrub¦ plitplGgárPaKeRcInkñúgBiPBelak)anmkBIRbeTskñúgtMbn;GasuI
b:uEnþRbeTsenAtMbn;GasuIPaKeRcIn plitGgársMrab;EteRbIR)as;kñúgRsukEtb:ueNaÑaH. shrdæGaemrikCa
RbeTsEtmYyKt;EdlnaMecjFMbMputeRkABIRbeTskñúgtMbn;GasuI.
RbeTsEdlCaGñkplitGgárFMbMput manKeRmagnaMecjGgáreGaykan;EteRcIneLIgedaysarEt
mantRmUvkarekIneLIg nigtémøRtUv)anBRgwg. RbeTséfenAEtrkSaeFVICaGñknaMecjFMbMputkñúgBiPBelak
ehIymanKeRmagbegáInkarnaMecjeGayekIneLIg 2°kñúgmYyqñaM bu:EnþenAEtticCagebIeFobnwgkarnaMecj
kñúgTsvtS1980. RbeTs\NÐasgÇwmfa nwg)anerIberIeLIgvijBIkarFøak;cuHénkarnaMecjrbs;xøÜnEdl
eRcInbMputrhUtdl; 4/2 lanetan kñúgqñaM1995 EdlkarnaMecjenH)anbegáInmþgeTotrhUtdl;
3/3lanetan kñúgqñaM1999. RbeTs\NÐanigQrkñúgsMdab;elx3kñúgzan³CaGñknaMecjFMbMput elI
BiPBelakbnÞab;BIRbeTséf nigevotNamEdlmanlMdab;elx2taMgBIqñaM2004mk. RbeTsevotNam
)anQrkñúgsMdab;elx2 cab;taMgBIqñaM1997 rhUtdl;qñaM2004 b:uEnþ)anFøak;cuHmk eRkam\NÐavij
cab;taMgBIqñaM2004mk. RbeTsPUma manKeRmagBRgIkkarnaMecjrbs;xøÜn cab;taMg BIqñaM1997 b:uEnþminGac
seRmc)aneLIytaMgBIqñaM2000rhUtdl;2005. RsedogKñaenHEdr RbeTs)a:KIsßanmanKeRmagbegáIn
karnaMecjrbs;xçÜneRkayBIqñaM1998 edayekIneLIg1/5lanetan kñúgqñaM1999 nigCag 1/6lanetan
kñúgqñaM2005. RbeTsGU®sþalI cin nigshrdæGaemrik TMngCaGacrkSa)ankarpÁt;pÁg;yUrGEgVgelIplitpl
RsUveQμaH Japonica dl;tRmUvkarrbs;RbeTs kUer: nigCb:unenAeRkamkic©RBmeRBogyUrU:hÁay (Uruguay
Round). kñúgeBlCamYyKñaenHEdrRbeTs GñknaMecjfμIdUcCakm<úCa nigPUma Gacnwgcab;epþImedIrtYnaTImYy
ya:gsMxan;kñúgTIpSarnaMecjGgárkñúgBiPBelak.
karnaMcUlGgárkñúgBiPBelak
edaypÞúyBIGñknaMecjEdlmancMnYntictYc
RbeTsnaMcUlGgármancMnYnya:geRcInenAray)a:y
BaseBjBiPBelak b:uEnþRbeTsnimYy²eFVIkarnaMcUlmancMnYntictYcebIeFobeTAbrimaNEdleFVIkarnaMcUl
srubkñúgBiPBelak. karnaMGgárcUlekIneLIgedaysarEtmantRmUvkarrbs;RbeTscin RbeTs\NÐÚensuI

RbeTskñúgtMbn;mCÄwmbUBa’ RbeTstMbn;GaemrikkNþal nigtMbn;kara:b‘Ín. RbeTs\NÐÚensuI sgÇwmfa
nwgenAEtCaRbeTsEdlnaMcUlGgárCarhUt bu:EnþkarnaMcUlrbs;xøÜnrMBwgfanwgmankarfycuHedayGñkeRbIR)as;;
mankarekIneLIgtic nigTinñplRsUvrbs;xøÜnmankarekIneLIg. RbeTscinnwgrMBwgfanwgenACaGñknaMcUlGgár
teTAeTot xN³EdlRbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_mYycMnYnCaBiessRbeTskñúgtMbn;GasuIEdlcat;TukfaCaRbeTs
EdlnwgmankarekIneLIgya:gx<s;kñúgkarnaMcUlGgár ¬rUbPaBTI1¦.

rUbPaBTI 1³ kareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgárelIBiPBelak ¬RbPB³ esvaRsavRCavesdækic©¼ USDA2005¦

2- kareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgárenARbeTskm<úCa kñúgGtItkal
karnaMecjGgárBIRbeTskm<úCamankarekIneLIgkñúgqñaMfIμ²enH. kñúgcenøaHBIqñaM1990eTAqñaM2000
karnaMecjCapøÚvkarnUvRsUv nigGgárBIkm<úCamanbrimaNticbMput ¬taragTI1¦. tYelxTaMgenHmin)an
ra:yra:b;eGay)anlMGitenaHeT edaysarEtmanPaBxusKñaeTAelIsßitiEdlRbmUledaysßab½nepSg²Kñarbs;
rdæaPi)alkm<úCaEdlCab;Bak;B½n§nwgniytkmμénkarnaMecj. GgÁkar JICA rbs;Cbu:n)anrkeXIj GñknaMecj
cMnYnBIrenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCaEdl)aneFVIkarnaMecj nUvcMnYn54000etankñúgqñaM2001-2002 EdlkarnaMecj
CapøÚvkarmaneXIjRtwmEt 6000etanEtb:ueNÑaH.
xN³eBlEdlplitplRsUvmankarekIneLIgkñúgGMLúgeBlenH
nigenAEtmankarnaMecjkñúg
brimaNTab mann½yfa - TI1 ³ karBwgEp¥keTAelICMnYyes,ógGarharmankarkat;bnßy. TI2 ³
brimaNGgársRmab;kareRbIR)as;kñúgRsukRtUv)anekIneLIg EdleFVIeGayskþanuBléncMnYnkaLÚrIEdlRtUvkar
mankarekIneLIg. TI3³ plitplelIs)anbBa¢ÚnecjeTAeRkARbeTstamry³karnaMecjRsUveRkApøÚvkar
eTARbeTséf nigevotNam. mankar)a:n;RbmaNfamanEt10° ¬brimaNCit 60000 etan¦
énTIpSarGgárEdl)aneFVIkarnaMecjCapøÚvkar nigRbEhl 33 ° énRsUv ¬Cag 450000 etan¦
Edlksikrlk;eFVIkarnaMecjeRkAnaqñaM2001. GgárPaKeRcIneFVIkarnaMecjedayRkumh‘unÉkCn Edl
pþl;nUvKuNPaBx<s; nigCaGgáreRCIsecjBIRsUvEtmYyRbePT naMecjeTATIpSarGWru:b GaemrikxageCIg
mCÄwmbUBa’ swgðburI ma:eLsuI cin nigGU®sþalI. Ggárkm<úCamantémøx<s;Cagsþg;daénGgáréf rhUtdl;eTA 8090 duløaGaemrikkñúgmYyetan.
karnaMcUlGgárcUlkñúgRbeTskm<úCamancMnYntictYc b:uEnþmansar³sMxan;Nas;. karnaMcUlGgár
CapøÚvkarPaKeRcIn KWsRmab;CMnYyCaes,ógGarharEdlkarnaMcUlenH KWeFVIeLIgeRkamCMnYyrbs;GgÁkar
es,ógGarharBiPBelak. mankarnaMcUlRbEhl 44000etankñúgqñaM2001 EdlmankarekIneLIg
elIsBIqñaMmun².bEnßmelIsBIenaHeTotmanGgárcMnYnBI 120000-135000etan rbs;GgársUma:lI éf
RtUv)annaMcUleRkApøÚvkarsRmab;bMeBjkareRbIR)as;enAtamTIRkugmYycMnYn dUcCa esomrab PñMeBj CaedIm.

taragTIi1³ karnaMecj nignaMcUlRGgár nigCI qñaM1993 -1999
kMBg;Ep lMhUr muxTMnij 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Ggár 18640 11622 6573 Rkug naMcUl
CI 10954 - 245 PñMeBj
16615
naMecj RsUv
Ggár 10449 18867 36685 23540 6952 16615 10889
RkugRBH naMcUl
CI 23898 28438 29809 8839 - 24043 sIhnu
2611
naMecj RsUv
Ggár 29089 30489 43258 23540 6952 16615 10889
naMcUl
srub
CI 34852 28438 30054 8839 - 24043 2611
naMecj RsUv
RbPB³ JICA qμaM 2001
3- karnaMecjGgárnaeBlbc©úb,nñrbs;km<úCa
karnaMecjGgár
cab;taMgBIkm<úCacUlCasmaCikGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelakenAéf¶TI13 Extula qñaM2003 mk
rdæaPi)alRbwgERbgya:gxøaMgkñúgkarEkTRmg;skmμPaBBaNiC¢kmμeRkApøÚvkarrbs;RbeTskm<úCa nwgRbwg
ERbgbegáItnUvRbB½n§c,ab; nigeFVIkarEkTRmg;rcnasm<½n§rdæ)alEdlcaM)ac;edIm,IFanaeGaymankic©sRmYl
BaNiC¢kmμd¾l¥mYy.
ktþaenHCYyeGayRbeTsmanlT§PaBnwgTTYlykGtßRbeyaCn_BIkarnaMecjeTA
kan;TIpSarGnþrCati+rbs;xøÜn. brimaNplitplEdlkm<úCaGacnaMecj KWenAmankMNt;enAeLIy. bu:Enþ
edIm,IBRgIkkarcUlrYmrbs;xøÜnenAkñúgBaNiC¢kmμGnþrCati)an KWmanEttamry³énkarnaMecjGgárEtb:ueNÑaH ¬
pøÚvrbs;km<úCaeq<aHeTAkan;BaNiC¢kmμGnþrCati- www.aseanfocus.com¦. km<úCa)annaMecjGgár eRcIn
Cag1lanetanerogral;qñaM ¬Rbsasn_rbs;naykrdæm®nþIkm<úCakñúg»kasEdlTTYl naykrdæm®nþIrbs;
evotNam¦ CaBiess KWkarnaMecjtamRckRBMEdnCalkçN³eRkApøÚvkarCamYyRbeTséf nigevotNam
xN³eBlEdlGñkplitRsUv
nigGñkkinGgárrbs;km<úCaminGacRbKYtRbECg)anCamYynwgTIpSarGgár
Edlmankar]btßmFnrbs;RbeTsCitxagrbs;xøÜn.
kareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgárrbs;km<úCamanPaBbn;Ebn

mineTotTat; KWvaGaRs½yelIbrimaNplitplGgárEdlelIsBItRmUvkareRbIR)as;. km<úCa)anplitGgár
elIstRmUvkarrhUtdl;eTA 500000etan erogral;qñaM cab;taMgBIqñaM1995mk.
eTaHbICakm<úCaGacplitGgársRmab;pÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉg)anRKb;RKan; cab;taMgBIqñaM1995¼1996 k¾eday
k¾karnaMecjGgártampøÚvkarrbs;km<úCamanbrimaNtictYc. TIpSarsMxan;énkarnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCaknøg
mk KWRbeTsswgðburI nigRbeTsCasmaCikGas‘andéTeTot. TIpSareKaledAsRmab;km<úCa eFVIkarnaMecjna
eBlbc©úb,nñmanrYmbBa©ÚledayTIRkughugkug nigRbeTskñúgshKmn_GWr:ubpgEdr ebIeTaHbICaKμansßiti
c,as;las;kñúgeBlbc©úb,nñk¾eday ¬taragTI2¦.
taragTI2³ karnaMecjGgárRbcaMqñaMrbs;km<úCa ¬brimaN nigtémø¦
karnaMecj
qñaM
brimaN ¬KitCa Ban;etan¦ témø ¬KitCa landuløaGaemrik¦
1995
1996
5/6
0/93
1997
3/6
0/95
1998
0/6
0/15
1999
2/2
0/45
2000
0/6
0/18
2001
1/5
0/48
2002
3/8
1/69
2003
3/0
1/46
RbPB³ viTüasßanRsavRCavRsUvGnþrCati 2005
karnaMcUlGgár
eTaHbIkm<úCaQandl;kMritEdlGacpÁt;pÁg;Ggár)anRKb;RKan;xøÜnÉg nigkøayCaRbeTsnaMGgárecj
k¾eday k¾km<úCaenAEtmankarnaMcUlGgáredIm,IbMeBjtRmUvkareRbIR)as;kñúgRsukmYycMnYnEdr. GgárnaMcUl
PaKeRcIn KWsRmab;CaCMnYyes,ógGarhaEdlmaneFVIkarnaMcUleday Pñak;garCMnYy nigGgÁkarGnþrCati

mYycMnYnsRmab;CaCMnYymnusSFm’nigKμankarbg;Bn§elIkarnaMcUleLIy. eRkABIenaHmankarnaMcUl Ca
BiesssRmab;bMeBjtRmUvkarGñkeRbIR)as;EdlmancMNUlx<s;enAkñúgTIRkugmYycMnYndUcCa TIRkugPñMeBj
nigshKmn_breTsmYycMnYnEdlcUlcitþbriePaKGgárBUCRsUvpáamøi³rbs;RbeTséf. CatwktageyIgeXIj
enAkñúgpSarTMenIb nighagmYycMnYnenATIRkugPñMeBj nigesomrab Edlmandak;taMglk;nUvGgár Edlman
pøaksBaØaEdlnaMcUlmkBIRbeTséf. eKdwgfaenAtamePaCnIydæanCaeRcInenAtamTIRkugsMxan;²mankar
eRbIR)as;layKñanUvGgárkñúgRsuk nigGgárnaMcUlmkBIéfedIm,IegáInnUv KuNPaB nig køinRkGUbrbs;va.
Etya:gNak¾KμansßitipøÚvkarNamYyEdlbBa¢ak;GMBIbrimaNnaMcUlCapøÚvkarsRmab;karlk;dUr nigkarnaMcUl
sRmab;CaCMnYyes,ógeLIy.
taragTI3 ³ karnaMcUlGgárRbcaMqñaMrbs;km<úCa ¬ brimaN nig témø¦
karnaMcUl
qñaM
brimaN ¬KitCa Ban;etan témø ¬KitCa landuløaGaemrik¦
1995
81
24/50
1996
26
7/57
1997
27/6
2/80
1998
39/2
7/40
1999
36/4
7/90
2000
60/6
8/94
2001
53/3
7/51
2002
123/6
11/02
2003
77/1
6/20
RbPB³ viTüasßanRsavRCavRsUv GnþrCati 2005
4-brimaNnaMecj nigTIpSarGgárenARbeTskUer:xagt,Úg cin Cb:un nigshrdæGaemrik
RbeTskUer:xagt,Úg³ RbeTskUer:xagt,Úg CaRbeTsEdlnaMcUlmðÚbGarharmYyya:gFM)anBüa
yammkCag3TsvtSmkehIykñúgkarBRgwgplitplksikmμrbs;xøÜn edIm,IeCosvagkarnaMcUlBIxageRkA.

eKalbMNgsMxan;²BIr éneKalneya)ayksikmμrbs;RbeTskUer:xagt,ÚgKW karbMeBjtRmUvkarrbs;xøÜn
eGay)anRKb;RKan; nigPaBesμIKñaéncMNUlrvagGñkTIRkug nigksikr. rdæaPi)alkUer:)aneRbIyuT§sa®sþ
éføx<s;CaeRKOgelIkTwkcitþ nigr)aMgénkarnaMcUledIm,IeFVIeGayseRmc)annUveKaledAenaH. plitpl
RsUvkñúgRsuk rYmnwgeBat sENþk nigfñaMCk; EtgTTYl)ankar]btßmFnBIrdæaPi)altamkMritepSg²Kña.
mankardak;r)aMgx<s; kñúgkarnaMcUlGgár eTAkñúgRbeTskUer: CagkarnaMcUlbEnø EpøeQI nigstVBahn³.
ya:gNamuij karnaMcUlplitplmYycMnYndUcCaRsUvsalI RKab;FBaØCati RKab;rukçCati eFVIeRbg nigsMLIkb,as
mankarebIkTUlayCag.
bc©úb,nñRbeTskUer: )anplitGgárCitdl; 5lanetansRmab;eRbIR)as;RbcaMqñaM. ksiikreRbIR)as;
BUCCag70RbePT ehIymanGgárRbmaN1900RbePTepSg²Kña manenAkñúgTIpSarkñúgRsukrbs;kUer:.
kareRbIR)as;GgársRmab;mnusSmñak;²mankarekIneLIgya:gxøaMgenAkñúgTsvtS1960 nig1970 b:uEnþ)an
Føak;cuHmkvijedaysarmankarpøas;bþÚrénkarhUbcuk. edayRbQmCamYynwgkarFøak;cuHénkareRbIR)as;
Ggárrbs;RbCaCnxøÜnnaeBlbc©úb,nñenH rdæaPi)alkUer:BüayamesIerInUvneya)ayRsUvGgárkñúgRsukrbs;
xøÜnedIm,IKaMRTelIcMNUlEpñkksikmμnigelIkTwkcitþeGayksikrkat;bnßyelIépÞdIdaMduHRsUvbnþicmþg².
eTaHbIenHCaTRmg;énkarGnuvtþrbs;rdæaPi)alkalBIGtItkal Etedaymansm<aFBIeRkA nigkñúg
RbeTs CMrujeGayRbeTskUer:eFVIesrIkmμelITIpSarGgárrbs;xøÜn. enAkñúgqñaM1994 GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμ
BiPBelak)ankMNt;eGayRbeTskUer: nUvry³eBl10qñaMsRmab;eGaykUer:begáInnUvkarnaMcUlGgárrbs;xøÜn
bnþicmþg². pÞúymkvij rdæaPi)alkUer: )ancab;epþImeFVIkarpøas;bþÚrnUveKalneya)aykñúgRsukrbs;xøÜn
edIm,IerobcMkareFVIesrIkmμTIpSarGgárrbs;xøÜnedayCMrujeGayksikrkat;bnßyplitkmμ nigdaMduHEtBUCEdl
manKuNPaBx<s;. enAqñaM 2004 RbeTskUer: )anTTYlkarGnuBaØatieGayBnüaeBl 10qñaM bEnßmeTot
kñúgkarkMNt;kUtaénkarnaMcUlGgár ¬sUmemIlbEnßmeTotenAEpñkTI 3 énÉksarRsavRCavenH¦.
RbeTscin³ CaRbeTsEdlmanedækic©Ep¥kelIvis½yksikmμFMCageKbMputelIBiPBelak. RbeTs
cinCaRbeTsTI1EdlplitRsUveRcInCageKelIBiPBelak. minEtbu:eNÑaHRbeTscinCaGñkpliteRcInCageK
pgEdrelIplitplksikmμmYycMnYndUcCa kb,as fñaMCk; RsUvsalI eBat RsUvmIey: Et edImRkecA edIméFμ
CaedIm TaMgenHKWedaysarRbeTscinmantMbn;ksikmμeRcIn nigmanGakasFatuGMeNayplxusKñaBItMbn;

mYyeTAtMbn;mYyeTot. RbeTscinCaRbeTsEdleFVIkarnaMecjplitplksikmμeRcInCageK ehIyk¾naMcUl
eRcInCageKEdr.
tamtYelxBIsßab½nKyrbs;RbeTscinbgðajfakarnaMcUlGgárrbs;cinkñúgqñaM2002 mankarFøak;
cuHCit 20°RbEhl 240etan . esÞIEtral;GgárnaMcUlTaMgGs;CaGgárRkGUbrbs;éf EdlGgárTaMgenaH
PaKeRcIn RtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAcinPaKxagt,Úg. tRmUvkarGgárRkGUbenAkEnøgepSgeTot KIenAmankMrit
enAeLIy. RsUvRkGUbBUCkñúgRsukCaeRcIneTotsRmab;eRbIR)as;elITIpSarkñúgRsukrbs;xøÜn. edaysar
KuNPaBénGgárBUCRsUvkñúgRsukrbs;xøÜnRtU)anbegáIneLIg eFVIeGayGgárrbs;éf )at;bg;nUvPaBRbKYt
RbECgrbs;xøÜn. dUecñHehIy GRtaBn§eBjeljelIbrimaNkUtaénkarnaMcUlGgár KWx<s;CagGVIEdl
RbeTscin)ankMNt;enAqñaM2002. tamsßitiénkarnaMcUlkñúqñaM2002 bgðajeGayeXIjfa RbeTséf
KWCaGñknaMcUleRcInCageKbMput EdlmanbrimaN 232>484 lanetan. GñknaMcUlFMTI2bnÞab;
KWRbeTsétva:n; EdlmancMnYn 5>000 lanetan RbeTsLav 200 lanetan PUma 150 lanetan hugkug
28 lanetan hULg; 3 lanetan nigGaLWm:g; 2 lanetan edayELkRbeTsGaemrik hVIlIBIn
nigevotNam min)anrab;bBa©ÚleLIgkñúgqñaM2002enaH. RbeTs\NÐÚensuI nigRbeTsCb:un k¾sßitenAkñúg
bBa¢IbBa¢aTijGgárrbs;cinEdrnaqñaM2002. tamtYelxbgðajfa RbeTs K½rDIvr KWCaGñkeRbIR)as;
GgárcineRcInCageKbMput EdlmanbrimaN739>676 lanetan nigbnÞab;mk KWRbeTs \NÐÚensuI
243>349 lanetan rusSI 217>775 lanetan Kuy)a 216>282 lanetan Cb:un 101>625
lanetan kUer:xageCIg 73>130 lanetan kUer:xagt,Úg 70>775 lanetan lIbg; 62>998 lanetan
kahSaksßan 44>884 lanetan nignaMecjeTARbeTsepSg²eTot cMnYn 213>042 lanetan.
CasrubRbeTscineFVIkarnaMecjcMnYn 1>983>109 lanetan.
RbeTsCb:un³ RbeTsCb:un )aneFVIkarkarBarbMputeTAelITIpSarGgárkñúgRsukrbs;xøÜntaMgBIedIm
erogmk. karkMNt;twgrwgelIbrimaNnaMcUlTIpSar rYmnwgkardak;Bn§naMcUlx<s;nigkarKaMRTdl;ksikr
tamry³ kar]btßmFn nigkarRtYtBinitüplitkmμ naMeGaymansßanPaBEdlGñkeRbIR)as;Cb:un
RtUvcMNayx<s;CagGñkeRbIR)as;Gaemrik RbEhl12dgkñúgmYyKILÚRkamGgár. xN³eBlEdlman
karri³Kn;Cajwkjab;faCabnÞúkmYyminyutþiFm’eTAelIGñkeRbIR)as;Cb:un eFVIeGaym®nþIrdæaPi)alcab;epþImdwg
faRbeTsCb:un)aneFVIdMeNIrelIkarpSgsMNagelIneya)ayGgárrbs;xøÜn
ehIyfardæaPi)alminGacbnþ

eFVIkarKaMRTdl;karKμansmtßPaBrbs;ksikr)anrhUtenaHeT. enAqñaM2004 rdæaPi)alCb:un)ancMNay
5>283 ekadey:n ¬47landuløaGaemrik¦ eTAelIkarKaMRTvis½yksidæan kñúgeBlEdlrdæaPi)alkMBug
BuHBarkat;bnßynUvcMNaysaFarN³kñúgvis½yepSg²eTot nigeFVIkartemøIgBn§Gakr. r)aykarN_rbs;
GgÁkarsRmab;kic©shRbtibtþikar (OECD) nigGPivDÆn_esdækic© )anbgðajeGayeXIjfaRbEhl
1/4°énplitplkñúgRsuksrub(GDP) pþl;dl;KaMRTvis½yksikmμenAkñúgRbeTsCb:un ehIyvik½yb½Rt
nUvcMnYnTwkR)ak;d¾elIslb;rhUtdl; 80° )anmkBIcMNayrbs;rdæaPi)al.
bc©úb,nñenHCb:unEp¥kxøaMgeTAelIkar]btßmFnkñúgRsuk ebIeTaHbICaneya)ayBn§naMcUl nigkarkMNt;
kUtacUlCaFrmank¾eday ¬cUremIlbEnßmeTot enAEpñkTI 3 énÉksarRsavRCav KWkarcUlTIpSarén
karnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCa¦. tamBt’manfμIenH)anbgðajfardæaPi)alCb:un)aneFVIkar]btßmFnedaypÞal;eTA
elIplitkmμRsUvGgárEdlmanTwkR)ak;rhUtdl; 1/82 ekadduløaGaemrik ¬206 ekadey:nCb:un¦ (Fukuda,
Dyck
&
Stout
qñaM2003) . kar]btßmFndl;RbCaCnCb:un eFVIeLIgtamry³kmμviFI
epSg²CaeRcInrbs;rdæaPi)al. kar]btßmFnedaypÞal;bMputenaHKWehAfa kmμviFIesßrPaBcMNUlelIvis½y
ksikmμRsUvrbs;RbCaCnCb:un Edl)anGnuvtþenAqñaM1998. kmμviFIesßrPaBcMNUl)anGnuBaØatieGay
ksikreFVIRsUvTaMgGs;TamTarnUvkarbg;RtLb;EdlesμInwgpldkénéføkñúgRbeTs nigbTdæankMNt;TukCamun
mYy kalNaéføTIpSarFøak;cuH. enAkñúgqñaM 1999 karbg;RtLb;rebobenH manCasarub 815 lanUS$
¬92/7 ekadi eyn¦. enAelImUldæan 1hiktaéndIplitkmμ kar]btßmÖFn KWmanTMhMd¾sMebImEdleRcInCag
12 dg énkar]btßmÖFnrbs;Gaemrik nigGWur:ubcUlKña.
shrdæGaemrik ³ CitmYystvtSn_ neya)aymYyenAkñúgeKalbMNgCacMbgénnya)ayksikmμ
KWkarkarBarksikrTl;nwgéføTIpSard¾TabEdlBuMmancMeNj TnÞwmnwgkarrkSanUvkarpÁt;pÁg;es,ogGahar
d¾eRcInéRkElg nigesßrPaBmYysMrab;GñkeRbIR)as;. cMeBaHTMnij dUcCaGgárEdl)anRtUvTTYl\T§iBleday
karGnþraKmn_neya)ayBIrdæaPi)albreTsnana tMrUvkarsMrab;neya)ayrbs;shrdæGaemrikedIm,Ipþl;nUv
esßrPaBtulüPaBTIpSar nigEpnkarEvgq¶ayd¾KYreGayTukcitþsMrab;Gñkplit KWCakic©sMxan;xøaMgNas;.
naykdæanksikmμshrdæGaemrik )ancat;EcgnUvkmμviFIKaMRTR)ak;cMNUl nigéføepSg²CaeRcIncMeBaHksikr
plitRsUvCagmYyTsvtSn_mkehIy nigc,ab;sþIBIsnþisuxksidæan nigkarvinieyaKCnbTqñaM 2002 (2002

)anbnþpþl;eGayksikrplitRsUvnUvsMNaj;esßrPaBEdlmanlkçN³Cakarbg;R)ak;edaypÞal;
Etmþg b¤k¾Cakarbg;R)ak;tbtCavKÁ² b¤k¾CacMeNjBIkm©Im:aXItTIg.
TIpSarkñúgRsuk KWCaRck;ecjTImYysMrab;plitplGgárrbs;shrdæGaemrik EdlmancMnYnRbEhlCa
60 PaKryékareRbIR)as;kúñgRsuksarub. dUcCaenAkñúgqñaM 1980 TMhMd¾FMénplitkmμGgárshrdæGaemrik
RtUv)annaMecj ¬63 PaKry¦ k¾b:EnþenAkñúgqñaMfμI²enH kareRbIR)as;kñúgRsuk )anekIneLIgy:agxøaMg
¬rhUtCiteTAdl; 36 PaKry cab;BIqñaM 1990¦ TnÞwmnwgkarekIneLIgenAkñúgkarnaMecj BMu)andl;kMrit
ehIyCalT§plyWty:avmYy nig)anfycuHCalMdab;enAkñúgsmamaRténplitkmμsarubEdl)annaMecj.
eTaHbI karnaMecjRtUv)anfycuH smamaRteTAnwgplitkmμGgársarubrbs;shrdæGaemrikk¾eday k¾kar
naMecj sßitenAEtCaTIpSard¾sMxan;rbs;GgárshrdæGaemrik nig)anrYmviPaKTany:agsMxan;sMrab;tulüPaBd¾
viC¢manmYyénBaNiC¢kmμshrdæGaemrik nigtMélasarubénkarnaMecjksikmμcMeBaHrdæEdlplitGgárTaMgGs;
enAkñúgshrdæGaemrik. CamYynwgtMélnaMecjGgársarubTaMgGs;rbs;shrdæGaemrikelIsBI 1 ekadduløa
enAkñúgqñaM 2003 ¬TabCag qñaM 1999 EdlmancMnYn 1/1 ekadduløa¦ cMnYnenH manRbEhlEtCit 3
PaKryéntMélnaMecjplitplksikmμsarubrbs;shrdæGaemrikEtb:ueNaÑH.

Farm Act)

K> PaBRbkYtRbECgrbs;km<úCasMrab;BaNiC¢kmμGgár
1- FnFan nigktþaFmμCatipþl;eGayEdlTak;TgnwgBaNiC¢kmμ
km<úCaRtUv)anFmμCatipþl;eGaysm,ÚreTAedayépÞdI k¾dUcCaFnFanFmμCatiCadMkMPYnCaeRcIn éRB eQI
nigmcäaKYreGaykt;sMKal; nigRbePTEpøk²y:ageRcInénlMenAzan nigRbB½n§brisßanFmμCati Edlrab; bBa©Úl
dUcCax<g;rab valTMnab éRBeQI Twksab dIesIm nigtMbn;mat;TenøepSg²Kña Edlpþl; KuNsm,tþi
d¾FMeFgsMrab;GñkplitGgár k¾dUcCaGñkpÁt;pÁg;Ggárrbs;RbeTs. enAkñúgTsvtSr_cugeRkay viPaKTanén
vis½yksikmμsMrab;karrIkcMerInesdækic©TaMgmUl
)anTTYlpld¾FMeFgtamryHkarekIneLIgeRcInénktþa
nanarbs;épÞdIplitkmμ nigkMlaMgBlkmμ EdlCaEpñkénkarrIkcMerInd¾suICMerA nigTUlMTUlayénskmμPaB
ehIyCamYyEtnwgkareFVIeGayRbesIreLIgd¾tictYcenAkñúgplitPaBEdlecjBIkMritd¾TabbMputenaH.
plitkmμRsUv KWk¾Caksipld¾man\T§iBlelIslb; sMrab;esdækic©ksikmμrbs;RbeTs k¾b:uEnþPaB
eFIV»ümanRbePTCaeRcIn nigCMnajnIykmμtMbn; GacRtUvpusecjeLIg eRBaHfaksikrcab;)annUvKuN

sm,tþiecjBIcariklkçN³ksibrisßanénRbB½n§ksikmμepSg²Kña
enAkñúgRbeTs.

nigBIkalanuvtþPaBénTIpSarTaMgLay

EbbbTénkarEbgEcképÞdI
TMhMénRKYsarCnbTEdlkMBugxVHxatdIsMrab;kaeFVIksikmμ)anekIneLIgBI 13 PaKry enAkñúgqñaM
1997 dl; 16 PaKry enAkñúgqñaM 1999 nigeTAdl; 20 PaKry enAkñúgqñaM 2004. karekIneLIg
enAPaBKμandIFøIenH RtUvbNþaly:agelOnKYrsmEdr edaysarfakarEbgEck KW)aneFIVIeRcIn rWticesμIKña
¬eFobnwgkMlaMgBlkmμRKYsar¦enAeBlEdlépÞdIRtUv)anEbgEckCak;lak;eTAeGayRKYsarenAkñúgqñaM
1989. TMhMd¾sMxan;énPaBKμandIFøI KIbBaðaEdlBMumandIpÞal;xøÜnmþgNaTal;EtesaH eRBaHBYkKat;)an
RtLb;BICMurM CnePosxøÜnenAkñúgqñaM 1993-94 nig)anbegáItRKYsarfμIEdlmanRbmuxeTAedayédKUr
erobkarekμg². karekIneLIgcMnYnRbCaCn k¾naMeTAeGaymanTMhMépÞdIkan;EttUcEdr enAkñúgtMbn;Edlman
RbCaCnkuHkr nigTMhMénRKYsarxøHEdllk;dI edIm,ICayuT§saRsþEdl)anKitTukCamunsMrab;begáInnUvfvikar
edIm,IeFVIkar vinieyaKenAkñúgskmμPaBminEmnCaksikmμ rWk¾manPaBviC¢mantictYc sMrab;eqøIytbnUv
esckþIRtUvkareRbIR)as;sMxan;². cugbBa©b; smasPaBsMxan;d¾tUcmYyénPaBKμandIFøITaMgRsug KW
edayehtukardeNþIm b¤k¾cab;ykdI. bBaðaenH RtUveFVIeGayF¶n;F¶reLIgedaybBaðpSaP¢ab;CaGnþrén
kmμsiT§dIFøIEdlminc,as;las; ¬eRcInCag 80 PaKry énRKYsarCnbTEdlCam©as;dI KWBMumanb½NÑ
kmμsiT§idIFøIenAkñúgqñaM 2004¦ nigzan³nitüanukUlEdlminc,as;las;énm©as;kmμsiT§ienH KWk¾kMBugdUcKña
TaMgGs;cMeBaHkarekIneLIgtMéldI enAkñúgEpñkCaeRcInénRbeTs.
rdUvdaMduH sabRBYs RbBlvb,kmμ épÞdIRbmUlpl nigTinñpl
RbePTd¾sMxan;énRbB½n§plitkmμRsUv KWRsUvvsSadITYl nigTMnab RsUvGENþttamtMbn;TwkeRCA
nigRsUvrdUvR)aMg. RsUvrdUvvsSaRtUv)andaMduH cab;BIEx]sPa rhUtdl;ExFñÚ TnÞwmnwgRsUvrdUvR)aMgRtUv)an
daMduHcab;BIExFñÚ rhUtdl;Exmina. RsUvR)aMgCaFmμtaRtUv)aneFVIeGayRbesIreLIgnUvBUCrbs;va dUcCa IR66
nigRtv)andaMduHsMrab;EteKalbMNgR)ak;cMNUlEtb:ueNaÑaH. pÞúyeTAvij RsUvrdUvvsSa KWFmμtaCaBUC
RbéBNIEdldMaduHsMrab;eKalbMNgciBa©wmCIvit nigsnþisuxes,ógEtb:ueNaÑH. EteTaHbIBUCRsUvrdUvvsSa
CaRbéBNI manTinñplTabCagk¾eday RsUvenHnaMmknUvéføx<s;CagmYy eRBaHEtKuNPaB nigrsCati
KWRbesIrCagRsUvrdUvR)aMgEdlBUCrbs;va)aneFVIeGayRbesIreLIgenaH.

enATIenaH KWmankareFVIeGayRbesIreLIg enAkñúgTinñplRsUvmYyhikta EdlCamYynwgTinñpl
RsUvrdUvvsSa)anekIneLIg 14 PaKry elIBI 5 qñaMcugeRkay ¬CaBiess sMrab;karKitGMBIPaBERbRbYl
GakasFatuRbcaMqñaM eyIgKNnaTinñplTMagGs;CamFüm sMrab;BIrkMlugeBl 1997¼98-1999¼00
nig2003¼04-2004¼05¦. eTaHbImankareFVIeGayRbesIreLIgk¾eday km<úCaenAEtCaRbeTsmYy
kñúgcMeNamRbeTsenAGasuIbUBaN’ GasuIGaeKñX_ nigGasuIxagt,ÚgEdlmankMritTinñplRsUvnUvy:agTab
enAeLIy ¬taragTI 4 nig 5¦.
tarag TI4 ³ épÞdIdaMduH Tinñpl nigplitkmμRsUv BIqñaM1993 dl; 2004
sarub
qñaM
épÞdIdaMduH KitCa épÞdIRbmUlpl KitCa TinñplCamFüm
1>000 hikta
1>000 hikta
etan¼hikta
1993 1>856/6
1>823/6
1/31
1994 1>924/0
1>494/6
1/49
1995 2>086/0
1>924/0
1/79
1996 2>170/9
1>864/0
1/83
1997 2>076/0
1>928/7
1/77
1998 2>094/7
1>962/6
1/79
1999 2>157/6
2>079/5
1/94
2000 2>157/5
2>079/4
1/94
2001 2>241/0
1>903/2
2/07
2002 2>137/1
1>994/7
1/92
2003 2>314/2
2>242/0
2/1
2004 2>346/9
2>108/8
2/0
RbPB ³ esovePAsßitiRbcaMqñaM 2005-TMB½r 223

plitkmμ KitCa
1>000 etan
2>383/4
2>223/5
3>447/8
3>404/0
3>414/9
3>509/9
4>029/6
4>049/9
4>099/0
3>822/1
4>710/9
4>170/3

taragTI 5 ³ plitPaBksikmμenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa enAkñúgtMbn; ¬2003¦
TinñplRsUv ¬Kk¼hikta¦
RbeTs
RsUv
eBat
km<úCa
2>150
2>111
cin
3>849
3>485
Lav
3>316
2>333
evotNam
4>634
3>225
\NÐÚeNsuI
4>538
3>252
éfLg;d¾
2>455
3>913
m:aeLsuI
3>178
RbPB ³ FAO sUcnkrGPivDÆn_BiPBelak

dMLÚgeQI
6>318
16>249
19>762
14>066
14>902
17>552
9>737

cMNat;fñak; énRKYsarplitRsUv nigR)ak;cMNUl
RsUv RKbdNþb;PaKeRcInenAelIépÞdIEdl)andMaduH ¬84 PaKry ¦ nigcUlrYmcMENky:ageRcIn
sMrab;plTunCatidulBIEpñkksikmμ ¬22 PaKry¦ nigsMrab;karnaMecjEpñkksikmμpgEdr. TMhMksidæan
CamFümkñúgrgVg;GñkRkIRkCnbTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa KW 1/5 hikta. eTaHbIy:agNak¾eday 40 PaKry
énRbCaCnCnbTrs;enAmanépÞdIticCag 0/5 hikta EdlRKb;RKan;sMrab;eqøIytbEtBak;kNþalén
tMrUvkarR)ak;cMNUlGgárkñúgmYynak; KW165 Kk¼qñaM Etb:ueNaÑH ¬taragTI 6¦.
taragTI 6 TMhMépÞdI nigkarcMeNjBIRsUv
sUcnakr
TMhMépÞdIEdlkankab;CamFüm
TMhMCamFüménépÞdIEdldMaRsUv¬hikta¼RKYrsar¦
TMhMRKYsarKitCamFüm
TMhMCamFüménépÞdIEdldMaRsUvedayRKYsarRkIRk¬hikta¼RKYrsar¦
cMeNjdulénplitkmμRsUvkñúg 1kMlaMgBlkmμ¬duløa¼hikta¼¦

km<úCa
1/71
0/99
5/3
manticCag 1hikta
49

cMeNjdulénplitkmμRsUvrab;bBa©ÚlkMlaMgBlkmμmñak;¬duløa¼hikta¦ 147
RbPB ³ Goletti, Bhatta, Srey, 2002 nig ACI, 2002
cMNUlkñúgmYyhiktaBIplRsUv ERbRbYlBIcenøaH 100 duløarGaemrik nig250 duløarGaemrik
sMrab;ksikr. cMeBaHksikrRkIRkvij RsUvpþl;eGaynUvcMENkd¾tUcéncMNUlsarub CagcMeBaHksikr
plitRsUvFmμta. PaKeRcInénGñkRkIRkenAkñúgRbeTs daMduHnUvBUCRsUvRbéBNI Edl ¬BMudUcBUCTMenIb
EdlmanTinñplx<s;¦ GaclUtlas;enAelIdId¾xSt;exSay CamYynwgTinñn½ybBa©ÚlEdlTMenIbtictYc
rbs;Kat;. BUCTaMgenH Cajwkjab;naMmknUvéfød¾x<s;CagBUCRsUvEdlmanTinñplx<s; eRBaHKuNPaBrbs;
vaKWl¥Cag nigGñkeRbIR)as;kñúgRsukk¾cUlcitþGgárTaMgenHEdr. RKYsarRkIRkTaMgGs; KWGaRs½yEteTAnwg
RsUvsMrab; RtImasTaMgbIénR)ak;cMNUlRbcaMqñaMsarubrbs;Kat;BIksikmμenaH. k¾dUcCaenAkMritextþEdr
TaMgGs;enHKWCa Psþútag EdlfaelIkElgEtenAkñúgextþkMBg;cam nigPñMeBjecj cMNUl BIRsUv)anpSMCa
bIRtImas ¬ctuPaK¦ rWk¾eRcIgCagéncMNUlsarubBIksikmμenAkñúgextþnana.
FnFanbBa©ÚlsMrab;plitkmμRsUv nigkarbg;tMél
plitkmμRsUv pSMeLIgRbmaNCa 50° BIskmμPaBTaMgLayEdlCatMélbEnßm. skmμPaB TaMgenH
RtUv)anEbgEckeTACa 6Epñk ³ karerobcMdI karsabeRBaH kardaMduH kardak;CI¼lamkstV CIKImIksikmμ
nigkarRbmUlpl ¬taragTI7¦. dUctaragTI 7 )anbgðaj kareRbIR)as;CI nigCIlamkstV BicarNaCa
karbg;tMéld¾x<s;CageK enAkñúgdMeNIrkarplitkmμ. cMeBaHCIelxmYy ksikrRtUvbg;luy RbmaNCa 1>000
erol¼KILRkam. mü:agvijeTot RbePTCIEdlefak KWk¾manpgEdrtamryH BaNiC¢krenAkñúgmUldæan
EdlmantMélRKb;TIkEnøg BI 700-800 erol¼KILÚRkam. karsMPasn_Ca mYynwgksikrCaeRcIn
maneyabl; EdlfaCIEdlefakmanTMenar eTArkPaBBuMmanRbsiT§iPaB nigRbEhlmankarcUlrYmenA
RKb;TIkEnøgcMeBaHkarkat;bnßyBI 25 eTA 35 PaKry enAkñúgTinñpl énmYyhikta. kalNaksikrman
Rck;eTArkCIEdlmanKuNPaBx<s; TaMgenHnwgcUlrYmkarsnSM RbEhl 15 duløarGaemrik kñúgmYyetan
EdlnwgGacbkERbeTACa karekIneLIg 31 PaKry enAkñúg R)ak;cMeNjcMeBaHksikrEdlmanRTBüsm,tþi
tictYc.

karbg;tMélplitkmμd¾x<s;d¾éTeTotEdlBak;B½n§ KWkarerobcMdI. eRBaHfaksikrxñattUc nig
mFümPaKeRcIn BMumanRtak;T½rpÞal;xøÜneLIy BYkeKRtUvCYlRtakT½rBIGñkpÁt;pÁg;esv:akmμenAkñúgmUldæan.
CamFüm ksikrRtUvbg;tMél 50>000 erol¼hikta ¬RbmaN 12/5 duløarGaemrik¦ eTAGñkpÁt;pÁg;
esv:akmμkñúgmUldæanenaHsMrab;karerobcMdI. bEnßmBIelIenH karerobcMdIeGay)ansmrmüTamTaresv:akmμ
énRtakT½rdl;eTABIr. edayehtuenH ksikrRtUv)anTamTar eGaybg;CamFümRbmaN 25
duløarGaemrik¼hikta eTAeGayGñkpÁt;pÁg;esv:akmμBIxageRkA edIm,ICMnYykñúgkarerobcMdI. bEnßmBI
elIenHeTot karekIneLIgénéfø\n§nH k¾)anman\T§iBlCadMkMPYneTAelIkarbg;tMélénkarerobcMdIEdr.
karbg;tMélénkarerobcMdI pSM)anCiteTAdl; 16 PaKryénkarbg;tMélsarubénplitkmμ. CMerIsEt
mYyTuksMrab;ksikrcMeBaHkarerobcMdIeGaysmrmü KWkarTijeKasMrab;P¢ÜrdI. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday
eyageTAtamksikrxøH)aneGaydwgfa karebIkcMhrehirBaØbTanedaysßab½n\NTan xñattUcCaeRcInk¾
RtUv)anGak;xanpgEdr.
kardaMduH bnþeFVIedayeRbIéd eRBaHeRKOgma:suInsV½yRbvtþi KWsßitenAq¶ayelIsBIkarsMerc)an
rbs;ksikrFmμta. bEnßmBIelIenHeTot TMhMdIERsrbs;ksikrCaeRcIn KWtUcNas; EdlfaTaMgGs;enH
nwgminFananUvynþnIykmμeLIy. TaMgenH mann½yfaksikr KWGaRs½yeTAnwgkMlaMgBlkmμbeNaþH Gasnñ
edIm,IeFVIeGaysMerc)annUvkardaMduHenaH. TaMgenH k¾RtUv)ansnñidæanfa kardaMduHenH RtUvkarkMlaMg Blkmμ
25 nak; sMrab;épÞdImYyhikta CamYynwgGRtaR)ak;kMérCamFümRbmaN 6>000 erol sMrab; mYynak;
nigsMrab;mYyéf¶.
taragTI 7³ karsnñidæanénkarbg;tMélplitkmμ sMrab;RsUv nagmøi³ enAkMBg;s<W ¬kñúgmYy etan¦
kMlaMgBlkmμ FnFanbBa©Úl cMNaysarub cMNaysarub KitCa °
¬erol¦
¬duløaGaemrik¦
karerobcMdI
56>776 56>776 14/19
16 °
karsabRBYs
16>604 16>604 4/15

kardMaduH
80>343 80>343 20/09
22 °
kardak;CI¼lamkstV 9>641
94>339 103>980 26/00
29 °
CIKImIksikmμ

karRcUtkat;
32>137 karsMgYt
13>390 karkinGgár
3>320
45>600
karR)ak;
8>227
cMNaysarub
138>832 221>546
° énFnFanbBa©Úl 39 °
61 °
RbPB ³ Global Development Solutions, LLC.

32>137
13>390
48>920
8>227
36>037
-

8/03
3/35
12/23
2/06
90/09
-



14 °

100 °
-

TnÞwmnwgkMlaMgBlkmμénEpñkksikmμbnþenAEtefakenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCaenaH
plitPaBén
kMlaMgBlkmμ)anbnSl;nUvTMhMy:agTablμm kalNaeRbobeFobeTAnwgGñkRbkYtRbECgkñúgtMbn; TaMgLay
¬taragTI 8¦. plitPaBkMlaMgBlkmμd¾TabenH KWGaccat;TukCalT§plmYyEpñk cMeBaHkar
GvtþmanénkarbNþúHbNþal nigkarKaMRTBIsßab½nTaMgLay sMrab;CMnYydl;ksikr k¾dUcCakarmanRck;
d¾xSt;exSayeTArkhirBaØbTanEdlGaceFVIeGayksikrmanRck;sMrab;karGnuvtþksidæand¾smrmü nigerob
cMRbB½n§ FarasaRsþrbs;Kat;enaH.
taragTI 8 ³ plitPaBBlkmμenAkñúgvis½yplitRsUv rvagRbeTsskm<úCa nigéfLgd¾
km<úCa
éfLgd_
plitPaB
extþkMBg;s<W
tMbn;kNþal
xusKña
Tinñpl¼hikta ¬etan¦*
kMlaMgBlkmμbBa©Úl
plitPaBkMlaMgBlkmμ

1/87
43
43/49

2/91
47
62/35

- 43 °

éfLgd¾ ³ kMlaMgBlkmμbBa©Úlsarub esμIeTAnwg 155/5¼hikta EdleRbIR)as;GRtaR)ak;kMér 3/33
duløarGaemrik¼éf¶

*

ehdæarcnasm<½n§ bec©kviC¢aksikmμ nigesv:akmμbBa©Úl

tMbn;Edl)anTTYlsÁal;nUvkarTTYlénRbB½n§FarasaRsþ RtUv)ansnñidæan KWRbEhlCa 44/48°
énépÞdIEdl)andaMduH ¬2>253>000 hikta¦ enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa ¬kaEstrsμIkm<úCa/ elx 4167/
2007¦. TaMgGs;enH KWépÞdIEdl)aneRsacRsBenAkñúglkçN³énRbLay rWk¾sñb;bUmTwkburaNEdl Gac
bBa¢ÚnTwkedaypÞal;BIRbPBeTAkñúgERs. RbB½n§FarasaRsþTaMgenH GacRtUvcMNat;fñak;CabIRbePT ³
¬1¦RbB½n§FarasaRsþbEnßmnUvrdUvvsSa sMrab;RsUvrdUvvsSavalTMnab ¬2¦RbB½n§FarasaRsþbEnßmsMrab;
RsUvrdUvR)aMgbeNþjTwk nig¬3¦ RbB½n§Farasa®sþ sMrab;RsUvrdUv R)aMgvalTMnab. manEt 3 PaKryén
RKYsarRkIRkEtb:ueNaÑH Edlmanm:asuInbUmTwkxøÜnÉgEdl caM)ac;sMrab;EbgEckkarbeBa©jbBa©ÚlTwk enAkñúgqñaM
2004 ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwg 12°énRKYsar GñkmanFnFanEdlmanma:sIunbUmTwkenaH ¬FnaKarBiPBelak
2006¦.
karRtYtBinitüeTAelIEpnTIdwkCBa¢Únrbs;RbeTskm<úCa pþl;nUvkarcab;GarmμénRbB½n§dwkCBa¢Ún d¾TUlM
TUlayénpøÚvfñl; pøÚvreTHePøIg nigRbB½n§pøÚvTwkBaseBj EdlplitplCaeRcInRtUv)andwkCBa¢Ún. eTaHbI
y:agNak¾eday CaeRcInTsvtSéns®gÁam nigkarxVHxaténkarvinieyaKTunenAkñúgehdæarcnasm<½n§
)aneFVIeGayRtLb;fyeRkaynUvRbB½n§dwkCBa¢ÚnTaMgenHCaeRcIn
eGaykøayeTARKan;EtCaExSbnÞat;enA
elIEpnTIEtbu:eNÑaH nigenAkñúgrdUvR)aMgRbB½n§dwkCBa¢ÚntamTenøswgEtTaMgGs; køayeTACamin manlT§PaB
sMrab;kardwkCBa¢ÚnF¶n;²tampøÚvTwk. TnÞwmnwgTMhMénkardwkCBa¢Únqøgkat;tampøÚveKak kMBugEtekIneLIg
CamYynwgkarCYyénkareFVIeGayRbesIreLIgénsßanPaBpøÚvfñl;enaH kardwkCBa¢Únedaynava k¾kMBugEt
ekIneLIgEdr tamryHkarCYsCul nigsg;eLIgvijnUvkMBg;EpsMrab;naMcUl nignaMecj. reTHeKa
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAkñúgtMbn;CnbT edIm,IdwkCBa¢ÚnRsUvsMrab;cMgaypøÚvCit² nigqøgkat;pøÚvTaMgLayEdl
kñúgsPaBepSgnwgminGaceFVIdMeNIreTAekIt. kardwkCBa¢Ún BIpÞH¼valERsrbs;ksikr eTAGñkedIrRbmUl Tij
rWk¾GñkkinRsUv KWCajwkjab;tamryH reTHeKa reTHynþ ¬Rtak;T½r CamYynwgreTH¦ rWk¾LandwkTMnijFuntUc².
RsedogKñaenHEdr Rtak;T½r nigLandwkTMnijFuntUc RtUv)aneRbIR)as;qøgkat; BIcMgaypøÚvCit²
eTAcMgaypøÚvmFümenAkñúgRsuk ¬PUmi eTATIRbCMuCnkñúgmUldæan¼ma:suInkinRsUv¦. enAkñúgtMbn;TIRkug
kardwkCBa¢ÚnRsUv KWCajwkjab;PaKeRcIneday LandwkTMnij nigm:UtU. BaNiC¢kr nigGñkkinRsUvPaKeRcIn
BuMmanmeFüa)aydwkCBa¢ÚnpÞal;xøÜnrbs;eKeLIy. eKCYlGñkdwkCBa¢ÚnedIm,IeFVI kardwkGgár rWk¾RsUvrbs;eK.

\NTanPaKeRcInkñúgrgVg;ksikr RtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAkñúgkarpþl;eGayénTinñ½ybBa©Úl Cabzm KWCI.
cMnYnd¾tUcén\NTan k¾RtUv)aneRbIR)as; edIm,ITijRsUvenAkñúgkMlugeBlxVHxatpgEdr. R)ak;km©IsMrab;Tinñn½y
bBa©ÚlRtUv)anTTYlBIesv:akmμhirBaØvtßúxñattUc mitþPkþi nigGñkrksuIcgkarR)ak;. enAkñúgkarRsavRCav
mYyeTAelIksikrplitRsUv JICA )anrkeXIjfa 18 PaKry)anx©IR)ak;BIRbPB sßab½nhirBaØvtßúxñattUc.
TaMgGs;enH hak;dUcCaEdlfatMbn;CnbTénRbeTskm<úCa KWkMBugmankar xVHxaty:agxøaMgénRbPBhirBaØvtßú
rWk¾Gñkpþl;\NTanenaH. enAkñúgkrNIxøH karCYléneRKOgsMParH sMrab;plitkmμ dUcCama:suIne)akEbnCaedIm
nwgRtUveFVIenAkñúgkaredaHdUrsMrab;karbg;RtLb;CaRsUvenA rdUvRcUtkat; ¬FnaKarBiPBelak/ 2002¦. JICA
k¾)anpþl;Bt’manpgEdr nUvkareRbIR)as;énFnaKar RsUvEdlRtUv)ancat;EcgedayGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al
¬NGOs¦ enAtamtMbn;CnbTTaMgenaH. FnaKarRsUv )anTTYlviPaKTanénRsUvEdlelIsBIksikr nigmankar
TijBIGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al EdlbnÞab;mknwg eGaykm©IRsUveTAksikrvijenAkñúgkMlugeBlxVHxat
edIm,IRtUvbg;RtLb;mkvijenArdUvRcUtkat;CamYynwg karR)ak;BI 10 eTA 20 PaKry.
shB½n§GñkkinRsUv RtUv)anbegáIteLIgenAeBlfμI²enH CamYynwgkaryl;eXIjedIm,IbegáIt
TMnak;TMngCamYynwgksikr kñúgkarpþl;eGayksikrnUvBt’man smtßPaB nigkarelIkTwkcitþedIm,I
naMeGayKuNPaBGgár kan;EtmanPaBRtUvr:UveRcIneLIg. esv:akmμpSBVpSayksikmμ Edl)anpþl;eday
rdæaPi)al nigGgÁkar eRkArdæaPi)alTaMgLay k¾enAEtxVHxatenAeLIy sMrab;bMeBjbMNgnUvtMrUvkar
TaMgLayrbs;ksikr CaBiessGñkplitksiplsMrab;lk; nigenATIenaH KWk¾CasMNYrneya)ay
d¾sMxan;mYyEdrsMrab;viFId¾l¥RbesIr énkarEckcayBt’manTIpSarbec©kviTüa .l. eTAdl; ksikr.
RsUvsrIragÁ nig RsUvEdleRbIR)as;CIFmμCati
enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa karGnuvtþCajwkjab;énkardaMRsUv KWkarsabRBYstamxül; EdlenATI enaH
ksikr)ansabRBYsRKab;BUCRsUvy:ageRcIneTAelIvalERs. RbB½n§énRsUvRbBlvb,kmμ ¬System of Rice
Intensification¦ RtUv)anbgðajeTAksikrenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa kñúgqñaM 2000 edaymCÄ mNÐlsikSa
nigGPivDÆn_ksikmμkm<úCa ¬CEDAC¦. KMnitCacMbg CamYynwgRbB½n§énRsUvRbBl vb,kmμenH
KWfaksikrbNþúHmYyRKab; eTABIrRKab;kñúgmYyKum< enAkñúgGMBkERsEdldUcCasYndMNaMmYy. eRkayeBl
15éf¶ kUnsMNab RtUvykeTAdaMenAkñúgERs enAkñúgctuKMrUmUy rWk¾eTAtambnÞat;Rtg;.
k¾b:uEnþRbB½n§énRsUvRbBlvb,kmμenH ebIeRbobeFobnwgbec©keTsCaRbéBNI KWTamTarnUveBlevlaCa

eRcInedIm,IEfTaMdMNaMenH nigk¾RtUvkarKuNPaBdId¾l¥pgEdr. enAkñúgkrNIy:agenH TaMgGs;enH KWk¾Ca
KuNvib,tþipgEdr sMrab;ksikrEdlkMBugeRbIR)as;bec©keTsenH eRBaHfaksikrTaMgenH nwgminGacEsVg
rkkargarepSgd¾éTeTotedIm,Ib®gÁb;R)ak;cMNUlsMrab;CIvPaBrs;enArbs;Kat;eLIy.
RbePTRsUvRkGUbnagmøiH RtUv)andaMduHedayBMumanfñaMsMlab;stVl¥it nigCIKImIenAkñúgtMbn;EdlRtUv
eRCIserIsy:agRbugRby½tñmYyenAkNþalRbeTskm<úCa EdlenATIenaH dId¾manCIvCati)anpþl;eGaynUv
brisßanlUtlas;EdlRKb;RKan;mYy. CiteTAdl; 80>000RKYsar kMBugmankic©snüaCamYyRkumh‘un GgÁrRsUv
¬2004¦ edIm,IdaMnUvRsUvnagmøiHenH. Rkumh‘unGgÁrRsUv )anEbgEckBUCnagmøiHEdlman KuNPaBx<s;eTA
ksikrCab;kugRta EdlBYkKat;TaMgenaHBMuRtUv)anGnuBaØatieGaydManUvBUCRsUvrbs;xøÜnÉg pÞal;)aneLIy.
kñúgrdUvdaMduH buKÁlikrbs;Rkumh‘unGgÁrRsUv cuHBinitüCaeTogTat;nUv valERsTaMgenaH edIm,Ipþl;nUvkarENnaM
bEnßm nig]btßmÖKaMRTeTAksikrEdlCab;kic©snüaTaMgenH. manEtRkumRsUv EdleqøIytbeTAnwgbTdæan
d¾x<s;rbs;Rkumh‘uneT nwgRtUvEkrécñenAÉma:suInkinRsUv enHmann½yfa manEtRsUvEdll¥bMputeTnwgRtUv
bBa¢ÚneTATIpSar.
2- sUcnakrma:RkUesdækic©Edlman\T§iBlelIBaNiC¢kmμRsUv ³ éfø nigGRtabþÚrR)ak;
éføEdlCH\T§iBlelIkarnaMecjRsUv
neya)ayéføcMeBaHTMnij Edlrab;bBa©ÚlplitplRsUvpgEdr nigcMeBaHesv:akmμenAkñúgRbeTs
km<úCa RtUvkMNt;edayesrIeTAtamTIpSar elIkElg cMeBaHEtGKÁisnI nigTwkecj. cMeBaHkareRbIR)as;
eTAéf¶GnaKténkarRtYtBinitüéfø TaMgGs;enH KWenAEtCabBaðaEdlRtUvelIkeLIgedayRaCrdæaPi)al km<úCa.
éføénGgármanTMenarbgðajCaKMrUEdleLIgcuHeTAtamrdUv ³ mankarFøak;cuH enAkñúgrdUvRcUtkat;
CacMbg ¬BIExvicäika dl;Exmkra¦ nigmankarekIneLIg enArdUvvsSa eTaHbIKmøat nigKMrUénkareLIgcuH enaH
ERbRbYlerogral;qñaMk¾eday. éføRsUv nigGgár k¾eLIgcuHRsbKañpgEdreTAtamtMbn;plitkmμ lT§PaBTaMgenH
bgðajeGayeXIjfa GRtaERbRbYlenH KWedaysarktþabec©keTs ¬kardwkCBa¢Ún nigkarEkrécñ¦ CaseCog
eyageTAtam\riyabTTIpSarCayuT§saRsþNamYyrbs;GñkcUlrYmTIpSar. PaBxusKñaénéførvagbNþaextþ
nImYy² KWtUc nigEdlfakarTMnak;TMngrvagéføRsUvkm<úCa nigevotNam nigéføRsUvéf KWx<s;Nas;.
éføRsUvevotNam RtUvmanTMnak;TMngy:agxøaMgCamYynwg éføRsUv IR enAkñúgextþtaEkv. éføRsUvsUm:alI

nigdYgma:lI enAextþPaKxageCIgRbeTs eLIgcuHeTAtaméføRsUvéf eRBaHenATIenaH KWmancMnYnCadMkMPYnmYyén
karnaMecjénRsUvsUm:alI nigdYgm:alI eTAkan;RbeTséf.
éføénRsUv nigGgárRtUv)aneGaydwgfamankarekIneLIgenAkñúgqñaMknøgmkfμI²enH edaysarman
karekIneLIgtMrUvkarkñúgRsuk nigmanTMenarekIneLIgenAkñúgéføRsUvBiPBelak. eyageTAtamkar
RsavRCavfμImYy sMrab;qñaM 2005¼2006 éføRsUvEdll¥ KWenAcenøaHBI 500-600 erol¼KILÚRkam
¬RbmaNCa 150 duløarGaemrik¼etan¦ éfølk;duMcMeBaHGgárEdlkinsl¥ KWkñúgeBlbc©úb,nñBI 900-1>500
erol¼KILÚRkam ¬RbmaNCa 350 duløarGaemrik¼etan¦.
GRtabþÚrR)ak;EdlCH\T§iBlelIkarnaMecjRsUv
enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa GRtapþÚrR)ak;pøÚvkar KWGRtapþÚrR)ak;bENþt nigKWBMumanneya)ayritt,itNa
mYyeLIy. ehtuenH GRtabþÚrR)ak; KWminEmnCaRbPBénkarkarBareTAelIplitkmμRsUvenAkñúgRbeTs
eLIy. bEnßmBIelIenHeTot éføRsUvtamRBMEdn RtUv)anKNnaCaFmμta edayGRtabþÚrR)ak; pøÚvkarenH
eTaHbIkalNa TaMgGs;enH KWBuMmanPaBlMnwgk¾eday. GRtabþÚrR)ak;RsemalmYyenAelITIpSar
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;edIm,I cab;eGayCab;nUvlT§plTaMgLayBIGRtabþÚrR)ak;EdlekInelItMél b¤k¾fycuH
eRkamtMéleTAelIplitkmμnanaEdlbgðajeGayBicarNaenAkñúgesdækic©. éfølk;raycMeBaH GgárenAkñúg
TIRkugPñMeBj nigTIRbCMuCnnana )aneLIgcuHCamYynwgGRtabþÚrR)ak;duløar. éføRsUvenAtamRBMEdn
k¾RtUv)anEkrsMrYlpgEdr edIm,IBicarNafaetIplRbeyaCn_plitplTaMgenaH KW)anmkBIBIkarnaMcUl
b¤k¾CakarnaMecj. kalNaplitpl KWCaplitplnaMcUl éfønaMcUlEdlCa c.i.f. RtUv)anEkrsMrYl
edaymankarbUkbBa©Úlénkarbg;tMélRbugeRboberobcM
nigkarbg;tMéldwkCBa¢ÚnBIRBMEdneTATIpSar
nigeFVIkardk ecjGRtamaXItTIg nigkarbg;tMéldwkCBa¢ÚnBIkMritksidæaneTATIpSar. kalNaplitpl KWCa
plitplnaMecj éfønaMecj f.o.b. RtUv)anEkrsMrYledaykardkecjkarbg;tMélRbugeRboberobcM
GRtam:aXItTIg nigkarbg;tMéldwkCBa¢ÚnBIkMBugEpeTAksidæan (Tsakok 1990). eTaHy:agNak¾eday
cenøaHRbehagd¾sxan; ekIteLIgrvagéføRsUv enAkñúgRbeTs nigéføGnþrCatiedaysarkarbg;tMéld¾x<s;
énplitkmμ ehdæarcnasm<½n§xSt;exSay nigTIpSarEdlKaMgsþÚk.
3- neya)ayCMrujGñkplitRsUv
c,ab;dIFøI

CaeRcInTsvtSn_mkehIy rdæaPi)al)anbegáItCapøÚvkarnUvRbB½n§esdækic©sm,Tan edaypþ;l;kar CYl
70 qñaMRKbdNþb;elIépÞdI 888>399 hikta eTAeGayRkumh‘unÉkCnCag 49 Rkumh‘un.
karelIkTwkcitþEdl)anelcecjc,as;enH EdltamesckþIRtUvkarRtUv)ankt;sMKal;fasMrab;BaNiC¢kmμ
nIykmμksikmμtamryHsm,TanenH enAkñúgkarGnuvtþmanEttictYcb:ueNaÑH KW¬RbEhl 10¦ Gac
Rbtibtþikar)an. k¾b:uEnþ\LÚvenH rdæaPi)al KWsßitenAkñúdMeNIrkarénkarlubecalnUvcMnYnmYyén
sm,Tanesdækic©EdlminGacRbtibtþikar)an. TaMgGs;enH k¾RtUv)anesñIeLIgEdlfaépÞdITaMgGs;enH
GacRtUvepÞreTAeGayRKYsarEdlKμandIFøI ¬nig dIxSt;exSay¦ enAeRkamRbB½n§mYyénsm,TandIsgÁmkic©
¬RtUv)anbegáIteLIgedayRkitüc,ab;enAkñúgqñaM 2003¦. eTaHbIy:agNak¾eday karelIkTwkcitþ
TaMgLaysMrab;ne)ayenH KWCabfmdUcEdleQμaHEdl)anesñIeLIgenH mann½yfasgÁmkic© rWk¾kar
EbgEck. TaMgenH KWk¾CasniñTankmμesdækic©d¾xøaMgkøamYypgEdr.
CaBiessRbeTskm<úCa )aneFVIeGaymankareCOnelOnd¾sMxan; enAkñúgkareqøIytbeTAnwgPaBTn;
exSayenAkñúgnitiviFIEbgEckdIedaykarbegáIténRkbx½NÐkargar nigtYnaTICalkçN³c,ab; nigbTbBaØati
epSg² nigkarTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;karRKb;RKg nigrdæ)aldIFøI kñúgeKalbMNgKaMRT nUvplitkrRsUvenAkñúg
RbeTspgEdr. CaBiessPaBeCOnelOnenH RtUv)aneFVItamryH ³
1> karbegáIt enAkñúgqñaM 1998 énRksYgerobcMEdndI nKrrUbnIykmμ nigsMNg;edIm,IdwknaM
karRbwgERbgrbs;rdæaPi)al eTAelIrebobvir³énkarEkrTMrg;dIFøI
2> karbegáItRkumRbwkSaneya)aydIFøI enAkñúgqñaM2000 CamYynwgsmaCik 13 RksYg edIm,I
dwknaMkarerobcMénkarbegáItneya)aydIFøI
3> karTTYlykénnya)ayCatisþIBIdIFøI edayKN³rdæmRnþIenAkñúgEx ]sPa 2001
4> karGnum½ténc,ab;dIFøIfμI enAkñúgEx sIha 2001 nig
5> karTTYlykénGnuRkitümYycMnYnenAeRkamc,ab;dIFøIfμIEdlrab;bBa©Úlkarecjb½NÑkmμsiT§idIFøICaR
bB½n§ nigmineTogTat; karcuHbBa¢IdIFøI KN³kmμaFikarsMrab;edaHRsay TMnas;dIFøIeRkA
RbB½n§tulakar nigsm,TansgÁmsMrab;karEbgEckdIFøI.
CabEnßmeTot GnuRkitüd¾éTeTotCaeRcIn KWkMBugEtsßitenAeRkamkarerobcM nigRtUvsgÇwmfa
RtUvdak;eGayeRbIR)as;enAcugqñaM 2004¼2005 edayrab;bBa©ÚlkarRKb;RKgénsm,Tanesdækic©

karRKb;RKgdIFøIrdæ nigkarTTYlsÁal; nigkarcuHbBa¢IénsiT§idIFøIrbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic ¬FnaKarBiPBelak
2005¦.
kareFVIeGayRbesIreLIgnUvehdæarcnasm<½n§ bec©kviTüaksikmμ nigesv:akmμbBa©Úl
RksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniym )anbegáIteLIgenAkñúgqñaM 1998 KWTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;GPivDÆn_
FarasaRsþTaMgGs;enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa. RksYgFnFanTwkenARkugPñMeBj mankarTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;
TidæPaBbec©keTsénRbB½n§EdlmanTMhMFM TnÞwmnwgKMeragEdlmanTMhMtUc nigmFümTaMgGs; KWTTYlxus
RtUvedaymnÞIrextþénextþEdlCab;Bak;B½n§TaMgenaH. buKÁlikbec©keTstamextþ k¾RtUv)ancUlrYmcMENk
pgEdrenAkñúgkarsikSa nigenAkñúgkarbegáIténRkum nigshKmn_ksikreRbIR)as;Twknana. karGPivDÆn_
FarasaRsþRtUv)ancMNat;fñak;eyageTAtamTMhMeTACa ³
- TMhMtUc - manépÞdItUcCag 200 hikta EdlCaépÞdIRtUv)aneRsacRsB
- TMhMmFüm - cab;BI 200 eTA 5>000 hikta nig
- TMhMFM - manépÞdIFMCag 5>000 hikta
eKalbMNgénRksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniym KW\LÚvenH eFVIeGaymankarekIneLIgépÞdIEdlRtUv
eRsacRsB cab;BI 20 eTA 24 PaKryénépÞdIEdlCadMNaMksiplTaMgGs; cab;BIqñaM 2002 eTA 2007.
karvinieyaKRtUv)anvaytMélRbEhl 880 duløaGaemrik¼hikta sMrab;karksageLIgvijnUvRbB½n§
FarasaRsþ edayrab;bBa©Úlkarbg;tMélehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigGgÁkarshKmn_ksikrTaMgGs;. karvinieyaK
sarubEdlRtUvTamTar nwgRtUvCa 52 landuløaGaemrik kñúg1qñaM ¬ edayrab;bBa©Úl karbeBa©jbBa©ÚlTwk
nigkarRtYtBinitüTwkCMnn;¦. cMENkfvikarsMrab;KMeragFarasaRsþbc©úb,nñrbs; RksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniym
KWCasrubRbEhl 75 landuløaGaemrik sMrab;karvinieyaKryHeBlxøI nigmFüm ¬rhUtdl;qñaM 2006¦.
TaMgenH KWMmancenøaHRbehaghirBaØbTanryHeBlxøI RbEhl 81 landuløaGaemrik.
km<úCa nwgFanakñúgeBl\LÚvenHfa mCÄmNÐlRsavRCav nigRbB½n§pSBVpSay RtUvtMrg;TiseTArk
ksikrkMrittUctacTaMgGs;. enAkñúgTMhMEdlfaFnFan KWGaceRbIR)as;)anmCÄmNÐlRsavRCav nwgRtUv
begáItenAkñúgRbB½n§brisßanksikmμeTAtamRbePTnImYy² Edlrab;bBa©ÚldITMnablicTwkrdUvvsSa dIx<g;rab
nigRbB½n§brisßanksikmμEdlrgCMnn;ral;qñaM. karRsavRCav nwgRtUvpSarP¢ab;CamYynwgRkumpSBVpSay
shvimCÄkarmYyEdlmanmUldæanenAkñúgtMbn;CnbTTaMgLay. karbgðaj nigkarsikSaenA nwgERsEdl

cat;Ecgedayksikr
nwgkøayeTACaskmμPaBpSBVpSaymYykñúgcMeNamskmμPaBpSBVpSaysMxan;².
karRsavRCav nigRbB½n§pSBVpSayTaMgGs; nwgeFVIelIsBIkarekIneLIgnUvRbsiT§iPaBénkareRbIR)as;KImI ksikmμ
nigBUCEdl)aneFVIeGayRbesIreLIg nignwgkt;sMKal;sar³sMxan; eTAelIkareRbIR)as;énsMPar³ Edl)an
eFVIeGayRbesIreLIg nigkarGnuvtþénkarRKb;RKg ¬dUcCakarRKb;RKgdMNaM Twk dI nigCICati¦. CaGtßiPaB
nwgeFVIeGaysMrab;manRbePTepSg² nigRbBlvb,kmμénplitkmμksikmμEdlGacman nirnþr_PaB
CamYynwgTinñ½ybBa©ÚlBIxageRkAxøH² k¾dUcCasMrab;GnuvtþkarRKb;RKgeGaymanRbsiT§iPaB énkarbg;tMél.
RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT nig CARDI )ankt;sMKal;nUvsar³sMxan;eTAelI karRsavRCav
edIm,IplitnUvBUCRsUvEdlmanKuNPaB nigeTAelIkarRtYtBinitüKuNPaBBUCRsUv nigCamYyGgÁkareRkA
rdæaPi)almYycMnYnEdleKk¾mankarTTYlxusRtUvpgEdr kñúgkarpþl;nUvesv:akmμ pSBVpSayeTAplitkrRsUv.
km<úCaRtUv)anRBYy)armÖCamYynwgkarrIkraldalénkareRbIR)as;KImIksikmμ EdlGacCaviPaKTan
sMrab;karekIneLIgnUvplitkmμ k¾b:uEnþCamYynwgkarbg;tMéld¾x<s;mYyeTAelITinñ½ybBa©ÚlEdlnaMcUlCa Biess
CIKImI nigfñaMkm©at;stVl¥it. lT§pld¾TUlMTUlay nigryHeBlyUrénkareRbIR)as;KImI ksikmμ
RtUvEtBicarNaenAkñúgkarRsavRCavénkarbg;tMél nigkarTTYlcMeNj. enATINaEdlsmRsb nigesdækic©
RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT nwgCYyCMrujnUvviFIsaRsþd¾l¥RbesIrénplitkmμ TaMgenHdUcCa
RbB½n§énRsUvRbBlvb,kmμ EdlGnuBaØateGayplitkmμekIneLIg CamYynwgkarkat;bnßykareRbIR)as;
énKImIksikmμ. rdæaPi)alRtUv)anRBYy)armÖ EdlfafñaMkm©at;stVl¥itd¾maneRKaHfñak; RtUv)aneRbIR)as;enA
eLIyenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa. dUcCaksikrxøH enAEtbnþeRbIR)as;fñaMkm©at;stVl¥it TaMgLayEdlmanCatiBul
y:agxøaMg nigEdlRtUv)anhamXat; Edlrab;bBa©ÚldUcCa DDT CaedIm. CabEnßmeTot edIm,Idak;
eGayeRbIR)as;énGnuRkitsþIBIbTdæansMParHksikmμ raCrdæaPi)al CamYynwgéd KUrGPivDÆn_ KWkMBugEtGnuvtþ
nUvkmμviFIsikSasaFarN³ ¬dUcCa karRKb;RKgRbePTstVcéRgcMruH IPM¦ nigFanafa ksikrTaMgGs;
nigGñkeRbIR)as; RtUvEtdwgnUveRKaHfñak;BIfñaMkm©at;stVl¥it nigCIKimIksikmμ.
4- neya)aysþIBIBaNiC¢kmμesrIkmμ sMrab;BaNiC¢kmμRsUv
kardkecjénkardak;kMhitRsUvenAkñúgRbeTs
neya)ayBaNiC¢kmμRsUvkm<úCa )anRtUvkMBugpøas;bþÚrBIKMrUesdækic©Epnkar eTACaKMrUTIpSarebIk
cMhrcab;taMgBIRbeTskm<úCa)ancUlrYmCamYysmaKmRbCaCatiGasuIGaeKñX_ ¬ASEAN¦ kñúgqñaM 1999

nigGgákarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak ¬WTO¦ kñúgqñaM 2004. km<úCa CayUrNas;mkehIyBMuGnuvtþ nUvkardak;
kMhitNamYyeTAelIkarnaMcUl nignaMecjRsUveLIy. Bn§naMcUlbc©úb,nñ eTAelIGgár KW 7PaKry
bUkCamYynwg 10PaKry énBn§tMélbEnßm ¬VAT¦. kaeelIkElgBn§tMélbEnßmeTAelITinñn½y
bBa©ÚlksikmμTaMgLay KWCaTUeTAGacCaRbeyaCn_sMrab;ksikrTaMgGs; eTaHbIkarvaytMéléncMNUlBI
mun²edayrdæaPi)al KWBMuGacrk)anedaysarEtkarxVHxaténTUrelxsßitik¾eday. karelIkElgBn§dI
nigBn§eTAelI R)ak;cMNUlrbs;ksikr nigkarelIkElgBn§eTAelITMnijEdllk;)an nigBn§tMélbEnßmeTA
elIplitkmμpÞal;xøÜnenAkMritcMnucdMbUg KWCasmasFatud¾sMxan;énBaNiC¢kmμesrIkmμrbs;km<úCaenAkñúgvis½y
RsUvenH. k¾b:uEnþGgÁPaBksikmμEdlCaRbePTcMkarFM²TaMgGs; KWRtUvenAEtCakmμvtßúsMrab;Bn§tMél
bEnßmenAeLIy. eTaHbIy:agNak¾eday eTAelIEpñkma:XItTIg km<úCaBMumanpþl;eGaykarKaMRTéfø rWk¾kmμviFI
GnþraKmn_NamYy cMeBaHBaNiC¢kmμrRsUv rWk¾GgáreLIy.
km<úCa manviFankarN_ rWk¾neya)aysnþisuxes,ogmYy edIm,IbegáItnUvkarTukbMrugRsUvCa
lkçN³CatimYy rWk¾CaCMnYsvij)ansMerckarEbgEcksMrab;RbCaCnRkIRk rWk¾RbCaCnEdl)anTTYlrgnUv
eRKaHFmμCati. k¾b:uEnþraCrdaæPi)al k¾)ansßitenACab;Tak;TgenAkñúgkarEbgEckCMnYyes,ógEdr. cMENk
kgT½Bvij)anTijGgárkñúgRsuk nigGgárnaMcUlsMrab;Tah‘an nigRKYsarrbs;eKpgEdr. shRKas rdæmYy/
Green Trade Company (GTC)/ mankarTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;karTijRsUvkñúgnamrdæ edayrab; bBa©ÚlkarTij
nigkarsþúkTukénGgárTukbMrugEdl)antMrUvenAeRkamkic©RBmeRBogénkarbMrugsnþisuxes,og Gas‘an ASEAN
Food Security Reserve Agreement. GTC k¾CMrujpgEdr enAkñúgskmμPaBEsVg rkcMeNjnana
rYmTaMgskmμPaBBaNiCkmμTaMgLay. kmμviFIes,ogGaharBiPBelak nigm©as;CMnYy d¾éTeTot )anTijGgár
kñúgRsuk k¾dUcCaGgárnaMcUl sMrab;kmμviFIes,ógBlkmμrbs;xøÜn. Gñkneya)ay nigRKYsarGñkmanCaeRcIn
k¾)anTijGgárpgEdrsMrab;karEbgEckeTAeGayGñkRkIRk CaBiessenAeBl maneRKaHGasnñ nigenAeBl
eXasnae)aHeqñatpgEdr.
karCMrujkarnaMecjRsUv nigkarbn§Úrbn§y nigkardkecjénkUtanaMecjRsUv
munqñaM 1995 raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa )ancgP¢ab;nUvkarGnuBaØatinaMecjGgár edIm,IFananUvsnþisux
es,ógCati nigedIm,IeFVIeGayR)akdfakartMrUvkares,ógrbs;RbCaCn RtUv)aneqøIytbedayRKb;RKan;.
cab;BIqñaM 1995 km<úCa)anGnuBaØatiedayesrInUvkarnaMecjGgár CamYynwgkarkMhity:agGtibrmabMput.

k¾b;uEnþkartMrUveGaymankarGnuBaØatinaMecjEdl)ancgP¢ab;BImun RtUv)andkecjvij enAkñúgExkkáda
2001. eTaHbIy:agNak¾eday GñknaMecjTaMgGs;RtUvtMrUvCalkçN³c,ab;eGaymankarGnuBaØatimYy
muneBlkar naMecjGgárrbs;eK. eKalbMNgEdl)anBnül;enAkñúgGCJab½NÑenH KWedIm,IFanasnþisux
es,ógkñúgRbeTs Etb:ueNÑaH.
kareFVIGFikarkic©muneBlbBa¢ÚnplitplRsUvnaMecj RtUv)anGnuvtþeday CAMCONTROL
EdlCaGgÁPaBmYyeRkamRksYgBaNiC¢kmμ. CAMCONTROL eFVIGFikarkic©eTAelIkarnaMecjTaMgGs;
edayminmankarelIkElg. kartMrUveGaycuHbBa¢IsMrab;karnaMecjTaMgLay KWdUcnwgsMrab;karnaMcUlEdr
nigEdlfa 15>000 erolCaéføTwkEt )anGnuvtþeTAelIRKb;RbtievTn_naMcUl nignaMecjTaMgGs;. müa:geTot
karykéføTwkEtcMnYn 4 duløaGaemrik kñúgRbtievTn_naMecj nignaMcUlmYy KWRtUvkMBugTTYl
r:ab;rgedayxagnaykdæanKy nigrdæakr. BMumanBn§naMecj RtUv)andak;bnÞúkeTAelIGgárenaHeLIy.
k¾b:uEnþsmaKmm:asuIn kinRsUvkm<úCa )anrkeXIjpgEdrnUvPaBminRbRktIEdlCa]bsKÁd¾cMbgsMrab;kar
naMecjGgárBIkm<úCa. karbg;tMélénkarnaMecjRsUvminpøÚvkarenaH RtUv)anvaytMélRbEhl BI 10 eTA 15
duløaGaemrik kñúg1etanénRsUv ¬Sik 2000 nig tamkarcuHRsavRCav¦.
karlb;ecalénkardak;kMhitnaMcUlénCIKImI nig fñaMkm©at;stVl¥it
cab;BIéf¶ TI 1 mifuna qñaM2005 km<úCa)anlb;ecalnUvkardak;kMhitcMnYnénkarnaMcUlCIKImI fñaMkm©at;
stVl¥it nigTinñn½ybBa©Úlksikmμd¾éTeTot dUc)anerobrab;xagelI nig)anbegáItnUvviFIsaRsþ WTO-Cab;lab;
mYyénkarcuHbBa¢I nigkarBinitüeLIgvijnUvtMrUvkarKImIksikmμEdlnaMcUlTaMgGs;Edl Bak;B½n§eTAnwgsuvtßiPaB
XøaMgsþúkTuk nigkarEbgEckkñúgRbeTsénplitplTaMgenH nwgRtUvGnuvtþEt eTAelIGñkEckcaykñúgRbeTs
rWk¾GñknaMcUlTaMgLayEdleRbIR)as;XøaMgsþúkTukmuneBlkarEckcay kñúgRbeTs. cab;BIEx mkra qñaM
2007 km<úCa nwgeCOTukcitþeTAelIbTbBaØatiénkic©RBmeRBog TBT edIm,Idak;kMrit nUvBaNiC¢kmμkñúgRbeTs
nigGnþrCati enAkñúgerOgr:avTaMgenH.
rhUtmkdl;eBlenH km<úCaBMu)anplit rWk¾naMecjnUvfñaMkm©at;stVl¥iteLIy k¾b:uEnþ)annaMcUl
y:agRkas;ERklBIbreTsCamYynwgkarGnuBaØatiCapøÚvkar nigminpøÚvkarBI evotNam éf cin m:aeLsuI )araMg
swgðbUrI nigétv:an;.l. nig.l. eTaHbIy:agNak¾eday RbB½n§mYy k¾RtUv)anbegáIt eLIgpgEdr
edIm,IcuHbBa¢IfñaMkm©at;stVl¥itTaMgGs;enARbeTskm<úCa k¾dUcCaedIm,IRbmUl rWkt;RtanUvTUrelxénkarnaMcUl

fñaMkm©at;stVl¥it. enATIenH TUrelxxøH² RtUv)ankt;RtaenAkñúgsßab½nrdæaPi)almYycMnYn. sßitiCapøÚvkar
EdlRtUv)ankt;RtaedayRksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj nigensaT KWenAkñúgtaragxag eRkam ³
fñaMkm©at;stVl¥itEdlnaMcUl
2005
2004
2003
plitplCaBaNiC¢kmμTaMgGs; ¬etan¦ 84
42/274 47/500

srub
173/774

5- neya)ayBaNiC¢kmμRsUvkm<úCa eRkamkic©RBmeRBogksikmμénGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak
neya)ayBn§
Bn§Kykm<úCa RtUvCatYrelxCak;lak;cMnYn 8 xÞg;. bBa¢IrayeQμaHBn§ EdlpSMeLIgedaybnÞat;Bn§
6>823 enAkñúgqñaM 2006 )anGnuelameTAtamskbrivtþn_ 1996 énRbB½n§suxkþúmÖnIykmμEdlman
kMrittYrelxEt 6 b:ueNÑaH. GRtaBn§TMagGs; KWKitCa Ad Valorem. bc©úb,nñenH manEtGRtaBn§ MFN Et
b:ueNÑaHEdlmansßitenA elIkElgEtsMrab;plitpl CEPT (Common Effective Preferential Tariff
RbsiT§iPaBGRtaBn§GnueRKaHrYm¦ TaMgGs; EdlmanedImkMeNItenAkñúgRbeTssmaCikGas‘an. enAkñúgkar
EkrTMrg;rcnasm<½n§Bn§rbs;xøÜn km<úCa)ankat;bnßynUvcMnYnRkumBn§TaMgGs;BI 12 rhUtenA sl;Et 4
Rkumb:ueNÑaH enAkñúgeBlbc©Úb,nñenH ¬0/ 7/ 15/ nig 35 PaKry¦. GRtaBn§Edlx<s; TaMgGs; dUcCa 40/
50/ 90 nig 120 PaKry RtUv)anlb;ecjTaMgGs;. GRtaEdlGnuvtþFmμta CamFüménBn§enaH
)anmancMnYn 16/4 PaKryenA KitkñúgqñaM 2001 nigtameKalbMNg KWcg;sMerceGay)annUv
kMritBn§CamFümmYyeRkam 15 PaKry enAkñúgqñaM 2003¼2004.
plitplRsUvTaMgGs; RtUv)ankarBartamryHGRtaBn§Edlx<s;Cagplitplksikmμd¾éTeTot.
elIkElgEtRsUvBUC manGRtaBn§ 5 PaKry nigGRtaBn§CamFüménplitplRsUvd¾éTeTot KW 40 PaKry
TnÞwmnwgBn§BaNiC¢kmμCamFümeTAelIplitplksikmμd¾éTeTot KWRbmaNEtCa 17 PaKry Etb:ueNaÑaH
k¾b:uEnþebIeRbobeFobCamYynwgRbeTsGPivDÆn_ GRtaTaMgGs;enH KWBMumansar³sMxan;eLIy. enAeBlkm<úCa
KWkMBugkat;bnßyBn§naMcUlrbs;xøÜn Bn§elIkarplit RtUvkMBugEtekIneLIg edIm,IFanafa karEkrTMrg;Bn§ KWnwgeFVI
eGaymancMNUlGBüaRkitmYy.
viFankarN_minEmnBn§Ky

GRtaBn§kUta ³ km<úCaBMu)anGnuvtþGRtaBn§kUtakñúgeBlbc©Úb,nñ sMrab;pliplnaMcUlNamYy eLIy

edayrab;bBa©ÚlTMagkarnaMcUlGgár. k¾b:uEnþeTaHbI km<úCa BuM)aneRbIR)as;GRtaBn§kUtamkdl;eBl
enHy:agNak¾eday km<úCanwgTukbMrugsiT§irbs;xøÜn sMrab;karGnuvtþn_nUvkUtaenH edayGaRs½yeTAelI
lT§plénkarcrcar nignWgeKarBeTAtamvin½yrbs;GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelaksþIBIGRtaBn§kUtaEdr.

kUta ³ kmú<Ca k¾BMu)anGnuvtþpgEdr nUvkardak;kMhitCalkçN³cMnYn ¬kUta¦ eTAelIkarnaMcUl

plitplTaMgGs;. eTaHbICay:agNa RbB½n§énGCJab½NÑEdlmankMNt;mYy RtUv)anbegáIteLIg sMrab;karBar
énsuxPaBmnusS plRbeyaCn_GñkeRbIR)as; snþisuxCati nigedIm,IkarBarbrisßan. plitpl
TaMgLayEdltMrUveGaymanGCJab½NÑnaMcUl RtUv)andak;eQμaH enAkñúgtaragTI 9. RbB½n§enH BuMRtUv)an
erobcMeLIg edIm,Idak;kMhitnUvcMnYn rWk¾tMélénkarnaMcUlplitplksikmμenaHeT elIkElgEtfñaM
km©at;stVl¥itEdlRtUv)anBN’narYcehIyenAkñúgkfax½NÐxagelI.
taragTI 9 ³ plitplEdltMrUveGaymanGCJab½NÑnaMcUl
BN’na
GgÁPaBrdæEdlTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;GCJab½NÑnaMcUl
sMPar³evC¢saRsþ nig»sfsaRsþ
RksYgsuxaPi)al/ naykdæan»sf nigcMNIGahar
Tinñ½ybBa©Úlksikmμ
RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT/ naykdæanc,ab;ksikmμ
sBVavuF eRKOgpÞúH nigRKab;kaMePøIg
RksYgkarBarCati
mas R)ak; fμmantMél nigeRKOgénvtßú FnaKarCatiénkm<úCa
TaMgenH
yanþ ynþehaH nigeRKOgbnøas; k)a:l; RksYgkarBarCati
nigkaNUt nigeRKOgm:asuInd¾éTeTot
sMrab;ectnaeyaFa
RbPB ³ WT/ACC/KHM/21

karRbqaMgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø Bn§tbt nigviFankarN_suvtßiPaB ³ eyageTAtamrebobvir³c,ab;rbs;

RbeTskm<úCa c,ab;sþIBIkarRbqaMgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø nigviFankarN_Bn§tbt nigc,ab;sþIBIviFankarN_ suvtißPaB
KWbc©úb,nñsßitenAkñúgdMeNIrkarenAeLIy. km<úCa nwgBMuGnuvtþnUvkarRbqaMgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø viFankarN_Bn§tbt

rWk¾viFankarN_suvtßiPaBNamYyeT cMeBaHplitplnaMcUlNamYy rhUtdl;km<úCa)anCUndMNwg nig)anGnuvtþ
nUvc,ab; nigbTbBaØatid¾smrmüenAkñúgkarGnuelamCamYynwgbT bBaØatiénkic©RBmeRBog WTO sþIBIkarGnuvtþ
énmaRtaTI VI sþIBIkar]btßmFn nigviFankarN_Bn§tbt nigsþIGMBIviFankarN_suvtßiPaB. eRkayBIc,ab;enH
RtUv)anGnuvtþ km<úCanwgGnuvtþEtBn§RbqaMgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø Bn§tbt nigviFankarN_ suvtßiPaBNamYy
EdlGnuelameBjeljCamYynwgbTbBaaØti WTO sMxan;Etb:ueNÑaH.

rnaMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ

(TBT)

³ RbB½n§sþg;danIykmμrbs;km<úCa KWkMBugsßitenAkñúgdMNak;

kardMbUgénkarGPivDÆn_. RbB½n§bc©úb,nñ KWPaKeRcInedaysμ½RKcitþ k¾b:uEnþsþg;daEdlCabTbBa¢ak¾RtUv)an
GnuvtþsMrab;plitplCaeRcInEdr kalNaRtUvyl;facaM)ac;sMrab;karBarsnþisuxCati sMrab;raraMgkar
GnuvtþEkøgbnøM rWk¾sMrab;karBarCivitmnusS stV nigrukçCati rWk¾suxPaB. km<úCa )anpþl;sc©ab½nnUvkic©
RBmeRBogKMragkargarGas‘ansþIBIkarsMruHsMrYlTTYlsÁal;KñaeTAvijeTAmk.
plitplnaMcUlTaMgGs;
KWRtUvCakmμvtßúsMrab;dMeNIrkarGFikarkic© dUcKñaeTAnwgplitplEdlplitkñúgRsukEdr nigkm<úCanwgBRgIk
kic©RBmeRBogkarvaytMélPaBRtUvr:UvKñaNamYy CaBiessGVIEdl)anyl;eXIjCamun eRkamkic©RBmeRBog
Gas‘an eTAsmaCikTaMgGs;énGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak. GnuRkitsþIBIsþg;da]sSahkmμelx
42¼GnRk¼bk cuHéf¶TI 15 ]sPa 2001 nigGnuRkitsþIBIkarvas;Evg EdlRtUv)anTTYlykkñúgqñaM 2003
)anpþl;nUvtYnaTI nignitiviFICamUldæansMrab;karTTYlyknUvsþg;dafμI² bTbBaØatibec©keTs nignitiviFIvay
tMélPaBRtUvr:UvKñaTaMgenaH.

viFankarN_Gnam½y nigPUtþKamGnam½y ¬SPS¦ ³ km<úCa nwgGnuvtþy:ageBjeljnUvkic©RBm

eRBogGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak sþIBIkarGnuvtþénviFankarN_Gnam½y nigPUtþKamGnam½y mineGay
yWtCagéf¶TI 1 mkra 2008 eLIy. enAkñúgkMlugeBlenH viFankarN_manRsab; Edlerobryeday
c,ab;mYycMnYnenaH nwgRtUvGnuvtþenAeRkammUldæanminerIseGIgTaMgGs;Edl)anpþl;cMeBaHRbRBwtþkmμCati
nigRbRBwtþkmμ MFN sMrab;karnaMcUlnana.
karpþl;BIrdæaPi)al ¬Government Procurement¦ ³ karpþl;edayrdæaPi)al RtUv)anGnuvtþ
tamryHGacCa ¬i¦ karRbkYtRbECgedjéføCaGnþrCati ¬ICB¦ ¬ii¦ karRbkYtRbECgedjéføCa
lkçN³Cati ¬DCB¦ ¬iii¦ karTijGIv:an;CaGnþrCati ¬IS¦ ¬iv¦ karTTUcsMuCalkçN³Cati ¬DC¦ rWk¾ ¬v¦
karTijedaypÞal; rWk¾kic©snüaedaypÞal; ¬Dcon¦. kic©nüaCa ICB nig DCB RtUv)aneXasna

pSayCalkçN³saFarN³ nigebIkcMhrsMrab;GñkedjéføEdlcab;GarmμN_TaMgGs; nigviFIsaRsþbIcug
eRkayBMuTamTareGayebIkcMhrCakarRbkYtRbECgsaFarN³eLIy k¾b:uEnþkarcUlrYmBIGñkedjéføbreTs
k¾BMuRtUv)anhamXat;eLIy. rhUtmkdl;eBl\LÚvenH km<úCaBMuTan;taMgcitþcUlrYmkic©RBmeRBogBhuPaKI
EdlmanlkçN³minbgçM ¬plurilateral agreement¦ sþIBIkarpþl;BIrdæaPi)alenaHenAeLIyeT.
kar]btßmÖFnnaMecjénplitplRsUv
km<úCa
BMumanRbePTNamYyénkar]btßmÖFnsMrab;karnaMecjplitplksikmμrbs;xøÜneLIy
edayrab;bBa©ÚlTaMgplitplRsUvpgEdr eTaHbIenAeRkamkic©RBmeRBogksikmμ RbeTsGPivDÆn_tictYc
d¾éTepSgeTot BuMRtUv)anTamTareGayTTYlyk nUvkarsnüadUcenHenaHeLIy. eyageTAtam eTsrdæm®nþI
cm RbsiT§ rdæaPi)al RtUv)ansnüasMrab;briyakasBaNiC¢kmμesrImYyd¾BitR)akd ³ : eyIg KWCaRbeTs
karN_niym ¬Pragmatic Country¦. km<úCa BMuGacmanRKb;RKan;nUvkar]btßmÖFn ksikmμEdlBMuEmnCa
GVIEdll¥ sMrab;karRbkYtRbECgTaMgLayEdlmanryHeBlyUreLIy. rdæaPi)al BuMeCOfakar]btßmÖFn
KWCayuT§sa®sþd¾l¥ edIm,IkarGPivDÆn_Edlmannirnþr_PaBénvis½y ksikmμenaHeLIy TnÞwmnwgeBlninñakar
GnþrCatiRbkaseGaylb;bM)at;ecalénkar]btßmÖFnenaH :. rdæaPi)al BuM)anBRgIknUv\NTannaMecjTaMg
Lay karFanar:ab;rgkarnaMecj rWk¾kmμviFIFanar:ab;rgepSg²eTotsMrab; plitplRsUv nigplitplksikmμ
d¾éTeToteLIy.
eTaHbIkm<úCa BMumanpþl;eGay nUvRbePTénkar]btßmÖFnnaMecjedaypÞal;NamYyk¾eday k¾b;uEnþ
RbeTsenH )aneRbIR)as;karelIkTwkcitþCaBn§GnueRKaH edIm,ITak;TajkarvinieyaKTaMgLayEdl nwgnaMecj
80° énplitplEdl)anplitrbs;xøÜn eTAkan;TIpSarGnþrCati. c,ab;qñaM 1994 sþIBIkar
vinieyaKEdl)aneFVIviesaFnkmμ enAkñúgqñaM 2003 )anpþl;karelIkTwkcitþ nigpþl;buBVsiT§i edayrab;
bBa©ÚlkarelIkElgTaMgGs; rWk¾CaEpñkénBn§Ky nigBn§d¾éTeTotsMrab;KMeragvinieyaKTaMgLayNa
EdlmanKuNsm,tþiRKb;RKan; ¬QIP¦ eyageTAtamKMeragvinieyaKTaMgGs;Edl)anTTYlviBaØabnb½Rt
cuHbBa¢IcugbBa©b;Edlpþl;edayRkumRbwkSaGPivDÆn_km<úCa ¬CDC¦. c,ab;vinieyaK pþl;nUvkarelIkElg
Bn§naMcUlsMrab;sMParHsMNg; brikçaplitkmμ nigFnFanbBa©Úlplitkmμd¾éTeTot EdleRbIR)as;eday
karnaMecj QIPs nig QIPs kñúgRsuk. karKaMRT QIPs k¾RtUv)anpþl;siT§isMrab;karelIkElgpgEdr. k¾b:uEnþ
QIPs
RtUvTamTareGaybg;Bn§Ky nigBn§d¾éTeToteTAelIFnFanbBa©ÚlplitkmμTaMgGs; sMrab;

cMnYnEdlBMuRtUv)anpÁt;pÁg;eTAeGay]sSahkmμnaMecj
eLIgvij.

rWk¾RtUvnaMecjedaypÞal;eRkayBIkarRtYtBinitü

karKaMRTkñúgRsukénplitplRsUvkm<úCa
Cavis½yesdækic©KnøwHmYy ksikmμmantYnaTIy:agsMxan;mYyenAkñúgkarGPivDÆn_ nigesßrPaB
esdækic©énesdækic©TaMgmUl. karKaMRTkñúgRsuksMrab;vis½yksikmμ KWsMxan;sMrab;bBaðaTaMgBIr dUcCakar
karBarCIvPaB rs;enArbs;ksikr nigkareFVIeGayekIneLIgnUvPaBRbkYtRbECgénvis½yksikmμenAkñúg
TIpSarGnþrCati. CamYysmaCikPaBkm<úCakñúg WTO karKaMRTkñúgRsuksMrab;ksikmμ nwgRtUvmankar
RtUvr:UvKñaCamYynwg kic©RBmeRBogsþIBIksikmμ ¬AOA¦rbs; WTO. viFankarN_KaMRTkñúgRsukepSg²
sMrab;vis½yksikmμrbs; km<úCaEdlKWGacGnuBaØatienAeRkamkic©RBmeRBogksikmμ ¬AOA¦ RtUv)an
bgðajenAxageRkamenH.
- neya)ayRbGb;ébtg ¬Green Box¦ RKbdNþb;kmμviFIesv:akmμrdæaPi)alCaeRcInrab;
bBa©ÚlTaMgesv:akmμTUeTAEdlpþl;edayrdæaPi)al kmμviFIGñkkan;kab;PaKh‘unsaFarN³ sMrab;eKalbMNg
snþisuxes,óg nigCMnYyes,ógGaharkñúgRbeTs. RbGb;ébtg k¾)anpþl;pgEdrsMrab;kareRbIR)as;én
karRbKl;R)ak;edaypÞal;eTAplitkr EdlKWCaviFankarN_KaMRTR)ak;cMNUlEdlmanlkçN³pþac;kar Tak;Tg
karFanar:ab;rgR)ak;cMNUl nigkmμviFIsMNaj;esßrPaBnanaCaeRcIneTot dUcCaCMnYysMrab; eRKaHmhnþray
FmμCati RbePTénkmμviFICMnYyerobcMehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigkarpþl;R)ak;EdlR)akdRbCa eRkamkmμviFIbrisßan
nigeRkamkmμviFICMnYyCalkçN³tMbn;CaeRcIneTot. km<úCa nwgRtUvGnuBaØati eGaypþl;kar]btßmÖFnRbGb;
ébtgenHy:ageRcIntamEtkm<úCaGaceFVIeTA)an.
cMeBaHneya)ayRbGb;ébtg viTüasßanRsavRCav nigGPivDÆn_ksikmμkm<úCa ¬CARDI¦ Edl
RtUv)anbegáItedayraCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa RtUv)ankMBugedIrtYnaTId¾sMxan;kñúgeBlbc©úb,nñ sMrab;karRsavRCav
ksikmμsMrab;RbeTskm<úCa ehIyk¾RtUv)ankMBugpþl;karKaMRTsMrab;karGPivDÆn_énsmtßPaBRKb;RKgkar
RsavRCav nigRtUv)ankMBugBRgIklT§plrbs;xøÜneTAksikr smaKmksikr nigGCIvkmμksikmμ TaMgGs;.
RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT k¾kMBugEtpþl;nUvesv:akmμpSBVpSayTaMgLayeTAksikrTUeTAenAkñúg
RbeTspgEdr.

rdæaPi)alkm<úCa k¾)anpþl;pgEdrnUvBUCRsUveTAksikrEdlrg\T§iBledayeRKaHmhnþrayFmμCati
nig)anEckcayeRbgm:as‘UtedayBMuKitéføedIm,IksikreRbIR)as;enAkñúgRbtibtþikarbUmTwkeRsacRsb;enAkñúgsßa
nPaBénPaBGasnñraMgs¶Üt. CabEnßmeTot sMrab;vFi ankarN_RbGb;ébtg ksikrkm<úCaTaMgGs; RtUv)an
elIkElgecjBIBn§dIFøIksikmμ nigBn§R)ak;cMNUlTaMgGs; EdlRtUv)ancat;TukfaCa karKaMRTR)ak;cMNUlEdl
manlkçN³pþac;karTak;Tg. karelIkElgBn§tMélbEnßm eTAelIFnFan bBa©Úlksikmμnana KWk¾RtUvGacTuk
CaTUeTApgEdrsMrab;ksikrTaMgGs; eTaHbIkarsnñidæanénR)ak;cMNUl EdlRtUvCalT§plBIkarKaMRTBitR)akd
rbs;rdæaPi)alpgEdr KWBMuGacrk)ank¾eday edaysarEtkar xVHxaténTUrelxsßitienaH.
- RbGb;exov¬Blue Box¦ eyageTAtamviFankarN_ : RbGb;exov : KWCakarRbKl;R)ak; edaypÞal;
eRkamkmμviFIénkarkMritplitkmμ kmμviFICMnYyd¾BitR)akdNamYyrbs;rdæaPi)aledIm,ICMrujkar GPivDÆn_
ksikmμ nigCnbTenAkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_nana nigkarKaMRTkMrittUcd¾éTeTot ¬ : de minimis :¦
kalNaRtUveRbobeFobCamYynwgtMélsarubénplitpl rWk¾plitplEdlRtUv)anKaMRT ¬tUcCag5°enAkñúg
krNIRbeTsGPivDÆn_ nig10°enAkñúgkrNIénRbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_¦. kar]btßmÖFn én :RbGb;ébtg : nig
: RbGb;exov : RtUv)anelIkElgecjBIkarrYmbBa©ÚleTAkñúgviFankarN_ KaMRTbBa©ÚlKña ¬Aggregate
Measures Supports (AMS)¦ EdlRtUv)anBicarNaenAkénøgCaeRcIn faCakarritt,itBaNiC¢kmμecjBIkar
KaMRTkñúgRsuk. rhUtmkdl;eBlenH km<úCaenABMuTan;mannUvTUrelx sßitiNamYycMeBaHkarKaMRTTaMgenHeTA
ksikreLIy eTaHbIraCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa )ancUlrYmnUvRbePTénkar KaMRTTaMgenHCaeRcInedIm,ICMrujkar
GPivDÆn_ksikmμ nigCnbT nig)ancUlrYmKaMRTkMrittUc²d¾éTeTotEdl rab;bBa©Úlkarpþl;\NTanCamYynwg
GRtakarR)ak;Tab edayFnaKarGPivDÆn_CnbTeTAGñkplitRsUv nigkar]btßmÖnUvBUCRsUvEdlRtUv)aneFVI
eGayRbesIreLIg nigkar]btßmÖRbB½n§eRsacRsb; .l.

RbGb;elOg ¬Amber

¦ RKb;dNþb;viFankarN_énkarKaMRTéfønanEdlRtUv)anpþl;eday

Box

rdæaPi)al
nigKWCaRbePTd¾sMxan;xøaMgNas;énviFankarN_neya)ayenAkñúgRkumEdlminRtUvelIkElg.
karKaMRTéføGacRtUvpþl;eGay GactamryHéføEdlCardæ)al ¬Bak;B½n§karepÞrTaMgLayNaBIGñkeRbIR)as;¦
rWk¾tamryHRbePTd¾Cak;lak;énkarRbKl;R)ak;edaypÞal;BIrdæaPi)al. cMeBaHeKalbMNgén karKNna
AMS
sarubbc©úb,nñ karKaMRTéføRtUvvas;EvgCaTUeTAedaykarKuNnUvTMhMcenøaHrvagéføCardæ)alEdl
RtUvGnuvtþ nigéføeyagxageRkAEdlefrCak;lak;mYy ¬éføTIpSarGnþrCati¦ CamYynwgcMnYnénplitkmμ

EdlGaceRCIserIsedIm,ITTYlnUvéføEdlCardæ)alenaH. rhUtmkdl;eBlenH raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa BMumannUv
bePTNamYyénviFankarN_KaMRTéførebobenH sMrab;Gñkplitksiplrbs;xøÜneLIy.
6- karsnüarbs;km<úCasMrab;karerobcMBaNiC¢kmμtMbn; nigkic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmμeTVrPaKI
karsnüarbs;km<úCaeRkamtMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an
tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an ¬AFTA¦RtUv)anbegáIteLIgenAkñúgEx mkra qñaM 1992 edIm,IbM)at;
ecalnUvrnaMgBn§TaMgLaykñúgcMeNamRbeTsGasuIGaeKñX_ CamYynwgTsSnHedIm,IeFVIsmahrNkmμesdækic©
Gas‘an eTACamUldæanplitkmμEtmYy nigbegáItTIpSarrYmmYyEdlmanRbCaCn 500 lanGñk. kic©RBm
eRBogsþIBIRbB½n§Bn§GnueRKaHEdlmanRbsiT§iPaBrYm ¬CEPT¦ sMrab; AFTA KWTamTarfaGRtaBn§Edl
)ancgeTAtamRbePTd¾TUlMTUlaymYyénplitplEdl)aneFVIBaNiCkmμenAkñúgtMbn;RtUvEtkat;bnßyedaymi
neGayenAelIsBI 5° eLIy. kardak;kMhiténcMnYnnaMcUlTaMgLay nigrnaMgminEmn Bn§Kyd¾éTeTot
KWk¾RtUvbM)at;ecalpgEdr. eTaHbIkalviPaKEdlCadMbUg RtUveFIVeGaysMerc)anenA kñúgqñaM 2008 k¾eday
k¾TisedAéntMbn;BaNiC¢kmμsirIenAkñúg ASEAN RtUv)anbnþeFVI clnaeTAmuxCanic©.
km<úCa )ancUlrYm ASEAN enAéf¶TI 30 Ex mkra qñaM 1995 nigRtUv)ansnüaCadMNak;kal²
pgEdrcMeBaHkarGnuvtþ CEPT edIm,eFVIeGayeTACakarBiténtMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an enAéf¶TI 1 Ex mkra
qñaM 2000. kBa©b; CEPT rbs;km<úCa rab;bBa©ÚlbnÞat;Bn§Kysarub 6>821 EdlpSMeday 3>114
plitpl enAkñúgbBa¢Irab;bBa©Úl ¬inclusion list¦ ¬= 45/65° énbnÞat;Bn§Kysarub¦ 3>523
bnÞat;Bn§Ky ¬=51/65° énbnÞat;Bn§Kysarub¦ enAkñúgbBa¢IelIkElgbeNþaHGasnñ ¬temporary
exclusion list¦ 134 bnÞat;Bn§Ky ¬= 1/96° énbnÞat;Bn§Kysarub¦ enAkñúgbBa¢IelIk ElgTUeTA
¬general exceptional list¦ nig 50°énbnÞat;Bn§Ky ¬= 0/73° énbnÞat;Bn§Kysarub¦
enAkñúgbBa¢IviyiTPaB ¬sensitive list¦. bc©úb,nñ sMrab;kBa©b; CEPT rbs;km<úCa plitplRsUvTaMgGs;
rbs;km<úCa RtUv)andak;eTAkñúgbBa¢IviyiTPaB.
eyageTAtamkalviPaKénGRtaBn§ km<úCa nwgmankarbnÞabGRtaBn§rbs;xøÜnenAkñúgcenøaH 0 nig 5°
sMrab; 85°énplitpl nigesv:akmμrbs;xøÜnenAkñúgbBa¢IrYmbBa©Úl ¬inclusion list¦ enAkñúgqñaM 2007.
enAkñúgqñaMCabnþbnÞab; PaKryénplitpl nigesv:akmμenAkñúgbBa¢IrYmbBa©Úl nwgmankarekIn eLIgrhUt 90
PaKry. enAkñúgqñaM 2009 100° énPaKryplitpl nigesv:akmμenAkñúgbBa¢IrYmbBa©Úl

nwgsßitenAkñúgcenøaH 0 nig 5°. enAkñúgqñaM 2010 60° énplitpl nigesva:kmμenAkñúgbBa¢I rab;bBa©Úl
nwgRtUvkat;bnßyrhUtdl; 0°. CaTIbBa©b; enAkñúgqñaM 2015 100°énplitpl nigesv:akmμrbs;
km<úCaenAkñúgbBa¢Irab;bBa©Úl nwgRtUvkat;bnßyrhUtdl; 0°. müa:gvijeTot km<úCaGacTTYlRbeyaCn_
BIplitplEdlRtUv)andak;bBa©ÚleTAkñúgbBa¢IviyiTPaBpgEdr. cMnYnénbnÞat;Bn§TaMgGs;rbs;km<úCaEdl
GacRtUv)andak;bBa©ÚleTAkñúgbBa¢IviyiTPaBenH RtUvCakmμvtßúedIm,IkMritGtibrimamYyesμI 10° rbs;bnÞat;
Bn§KyTaMgGs;.
taragTI 10 ³ kalviPaKGRtaBn§énsmaCikfμIrbs;Gas‘an
evotNam
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2015

Lav
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2015

mIy:anma:
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2015

km<úCa
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2015

PaKryénplitpl
nigesv:akmμenAkñúgbBa¢Irab;bBa©Úl
85°
90°
100°
60°

PaKryénGRt
aBn§
0° - 5°
0° - 5°

100°

TMnak;TMngBaNiC¢kmμ km<úCa-kUer:xagt,Úg
km<úCa)ancuHhtßelxa nUvkic©RBmeRBogCamYyRbeTskUer:xagt,Úg edIm,ICYynUvkarbegáItTIpSar
PaKh‘unenAcugbBa©b;énTsvtSn_enH. kic©RBmeRBogd¾eTeTotrvagGñkdwknaMRbeTsTaMgBIr k¾rab;bBa©Úl
pgEdrnUvcMnYnCaeRcInénhtßelxaEdlCMrujsm<½n§emRtIPaBBaNiC¢kmμrbs;RbeTsTaMgBIr CaBiessenA
kñúgEpñksMNg; ]sSahkmμ vinieyaK nigGPivDÆn_ehdæarcnasm<½n§ k¾dUcCakic©RBmeRBogcMeBaHRbeTs
kUer:xagt,ÚgedIm,IksagbNþajkargarénbec©kviC¢aBt’man ¬IT Network¦ enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa. bc©úb,nñ
rdæaPi)alRbeTsTaMgBIr k¾)anBiPakSaKñaedIm,IrkRck;bBa©b;nUvGtulüPaBBaNiC¢kmμd¾F¶n;F¶rmYy rvagRbCa

CatiTaMgBIr edaykareFVIeGayekIneLIgénkarnaMecjnanarbs;km<úCaeTARbeTskUer:xagt,Úg. k¾b:uEnþrvag
CMnYy nigBaNiC¢kmμ RbeTskUer:xagt,Úg KWk¾CaGñkpþl;viPaKTand¾FMmYycMeBaHesdækic© km<úCapgEdr.
TMnak;TMngBaNiC¢kmμkm<úCa-cin
km<úCa KWCaRbCaCatid¾rak;Tak;CitsñiT§mYyrbs;RbeTscin. RbeTscin )anbegáItTMnak;TMng
karTUtnanaCamYynwgRbeTskm<úCa enAéf¶TI 19 Ex kkáda qñaM 1958. naykrdæm®nþITIBIrénRbeTs km<úCa
)aneFVITsSn³kic©enARbeTscincab;BIéf¶TI 18 rhUtdl;éf¶TI 23 Ex kkáda kñúgqñaM 1996 nigenAéf¶TI 19
kkáda RbeTsTaMgBIr )ancuHhtßelxa elIkic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmμ nigkic©RBm eRBogkarBarvinieyaK.
cab;BIqñaM 1992 TMhMBaNiC¢kmμeTVPaKI )anemIleXIjnUvkarekIneLIgCabnþ bnÞab;y:agxøaMgmYy. enAkñúgqñaM
1997 TMhMBaNiC¢kmμ cin-km<úCa )anQandl; 120 landuløa Gaemrik KWekIneLIg71/8°eRbobeFob
eTAnwgmYyqñaMmun. enAkñúgqñaM1998 cMnYnenH )ansMercdl;eTA 162 landuløa KWmankarekIneLIg
34/1°. TMhMBaNiC¢kmμeTVPaKI énqñaM 1999 KW 160 landuløa KWFøak;cuH 1/1°
eRbobeFobeTAnwgmYyqñaMmun KWCaGVIEdlKNnIkarnaMecjrbs;RbeTscinTaMgGs;man 104 landuløa
KWfycuH 8/2° PaKry ehIykarnaMcUl 55/79 landuløa KWmankarekIneLIg 15/8°
eRbobeFobeTAnwgmYyqñaMmun. karnaMecjCacMbgTaMgGs;BIRbeTscin eTAkm<úCarab;bBa©Úl plitpl
eRKOgm:asuIn nigeGLicRtUnik vaynP½NÐ EdkEfb sMelokbMBak; nigeRKOgRbdab;tubEtg esoKVIebIkbiT
nigehdæarcnasm<½n§karBaresoKVI plitpleKhdæan »sf sMParHCagEdksmBaز Es,keCIg .l.
karnaMcUlCacMbgBIkm<úCa eTARbeTscinvij rab;bBa©Úl ekAs‘U Gus eQI kþakMpøaek .l. nig .l.
TMnak;TMngBaNiC¢kmμkm<úCa-Gaemrik
cab;taMgBIkarcab;epþImeLIgvijénTMnak;TMngkarTUtTaMgGs;CamYynwgkm<úCa shrdæGaemrik KW)an
sßitenACYrmuxénkarGPivDÆn_km<úCa. enAkñúgqñaM 1996 RbFannaFibtIénshrdæGaemrik )ancuH
htßelxaelIKMeragc,ab;mYy Edlpþl;eGaykm<úCa CapøÚvkarnUvzan³CaRbCaCatiEdlpþl;PaBGnueRKaH bMput
¬Most Favored Nation¦. eRkABIenH rdæaPi)alshrdæGaemrik CabnþbnÞab;)aneRCIserIskm<úCa
CaGñkTTYlplmYyeRkamKMeragRbB½n§GnueRKaHBn§TUeTA ¬Generalized System of Preferences¦ enAkñúgqñaM
1997. enAkñúgqñaM 1999 km<úCa nigshrdæGaemrik )ancuHhtßelxaelIkic©RBmeRBogeTVPaKI
mYysþIBIvaynP½NÐ ¬BTA¦ KWCakic©RBmeRBogrYmmYyEdlP¢ab;bTdæankargareTAnwgBaNiC¢kmμ. CabEnßm

eTot GnuRbFantMNagBaNiC¢kmμshrdæGaemrik nigrdæm®nþIBaNiC¢kmμkm<úCa )ancuHhtßelxaelIkic©
RBmeRBog BaNiC¢kmμ nigKMeragkargarvinieyaK ¬TIFA¦ enAéf¶TI 14 Ex kkáda qñaM 2006.
enAeRkamKMerag TIFA RbeTsTaMgBIr nwgBicarNanUvpøÚvnana edIm,IBRgIk nigbn§ÚbnßyBaNiC¢kmμ
nigkarvinieyaKeTVPaKI. RbeTsTaMgBIr k¾nwgBiPakSapgEdrnUvbBaðaCaeRcIn dUcCakmμsiTi§bBaØa karsMrYl
BaNiC¢kmμ nigKy nigkar Gnuvtþénkic©snüa WTO TaMgLayrbs;km<úCa.
eRkABIenH cMeBaHkm<úCa shrdæGaemrik KWCaédKUrBaNiC¢kmμd¾FMmYycab;taMgBIqñaM 1998.
karnaMecjTaMgGs;eTAshrdæGaemrik manCasarub 1/5 ekadiduløa enAkñúgqñaM 2004 KWRtUv)anKNna
minticCag 70° énkarnaMecjsarubrbs;km<úCa nigk¾elI 35° énplitplkñúgRsuksarubrbs;km<úCa
pgEdr. karnaMecjTaMgGs;rbs;shrdæGaemrikeTAkm<úCa KWtUcsMebImebIeFVIkareRbobeFobeTA fVIebI
mankarekIneLIgBIRbmaN 20 landuløa enAkñúgqñaM 1999 eTA 59 landuløa enAkñúgqñaM 2004 k¾eday.
shrdæGaemrik KWk¾CaRbeTspþl;CMnYyeTVPaKId¾FMTIBIrcMeBaHkm<úCa bnÞab;BIRbeTsCb:un. CMnYyBIPñak;gar
shrdæGaemriksMrab;karGPivDÆn_GnþrCati ¬USAID¦ )anQandl; 57 landuløa enAkñúgqñaM 2004
nigRtUvrMBwgfamankarekIneLIgBImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaMeTot.
TMnak;TMngBaNiC¢kmμkm<úCa-Cb:un
lT§PaBénkic©RBmeRBogvinieyaKkm<úCa-Cb:un RtUv)anBiPakSa. sar³sMxan;énesßrPaBCalkçN³
c,ab; nigPaBEdlGacTsSn_Tay)an Edl)anpþl;edaykic©RBmeRBogenHk¾RtUv)anEføgRbkas pgEdr.
TaMgenH RtUv)ancg¥úlbgðaj fakic©RBmeRBogvinieyaKEdlGacekIteLIgmYy RtUvrab;bBa©Úl nUvbTbBaØati
sþIBIesrIPavUbnIykmμénkarvinieyaK k¾dUcCabTbBaØatisþIBIkarvinieyaK EdlRtUv)anrab; bBa©ÚlenAkñúg
CMBUkénkarvinieyaKrbs;kic©RBmeRBogédKUresdækic© ¬EPA¦ EdlRbeTsCb:un )ancuHhtßelxaCamYy
nwgRbeTsd¾éTeTotenAkñúgqñaMfμI²enH.
7- karsMrYlBaNiC¢kmμRsUvrbs;km<úCa
karvaytMélrbs;Ky
km<úCa KWsßitenAkñúgdMeNIrkarénkarEkrTMrg;rbbKyrbs;xøÜn tamryHkarEkrTMrg; nigkmμ
viFITMenIbnIykmμR)aMqñaMmYy ¬2003-2008¦ edIm,ICaExSbnÞat; nigeFVIeGayRbesIreLIgnUvRbsiTi§
PaBénRbtibtþikarrbs;Ky nigedIm,IsMrYlnUvBaNiC¢kmμ. CamYynwgCMnYy BImUlniFirUbIyb½NÑGnþrCati

c,ab;sþIBIKyEdl)anEkrsMrYleLIgvij )anRtUvBRgag nigrg;caMkaryl;RBmBIsPaCati. CaEpñkmYyén
karsnüasMucUl WTO rbs;xøÜn km<úCanwgGnuvtþkic©RBmeRBogkarvaytMélrbs;KyenAkñúgExmkra 2009.
eTaHbIkm<úCa )aneFVInUvkareCOnelOnmYycMnYnenAkñúgkarRbwgERbgEkrTMrg;nanak¾eday nitiviFIKy KWenAEt
sßitkñúgPaBsμúKsμajenAeLIy. GCIvkmμkñúgRsuk nigbreTs TaMgBIrGñk)aneFVIkar tv:akñúgeBlbc©úb,nñfa
naykdæanKy nigrdæakr CaTUeTAeFVIeGaycab;GarmμN_enAkñúgkarGnuvtþEdlfa BuuMmantMlaPaB nigEdlfa
Cajwkjab;elcecjnUvlkçN³CaGCJakNþal nigEdlpÞúyBIc,ab;. GñknaMcUlCaeRcIn niyayCajwkjab;
BIbBaðaTaMgLayCamYynwgkarBnüardMeNIrkareFVIÉksarhYs RbmaN TMrg;kar nigRkdas;sñamkargar
d¾elIslb; Edlkac;cgáÚtedaykarGnuvtþEdlsMerceTAtamkar vinicä½yrbs;buKÁly:agelIslb;.
viFanRbPBedIm
km<úCa BMuTan;)anbegáIteLIgnUvbTbBaØatiTMagLaysþIBIviFanRbPBedImenAeLIyeT nigmanbMNg;
dak;ecjnUvviFanGnueRKaHénRbPBedIm dUcEdl)anTamTarenAkñúgsmaCikPaBrbs;xøÜnenAkñúgGas‘an. k¾b:uEnþ
km<úCaRtUv)ansMNUmBredaysmaCikén WTO eGayc,ab; nigbTbBaØatiTaMgGs;rbs;km<úCa sþIBIviFan
RbPBedIm KWKYrEtGnuelamCamYynwgbTbBaØatiénkic©RBmeRBog WTO sþIBIviFanRbPBedIm nigKYrEtrYm
bBa©ÚlnUvkarTamTarénmaRtaTI 2 ¬h¦ nig]bsm<½n§ II kfax½NÐ 3 ¬d¦ EdlsMrab; viFanRbPBedImmin
GnueRKaH nigGnueRKaH. GCJaFrKy KYrEtpþl;eTAtamsMNUmBrrbs;Gñk naMecj nignaMcUl
rWk¾buKÁlNamYyCamYynwgmUlehtusmehtuplnUvkarvaytMélénRbPBedIménkarnaMcUl nigpþl;CaTMrg;
nUvlkç½NÐenAeRkamEdlfaTaMgGs;enaHKYrEtRtUvpþl;eGay nigEdlfasMNUmBrNamYy sMrab;karvaytMél
enHKYrEtRtUvTTYlyk
eTaHbICamuneBlkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμénplitplEdl)anBak;B½n§
enaH
RtUv)ancab;epþImk¾eday.
rhUtmkdl;eBlenH GñknaMecjTaMgGs;RtUv)anTamTaredayraCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa eGaybgðaj
RbPBedImrbs;plitplenAkñúgesckþIRbkas;naMcUlrbs;xøÜn cMeBaHBaNiC¢kmμénplitplEdlBMuGnueRKaH
TaMgGs;. karTamTaenH RtUv)anGnuvtþedIm,IEteKalbMNgsßitiEtb:ueNaÑH. eTaHbIy:agNak¾eday
km<úCamanbMNg eFVItamTaMgRsugCamYynwgbTbBaØatiénkic©RBmeRBog WTO sþIBIviFanRbPBedIm
enAkñúgkarGnuvtþénviFanRbPBedImEdlGnueRKaH nigminGnueRKaH nigeFVIkarGnuvtþviFanTaMgenHeRkayBI
karGnum½ténc,ab;Ky nigrdæakrfμI nigkarGnuvtþbTbBaØatiTaMgGs;rbs;va. CaBiess karTamTarén maRtaTI

2 ¬h¦ nig]bsm<½n§ II kfax½NÐ 3 ¬d¦ énkic©RBmeRBog nwgRtUvbegáItenAkñgú c,ab;km<úCasþIBI Ky nigrdæakr
cab;taMgBIéf¶énkarRbkasrbs;va rWk¾kñúgkrNIcaM)ac;edayGnuRkitrbs;raCrdæaPi)al.
GFikarkic©muneBlpÞúk
km<úCa )anrkSanUvRbB½n§GFikarkic©muneBlpÞúkmYy. Rkumh‘unRtYtBinitüTUeTAmYy ¬Societé General
GnuBaØatiGayeFVIGFikarkic©nUvKuNPaBénplitplNamYyEdlRtUv
de
Surveillance
(SGS)¦
)andwkCBa¢ÚncUlmkkm<úCa. enAkñúgkarGnuvtþ karnaMcUlTaMgGs; RtUv)anGnuBaØaticUlmkkm<úCa CamYynwg
Éksareyagd¾tictYcmYy edIm,ICabTdæan rWk¾edIm,IGFikarkic©d¾m:t;ct;mYy. kic©snüaGFikarkic©
muneBlpÞúkkñúgeBl bc©úb,nñ)anGnuvtþcMeBaHtMélTMnij 4/000 duløGaemrik ¬FOB¦.
tMélpliplticCag 4/000 duløaGaemrik RtUv)anvaytMéleday naykdæanKy nigrdæakr
¬cMnucRtYtBinitüKytamtMbn;dac;RsyalmYycMnYn
RtUv)anpþl;siT§iGMNaceFIVkarsMerccitþvaytMél
cMeBaHkarnaMcUlTaMgLay cab;BI 1/200 duløaGaemrik eLIgeTA. R)ak;QñÜl sMrab;GFikarkic©muneBl pÞúk
manbrimaN 0/80 PaKry éntMél FOB énplitplEdlRtUv)anGFikarkic© elIkElgEtcMeBaH
plitpleRbg\n§n³sMxan;² ecj ¬ 0/30 duløaGaemrik kñúgmYyemRTiketan ¦. GñknaMcUlTaMgLay
EdlbraC½y cMeBaHkarFanaGFikarkic©muneBlpÞúk/ nigtamrebobenH CakarsMxan;cMeBaHplitplTaMg
LayEdlRtUveFVIGFikarkic©edaym®nþIKyTaMgGs;enAcMnucRtYtBinitüenAtamRBMEdn/ RtUvmanbnÞúkBin½y
esμInwg 7° éntMél CIF rbs;plitplnaMcUlTaMgenaH. RbeTskm<úCa k¾manRkumkargaredaHRsay
TMnas;mYy EdlTTYlxusRtUvedaHRsaynUvkarTamTar rWTMnas;CabnÞan;TaMgLayEdlbNaþalmkBI
karGnuvtþénkareFVIGFikarkic©muneBlpÞúkenaHpgEdr.
k¾b:uEnþ cab;BIéf¶énkarcUleTAkñúg WTO raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa )anTTYlyknUvkarTTYlxusRtUv
y:ageBjelj edIm,IFanafakarRbtibtþiTaMgGs;énRkumh‘unGFikarkic©muneBlpÞúk RtUvbMeBjeTAtam
karTamTarénkic©RBmeRBog WTO TaMgGs; rab;bBa©ÚlTaMgkarbegáIttMél nigR)ak;QñÜlEdlRtUvKña
CamYynwgmaRtaTI 8 énkic©RBmeRBogTUeTAsþIBIBn§ nigBaNiC¢kmμ 1994 ¬GATT 1994¦ ehIy
saksmeTAtamdMeNIrkar nigkarTamTareGaymantMlaPaBénkic©RBmeRBog WTO ¬maRtaTI 10 én
GATT 1994 ¦ saksmeTAtambTbBaØatiénkic©RBmeRBogsþIBIkarGnuvtþénmaRtaTI 7 én GATT 1994
nigkic©RBmeRBogsþIBIGFikarkic©muneBlpÞúkpgEdr.

nitiviFIeFVIGCJab½NÑnaMcUl
km<úCa BMu)ancgeGaymankaTamTareFVIGCJab½NÑ rWk¾karritt,it rWk¾hamXat;cMnYnplitpl
ksikmμTaMgLayEdlRtUVvnaMcUlenaHeLIy. viBaØabnb½RtGnam½y nigPUtþKamGnam½y RtUvTamTarcMeBaH
karnaMcUlénplitplksikmμTaMgGs;.
X> karebIkRck;TIpSarkñúgkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa ¬elak kan; visidæ¦
1- karsnüaBhuPaKIenAeRkamkic©RBmeRBogGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak sþIGMBIksikmμ
kic©RBmeRBogTUeTA sþIGMBIBaNiC¢kmμ nigBn§Ky GATT )ancab;kMeNItkñúgqñaM1947. vaCasBaØa
mYykñúgkarkat;bnßyBn§Ky nigr)aMgBaNiC¢kmμepSg²cMeBaHBaNiC¢kmμ niglubbM)at; RbRBwtþikmμerIseGIg
nAkñúgBaNikmμGnþrCati. ehtudUecñH kareFVIBaNiC¢kmμEpñkksikmμ RtUv)anRKbdNþb; edayviFanén
kic©RBmeRBogTUeTAsþIGMBIBaNiC¢kmμ nigBn§Ky sMrab;karminerIseGIg nigebIkcMhTIpSar.
taMgBIkic©RBmeRBogTUeTAsþIGMBIBaNiC¢kmμ nigBn§Ky GATT )anRKbdNþb;esÞIrEtTaMgGs;elI
plitpl]sSahkmμ dUcenHbBaðaEdlRtUv)anelIkeLIg KWk¾RtUvmancMeBaHplitplksikmμEdr. bBaðasñÚl
KWBn§Kyx<s; r)aMgminEmnBn§Kyxus²Kña ]btßmÖFnelIkarnaMecjminkNt; nigkarKaMRT kñúgRsukelIkar
ritt,itBaNiC¢kmμminkMNt;. bBaðaTaMgenH eFVIeGayBaNiC¢kmμksikmμedIrfyeRkay RBmTaMgéfømankar
ekIneLIg nigmankarekIneLIgnUvkrNICMelaHBaNiC¢kmμcMeBaHkarritt,itenH. Tak;TinGMBIbBaðTaMgenH
kic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBIksikmμ )anRtUvbegáIteLIg enAkñúgvKÁcrcayUr:UhÁay (Uruguay Round) sMrab;karcrca
BaNiC¢kmμ edIm,IEkTMrg;viFanBaNiC¢kmμEpñkksikmμ nigdak;viFanTaMg enHeRkameKalkarN¾BhuPaKI
énkic©RBmeRBogTUeTA sþIGMBI\BaNiC¢kmμ nigBn§Ky¼GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμ BiPBelak GATT/WTO.
eKaledA rbs;kic©RBmeRBogGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak WTO Agreements sþIGMBIksikmμrUmman³
- yutiþFm_ nigq<s;eTArkRbBn½§BaNiC¢kmμTIpSar.
- karsnüasþIGMBI ]btßmÖFn nigkarkarBar.
- RbtibtþimanRbsiT§PaB tamc,ab; nigeKalkarN¾rbs; GATT.
- dMeNIrkarkMENTMrg;BaNiC¢kmμRbkbedaysmFm_.
- kalanuvDÆnPaBd¾FMeFg niglkçxN½ÐcUlTIpSar cMeBaHRbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_.
- Bak;Bn½§ cMeBaHRbeTsRkIRk nigRbeTs NFIDCs.

- Bak;Bn½§ elIbBaðaminEmnBaNiC¢kmμ dUcCa bBaðasnþisuxmðÚbGahar brisßan suxPaB
.l.
plb:HBal;CaviC¢man BIkic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBIksikmμ
km<úCabc©úb,nñCaesdækic©ksikmμ EdlmankMlaMgBlkmμ 80° eRbIR)as;kñúgvisy½ksikmμ. kic©RBm
eRBogsþIGMBIksikmμpþl;GtßRbeyaCn_CaeRcIncMeBaHbNþaRbeTsRkIRk dUcCakm<úCaCaedIm. kic©RBmeRBogtMrUv
[RbeTsCasmaCiklb;bM)at;r)aMgBaNiC¢kmμminEmnBn§Ky edaybEgVrr)aMgTaMgenH eTACar)aMgBn§Kyvij
ehIyCabeNþIr² RtUvkat;bnßyBn§KyTaMgenaH. kñgú fan³CaRbeTsRkIRkmYy km<úCaGacrkSaTukBn§naMcUl
cMeBaHplitplksikmμ enAkMritx<s;mYytamry³ karcrcasMucUlCasmaCik WTO rbs;xøÜn. ktþaenHpþl;pl
CaviC¢man sMrab;km<úCaBRgIkkarnaMecjpliitplksikmμrbs;xøÜn nigTak;TajvinieyaKkñúgvisy½enHpgEdr.
rkSarTukCMerIsneya)ay nigPaBbt;EbnGMBIksikmμ
karebIkcMhrTIpSar nigkareFVI[RbesIreLIgnUvbrisßanvinieyaKnwgmanGtßRbeyaCn_ cMeBaHvis½y
ksikmμ k¾dUcCa]sSahkmμ nigesvakkmμEdr. enAkñúgc,ab;Biessrbs;GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak eday
eyageTAtamviFanviFanenH rdæaPi)alEdlCasmaCiknanaGac]btßmÖFnelIvis½yksikmμ. c,ab;TaMgenH
RtUv)anbegáIteLIg edIm,IFanafaviFankarN¾KaMRTEdlb:HBal;dl;BaNiC¢kmμ minRtUvpþÜcepþIm b¤begáInEfm
eToteLIy ehIyviFankarN¾EdlmanmYycMnYnb:HBal;dl;BaNiC¢kmμ RtUvkat;bnßyCa beNþIr²rhUtdl;cMnYn
ticbMput.
2- rebobvar³GPivDÆn_RkugdUha
nasnñisiT§fñak;rdæm®nþIelIkTI4 rbs;GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak enARkugdUha ¬Exvicäika qñaM2001¦
bNþasmaCik )anyl;RBm[ebIkvKÁcrcaBaNiC¢kmμBhuPaKImYy edaydak;bBa©Úl[mankarcrcaEpñk
ksikmμEdlkMBugRbRBitþeTAenH. GMBIksikmμ bNþasmaCik)ansnüapgEdrcMeBaH {karcrca RKb;RCugeRCay
kñúgbMNgbegáInkarebIkcMhTIpSarCadMukMPYn karkat;bnßyRKb;TMrg;én]btßmÖFnnaMecj edayeyagCamYynwg
TsSn³énkarbBa©b;énRKb;TMrg;én]btßmÖFnnaMecjTaMgGs; nigkarkat;bnßyCa dMukMPYnelIkar]btßmÖFnkñúg
RsukelIkarritt,itBaNiC¢kmμ } .

edayr)aMgBn§KyRtUv)ankat;bnßy ehIyGRtaBn§KykUtaRtUv)anBRgIk TaMgRbeTsGPivDÆn_
nigRbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_ kalanuvtþn_PaBebIkcMhTIpSarRtUv)anbegáInGaceGaybNþasmaCikBRgIk brimaN
naMecj nigcMNUl. ktþaCak;EsþgCaeRcIn rbs;km<úCa b¤skþtanuBlnaMecjBaNiC¢kmμksikmμ RtUvb:HBal;
edayBn§Kyx<s; b¤TMhM]btßmÖFnFMeFgenAkñúgTIpSarnaMecjnana. ehtudUecñH plitpl naMecjbIsMxan;²
RtUv)anb:HBal;CadMukMPYn edaykarsnüaEpñkksikmμenARkugdUharYmman ³ Ggár ekAs‘U nigeRbgRKab;FmμCati.
TIpSarBiPBelaksMrab;GgárTTYl\T§iBlya:gxøaMgedaysarkar]btßmÖFn
nigBn§Kyx<s;bMput
enAkñúgTIpSarrbs;RbeTsman]sSahkmμlUtlas;. shrdæGaemrik eRbIR)as;\NTanEdl]btßmÖkar
naMecj nigeRtombMrugCMnYymðÚbGahar sMrab;b:Hb:Uvplitkmμk¾dUcCapþl;kar]btßmÖFnkñúgRsukCadMukMPYn
dl;ksikrrbs;xøÜn. ksikr kñúgRbeTsshKmn_GWr:ub kUer: Cb:un nigmiucsik k¾]btßmÖFnpgEdrtamry³
karbg;sgCMnYsplitkmμkMNt;. Cb:un nig kUer: ykcitþTukdak;bMput kñúgkarkarBarrbbTIpSar
¬plitplevyitPaB¦rbs;xøÜn. kþIsgÇwmTIpSarrbs;km<úCa RtUv)anb:HBal;CaGviC¢manpgEdr edaykar
xVHxatnUvkarebIkcMhrcMeBaHGRta Bn§kUtaeTAelIplitplGgár dUcCacMeBaHRbeTskUer: b¤k¾RbeTsd¾éTeTot
Edl)anelIkeLIgBIxagelI. RKb;lkçN³TaMgenHmanbMNg edIm,IKaMRTeKalKMnit tYnaTICaTUeTAxagelI.
3- karcrcabc©úb,nñrbs;GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak GMBIksikmμ
snñisiT§fñak;rdæm®nþIelIkTI6 R)arBVeFVIenATIRkughugkug kñúgExFñÚ qñaM2005 )anTTYlbraC½y
edIm,IsMerckic©RBmeRBogGMBIrUbmnþsMrab;ksikmμmYycMnYn. bNþardæm®nþI )anRBmeRBogfaBYkeK KYrEtbBa©b;
karcrcasþI GMBIrUbmnþTaMgenH enAExemsa qñaM2006 Edlkic©karenHminRtUv)ansMerc. kic©RbCMufñak;rdæm®nþId¾
tUcmYy )anR)arBVeFVIeLIgkñúgTIRkughSWENv k¾b:uEnþbNþasmaCikbraC½ymin)an e)aHeqñatCaÉkcänÞ GMBIbBaða
EdlehA favKÁcrcaCMuTI1 én ¬1¦ karkat;bnßyBn§KyEpñkksikmμ ¬2¦ karkat;bnßy]btßmÖFnkñúgRsuk
cMeBaHksikmμ nig¬3¦karkat;bnßyBn§KyminEmnpliplksikmμ. CMnYbkMBUlemdwknaMTaMg 8 nakic©RbCMukñúg
Exkkáda qñaM2006 )ansnüaeGayGñkcrcarbs;BYkeK RbwgERbgEfmeTot edIm,IsMerc)ankic©RBmeRBogmYy
eTAelIkBa©b;Edl)anTTYlsMrab;karkat;Bn§kñúgqñaM enH .
Ep¥kelIesckþIEføgkarfñak;dæm®nþI enATIRkughugkug sþIGMBIkarnaMecjminykBn§Ky nigminkMNt;
brimaN Duty-Free & Quota-Free (DF &QF) shrdæGaemrik )ansnüaya:gmutmaM edIm,IGnuvtþesckþI
sMercsIþBIkarnaMecjminykBn§Ky nigminkMNt;brimaN sMrab;RbeTsRkIRk ehIyRbeTsCb:un )anpþl;kar

naMecj minykBn§Ky nigminkMNt;brimaN cMeBaHRbeTsRkIRk edaypþl;eGay 98° énplitplEdl
mankñúgtaragBn§Kyrbs;xøÜn.
4- PaBGnueRKaHTIpSar nigGasa‘n bUkédKUepSgeTot
TIpSarkm<úCabc©úb,nñ manTMhMtUcmanGñkeRbIR)as;RbmaN 13/8 lannak; ehIy 36° kMBugrs;enA
eRkambnÞat;RkIRk . CakarBit eyIg)annaMecjeTATIpSarGas‘an EdlmanGñkeRbIR)as;Cag 500 lannak;
b:uEnþlkçN³esdækic© nigplitpldUcKña enHCakarlM)akxøH² sMrab;km<úCa kñúgkarnaMecj eTAkan;TIpSarEdl
xøÜnRtUvkar. ehtudUecñH vaCakarcaM)ac;sMrab;km<úCa sMlwgemIlTIpSarBiPBelakTaMgmUl kñúgkarEsVgrk
]tþmPaBeRboeFobRbesIrCagenH sMrab;plitplrbs;xøÜn CaBiessTIpSarenAkñúg RbeTscin Cb:un
kUer:xagt,Úg nigshrdæGaemrik. eKalkarN¾énRbCaCatiEdlGnueRKaHbMput kñúgcMeNamRbeTssmaCik
TaMgGs;)anbegáItnUvktþad¾sMxan;cMeBaHkm<úCaedIm,IGacTak;TajvinieyaKpÞal; BIbreTs.
km<úCa kñúgtMbn;TIpSaresrIGas‘an-cin
kic©RbCMukMBUlGas‘an )anR)arB§kñúgExvicäika qñaM2001 bNþaemdwknaMGas‘an nigcin)an RBmeRBogKña
BenøÓnEfmeTotnUvkic©shRbtibtþikaresdækic© nigsmahrnþkmμ rvagédKUesdækic©TaMgBIr edaybegáIttMbn;
BaNiC¢kmμesrICamYyKña. mYyqñaMeRkayénkarcrcanana RkbxNнkic©RBmeRBogmYy Edl)andak;ecjCa
EpnkaréntMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrImYy RtUv)ancuHhtßelxanakic©RbCMukMBUlelIkTI8 rbs;Gas‘ankñúgTIRkug
PñMeBj. kñúgExmkra qñaM2004 {karRbmUlpledIméd} énpliplksikmμ mYycMnYn)ancUlCaFrman. tMbn;
BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an-cin nwgkøayCaTIpSarEtmYyEdlmanRbCaCn 1/7 ekadinak; nigmaneKaledAbegáIt
tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an-cin enAqñaM2010 sMrab;smaCikedIm TaMg6 nigenAqñaM2015 sMrab;smaCikfμI
EdlehAfaRbeTs CLMV ¬km<úCa Lav mIya:nma evotNam¦.
BaNiC¢kmμGas‘an-cin )ancab;epþItaMgBIkMritTabmYy k¾b:uEnþBaNiC¢kmμTaMgenH )anrIkcMerInya:g
elOn ehIybc©úb,nñkøayCaédKUBaNiC¢kmμd¾sMxan;. CakarelcecjnUv)atuPUtmYy enAkñúgTMnak;TMng
BaNiC¢kmμ Gasa‘n-cin EdlRbeTs cinkøayCaTIpSard¾sMxan;sMrab;plitplrbs;Gasa‘n. smaCik Gasa‘n
TTYlGtßRbeyaCn_BitR)akd² BITIpSarGgár enAkñúgRbeTscin ehIykarnaMcUlrbs;RbeTscin BIGasa‘n
mankMeNInCabnþbnÞab;. CamYynwgkarGnumt½éntMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an-cin Gasa‘nbc©úb,nñ CaédKU
BaNiC¢kmμFMTI5 CamYyRbeTscin nigcinCaédKUBaNiC¢kmμFMTI6 rbs;Gasa‘n. kñúgcMeNamplitplnaMcUl

rbs;RbeTscinCaeRcIn PaKeRcInBak;Bn½§y:agsMxan;CamYyGasa‘n dUcCaplitplGgár dUgeRbg ekAs‘U
plitplKImI vaynPN½Ð nigplitpleRbgkat. ehtudUecñH km<úCa )ansVaKmn_karsMerccitþ
rbs;KUrPaKITaMgBIRbeTsCasmaCik Gasa‘n nigRbeTscin kúñgkarpþl;RbRBwtþikmμBiesscMeBaHplitpl
ksikmμkm<úCa Edl)an)a:n;sμanmankar Bnüary³eBlGnuvtþesrIkmμksikmμ rab;bBa©ÚlTaMgplitpl
evyiTPaBbMputTaMgLayenAkñúgbBa¢IelIkElg
k¾dUcCakarpþl;karebIkRck;TIpSarGnueRKaHeTAkñúgTIpSar
rbs;RbeTscinmunplitplrbs;RbeTsd¾éTeTot.
km<úCa kñúgtMbn;TIpSaresrIGas‘an-saFarN³rdækUer:
PaBGaRs½yKñaeTAvijeTAmktamry³kartP¢ab;bNþajBaNiC¢kmμ
nigkarvinieyaKrvagGas‘an
nigkUer: RtUv)aneFVIeGaymankarsuICMerAy:agsMxan; CagBIr bI TsvtSn_mkenH. kñúgqñaM 2004 Gasa‘nkøay
CaédKUBaNiC¢kmμFMTI5 CamYykUer: edayRtUvCa 9>5 ° énThMBaNiC¢kmμsrubrbs;kUer:. eTaHbIya:gNa
BaNiC¢kmμ nigvinieyaKeTVPaKI rvagGas‘an nigkUer: )anFøak;cuHkMLúgvibtþihirBaØvtßú enAGasIubUBa_
b:uEnþTMnak;TMngesdækic© rvagPaKITaMgBIrcab;dMeNIrkareLIgvijya:gelÓn.
nakic©RbCMukMBUlelIkTI9 Gas‘an-kUer: kñúgExFñÚ qñaM2005 bNþaemdwknaM )ancuHhtßelxa elIRkbxNн
kic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBIkic©shRbtibtþikaresdækic©RKb;RCugeRCay rvagGas‘an nigsaFarN³ rdækUer: . BYkemdwk
naM)ansVaKmn_pgEdr karcuHhtßelxa elIkic©RBmeRBog sþIGMBIBaNiC¢kmμEpñkTMnij .
taragTI11 nigtaragTI12 bgðajBIlT§pl énkic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBIBaNiC¢kmμEpñkTMnij eRkam
RkbxNнkic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBI kic©shRbtibtþikaresdækic©RKb;RCugeRCay rvagGas‘an nigkUer: Edl)an
sMerceKaledAkñúgcugqñaM2006. enAeRkamkic©RBmeRBogenH kmμviFIkat;bnßyBn§Ky b¤lb;ecal
rbs;RbeTsnimYy² nwgtMrUveGayGnuvtþn_GRtaBn§ MFN elITMnijEdlmankñúgbBa¢IbnÞat;Bn§Ky Edlnwg
RtUvkat;bnßyCabeNIr² ehIynwgRtUvGnuvtþ RtUv)anlb;ecal.
taragTI11³ GRtaBn§GnueRKaH tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an nigkUer sMrab;Gas‘an-6
X=

GRtaBn§Gnuvtþ MFN

X≥

20 PaKry

2006*
20

2007
13

2008
10

2009
5

2010
0

15 PaKry ≤X< 20 PaKry 15
10
8
5
10 PaKry ≤X < 15 PaKry 10
8
5
3
5 PaKry ≤X < 10 PaKry 5
5
3
0
X≤ 5 PaKry
rkSarTukdEdl
0
kMNt;sMKal;³ * kalbriecäTGnuvtþdMbUg nwgcab;epþIm enAéf¶TI1 Exkkáda qñaM2006
RbPB³ elxaFikardæanGasa‘n qñaM2006

0
0
0
0

enAqñaM2008 tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an-kUer nwgpþl;edaykUerxagt,Úg nUvkardkecjral; Bn§Ky
ya:gtic 95 PaKry énbnÞat;Bn§Kyrbs;xøÜn Edl)andak;kñúgkmμviFIkat;Bn§Fmμta xN³Edl Gas‘an-6
nwgdkecjral;Bn§Ky ya:gtic 90 PaKry kñúgkmμviFIkat;Bn§Fmμta enAqñaM2009 . kñúg qñaM2010 kUer:
nwglubecalral;Bn§Ky énbnÞat;Bn§Kyrbs;xøÜn Edl)andak;kñúgkmμviFIkat;Bn§Fmμta xN³Edl Gas‘an-6
nwgcab;Gnvtþ enAqñaM2012 .

taragTI12³ GRtaBn§GnueRKaH tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an nigkUer sMrab; km<úCa Lav nigmIya:n;ma:
2006* 2007 2008
X=

2015

2018

GRtaBn§Gnuvtþ MFN

60 PaKry
45 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
35 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
30PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
25 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
20 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
15 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
10 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
7 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
5 PaKry ≤X<
PaKry
X< 5 PaKry
X≥

2009 2012

60
60 45

50
40

40
35

30
25

20
15

10
10

0
0

45 35

30

30

20

15

5

0

35 30

30

25

20

10

5

0

25

25

20

20

10

5

0

25 20

20

15

15

10

0-5

0

20 15

15

15

10

5

0-5

0

15 10

10

10

8

8

0-5

0

10 7**

7**

7**

7**

5

0-5

0

5

5

5

5

0-5

0

30

7 5

rkSarTukdEdl

kMNt;sMKal;³ 1¦ * kalbriecäTGnuvtþdMbUg nwgcab;epþIm enAéf¶TI1 Exkkáda qñaM2006
2¦ ** mIya:n;ma: nwgrkSa nUvGRtaBn§GnueRKaH tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an nigkUer
kñúgkMrit FMCag 7/5 PaKry rhUtdl; qñaM2010.
RbPB³ elxaFikardæanGasa‘n qñaM2006

0

kic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBIBaNiC¢kmμEpñkTMnijmanenAkñúgbTbBaØati sMrab;RbRBwtþikmμedayELk nigBiess
(Special
and
Differential
Treatment)
ehIyKMeragkarN_bt;EbnBiessbEnßm cMeBaH
RbeTsCasmaCikGas‘anfμI RbeTskm<úCa Lav mIya:n;ma: nigevotNam (CLMV). kñúgGtßn½yenH
tMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an-kUer (AKFTA) nwgGnuvtþtamkalbriec©TepSg²Kañ sMrab;kUer: nigGas‘an-6
kalbriec©TepSgeTotsMrab;RbeTskm<úCa Lav mIya:n;ma: nigevotNam (CLMV). RbeTskm<úCa
CamYyLav mIya:n;ma: nigevotNam nwg)anTTYlRbRBwtþkmμeénPaBGnueRKaHkñúgtMNak;kalkarGPivDÆn_
esdækic©enAmankMritTabenAeLIy.
km<úCa kñúgtMbn;TIpSaresrIGas‘an-Cb:un
kic©RbCMukMBUlGas‘an Cb:un manbMNgshRbtibtþikary:agRCaleRCA rvagGas‘an Cb:un
bNþaemdwknaMGas‘an nig Cb:un )ancuHhtßelxa elIesckþIRbkasrYmmYy sþIGMBIédKUresdækic© eq<aHeTA
begáIttMbn;BaNiC¢kmμesrIGas‘an-Cb:un enAkMLúgeBl 10qñaMxagmux.
5- Bn§Ky nigr)aMgminEmnBn§Ky
Bn§Ky cMeBaHksikmμ nigEpñkes,ógGaharrYmman ³ ¬1¦ kMritx<s;EdlKitCamFümPaKeRcIn
x<s;CagTMnijenAkñúgvis½yBMuEmnksikmμ ¬2¦ Cajwkjab;x<s;CagBn§Edl)anhamXat;y:agxøaMgkøa ¬3¦
GacERbRbYlx<s;kñúgcMeNamRbeTsmYycMnYn
nig¬4¦Cajwkjab;x<s;y:agxøaMgsMrab;GRtaBn§cgEdlFM
CagGRtaBn§Edl)anGnuvtþ. kñúgkrNImYycMnYn manGRtaBn§GnueRKaH sMrab;RbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_Gac
cUleTAkñúgTIpSarRbeTsGPivDÆn_)an. BaNiC¢kmμEpñkksikmμ)andak;ecjnUvGRtaBn§kUta (TRQs).
GRtaBn§kUta (TRQs) manBn§KyBIrkMritEdlenAkñúgenaH brimaNnaMcUlEdlRtUv)ankMNt;mYy
¬enAkñúgBn§kUta¦ RtUv)an GnuBaØatieGaybg;Bn§y:agTab ÉkarnaMcUlbEnßmelIsBIkUtatMrUveGaybg;Bn§ x<s;.
GRtaBn§ sMrab;Ggár enAkñúgRbeTscin Cb:un kUerxagt,Úg nigshrdæGaemrik
taragTI13³ taragBn§Ky sMrab;plitplGgÁr enAkñúgRbeTscin Cb:un kUerxagt,Úg nigshrdæGaemrik
plitpl
cin
Cb:un
kUer
shrdæGaemrik
¬Bn§Ky ¬Bn§Ky °¦
¬Bn§Ky °¦ Bn§Ky

°¦
Rice in Hush
68
402 eyn¼KILÚRkam 5° ¬kñúgkUta¦ 1/8 esn¼KILÚRkam
Hushked(brown) rice
68
402 eyn¼KILÚRkam 5° ¬kñúgkUta¦ 1/8 esn¼KILÚRkam
Milled rice
68
402 eyn¼KILÚRkam 5° ¬kñúgkUta¦ 11/2°
Broken rice
68
402 eyn¼KILÚRkam 5° ¬kñúgkUta¦ 0/44 esn¼KILÚRkam
)a:n;sμan edaykareRbIviFIsa®sþpøas;bþÚBiess nigBn§rYmpSMenAkñúgBn§Ky (ad alorem tariffs) Edl)anRBm
eRBogedaysmaCik WTO kñúgqñaM2005.
RbPB³ mCÄmNÐlBaNiC¢kmμGnþrCati UNCTAD/WTO
GRtaBn§kUta (Tariff Rate Quotas) enAkñúgRbeTscin Cb:un kUerxagt,Úg nigshrdæGaemrik
GRtaBn§kUta (Tariff Rate Quotas) enAkñúgRbeTscin³ Bn§kUta RtUv)aneRbIkñúgEbbbTrdæ)al
énkarnaMcUl RsUvsalI eBat Ggár kb,as nigsac;ecom tMrUv[bg;Bn§Tab cMeBaHkarnaMcUleRkamkUta nig
tMrUv[bg;Bn§x<s;kñúgkrNInaMcUlelIsbrimaNkUta. RbeTscin )ansnüaxøÜnÉglubecalral;viFan
minEmnBn§KyenAeBlEdlxøÜncUlGgÁkar WTO EbbbTrdæ)alsMrab;Bn§kUta nwgcUlCaFrman
edayKμankarb:HBal; dl;karebIkRck;TIpSarrbs;cin kñúgPaBCasmaCik WTO. kMLúgeBlcrcasMucUl
RbeTscin )anpþl;»kas[RbtibtþiEbbbTrdæ)al énBn§kUta elIplitplBiess dUcCa RsUvsalI eBat
Ggár kb,as eRbgsENþk sár .l. RbeTscin )ansnüanaMcUlkñúgbrimaNkUta sMrab; RsUvsalI eBat Ggár
mancMnYn 3/99 lanetan ehIyenAqaM2004 brimaNkUtaxagelI nwgbegáIndl; 5/85 lanetan .
Bn§kñúgkUtacMeBaHGgár cenøaHrvag 1 eTA 9 ° nigkrNIesIlkUta manBn§cenøaHrvag 65 eTA 71 °.
karnaMcUlEpñkksikmμtMrUv[manGaC£ab½NÑ GRtaBn§kUta nigkarhamXat;. GaC£ab½NÑnaMcUl
sV½yRbvitþeRbIR)as;edIm,IRtYtBinitükarnaMcUl ÉGaC£ab½NÑnaMcUlminsV½yRbvitþ eRbIR)as;bedIm,IbMeBj
katBVkic©rbs;RbeTscineRkamsniñsBaØaGnþrCati. GRtaBn§kUta (TRQs) KWminEmnCaGCJab½NÑsV½yRbvitþ
elIkElgsMrab;muxTMnijEdl)anEbgEckEp¥kelImUldæanmkdl;munpþl;[mun. tamÉksar naéf¶TI27
ExkBaØa qñaM20051 RbeTscin )anCUndMNwgBIrbbGaC£ab½NÑnaMcUlbIRbePT³ GaC£ab½NÑnaMcUl GaC£ab½NÑ
1 Éksar WTO G/LIC/N/3/CHN/4 éf¶TI30 ExkBaØa qñaM2005 .

naMcUlsV½yRbvitþ nigGRtaBn§kUta (TRQs) sMrab;karnaMcUl. kUtanMacUl nwglubecalenAéf¶TI10 ExFñÚ
qñaM20042 . eyagtamesckþICUndMNwg rbs;RbeTscin sþIGMBIGaC£abN½Ñ EdleFVIkñúgExFñÚ qñaM2004
bgðajfabnÞat;Bn§KyBIr nwgRtUvdkecjBItaragplitpl EdlCakmμvtßútMrUv[manGC£abN½ÑenAkñúg tarag3
. GRtaBn§kUta manenAelIplitpl dUcCa RsUvsalI eBat Ggár kb,as eRbgsENþkesog sár eramecom
sac;ecom nigCIKImI. eyagtamesckþICUndMNwgeTA WTO rbs;RbeTscin RbB½n§enH bMerIenAeKalbMNg
edIm,IkMhitnUvbrimaNnaMcUl4. KN³kmμakarGPivDÆn_Cati nigkMENTMrg; RBmTaMgRksYgBaNiC¢kmμCaGñk
TTYlxusRtUvrYmsMrab;karcat;EcgGRtaBn§kUtacMeBaH Ggár eBat RsUvsalI nigkb,as ehIyRksYgBaNiC¢kmμ
CaGñkTTYlxusRtUvEtÉkÉgcMeBaHCIKImI pliplksikmμ epSg²eTot eramecom nigsac;ecom5 .

GRtaBn§kUta

(Tariff Rate Quotas)

enAkñúgRbeTsCb:un³ bc©úb,nñRbeTsCb:un ykBn§elIGgár

RKb;RbePTEdlqøgkat;RBMEdnrbs;xøÜn 150eynkñúgmYyKILÚRkam. elIsBIenH karnaMcUlGgármankUta
kMNt; KW 682>000 etan ehIykarnaMcUlelIsbrimaNxagelItMrUv[bg;Bn§ 341eyn kñúgmYyKILÚRkam .
sßitibgðajfa GRtaBn§KyenH manRbsiT§iPaBhamXat;ral;karnaMcUlelIskUta ¬ Fukuda qñaM2003¦.
edayBMumankarelIkElg RKb;rbbneya)aytUv)anerobcMeLIg edIm,IkarBarPaB BMuman]tþmPaBeRbobeFob
rbs;]sSahkmμkñúgRsuk. tYelxxageRkamBnül;R)ab;GRtaBn§Fmμta sMrab; karBarvis½yGgárkñúgRbeTs
Cb:untamryHkMritBn§x<s;.
Bn§kUtaGnuvtþCacMbgeTAelIpliplksikmμ rYmTaMgplitpleFVIBITwkedaHeKa Ggár RsUvsalI nigRsUv
)aeL sréssURtkUndgáÚvnag nigvtßúFatuedImBIsURt emSA xøaj;EdlerobcMTukbriePaK RKab;FBaØCati nig
2 Éksar WTO G/LIC/W/25 éf¶TI19 ExkBaØa qñaM2005
3
kñug]bsm<½n§ 3 énBiFIsarsMucUl WTO rbs;RbeTscin GaC£ab½NÑRtUv)andkecj cMeBaH HS 28371110 (sodium
cyanide) enAeBlcincUlCasmaCikeBjsiT§i ehIycMeBaH HS 84435912 (platen screen press printing machinery)
kñúgqñaM2004.
4
Éksar WTO G/LIC/N/3/CHN/2 éf¶TI9 ExtulaqñaM2003 .
5
kalBImun kUtaTaMgGs; elIkElgEtkUtaeTAelICIKImIRtUv)anRKb;RKgedayKNkmμaFikarGPivDÆn_Epnkarrdæ (SDPC);
kUtasMrab;CIKImIRtUv)anRKb;RKgedayKNkmμaFikaresdækic© nigBaNiC¢kmμrdæ ¬Éksar WTO G/LIC/N/3/CHN/1, 23
kBaØa 2004 2004).

sENþkdI bEnøs¶Üt. plitplTaMgenH RKbdNþb; 1/6° énbnÞat;Bn§KyTaMgGs;6. karnaMcUlGgár
tMrUv[manBn§kUta cab;taMgBIéf¶TI1 Exemsa qñaM1999 karykBn§eRkAkUtaelIGgá kñúgqñaM2004 )antMrUv[
bg; 341eyn kñúgmYyKILÚRkam. Bn§TaMgenH srubCamYyBn§BiessmYy ¬GRtaBn§beNþaHGasnñ¦ 49eyn
kñúgmYyKILÚRkam ehIykarRbmUlBn§ edayRksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT KW292eyn
kñúgmYyKILÚRkam. karnaMcUlGgárkñúgkUtaKW 679>668 etan kñúgqñaM2001 679>875 etan kñúgqñaM2002
nig 673>734 etan kñúgqñaM2003 ÉkarnaMcUlGgáreRkAkUta kñúgqñaMdUcKñaKWman 69 etan 202 etan
nig217 etan7. CaEpñkmYyénkarsnüaebIkRckTIpSar rbs;Cb:un cMnYnCak;lak;énGgárGacbBa¢aTij
nigTak;TgTIpSarpÞal; eRkamRbBn½§dMeNIrkarrvagGñklk; nigGñkTij (SBS) EdlbrimaNsrubmYyKW
50>067 etan RtUv)annaMcUleRkamRbBn½§dMeNIrkarrvag Gñklk; nigGñkTij (SBS) kñúgqñaM2002 nig
100>000 etan kñúgqñaM2003 .

GRtaBn§kUta

(Tariff Rate Quotas)

enAkñúgRbeTskUerxagt,Úg³ kMLúgeBlcrcarbs; GgÁkar

BaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak WTO enA Uruguay Round sBaØaNenH RtUv)anRbQmmuxnwgC½yCMnH ehIy
RbeTskUer:)anyl;RBmbegáItkUtaRckcUlTIpSarGb,brma (MMA) cMeBaHGgár sMrab;ry³eBl 10qñaM.
bEnßmeTAeTot RbeTskUer:)anyl;RBmdkecjral;r)aMgminEmnBaNiC¢kmμ rYmTaMgkUtanaMcUl naExmkra
qñaM2005. RbeTskUer: )ansnüabegáInkarnaMcUlGgár enAkMritGb,brmamYYy cab;BI 0 eTA 4°
énkareRbIR)as;kñúgRsuk edIm,IeRtomlkçN³ sMrab;kareFVIesrIkmμTIpSarGgár. eRkamkic©RBmeRBogenH
BMumanGgárRtUv)anlk;edaypÞal;eTAGñkeRbIR)as; dUcCaGgárEdlRtUv)annaMcUl RtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;Et
plitCacMNIGahar. kñúgExFñÚ qñaM2004 kUer:)anpþl;sc©ab½nelIkarnaMcUlGgár edayBnüaeBl 10qñaM.
karBnüaeBl)anGMBavnav[RbeTskUer:pþl;karnaMcUlGgárBIrdg elIbrimaNsrubnaMcUlrbs;xøÜn kñúgry³eBl
10 qñaMeRkay ¬BI 4° eTARbEhl 8° énkareRbIR)as;srub¦ karbegáInkUtaBI 225>575 etan
kñúgqñaM2005 eTA 408>698 etan enAqñaM2014. CamYynwgRbeTskMNt;kUtaCak;lak (Country-Specific
Quota) kUer: )ansnüabBa¢aTij cMnYnGb,brma BIRbeTscin éfLg;d¾ nigGU®sþalI RbeTskUer: k¾)anyl;
karCUndMNwgcugeRkayBIkarRKb;RKgBn§kUta RtUv)anrkSaTukenAkñúgÉksar WTO G/AG/N/JPN/91 (10 mina 2004)
nig G/AG/N/JPN/100 (13 kBaØa 2004¦.
7
RbBn½§énkarnaMcUlRsUvRtUv)anBN’nay:aglMGit enAkñúg JETRO (2003).
6

RBmbBa¢aTijpgEdr ya:gtic 50>076 etan BIGgárshrdæGaemrik erogral;qñaM kúñgryHeBl10qñaMCa
bnþbnÞab; ¬taragTI14¦.
kUtasMrab;RbCaCatiEdlGnueRKaHbMput (MFN Quota) edayELkmYyRtUv)anbegáIteLIg Edl
sMrab;kUtaenaH RbeTsTaMgGs; GacnaMcUl)an rYmTaMgRbeTsEdlkMNt;kUtaCak;lak;pgEdr (CSQ).
eRkamkic©RBmeRBogBnüaeBl karnaMcUlGgárGaceFVIeTA)an sMrab;Gñklk;rayeTAeGayGñkeRbIR)as;kUer:
sMrab;EtelIkTImYyb:ueNÑaH. karBnüaeBlenH )anGnum½t edayGgÁkar WTO kñúgExemsa qñaM2005
ehIy)anpþl;sc©ab½n edaysPaCatikUer: kñúgExviciäka qñaM2005. eTaHbICa karnaMcUlGgártamRck
cUlTIpSarGb,brma (MMA) ya:gticekIncMnYnBIrdgkñúgqñaM 2014 k¾eday k¾karekIneLIgenHBMuman
bTbBaØatiNa sMrab;karnaMcUlGgárelIskUtaeLIy. GRtaBn§CamYynwgkUta nwgenAEtsßitRtwm 5
PaKryCanic©. RbeTskUer: mansiT§ibBa©b;kUtaebIkcMhGb,brma nigdkecjGRtaBn§kUta enAcab;epþImqñaM
NamYyéncenøaHqñaM2005 nigqñaM2014. RbsinebIRckcUlTIpSarGb,brma RtUv)anbBa©b;TMhMrbs;
RbeTskMNt;kUtaCak;lak (CSQ) nwgpøas;bþÚreTACakUtaskl edayQrenAelImUldæanRbCaCatiEdl
GnueRKaHbMput (MFN).
taragTI14³ brimaNcUlTIpSarGb,brma (MMA) sMrab;qñaM2005-2014 ¬Ékta³ etan Ggárkin¦
kalviPaKRbeTspþl;kUtaCak;lak; (CSQs)
qñaM
srub MFN kUta Quota srub
shrdæGaemrik cin
éfLg;d¾ GU®sþalI
2005 225>575 20>347 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2006 245>922 40>694 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2007 266>269 61>041 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2008 286>616 81>388 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2009 306>963 101>735 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2010 327>310 122>082 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2011 347>657 142>429 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2012 368>004 162>776 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030
2013 388>351 183>123 205>228 50>076
116>159 29>963 9>030

2014 408>698 203>470 205>228 50>076
RbPB³ RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT

116>159 29>963 9>030

kUer:xagt,Úg rkSarsiT§ibBa©b;kUtaebIkcMhGb,brma nigdkecjRbB½n§GRtaBn§kUta enAkñúgeBl
cab;epþIménqñaMNamYy rvag qñaM2005 nigqñaM2014. RbsinRbB½n§GRtaBn§kUta RtUv)anGnum½t
brimaNkUtaenA EtsßitkñúgkMritkUtaebIkcMhGb,brma enAeBlEdlkarbþÚreTACaRbB½n§GRtaBn§kUta (TRQ)
mYyRtUv)an eFVIeLIg edayBMumankarbegáInEfmeTot enAkñúgqñaMeRkay²eTot. GRtaBn§kUta
pþl;eGaysMrab;karnaMcUl eRkABIkUta nigkarelIsBIBn§kUta nwgRtUvKNnaedayeyagtamesckþIEN naMrbs;
(URAA).
RbsinebIkic© RBmeRBogsMerc)ankñúgvKÁcrcaCasklenARkugdUhasþIGMBIkarGPivDÆn_
GRtaBn§elIskUta nigTMhMGRtaBn§ kUta nwgRtUvpøas;bþÚr edIm,IeKarBtamviFanénkic©RBmeRBogvKÁcrca
GPivDÆn_RkugdUha. kñúgRBwtþikarN¾ énkarpøas;bþÚreTACaRbB½n§GRtaBn§kUtamYy (TRQ) RbeTsEdlkMNt;
kUtaCak;lak; nwgGacbBa©b; nigcMnYn kUtaTaMgmUl nwgRtUvebIkTUlaynUvkarnaMcUledayEp¥ktammUldæan
RbCaCatiEdlGnueRKaHbMput (MFN).

GRtaBn§kUta

(Tariff Rate Quotas)

enAkñúgshrdæGaemrik³ shrdæGaemrik CaGñkplit

GñknaMecj nigGñknaMcUl mYyFMCageKenAelIBiPBelak cMeBaHplitplksikmμ. kñúgqñaM2004
GRtaBn§GnuvtþmFüm sMrab;ksikmμ man 9/7° ¬mFümPaKrYmsMrab;plitpld¾éTeTotman 4° emIl
CMBUk3¦ . rdæaPi)al TUTat;[GñkplitkrEpñkksikmμ CacMENkéncMNUlksidæansuT§ EdlFøak;cuHBI 48°
kñúgqñaM2000 eTA 16° kñúgqñaM2004. fVIebI karFøak;cuHenH )anbgáreGaymankarekIneLIgkñúg
cMENkTUTat;sarubrbs;rdæaPi)al enAkñúgrgVg;sgRtlb; nigkmμvIFITUTat;km©I cab;taMgBIkarGnum½tc,ab;
vinieyaKCnbT nigsnþisuxksidæan naqñaM2002 mkemøH. karTUTat;BiessbnÞan; bnþpÁt;pÁg;[karTUTat;
d¾éTeTotrbs;rdæaPi)al nigkarFanar:ab;rgksiplEdl]btßmÖedayrdæaPi)al.
taragBn§KyRsbKña rbs;shrdæGaemrik )anGnum½t edayc,ab;BaNiC¢kmμ nigkarRbkYtRbECg
enAqñaM1988 ehIymanRbsiT§iPaBkñúgExmkra qñaM1989 . c,ab;enHEp¥kelImUldæankarBiBN’naTMnij

RsbKña nigRbB½n§elxkUt8 HS. taragBn§KyRsbKñaqñaM2004 RtUv)anCMnYsedayviesaFnkmμ qñaM2002
eTACa HS. taragBn§Kyman 10>304 bnÞat;Bn§Ky ehIymanelxrhUtdl; 8xÞg;9 (HS 8-digit).
neya)ayTYeTArbs;shrdæGaemrik manenAkñúgEpñk126 énc,ab;BaNiC¢kmμ qñaM1974 KW)anpþl; RbRBwtþikmμ
GRtaBn§ MFN eTARKb;édKUBaNiC¢kmμrbs;xøÜnTaMgGs;10. shrdæGaemrik GacGnum½tc,ab;Edlminpþl;
RbRBwtþikmμGRtaBn§ MFN eTARbeTsBiess²mYycMnYy³ shrdæGaemrik GnuvtþRbRBwtþikmμGRtaBn§ MFN
eTARKb;smaCikTaMgGs;rbs; WTO b:uEnþelIkElgsmaCik WTO mYy KW RbeTsKuy)a. CabEnßmeTot
saFarN³rdæRbCaFibetyükUer: k¾BMu)anTTYlRbRBwtþikmμGRtaBn§ MFN BIshrdæGaemrikEdr. karnaMcUl
BIRbeTsTaMgBIrenH KWtMrUv[man :GRta lkçnþik³ (statutory rate) : EdlGRtaenH
KWCaGRtaEdl)ancgedayc,ab;Bn§Ky Smoot-Hawley naqñaM1930. RbRBwtþikmμ GRtaBn§ MFN
RtUv)aneFVIeLIgvijsMrab;RbeTs Serbia and Montenegro kñúgExFñÚ qñaM2003 ehIysaFarN³rdæ
RbCaFibetyüLavkñúgExkumÖ³ qñaM200511 .
r)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ & Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y rbs;RbeTscin Cb:un kUer:xagt,Úg nigshrdæ
Gaemrik
r)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ & Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y rbs;RbeTscin ³ taMgBIRbeTscin
cUlGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak RbeTscin)aneFVIkarEkERbrcnasm<½n§bTbBaØatirbs;xøÜn cMeBaH
bTbBaØatibec©keTs nitiviFIvaytMélPaBRsbKña bTdæan (Standards) nigviFanGnam½y
nigPUtKÁamGnam½y. kñúgqñaM2001 RbeTscin)anbegáItkarRKb;RKgKuNPaBrdæ)alTUeTA karRtYtBinitü
nigkarFana (AQSIQ) eGayenAeRkamRkumRbwkSardæ. karRKb;RKgKuNPaBrdæ)alTUeTA karRtYtBinitü
nigkarFana (AQSIQ) KWCaGgÁkarrdæ)alfñak;RksYgEdlTTYlbnÞúkKuNPaBCati maRtsa®sþ
8

taragBn§KyRsbKña RtUv)anbBa©ÚleTakñúgÉksarmYy Edlplit nigEkrsMrYlCaeTogTat; edayKN³kmμaFikar
GnþrCati nwgmanenAkñúgeKhTMB½rGinEfNit http:// www. usitc.gov/tata/hts/index.htm
9
bnÞat;Bn§TaMgLayEdlRsbeTAnwgGRtaenAkñúgkUta nigeRkAkUtaEdl)anGnuvtþcMeBaHplitpldUcKña RtUv)anrab;Et
mYyb:ueNÑaH.
10
19 USC 2136
11
karcuHbBa¢IshB½n§ 68 FR 64410, 13 vicäika 2003 nig 70 FR 7319, 11 kumÖH 2005

karRtYtBinitüRckecj-cUl karFanaelIrukçCati nigstV viBaØbnb®½tkarTTYlsÁal;bTdæanbec©keTs
nigkarRbtibtþic,ab;rdæ)al. bTbBaØatimYycMnYn sþIBIviBaØbnb®½tplitplcaM)ac;k¾)anRbkas[eRbIpg Edr
viFanecjviBaØbnb®½trYmKñasMrab;karnaMcUl nigkarplitTMnijkñúgRsuk edayrab;bBa©ÚlTaMgkarcat;fñak;
plitplsMrab;viBaØbnb®½tcaM)ac; bTbBaØatibec©keTs bTdæan nItiviFIvaytMélPaBRsbKña pøaksBaØa
nigéføQñÜl .
dUecñHehIy mkdl;RtwmExsIha qñaM2003 pøaksBaØaviBaØbnb®½tcaM)ac;rYmKñarbs;cin (CCC) sMrab;
TaMgplitplEdlplitkñúgRsuk nignaMcUl )anCMnYsedaypøaksBaaØEdl)anGnuvtþknøgmk ¬pøaksBaØa
CCIB sMrab;pliplEdleFVIBaNiC¢kmμ nigpøaksBaØa GREAT WALL sMrab;plitpl kñúgRsuk¦.
eyagtamesckþICUndMNwg rbs;RbeTscin eTAGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak eRkammaRta XV.2
énkic©RBmeRBogr)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ
Pñak;garrdæaPi)almYycMnYnFMCab;Bak;Bn½§kñúgkarbegáIt
bTbBaØatþibec©keTs ¬rYmTaMgbTbBa¢asþg;danana¦ rYmTaMg AQSIQ NDRC rdæ)alKyTUeTA rdæ)al
cMNIGahar nig»sfrdærbs;RbeTscin nigRksYgmYycMnYneTot12. kEnøgsaksYr nigpþl;Bt’man
BIr)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ & Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y rbs;RbeTscin KWenAkñúg AQSIQ
ehIyGaCJaFrEdleFVIesckþICUndMNwg KWenAkñúgRksYgBaNiC¢kmμ .
rdæ)alsþg;darrbs;RbeTscin (SAC) )anbegáItedayRkumRbwkSardæ kñúgExemsa qñaM2001
edIm,Icat;Ecgkargarsþg;darkñúgRbeTscin. enAkñúgRbeTscin mansþg;dar 4 RbePT³ sþg;darCati
sþg;darEpñk sþg;dartMbn; nigsþg;darshRKas. sþg;darCatiRtUv)anEklMGr sMrab;tMrUvkarbec©keTs
EdlRtUvkarGnum½tedaysPaCati. sþg;darEpñk RtUv)anGPivDÆneLIgenAeBlBMumansþg;darCati k¾b:uEnþ
kartMrUveGaymanbec©keTsrYmKñanana RtUvtMrUveGayeTAtamEpñkviC¢aCIv³c,as;las;mYyenAkúñgkMritCati.
sþg;dartMbn;GacEklMGeTA)anenAeBlEdlsþg;darCati b¤sþg;darEpñk BMuGacGnuvtþ)an k¾b:uEnþkartMrUv
eGaymanrYmKñasMrab;suvtßiPaB nigGnam½yénplitpl]sSahkmμRtUvtMrUv[manenAkñúgtMbn;. sþg;dar
CatidUcKñamYyRtUv)anGPivDÆn_ sþg;darenH CMnYssþgd; artMbn; nigsþg;darEpñk. sþg;darshRKasGaceFVI
karEklMGenAkñúgshRKasmYy enAeBlEdlsþg;darCati sþg;darEpñk nigsþg;dartMbn;BMuGacGnuvtþ eTA)an.
müa:geTot shRKasmYyRtUv)anelIkTwkcitþ TTYlyksþg;darCati sþg;darEpñk nigsþg;dartMbn;
12

bBa¢Id¾eBjeljmYy RtUv)anpþl;enAkñúgÉksar WTO G/TBT/2/Add. 65, 29 mkra 2002.

RbsinebIeKGacGnuvtþeTA)an. kñúgRKb;RbePT sþg;darCati sþg;darEpñk nigsþg;dartMbn; mansþg;darsμR½Kcitþ
nigsþg;darbTbBa¢a13. bc©úb,nñmanRbmaN 14° énsþg;darCatiCasþg;darbTbBa¢a ehIyPaKryenH
BMumankarERbRbYltaMgBIqñaM2000. BMumanTinñn½y sþIGMBIPaKryénsþg;darEpñk nig sþg;dartMbn;EdlCasþg;dar
bTbBa¢aeLIy. CabEnßmeTot ÉksarENnaMbec©keTsCati GacRtUv)anEklMGkñúgtMbn;mYycMnYnEdl
bec©kviC¢akMBugpøas;bþÚry:agelOn ehIysþg;darnana GacRtUv)anGPivDÆn_ y:agelOnCageBlEdlykmk
GPivDÆsþg;darCatieTAeTot.
GaCJaFreFVIesckþICUndMNwgeTA WTO rbs;RbeTscin Bak;B½n§nwgGnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y
KWRksYgBaNiC¢kmμ. kariyal½ysYrBt_man nigpþl;Bt_man eRkamkfaxN½Ð 3 én]bsm<½n§ x
sþIBIkic©RBmeRBog SPS manTIkEnøgenAkñúg AQSIQ. eyagtamGaCJaFr eRkamc,ab; nigbTbBaØati Bak;Bn½§
manviFIsa®sþ 3 )andak;ecj edIm,IRtYtBinitüenARBMEdnsMrab;TMnijEdltMrUvkarviFan SPS.
kñúgviFIsa®sþTImYy GaCJaFrenARBMEdn GacGnuBaØat[TMnijcUl eRkayeBleFVIGFikarkic©ÉksarsMxan;²
mYycMnYn. bnÞab;mkkareFVIGFikarkic© SPS EdleFVIeLIgedayGaCJaFr SPS sMxan;² KWenATIkEnøg
eKaledAcugeRkayenAkñúgRbeTsEtmþg kñúgkrNIenH TMnijGacCMrHbBa¢IKytaméf¶bnÞab;. eRkam
viFIsa®sþTIBIr kareFVIGFikarkic©enARBMEdn)aneFVIeday { srIragÁTTYldwg; :14 bnÞab;mkkareFVIGFikarkic© SPS
)anGnuvtþdUcmankñúgviFIsa®sþTImYyenAnwgTIkEnøgeKaledAcugeRkayEtmþg eRkam viFIsa®sþenH
karCMrHbBa¢IKyeFVIeLIgrvag 3 eTA 5éf¶. eRkamviFIsa®sþTIbI kareFVIGFikarkic© SPS
13

eyageTAtambTbBa¢asMrab;karGnuvtþ énc,ab;sþg;dar sþgdarbTbBa¢a manTMnak;TMngeTAnwg³ »sf Ganam½yes,óg
Gahar nigeBTüstV/ suvtßPaB nigsþgdarGanam½ysMrab;plitpl nigplitkmμ karsþúTuk nigkardwkCBa¢Ún nigkar
eRbIR)as;plitpl/ sþgdar sMrab;suvtßPaBénkargar nigGnam½y nigsuvtßPaBsþg;darsMrab;kardwkCBa¢Ún/ KuNPaB
suvtßPaB nigsþgdarénsuxaPi)alsMrab; : KMeragsMNg : nigsþg;dard¾éTeTotsMrab; : KMeragsMNg; : EdlRtUv)anRtYt
Binitüedayrdæ/ bTdæansMrab;bM)at;ecalnUvPaBkxVk;EdlBak;B½n§eTAnwgkarkarBarbrisßan nigsþg;darsMrab;KuNPaB
brisßan/ sBaØaNbec©keTssMxan;² nimitþsBaØa kUd nigBRgagviFIsaRsþenAkñúgkareRbIR)as;CarYm/ sþg;dasMrab;viFIsa®sþ
Edl)aneRbIR)as;rYmKñaenAkñúgkarRsavRCav nigkarRtYtBinitü/ sþgdarsMrab;brivtþn_ nigsMrbsMrYl/ nig sþgdarKuNPaB
sMrab;plitplsMxan;²EdltMrUveGayrdæRtYtBinitü.
GCJaFrRtUUvBnül;fa karGFirkarkic©enH RtUv)anGnuvtþedaymRnþIKyedayeRbIR)as;nUvsrIragÁTTYldwgrbs;eK.

14

RtUv)aneFVIenARBMEdnmunkarCMrHbBa¢IKyRtUv)aneFVI. ry³eBlGnuvtþsMrab; karCMrHbBa¢IKyGaRs½yelI
RbePTplitplEdl)annaMcUl nighaniP½yEdlBak;B½n§.
tMrUvkarpøaksBaØa)anbBa¢ak;eRkamc,ab;sþg;dar c,ab;Gnam½ymðÚmGahar )anGnum½tenAéf¶TI30
Extula qñaM1995 nigc,ab;sþIGMBIKuNPaBplitpl )anGnum½tenAéf¶TI 22 Ex kumÖ³ qñaM1993 ehIy)an
eFVIviesaFnkmμenAéf¶TI 22 Exkkáda qñaM2000. eRkamc,ab;TaMgenH RKb;plitplEdllk;kñúg RbeTscin
RtUvEtmanpøaksBaØaCaPasacin.
pøaksBaØaRtUvBt’nakñúgenaHman
eQμaH
nigpøaksBaØa
BaNiC¢kmμénplitpl RbePTénmðÚbGahar eQμaHeragcRk nigGas½ydæan RbPBedImTMnij smasFatupSM
edIm,IbBa¢ak;BITMgn; TMhM TMgn;Bit TMhMpÞúk kalbriecäTplit manKuNPaBmunéf¶ b¤kalbriecäTputkMNt;
karENnaMBIrebobeRbIelxsMKal;plitpl nigelxkUtsþg;darBak;B½n§. Bt’manGacpþl;CaPasabreTs
pgEdr eTaHbICaBt’manénkarBiBN’nalMGitRtUvpþl;CaPasacink¾eday.

r)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ

&

Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y rbs;RbeTsCb:un³ Cb:un)anbnþ

karRbwgERbgrbs;xøÜneq<aHeTArkPaBRsbKñaénsþg;dar nigbTbBaØatibec©keTsGnþrCati. kñúgqñaM2005
sþg;darsμR½KcitþCb:unman 9>727 sþg;dar]sSahkmμ (JIS) nig 215 sþg;darksikmμ (JAS). RbEhl
93° énsþg;dar]sSahkmμ (JIS) RtUvKñaCamYysþg;darGnþrCati qñaM2005 eLIgBI 92° kñúgqñaM200415 .
cenøaHrvagkñúgExemsa qñaM2005 nigExmina qñaM2006 sþg;dar]sSahkmμ (JIS) 510RtUv)anEksMrYl 141
RtUv)andkecj nig267 RtUv)anbegáItfμIkñúgkMLúgeBldUcKña sþg;darksikmμ (JAS) 34 RtUv)an EksMrYl
15RtUv)andkecj nig5 RtUv)anbegáItfIμ.
Cb:un)anEksRmYleLIgvij enAkaksMNl;KImIksikmμCaGtib,rmarbs;xøÜn ¬]TahrN_³ fñaMsmøab;
stVl¥it cMNIstV nigfñaMBüa)alstV ¦ eRkamRbB½n§bB¢aIviC¢man sRmab;CIKImI enAkñúgcMNIGahar enAkñúgEx
]sPa qñMa2006. bBa¢IénkarminFanaCMgWrukçCaticéRg RtUv)anEktRmUvkñúgEx emsa qñaM2005 nig
kñúgExkkáda qñaM 2006 )anbEnßm 46 nigCMgWrukçCaticéRg 34 eTot. KN³kmμakarsuvtßiPaB mðÚbGahar
edIm,IsMrbsMrYlnUvsuxkþúmnIykmμeGaymanRbsiT§iPaBkan;EteRcIneLIgEfmeToténbTdæanCati CamYynwg
GnþrCatimYy KNkmμakar JIS )anTTYlyk nUvEpnkarskmμPaBenAkñúgEx mifuna 2004. EpnkarenH)anbBa¢ak;
nUvEpñkényuT§sa®sþnana enAkñúgsuxkþúmnIykmμGnþrCati nig)anbriyayenAtYnaTIénGñkcUlrYmmñak;² ¬]sSahkmμ
nigvis½yÉkCn¦enAkñúgPaBlMGit.
15

RtUv)aneFVIkarvaytémøBIsuvtßiPaBénkarEkERbmðÚbGahar ¬Gahar GM¦ cab;taMgBIqñaM 200316.
KN³kmμakar )anGPivDÆnUvsþg;darsMrab;karvaytémøsuvtßiPaBmðÚbGahar GM nigcMNIstV
Edl)anplitedaysrIragÁtUc² GM CaeRcIn nigneya)aysRmab;karvaytémøsuvtßiPaBRKab;FBaØCati GM
ehIyRKab;FBaØCatiGahar GM nigcMNIstV GM EdlGacbgáeGaymanCatiBul.
pøaksBaØamðÚbGaharkñúgRbeTsCb:un KWtRmUvtamsþg;darksikmμCb:un (JAS) nigc,ab;Gnam½ymðÚb
Gahar. bTbBa¢abec©keTsTaMgGs;cMnYn 63 RtUv)anGnuvtþ Ep¥kelImUldæanc,ab;sþg;darksikmμCb:un
(JAS). TaMgenHman ³ sþg;darpøaksBaØaRbePTKuNPaB sMrab;EkécñmðÚbGahar mðÚbGaharRss; nig
karEkERbmðÚbGahar sþg;darpøaksBaØaKuNPaBedayELk nigsþg;darsMrab;pliplksikmμsrIragÁ nig
mðÚbGaharEkécñsrIragÁ. sþg;darpøaksBaØaRbePTKuNPaB RtUv)anpþl;RKb;mðÚbGahar nigePsC¢³
elIkElgeRKOgRsvwg nig]isfBüa)alCMgWecj. mðÚbGaharRss; RtUvmanpøaksBaØa KWeQμaH
nigTIkEnøgplit. mðÚbGaharEkécñ RtUvmanpøaksBaØa KWeQμaHtaragsmasFatupSM TMgn;Bit
kalbriecäTénKuNPaBCaGtibrma b¤k¾kalbriecäTeRbIR)as; karENnaMBIrebobrkSaTuk ehIyeQμaHnig
Gas½ydæaneragcRk RBmTaMgRbeTs RbPBedImcMeBaHplitplnaMcUl.
pøaksBaØad¾Cak;lak;tMrUv[pþl;eGay dUcCapøaksBaØasþg;dar sMrab;plitmYymux²Ep¥kelIcarik
lkçN³rbs;va. mðÚbGaharmYycMnYn EdlmanpÞúkembEnßmRtUvEtmanpøaksBaØapgEdr edaymaneQμaH
RKb;embEnßmEdl)andak;elImðÚbGaharenaH. plitplEkécñEdlnaMcUlBIbreTs RtUv)anelIkElgBI
pøaksBaØabTbBa¢aEdlbBa¢ak;BIRbPBedIm nigsmasFatupSM. RKb;plitplksikmμsrIragÁ nig
mðÚbGaharEkécñBIksikmμsrIragÁ Edllk;kñúgRbeTsCb:un RtUvEtepÞópÞat;KñaCamYysþg;darksikmμsrIragÁ Cb:un
JAS nigdak;pøakfa JAS srIragÁ. kardak;pøakmðÚbGaharfa {srIragÁ} RtUvkarviBaØbnRbt½bBa¢ak;BI
GgÁPaBcuHbBa¢I (RCB) b¤k¾bBa¢ak;BIGgÁPaBcuHbBa¢IeRkARbeTs (ROCB) famðÚmGaharBitCaRKb;tam
lkçxN½Ðsþg;darksikmμCb:un JAS BitR)akdEmn. manEtmðÚmGaharEdlTTYlviBaØabnb½Rt Etb:ueNþaH
EdlGnuBaØateGayEbgEckCamYypøaksBaØasrIragÁ JAS.
KNkmμaFikarsuvtßiPaBes,og RtUv)anbegáIteLIgeRkammUldæanc,ab;suvtßiPaBes,ogenAkúñgkariyal½y
]uTÞkarl½yedIm,IeFVIkarvaytMélhaniP½y.

16

pøaksBaØabTbBa¢a sMrab;EkERbmuxmðÚbGahar sßiteRkambTbBaØati nigc,ab;Gnam½ymðÚbGahar
nigc,ab;sþg;darksikmμCb:un (JAS) kñúgtaragbBa¢Ibc©úb,nñman 7muxksipl ¬sENþkesog (Soybean) eBat
(Corn) rukçCatimü:agsMrab;eFVIeRbg (Rape) RKab;BUC (Seeds) dMLÚg)araMg (Potatoes) RKab;BUCkb,as
(Cotton seeds) Gal;Pal;hVa (Alfalfa) nigéffavEp¥m (Sugar beet)¦ nigmðÚbGaharEkécñ
¬mðÚbGaharEkécñ 32RbePT EdleRCIserIs¦ PaKeRcIneFVIBIsENþkesog b¤k¾RKab; FBaØCati1717.
RksYgsuxaPi)al Blkmμ nigsuxumalPaB minGnuBaØat[naMcUlmðÚbGahar (GM)
EdlBMueKarBtamsuvtißPaBrbs;xøÜneLIy. c,ab;RtYtBinitüplitplksikmμ tMrUveGayRtYtBinitübTbBa¢a
énGgár RsUvsalI nigRsUv)alI k¾dUcCasENþkesogpgEdr.

r)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ

&

Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y rbs;RbeTskUer:xagt,Úg³ eKal

bMNgénkic©RBmeRBogr)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμrbs;GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak
KWelIkTwkcitþkar
GPivDÆn_sþg;darGnþrCati nigPaBRsbKñaénnitiviFIvaytMél edIm,IRKaMRTdl;esrIkmμBaNiC¢kmμGnþr³Cati
xN³Edlsþg;dar nigbTbBaØatbec©keTsBuM)anbegáIt]bsKÁd¾cMa)ac;NamYydl;BaNiC¢kmμGnþrCati eLIy.
sMrab;tmøaPaB nigplRbeyaCn_ kUer:EtgtaMgkariyal½ypþl;-TTYlBtm_man cMnYn4 tamvis½y epSg²Kña
nigtamplitpl ¬plipl]sSahkmμ sMrab;RksYgBaNiC¢kmμ ]sSahkmμ nigfamBl/ plitplksikmμ
sMrab;RksYgksikmμ nigrukçaRbmaj;/ plitplensaT sMrab;RksYgsmuRT nigClpl/
sMrab;Gnam½ymðÚbGahar nigpliplsMGagkay sMrab;RksYgsuxaPi)al nigsuxumalPaB¦.
kariyal½ypþl;-TTYlBt’manTaMgenH eqøIytbeTAkariyal½ypþl;-TTYlBt’maneRkARbeTseTA
elIsþg;dar bTbBaØatbec©keTs nigRbBn½§GaCJabN½ÑEdlmanRsab; nigEdl)anesñIeLIg rYmTaMgesckþICUn
dMNwgBIr)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμrbs;kUer:rbs;kic©RBmeRBogr)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμénGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμ
BiPBelak (WTO TBT). kUer:)aneFVIdUckñúgnamCasmaCik WTO mYyEdr KW)anCUndMNwgénkar
pøas;bþÚrbTbBaØatbec©keTs nignItiviFIvaytMélPaBRsbKña ehIyCasmaCik WTO kUer:CasmaCik
segátkareKalkarN¾minerIseGIg kñúgkarGnuvtþbTbBaØatbec©keTs nignitiviFIvaytMélPaBRsbKña
dUcKñacMeBaHplitpl kñúgRsuk nigplitplnaMcUlEdlmanRbPBepSg²Kña .
17

bBa¢IenHRtUv)anEkrERbCaerogral;qñaM.

taMgBIbegáItGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak (WTO) rdæaPi)alkUer: )anEkERbviFan SPS CaeRcIn
edIm,IeGayRsbKñaCamYysþg;dar karENnaM nigGnusasn_epSg²Edl)anRbkas[eRbIeday CODEX, OIE
nig IPPC. kUer:TTYlsÁal; nUvtMbn;EdlBuMmanstVcéRg nigCMgWeRkayBIkareFVIkarvaytMél
rbs;RbeTsnaMecj. sMrab;tmøaPaB nigRbsiT§iPaB kUer:eRCIserIsGaCJaFreFVIesckþICUndMNwg
enARksYgkarbreTs nigBaNiC¢kmμ.

r)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμ

&

Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y rbs;shrdæGaemrik³ kñúgkarGnuvtþ

kic©RBmeRBog Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y r)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμrbs;GgÁkar BaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak
KWCakarsMerccitþd¾TUlMTUlaymYyeday (CODEX Alimentarius Commission “Codex”). maRtaTI 3
énkic©RBmeRBog Gnam½y nigPUtKÁamGnam½y )anEcgfasþg;darsuxPaBCati mYy sMrab;mðÚbGahar
RtUv)ansmμt;eBjc,ab;RbsinebIvaRsbKñaeTAnwgsþg;dar karENnaM nigGnusasn_ EdlbegáIteday
CODEX. sþg;darCatimYyEdlpþl;kMritkarkarBarx<s;Cag CODEX KWCa {r)aMgBaNiC¢kmμ} mYy luHRtaEt
WTO sMercfasþg;darCatid¾RtwmRtUv RtUvEp¥kelImUldæanvaytMél smrmümYyEdlbMePøIfasþg;dar CODEX
karENnaM rWk¾Gnusasn_ BuM)anpþl;[)anRKb;RKan;nUvkarkarBar b¤k¾RbeTsenaHbBa¢ak;faman
sþg;darCalkçNviTüasa®sþc,as;las;epSgeTot. maRtaTI 2>4 énkic© RBmeRBogr)aMgbec©keTs
BaNiC¢kmμ )anEcgfaRbeTsTaMgenaH KYrEteRbIR)as; CODEX b¤sþg;dar GnþrCatiepSgeTot {elIkElg
sþg;darGnþrCatimYycMnYn b¤Epñkd¾sMxan;nana EdlGtßny½ minman RbsiT§iPaB rWk¾minsmrmüsMrab;bMeBj {
eKaledAeBjc,ab; } mYy.
PaBRtUvKñaCamYysþg;dar KWminEmnCakarTamTareGayeBjc,ab;mYyeLIy b:uEnþkñúgkarGnuvtþenA
TIpSarshrdæGaemrik Cajwkjab;EtgEtpþl;karelIkTwkcitþnanay:agxøaMg sMrab;plitnaMcUl nig
plitplkñúgRsukEdlmansþg;darCak;lak;. enAkñúgc,ab;kic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmμ qñaM1979 Pñak;gar
rdæaPi)alshBn½§RtUvtMrUv[ {sMercTTYlyk} nUvsþg;darGnþrCati enAeBlGPivDÆn_sþg;dar ehIy
RbsinebIsmRsb KWEp¥kelIsþg;darGnþrCati 18. karelIkElgRtUv)anTTYlfaRsbKñaedaycab;epþIm
18

19 USC 2532 rab;bBa©ÚlTaMgc,ab; nigbTbBaØatENnaMEdlecjedaykariyal½yfvikar nigRKb;RKg rYmTaMg
katBVkic©sMrab;BicarNa\T§iBlBaNiC¢kmμ nigvaytMélnUvplTaMgLayénkareRbIR)as;sþg;daGnþrCatisMxan;². ¬emIl
Éksar WTO G/TBT/W258, 26 tula 2005.

BIsþg;darGnþrCati rYmTaMgtMrUvkarsnþisuxCati karkarBarénkarRbtibtþixus karkarBarsuxPaB b¤suvtßiPaB
mnusS stV b¤CÍvitrukçCati b¤suxPaB b¤k¾brisßan briyakasmansar³sMxan; b¤ktþaPUmisa®sþepSgeTot
nigbBaðabec©kviTüaEdlmansar³sMxan;nana19. c,ab;)ankMNt;sþg;darGnþrCatimYy dUcsþg;darmYycMnYn
eTotEdlTTYlsÁal;edayGgÁkarmYy {smaCikPaBEdlebIkcMhsMrab;tMNagmkBIsaFarN³ b¤k¾ÉkCn
rbs;shrdæGaemrik ehIyya:gticRKb;smaCik WTO nigEdlfaRtUv)ansnüakñúgskmμPaBTak;Tg
sþg;darGnþrCati}20.
g> karkRmitkñúgRsuk nigbNþajTIpSar
1- rcnasm<½n§Tak;TgeTAnwgkarplitRsUv
karkRmiténRKab;BUC
karplitRsUvBwgEp¥kCasMxan;eTAelIBUC. manBUCCaeRcInRbePTEdlpþl; nUvTinñplx<s;
nigFnnwgCMgW)anl¥RtUv)anbegáIteLIgedaysßab½nsMxan;²mYycMnYndUcCa CARDI nig Rkumh‘unÉkCn
xøHeTot. CARDI begáIt)anBUCcMnYn 37RbePT manCaGaf’ IR66 páarMdYl EsnBiedar
EdlBUCTaMgenHmankarniymcUlcitþBIGñkeRbIR)as;CaTIbMput nigBUCmYyRbePTeTotKW nagmøi³ rbs;
Rkumh‘unGgÁrksikmμrugerOg KImanPaBl,Il,ajpgEdrkñúgkar naMecjeTAeRkARbeTs. ebIeTaHbICaBUC
eRcInRbePTRtUv)anbegáIteLIgk¾eday k¾ksikrenAminTan;TTYlykeRbIR)as;eGay)anTUlMTUlayeLIy
BYkKat;enAEtniymeRbIR)as;BUCBIbUraNrbs;Kat;
ehIyEtgEtrkSaBUCTaMgenaHsMrab;rdUvdaMduHxagmux
eTot21. CaTUeTAkareRbIR)as;BUCBIbUraN EtgEtpþl;pþl;nUvTinñplTabCagBUCEdlEdl)anbegáItfμI
¬BUCBIbUraNpþl;TinñplEt 2/2etanbu:eNÑaHkñúg 1hicta22 ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwgBUCEdleKbegáItfμI
EdlmanTinñplCamFüm BI6 eTA 7 etan kñúg1hicta23¦. müa:gvijeTot ksikr nigRbCaCnExμr
19

19 USC 2532
20
19 USC 2571
JICA- JICA )a:n;RbmaNfa RbEhl 4 eTA 5 PaKry énRsUvEdlRbmUl)anRtUv)anTuksMrab;eFVICaBUCbnþ
CARDI- kñugkrNImankarRKb;RKgl¥
Young Raab- AQIP ¬KMeragbegáInKuNPaBksikmμ qñaM2002 ¦
21
22
23

enAEtniymcUlcitþRsUvbUraN CaBiessRsUvrdUvvsSa sRmab;kareRbIR)as;pÞal; nigdaMduHRsUv epSgeTot
sMrab;eFVIkarnaMecj. GBa©wgehIy eyIgkt;sMKal;eXIjfa enAeBlNabrimaNnaMecjticCagbrimaN
eRbIR)as;kñúgRsuk eFVIeGaykareRbIR)as;BUCEdl)anGPivDÆn_fμI nwgenAmankRmit.
karkRmitnUvkareRbIR)as;CI nigfñaMsmøab;stVl¥it
TinñplTabGaRs½ymYyEpñkeTAelIkar eRbIR)as;CImin)anl¥24. CakarBitNas; kalNaTinñpl
RsUvmankMritTab eKRtUvkarbrimaNCICaeRcInedIm,IbegáInnUvplitPaB. bu:EnþkarEdlGaceRbIR)as;CI)an
KWvakRmiteday ehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigbBaðafvika. ksikrCaeRcIn)aneRbIR)as;CIkñúgkrNIEdlBYkKat;
manluykat;enAsl;RKb;RKan;Etb:ueNÑaH BIeRBaHEtCImantémøéføKWcab;BI 28>000 eTA 55>000 erol
kñúgmYy)avTm¶n; 50 K>k. müa:gvijeTotplvi)akrbs;ksikrkñúgkareRbIR)as;plitplKImI dUcCa CI
nigfñaMsmøab;stVl¥it KWedayehtufa viFIENnaMeGayeRbIR)as;eRcInEtsresredayPasabreTs minEmn
CaPasaExμrCaehtueFVIeGayksikrminyl;BIkareRbIR)as;eGay)anRtwmRtUv.
ksikrxVHkaryl;dwgGMBI
karGnuvtþn_eGay)anRtwmRtUv nigBIeRKaHfñak;epSg²énkarlayplitplKImICamYyKña. elIsBIenaHeTot
buKÁlwkbMerIkareGay CARDI )anmanRbsasfa plitplCIxøHKμankarFanaRtwmRtUvBIKuNPaBeLIy
BIeRBaHplitplTaMgenaHeRcInEtplitecjBIkEnøgEdleKminsÁal; nigKμankarRtYtBinitüRtwmRtUv nigEtg
Etlk;dUredayQμÜjxilxUcEdlKμankarTTYlxusRtUv CaehtubNþaleGaymankarxUcxatdl;dMNaMRsUv
k¾dUcCaKuNPaBdIFøI.
karkRmiténRbB½n§eRsacRsB
plitplRsUvPaKeRcInKW)anmkBIRbB½n§plitkmμeRsacRsBedayTwkePøóg. tMbn;daMduHRsUvCag
90°sßitenAkñúgtMbn;valTMnab. eKdaMduHRsUveTAtamRbePTéndIehIynwgGnuelamtamkMriténTwkePøóg.
kareRbIR)as;RbB½n§eRsacRsBenAmankMritenAeLIy. manEt13° éntMbn;daMduHRsUvenARsukExμr b:ueNÑaH
EdlmanRbB½n§eRsacRsB b¤k¾GacbMeBjnUvkareRsacRsB)ankñúgrdUvR)aMg ¬ skþanuBlénRbB½n§ SRI
sMrab;km<úCaedayelak Jurgen Anthofer. Ep¥kelIkar)a:n;sμanBITMhMénskþanuBl énRbPB eRsacRsB
rbs;RbeTskm<úCaeXIjfa sBVéf¶enHkm<úCaeRbIR)as;RtwmEt 50 - 60 ° b:ueNÑaHénRbPB eRsacRsB.
24

Cambodia-IRRI –

KMerag rbs;GU®sþalI qñaM 1999 TMB½r 169

épÞdIrhUtdl;eTA 1/67lan hicta GaceRsacRsB)anBRbsinebIkm<úCaeRbIeGayGs; lT§PaBelIépÞTwk
Edlman25. manRbPBxusKñaCaeRcInénRbB½n§eRsacRsBksikmμenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa. eyagtamsßiti
pøÚvkar RbB½n§eRsacRsBTaMgGs;RKbdNþb;elIépÞdIrhUtdl; 358>388hicta enAqñaM2003
EdlesμInwg10° éntMbn;daMduHTaMgGs;enAkñúgqñaMenaH26. Etya:gNak¾mankarGHGag epSgeTotBIkar
sikSarbs;rdæaPi)alEdlfa RbB½n§eRsacRsBenaHmanrhUtdl; 16°. RkumGñksikSaRsavRCavEdl
]btßmeday FnaKarBiPBelak)anEføgfa manRbB½n§reRsacRsB 946 kEnøgkñúgRbeTs
km<úCaEdlGacRKbdNþb;elIépÞdI 256>000 hictaenArdUvvsSa nig 143>000 hicta enArdUvR)aMg
EdlesμInwg 2° énépÞdIRbeTskm<úCasrub27.
mantMbn;mYycMnYneRbIR)as;RbPBTwkeRkamdIsMrab;kareRsacRsB dUcCa extþéRBEvg extþsVayerog
extþtaEkv nigextþ)at;dMbgCaedIm b:uEnþeKeCOfa eRbIR)as;RbPBTwkeRkamdIsMrab; eRsavRsBksikmμ
KWminRbesIeLIyedaysarTwkmanKuNPaBTab nigmrimaNminRKb;RKan;28. RksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniym
MOWRAM
bgðajeGayeXIjfakgVHénkarvinieyaKkñúgRbB½n§ eRsacRsBfμI karmankMriténfvika
kñúgkarRbtibtþikar nigEfrkSaelIKeRmagEdlmanRsab; kgVHnUvkar RsavRCavksikmμ nigesvaTUlMTUlay
kñúgkarCRmujRbBlvb,kmμplitkmμenAkñúgtMbn;eRsacRsB ehIy nwgkgVH»kaskñúgkarTTYl)anplcMeNj
BIBaNiC¢kmμénplitplksikmμ KWCakarkRmitd¾sMxan;eTAnwg karGPivDÆn_29.
bBaðad¾sMxan;EdlelIkeLIgedayksikrCaeRcIn KWkgVHfvika. ksikrRtUvkarfvikaredIm,IBRgIknUv
tMbn;daMduH b¤k¾begáInnUvplitPaBrbs;BYkKat;. b:uEnþRbPBénfvikarbs;BYkKat;enAmankMrit. dUecñHksikr
minGaccMNayluyCaeRcIneTAelIvalERsrbs;eKeLIyGBa©wgehIyksikrCaeRcIndaMduHRsUvedayBwgEp¥k
eTAelIlk½çx½NÐçFmμCatiEtb:ueNÑaH.kñúgkrNIEdlRtUveRbIR)as;luyCabnÞan; ¬dUcCa TijCI fñaMsMlab; stVl¥it
ehIyCYnkaleRbIsMrab;kareRsacRsBedIm,Ise®gÁaHRsUvkñúgkrNIraMgs¶Üt¦ CaTUeTAksikr EtgEteTAx©Ibul
luyBIBaNiC¢kr QμÜjkNþal b¤k¾m©as;ma:suInkinRsUv EdlRtUvsgRtLb;eTAeKvij Casac;R)ak;
25
26
27

kic©smÖasCamYyRkumsikSaRsavRCavrbs; FnaKarBiPBelak enAExkkáda qñaM2002
RksUgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT / CAMinfo version 2

AgriFood Consulting International
World Bank Study Team Interview July 2002
29
The Ministry of Water Resource and Meteorology
28

b¤k¾TUTat;CaRsUvenAeBlEdlRcUtkat;rYc . enAeBlxøH ksikrbgçcitþeTAx©IluyBIGñkcgkar R)ak;kñúgkMriGRta
BI 20 eTA 40° kñúgmYyEx EdlGRtaenHCaGRtamYyd¾x<s;30. GRtakarR)ak;x<s; eFVIeGayksikr)at;bg;
Gs;enAkMritcMeNjrbs;Kat;. dUecñHkgVHxatnUvfvikareFVIeGayraMgsÞHdl;kar begáIneLIgénplitplRsUv
enAkm<úCa.
2- karEkécñGgár nigbBaðaKuNPaB
eragma:suInkinRsUv
RbtibtþikarkinRsUvk¾rab;faCab;Bak;B½n§pgEdrenAkñúgplitkmμGgárkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
eRBaHm©as;
eragma:suInCaeRcInCab;Bak;B½n§CamYynwgkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμelIGgár KWBYkKat;CaGñuknaMecjGgáredaypÞal;
b:uEnþBYkKat;RbQmmuxnwgkarlM)akmYycMnYnCasMxan; dUcCa³
-kgVHxatmUlFn ³ karKμanmUlFnRKb;RKan;KWCakarraMgsÞHmYyeTAelIlT§PaBrbs;m©as;eragma:suIn
kinRsUvkñúgkarRbmUlTijRsUvenAkñúgrdUvRcUtkat;edIm,IsþúkTuk kareFVIeGayRbesIreLIgnUvbec©kviTüakñúgkar
kinRsUv kareFVITMenIbkmμeTAelIsmÖar³rbs;BYkeK k¾dUcCakarBRgIknUvsmtßPaBkinRsUv rbs;BYkeKEdr.
-KuNPaBRsUvTab ³ RsUvCaeRcInRtUv)aneFVmI kBIBUCcMruHCaeRcInRbePT elIsBIenaHeTotKμan
karEfrkSa)anl¥eRkayBIRcUtkat;rYc CaBiess karhalsMgYtmin)anRKb;RKan; EdlCaehtueFVIeGay
karkinmankMrit)ak;x<s;EdleFVIeGaykarlk;enAkñúgTIpSarmin)anl¥.
-bec©kviTüakinRsUvmankMritTab ³ eragma:suInkinRsUvPaKeRcInenAeRbIR)as;]bkrN_cas;²
hYssm½yenAeLIyeFVIeGayGRtaGgárEdl)anmkmankMritTabebIeFobeTAnwgRbeTsCitxag ¬sUmemIl
taragelx 15¦ . manEteragma:sIunkinRsUv BIrEtb:ueNÑaH KW mYyCarbs; Rkumh‘unGgÁrksikmμrugerOg
nigmYyeTotCarbs; Rkumh‘unEm:n sarun Edlcat;Tukfamansþg;dax<s; nig manma:suInTMenIb b:uEnþenA
minTan;bMeBj)antamtRmUvkarrbs;sþg;daBiPBelakenAeLIy CaBiesskarb:UlIGgáreGaysl¥ EdlRtUv
karfvikaCaeRcInsRmab;TijsmÖar³TMenIb²TaMgenaH.
-témøEkécñx<s; ³ témøénkarkinRsUvCaGgármankMritx<s;ebIeFobCamYynwgRbeTsCitxag
edaysarEttémøeRbg nig GKÁIsnIenAkñúgRsukeyIgx<s;.
30

World Bank Study Team Interview July 2002

-lT§PaBcUlkñúgTIpSarTab ³ m©as;eragma:suInkinRsUvTaMgLay xVHlT§PaBkñúgkarlk;cUl
eTAkñúgTIpSarBiPBelakBIeRBaHEtminGacbMeBj)aneTAtamtRmUvkarkmμg;TijCaRbcaMrbs;GtifiCn.
eTaHbICaKat;GacrkTIpSar)ank¾edayk¾Kat;mankarBi)akkñúgkarrkGgárEdlmanKuNPaB
nigbrimaN
RKb;RKan;edIm,IbMeBjtRmUvkarbBa¢aTijrbs;GtifiCnEdr31. elak enA saerOn CaGnuRbFan
EpnkarénRkumh‘un Em:n sarun )anmanRbsasn_fa karEsVgrkTIpSarminEmnCabBaðaeT b:uEnþbBaða sMxan;
KWeyIgminGacpÁt;pÁg;eTAtamtRmUvkarTIpSar)an. dUecñHeyIgeXIjfa brimaNénkarpÁt;pÁg;minzitesßr
KWCarnaMgmYycMeBaHTIpSarnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCa.
GñkpÁt;pÁg;Ggár nigQμÜjnaMecjRbQmnwgbBaðadUcKñaKWkarEsVgrkbrimaNGgárRKb;RKan;edIm,I eFVIkar
naMecj. bBaðaenHEsþgecjmkBIPaBTn;exSayénkarRKb;RKg nigmeFüa)ayplitnanadUcCa RbB½n§eRsac
RsB RbB½n§RbLaybgðÚrTwkecj PaBRKb;RKan;énsmÖar³ksikmμ nigbec©kviTüaCaedIm.
-cMeNHdwgTIpSarmankMNt; ³ kgVHxaténBt’man niglkçx½NÐnanaéntRmUvkarTIpSar KWCakar
kRmitmYyepSgeTot sMrab;GñknaMecj nigm©as;eragma:sIunCaeRcInkñúgvis½yCMnYjGgárenH
taragTI15³ GRtaénkarpøas;bþÚrBIRsUveTACaGgÁr
RbeTs
RbeTs Lav
RbeTs PUma
RbeTs km<úCa
RbeTs evotNam
RbeTs éf
RbeTs cin
RbeTs étva:n;
RbeTs Cb:un
31

GRtapøas;bþÚr
0/60
0/62
0/63
0/65
0/66
0/70
0/73
0/73

bTsmÖas CamYyelak enA saerOn GnuRbFanEpnkarRkumh‘un Em:n sarun naMecj naMcUl lImItFIt

RbPB ³ FnaKarBiPBelak¼karGPivDÆn_vis½yÉkCn¼dMeNaHRsaykarGPivDÆn_CasklTaMg 24 tMbn;
GasuIxagekIt nig)a:suIPik (LLC)
karrkSaTuk
karsþúkTukGgár KWBi)akNas; vamingayRsYldUcCakarsþúkRsUveLIy eyIgminGacrkSaGgárTuk
)anyUreLIy edaysareyIxVHbec©kviTüa GgárcaM)ac;RtUvEtTijehIyeRbIPøam ¬Rbsasn_rbs;elak enA
saerOn¦. taMgBIedImmk GgárExñreyIgminGacRbKYtRbECgCamYyRbeTs naMecjdéTeTot)an
eLIyeRBaHGgáreKGacrkSaTuk)anry³eBlyUrCageyIg.
müa:geTotExμreyIgenAminTan;man]bkrN_
sMrab;sþúkGgárTukeLIy eRBaHQμÜjTaMgLayminTan;manFnFanvinieyaKeTAelIXøaMgsþúkTaMgenaH.
3- TMnak;TMngrvag TIpSar nig Gñkplit
eTaHbIeKemIleXIjfakm<úCa
CaRbeTsEdlplitRsUvehIykarnaMecjRsUvGacCYybegáInnUv
esdæic©rbs;xøÜnd¾sMxan;k¾eday k¾km<úCaenARbQmnwgbBaðasMxan;²mYycMnYnTaMgkarplit nigTIpSar.
ksikrExμrPaKeRcIneFVIERssMrab;Etb®gÁb;karhUbcukenAñúgRKYsarEtb:ueNÑaH RbkarenHehIyEdleFVIeGay
brimaNRsUvsMrab;eFVIkarnaMecjxVHxat. müa:gvijeTotksikrEtgEteFVIRsUvBIBUCBIburaNrbs;xøÜnsMrab;
EtbMeBjtMrUvkarhUbcukkñúgRsukEtb:ueNÑaH ehIyBYkKat;lk;RsUvEtkñúgkrNIEdlsl;BIkarhUbcuk b¤enA
eBlEdlKat;RtUvkarluybnÞan;Etbu:eNÑaH. BYkKat;minEdlmanbMNgfaeFVIERsedIm,I)anRsUvlk;eLIy.
müa:gvijeTot edaysarEtkgVHxaténmeFüa)aydwkCBa¢ÚnRbB½n§rcnasm<½n§RTuDeRTam dUcCapøÚvsMrab;
eFVIkardwkCBa¢ÚnlM)akCaedIm .l. ksikrEtgEtlk;RsUvrbs;xøÜneTAGñkRbmUlTij b¤eTAm©as;eragma:suIn
kinRsUvenAkEnøgEdleKRbmUlplenaHEtmþg
EdlBwgEp¥keTAelItémøEdlGñkTijCaGñkkMNt;.
ktþaTaMgenHsreGayeXIjfa ksikrPaKeRcInmin)andwgGMBIBt’mantRmUvkarTIpSarEdlrYmman RbePTén
RsUv Ggár KuNPaB k¾dUcCatémøpgEdr.
4- témøénkardwkCBa¢Ún nigtémøTukdak;kñúgXøaMg
manc,ab;nigbTbBaØtimYycMnYndak;ecjsRmab;RtYtBinitünUvmeFüa)aydwkCBa¢Ún dUcCa³
-GnuRkwtüsþIBIkarkMritTm¶n;GtibrimaényanynþeFVIdMeNIelIpøÚvCati

-RbkassþIBI R)ak;Bin½yelIrfynþEdlpÞúkelIsTm¶n;enAelIpøÚv
-GnuRkitüTak;TgeTAnwgkarrMlay nigkarbegáItb:usþiRtYtBinitüenAtambeNþayRBMEdn edIm,I
RtYtBinitükarecjcUltamRckRBMEdn tampøÚveKak pøÚvrfePøIg pøÚvTwk nigpøÚvGakas enAkñúg
RBHraCaNacRkm<úCa KWsßitenAkñúgkarBinitüemIl. Pñak;garEdlTTYlxusRtUvelIkic©karenHman b:UlIsCati
eyaFa Pñak;garkaMkugRtUl Pñak;garKy nigrdæakr Pñak;garGnam½yrukçCatiRKb;RbePT nigPñak;gar
RtYtBinitüfñaMeBTü. cMNucRtYtBinitüTaMgenH)anbegáIteLIgenAtamRBMEdn nigTIRkugCaeRcInedIm,IBinitü
emIlnUvcracrrbs;mnusS nigTMnijepSg²32. karbegáItb:usþiRtYtBinitüCaeRcIndUcenHeFVIeGayGñkrksuI
RtUvbg;luyCaeRcIneTAeGayPñak;garTaMgenaHCaehtueFVIeGaytémøplitplkat;EteLIgéføEfmeTot .
bu:EnþcMnYnluyEdl)anbg;eGayeTAPñak;garTaMgenaHmin)anbeBa©jeGaydwgeLIy.
ehdæarcnasm<½n§
edaysarsßanPaBpøÚvlM)akenAkñúgkm<úCa
eFVIeGaykardwkCBa¢ÚnplRsUvBIkEnøgdaMduHeTAkan;
TIpSarmantémøx<s;. kgVHxatRbsiT§iPaBehdæarcnasm<½n§dwkCBa¢Ún edaysarRbeTskm<úCaBwgEp¥kelIkar
naMcUleRbgTaMgRsugBIxageRkA. müa:geTottémødwkCBa¢Únx<s;k¾bNþalmkBIR)ak;sMNUknigBn§eRkApøÚvkar
pgEdr. cMNayeRkApøÚvkaresμInwg 57° éntémødwkCBa¢ÚnTaMgGs; 33. )an)a:n;RbmaNfa kareFVI
eGayRbesIeLIgénehdæarcnasm<½n§nwgkat;bnßyéføedImehUtdl;eTA 30-40° 34.
témøénkardwkCBa¢ÚnenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCaRtUv)aneKKwtfaCatémømYyx<s;EdlCa]bsKÁmYysMrab;kare
FVIBaNiC¢kmμTaMgkñúg nigeRkARbeTs. témødwkCBa¢Úntamnava CatémømYyéføbMputenAkñúgtMbn; Edl
éføCagRbeTséfcMnYn 4 dg ebIKitelIkardwkCBa¢ÚnkñúgkMritdUcKña35. Rkumh‘unGgÁrksikmμruerOg
seRmcminBRgIkTIpSarnaMecjrbs;xøÜneTA shrdæGaemrik edaysarEttémødwkCBa¢Úntamk)a:l;BIkMBg;Ep
km<úCaeTAshrdæGaemrikRtUv)anhamXat; nigmüa:gnwg)at;Gs;plcMeNjrbs;Rkumh‘un36.
témødwkCBa¢ÚnénplitplRsUv
32

- JICA
Trade Liberalization impact of rice on Cambodia – Oxfam – 03 Nov 2005
34
Food and Agriculture Organization 1997
35
FAS-USDA ,op cit., p. 11
36
Trade Liberalization impact of rice on Cambodia – Oxfam – 03 Nov 2005
33

éfødwkCBa¢ÚnBIPñMeBj eTAkMBg;EpRkugRBHsIhnu ¬kugtWn½r 20 hVIt¦ KitCaduløaGaemrik
1-rfynþ
140 duløa
2-éføbg;pøÚv ¬pøÚvCatielx4¦
13/86 duløa
3-éføEsán kugtWn½r
50 duløa
4-éføelIkdak;k)a:l;
87 duløa
5-éføRtYtBinitürbs;Ky
150 duløa
6-éføRtYtBinitürbs;kaMkugRtUl
120 duløa
srub
560/86 dulaø
RbPB³ bTsmÖaseRkApøÚvkarCamYyRkumh‘undwkCBa¢Ún
5- ma:XItFIg
eTaHbIkm<úCa)anplitGgárelIsBItRmUvkarrhUtdl; 568>563/9 etan ehIyeKalneya)ay
fμIrbs;rdæaPi)al)anykcitþTukdak;eTAelIbBaðama:XItFIgrbs;Ggár dUcCa kardkecjnUvkarkMNt;elI
brimaNnaMcUl naMecj nigkarlb;bM)at;TaMgRsugnUv viBaØabnb½Rt naMecjk¾eday k¾karnaMecjGgár
rbs;km<úCaCYbnUvkarlM)akepSg²eTotEdr. km<úCaenAminTan;GacQreFVICaGñknaMecjsMrab;TIpSar GnþrCati
)aneT. TIpSarGgárrbs;xøÜnEtgEtTTYlnUvkarb:HBal;edaypÞal;BIsßanPaBTIpSarrbs;RbeTs Citxagrbs;
xøÜnEdlCaGñknaMecjGgárd¾sMxan;. TIpSarGgárenARsukExñrenAminTan;mankarerIkcMerIn enAeLIyeT KWCa
TIpSarmYyEdltUc nigmankMrit. TaMgenHKWedaysarEtRbeTskm<úCaminGacpÁt;pÁg; )annUvkarbBa¢aTijd¾FM
nigCaGcié®nþy_ BIGtifiCneRkARbeTs EdleFVIeGayGtifiCnminGaceCOCak; eTAelIkarlT§PaBénkar
pÁt;pÁg;.
témøGgárenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCaKWminzitesßreLIy ehIyEtgEteLIgcuH² ehIyEdltémøenH
minkMNtedayTIpSarkñúgRsukeLIy EtpÞúyeTAvijKWtémøGgárénRbeTsCitxagEdlCaGñkkMNt;d¾sMxan;
elItémøGgárenAkñúgkm<úCa37.
37

Trade Liberalization impact of rice on Cambodia – Oxfam – 03 Nov 2005

KuNPaBGgárenAkñúgRsukExμr KWminTan;dl;kMritsþg;darEdlRtUvkareLIy enHKIedaysarEtkMrit
bec©kviTüanig]bkrN_EkécñenATabeLIy. EteTaHCaya:gNakñúgdMNak;kalenHenAminTan;man eKalneya)ayNamYysMrab;eFVIkareRCamERCg b¤eFVIeGayRbesIwLIgnUv]bkrN_sMrab;ma:suInkinRsUveLIy38.
karvinieyaKBIbreTselIvis½yeragma:suInkinRsUv tRmUveGaymankarcUlrYmedayesμIPaKKñaBIGñkkñúgRsuk
dUcCaeRKagkarrYmTunKñaCaedIm. bc©úb,nñenHmanEtRbCaCnExμrEtb:ueNaÑaHEdlmankmμsiT§kñúg]sSakmμ
eragma:suInkinRsUvEdlmanrab;Ban;manTMrg;CashRKaskinRsUvxñattUc nigmFüm. PaKeRcInén
shRKaskinRsUvTaMgenaH KWCakmμsiT§iRKYsarEdlcuHbBa¢IenAGCJaFrmUldæanCaGgÁPaBGCIvkmμ. bNaþaj
EbgEckGgárkm<úCa BuMrIkraldalb:unμaneT ehIyGñknaMecjGgárkm<úCa Canic©Cakallk;plitplrbs;xøÜn
EttamryHQμÜjkNþalEdlrkeXIjGtifiCnedayxøÜnÉg.
c> CMerIsneya)ay b¤]bkrN¾ edIm,ICMrujkarnaMecjGgár ¬elak can; b‘unñivtþn_
elak kan; visidæ nigelak Ey:m supl¦
1- PaBRbkYtRbECgkñúgRsuk
ktþaGMeNayplTak;TgnwgBaNiC¢kmμ
KYrEtbnþrTTYlykkargar nigkarRKb;RKgd¾manRbsiT§iPaB EdlCab;Tak;Tg kñúgkarkMENTMrg;dIFøI
EdlBak;Bn½§nwgsm,TandIsgÁmkic© nigdIsm,Tanesdækci © BIeRBaHviFankarN_TaMgenHnwgRtUv)anRbmUlpþMú
kMlaMgTUTaMgRbeTsedIm,IeRbIR)as;dIsMrab;plitkmμ. eRkABIenaH viFankarN¾TaMgGs;enHRtUvEtBRgwgedIm,I
begáIt nigRbtibtþiénbTbBaØati tTl;nwgGñkqe)akykdIFøI nigFanasnþisuxdIFøI nigRTBüsm,tþirbs;
GñkpÁt;pÁg;RsUvFuntUc nigmFüm.
TaMgGs;enHBak;Bn½§nwgkarpSBVpSaykareRbIR)asCIKImIksikmμ EdlGacCaviPaKTanedIm,IbegáIn
plitkmμ nigTMhMBaNiC¢kmμ eTaHbICaéføedImTinñn½ybBa©Úlx<s;k¾eday CaBiesséføCIKImI nigfñaMsMlab;stVl¥it
¬sUmemIlCMBUkTI2¦. plb:HBal;FMeFg nigry³eBlEvgénkareRbIR)as;CIKImIksikmμ KYrRtUvKitKUrBicarNa
kñúgkarvaytMéléføedIm nigGtßRbeyaCn_rbs;va edayemIleTAelIkMeNInesdækic© nigeRKaHfñak;dl;suxPaB
mnusS nigbrisßankñúgRbeTs. fVIebIsMNYrebIkcMhrCaeRcInenAEtGegátedayGñkRsavRCav cMeBaHkareRbI
R)as;CIKImI nigfñaMsMlab;stVl¥itenAeLIyk¾eday k¾kareRbIR)as;CIKImI nigfñaMsMlab;stVl¥itd¾smRsbmYy
38

Economic Institute of Cambodia 4 January-March, 2004

)anbgðajCaPsþútagénkarGnuvtþn_d¾manRbeyaCn_mYyEdlKYrEtRtUvCMruj nigRtUvEtbBa©ÚlenAkñúgplitkmμ
RsUvmYycMnYn.
b:uEnþenAkEnøgEdlsmRsb nigmanlkçN³esdækic© kareRbIR)as;viFIsa®sþplitkmμRsUvtamRbBl
vb,kmμ (SRI) nigkareRbI)as;BUCRsUvRkGUb dUcCanagmøiH EdlGMeNaypleGaymankarekIneLIgén
plitkmμCamYynwgkarkat;bnßykareRbIR)as;CIKImIksikmμy:agnak¾eday k¾GacRtUvemIleXIjpgEdrfa
plitkmμTaMgenaHmanéføedImx<s;mYy (Juergen Anthofer, 2004) nigRtUvkarlkçx½NÐbrisßan nigRKb;RKgl¥
ehIycMNayeBlEfrTaMeRcInCag ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwgviFIsa®sþepSgeToténplikmμRsUvEbbRbéBNI.
b:uEnþedayeyaleTAelIsuxPaBGñkeRbIR)as; nigbrisßan RbB½n§RsUvRbBlvb,kmμ (SRI) nigBUCRsUvRkGUb
dUcCa nagmøiH KYrRtUvBicarNaedayRbugRbyt½ñpgEdr kñúgkarBRgIkBUCRsUvenHTUTaMgRbeTs eTATINaEdl
dIsMbUredayCICati Gacpþl;briyakaslUtlas;RKab;RKan;sMrab;RbB½n§RsUvRbBlvb,kmμ (SRI) enH.
karerobcMdI CabBaðasMxan;mYy sMrab;GñkplitRsUvkm<úCa ebIeyagtamkarcMNayelIeRbgsaMg
nigGRtakarR)ak; kñúgkrNIkareRbIR)as;Rtak;T½r b¤k¾\NTankñúgkarTijeKamkeRbIR)as;. b:uEnþkñúglkçx½NÐ
]tþmPaBeRbobeFobénTinñplkareRbIR)as;Rtak;T½r KWx<s;CagkareRbIR)as;eKacMeBaHplitkmμRsUv. ehtu
dUecñH edIm,IbegáInPaBRbkYtRbECgénGñkpÁt;pÁg;RsUvkm<úCakñúgRbBn½§BaNiC¢kmμskl ksikrkm<úCatUc²
KYrbegáItTMrg;GgÁkarfμI² dUcCashKmn_ksikrCaedIm EdlGac[BYkeKTTYl)anGtßRbeyaCn_ BIIsmahrnþ
kmμkñúgRbBn½§BaNiC¢kmμTIpSarGgárBiPBelak. kñúgkrNIenH cMeBaHtMbn;EdldIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;y:agTUlM
TUlay karbegáIténshKmn_ksikrGaccat;Ecgedaysmehtupl nigGaceGaymannUvlT§PaBx<s;mYy
sMrab;karTij b¤k¾CYlnUvRtak;T½redIm,IeRbIR)as;sMrab;karerobcMdI nigsMrab;eFVIeGayRbesIreLIgpgEdrnUv
plitPaB nigTinñplenAkñúgshKmn_rbs;eK.
plitPaBBlkmμkm<úCa enAEtmankMritTabenAeLIy ebIeRbobeFob eTAnwgGñkRbkYtRbECgkñúgtMbn;
nigGnþrCati. plitPaBBlkmμTabGacCaEpñkmYyeFVIeGaymanTinñplTabénTinñplRsUv EdlCamUlehtu
bNþal[TMhMénkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCakñúgtMbn;
nigkñúgRbB½n§BaNiC¢kmμGgárGnþrCatienAmankMritTab.
ksidæantUc² b¤bNþaksikrmancMeNHdwgTab nwgminGacbegáItnUvkargard¾manplitPaBRKb;RKan;sMrab;
karekIneLIgnUvkMlaMgBlkmμ kñúgplitkmμRsUvkm<úCa k¾dUcCaBaNiC¢kmμenaHeLIy. karbegáItkarbNþúH
bNþalkñúgtMbn; nigkarKaMRTsßab½nEdlBak;B½n§ k¾dUcCakarbegáInesvakmμpSBVpSaykñúgtMbn; edIm,ICYyksikr

KWsMxan;Nas;sMrab;begáInsmtßPaBrbs;Kat; nigplitPaBénplikmμRsUv k¾dUcCaBaNiC¢kmμRsUvenAkñúg
RbeTs. kareFVI[RbesIreLIgnUvkarebIkcMhrd¾smrmüenAkñúgkareFVIhirBaØbTaneTAksikr edIm,I[BYkKat;
manRck;Gnuvtáksikmμd¾smrmü nigedIm,IbegáItnUvRbBn½§Farasa®sþtUc²pÞal;xøÜnrbs;Kat; k¾GacedIrtYnaTId¾
sMxan;pgEdr edIm,IbegáInkarpÁt;pÁg; nigkarnaMecjplitplGgárkm<úCaEdlbc©úb,nñenAmankMritTabenaH.
shKmn_ksikr KWCaGgÁkarmUldæanshKmn_mYyd¾sMxan;bMput EdlGacCYyBenøÓndMeNIrkar
GPivDÆn_kñúgtMbn;CnbT. RKb;GñkBak;Bn½§TaMgGs; RtUvEtCMruj b¤pþl;karelIkTwkcitþkñúgkarbegáItshKmn_
ksikrenAtamextþ nigtMbn; ehIyelIkTwkcitþsßabn½Bak;Bn½§ eGaycat;viFankarCak;EsþgGPivDÆn_shKmn_
TaMgenaH edIm,InwgepÞrbec©kviC¢afμI² Bt’manBIsßanPaBTIpSar nigbBaðaBak;Bn½§epSg²eTot. eRkABIenH
shKmn_TaMgenH k¾CYyRKb;sßabn½Bak;Bn½§nana gayRsYlTTYl)annUvsMNUmBr edIm,InwgriHrkmeFüa)aykñúg
karGPivDÆn_.
sUcnkrN_ma:RkUesdækic©sMxan;²mYycMnYn dUcCa éfø nigGRtabþÚrR)ak; EdlGacCH\T§iBlpgEdrdl;
lMhUrBaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa nigTinñ½ybBa©ÚlepSg²Edl)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;plitkmμ KYrRtUvRbugRbyt½ñeFVIkar
sMrbsMrYl nigKaMRTedayviFanma:RkUesdækic©mYycMnnY EdlGacTb;bgçaMgdl;sUcnkrN_TaMgenH BMueGay
Gnþray b¤k¾rMxandl;BaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa.
viFanBak;Bn½§nwgBaNiC¢kmμ ¬PaKIpÁt;pÁg;¦
bc©úb,nñKYrEtBRgwgkar]btßmÖkñúgRsuksMrab;plitkmμRsUv CaBiesssMrab;GñkplitGgásrIragÁ. kar
]btßmÖenH GacCakarelIkElgBn§cMNUl nig VAT elITinñ½ybBa©ÚlksikmμEdlGacCYybegáInplitPaB
nigRbsiT§iPaB cMeBaHplitkmμRsUv EdlGacCMrujPaBRbkYtRbECg nigbegáInbrimaNnaMecjGgárkm<úCa.
karelIkElgelIBn§elIdIsMrab;ksikmμ nigkarelIkElgBn§cMNUlrbs;ksikr Edlbc©úb,nñRtUvcat;fñak;
Cakar]btßmÖcMNUlEdlmanlkçN³pþac;karsm,Tannana ¬decoupled income supports¦ BIrdæaPi)al
(Green Box)enaH KYrRtUvrkSarTuk nigk¾b:uEnþRbmUlpþMúEteTAelIépÞdIEdlbc©úb,nñkMBugeRbIR)as;b:ueNÑaH BIeRBaH
viFanTaMgenHGacb:HBal;CaviC¢mansMrab;RbeTsedIm,IbgVilépÞdIEdlBMumanplitPaB eGayeTACaépÞdIEdl
manplitPaBvij nigedIm,IbegáInR)ak;cMNUlrbs;rdæ.
GVIEdleyIg)anraykrN¾enACMBUkTI2 rdæaPi)alkm<Cú a )aneFVIkarBak;Bn½§CaeRcInRbePT énkar]btßmÖ
epSg² edIm,IelIkTwkcitþkarGPivDÆn_ksikmμ nigCnbT ehIymankar]btßmÖRTg;RTaytUc²epSgeTot (Blue

EdlGacemIleXIjdUcCakarpþl;\NTanedaymanGRtakarR)ak;TabsMrab;GñkplitRsUv kar]btßmÖ
BUCEdlmanKuNPaB nigRbBn½§eRsacRsb; . l . viFan]btßmÖFnkñúgRsukTaMgenH KYrEtcat;TukCaGT§iPaB
nigBRgIkeTAtMbn;EdlRbQmmuxnwgkarxVHxatRbBn½§eRsacRsb; Tun nigbec©kviC¢asmRsb.
kar]btßmÖEpñkFnFanTwk KWCatRmUvkarénvis½yCaeRcInrbs;esdækic©. sm<aFd¾FMelIFnFanTwk
Edl)anekIneLIgedaykMeNInskmμPaBkarGPivDÆn_esdækic© KWCYbRbTHkMLúgrdUvR)aMg b¤k¾karBnüardUvR)aMg
d¾Evg enAeBlEdlhaniP½yénkarbMBulbrisßanmankMrti x<s;xøaMg nigmüa:gvijeTot karmanTwkhYsRbmaN
enAkñúgkMLúgrdUvePøóg begáItCamUlehtuCn;elc EdlnaMeTA[)at;bg;CIvit ehIyxUcxatCivPaBrs;enA
nigbNþaleGayman]iPaBdl;plitkñúgRsukCatisrub GDP. GaTi§PaBnana sMrab;BicarNaeTAelIRbB½n§
eRsacRsb; KWCabunnItism,Ta nigkarsßabnaeLIgvijénRbBn½§eRsacRsb; nigRbBn½§bgðÚTwkEdlmanRsab;
CaBiessenAtamtMbn;Edl]b,tþiehtuPaBRkIRkxøaMg nigtambeNþayRBMEdn karBRgIksmtßPaBépÞsþúkTwk
nigkarCMrujbec©kviC¢aRbmUlFnFanTwk karCMrujkaeeRbIR)as;d¾manRbsiT§iPaB nigecrPaBénRbPBTwkkñúgdI
enAkñúgtMbn;EdlmankarxVHxatTwk eFVIkarGPivDÆ nigGnuvtþviFankarTb;sáat;TwkCMnn; nigPaBhYtEhg
nigkarRKb;RKgTwksMrab;ksikmμ BRgwg nigBRgIkshKmn_ksikreRbIR)as;Twk nigCMrujeGaysmRsb ehIy
manRbsiT§iPaBénkarRKb;RKgGagTenø nigRbBn½§EbgEckFnFanTwk.
cMNucmYykñúgcMeNamTidæPaBmanRbeyaCn_CaeRcInénkarbegáInplikmμRsUvkm<úCa nigpÁt;pÁg;Ggár
KWCakarGPivDÆn_vis½yfamBlEfmeTot edIm,IeqøIytbTan;eTAnwgtRmUvkarGKÁisnIsMrab;vis½yksikmμ.
karbegáIt[manfamBlkñúgRsuk karbBa¢Ún nigRbBn½§Eckcay cat;TukCatRmUvkarcaM)ac;bMputsMrab;
shKmn_CnbT nigkMeNInesdækic©. karbegáItfamBl nigkareFVI[mantémøéføedImGKÁisnITab GacCakar
kat;bnßyéføedIménplitkmμkñúgvis½yGgár nigéføedIménkarRbtibtþiénvis½yepSg²eTotEdlBak;Bn½§CamYy
BaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa. edIm,IsMerc)ansmiT§iplTaMgenH eKRtUvEtBicarNaeFVIesrIkmμnUvkarbegáItfamBl
RKb;RbePT nigvis½yGKÁisnI RBmTaMgRbBn½§Eckcayrbs;va.
\NTanCnbTCasmasFatupSMmYysMxan; sMrab;karGPivDÆn_CnbT CaBiesssMrab;kar]btßmÖ
plitkmμRsUv nigkarbegáIt RBmTaMgkarBRgIkBaNiC¢kmμrbs;va. mUlniFieRcIneTotnwgRtUvkarCacaM)ac;
edIm,IeqøIytbxøH²eTAnwgtRmUvkard¾FMeFgsMrab;\NTanCnbT. bBaðaRbQmmuxsMxan;bMput KWrkmeFüa)ay
nigviFIedaytamryHmeFüa)ay nigviFIenaH \NTanCnbTGaceFVI[GRtakarR)ak;TabCageBlbc©úb,nñ
Box)

¬48° RbcaMqñaM¦. edIm,IFanakarbegáIn\NTan nigkarebIkcMhreGaygayRsYldl;GñkRksMrab;karTTYl
)an\NTan CaBiessedIm,IbMNgbegáInplitPaBplitkmμ TaMgGs;enH KWGacRtUvmanviFankarmYycMnYn
edIm,IBRgIk nigkat;bnßykarbg;tMéld¾x<s;én\NTanCnbT edaytamryHkarrukrk nigCMrujsßab½nnana
dUcCaRkumeRbIR)as;snSM nigshkrN¾CaedImEdl)ansÁal;y:agc,as;enAkñúgEpñkxøHenAGasIu karepÞr NGOs
EdlkMBugeFVIkic©karenH eGayeTACaRbtibtþikrhirBaØvtßúEdl)ancuHbBa¢IRtwmRtUv BRgwgkarRKb;RKgdl;sßab½n
TaMgenHedIm,IFanafaBYkeKeKarBtamsþg;dar nigkat;bnßyGRtakarR)ak;TUeTAtamry³karGnuvtþn_d¾l¥bMput
dUcCaneya)ayrbs;rdæaPi)alsMrab;RbGb;BN_exov (Blue Box). müa:geTot km<úCaRtUvEteFVI[RbesIreLIg
nUvbriyakasvinieyaK nigbnþrya:gskmμkñúgkareFVIesrIkmμ nigeKarBeTAtamRbRBwtþikmμCatidl;RKb;
GñkvinieyaKTunbreTs CaBiessdl;GñkvinieyaKTunEpñkhirBaØvtßúRKb;RbePT.
2- pllM)akkñúgRsuk nigbNþajTIpSar
ehdæarcnasm<½n§ RbB½n§eRsacRsb; BUC CIKImI nigfñaMsMlab;stVl¥it RtUv)anemIleXIjfaman
tYnaTIy:agsMxan;kñúgplitkmμRsUv eRkABIbec©kviC¢aEdl)anrkeXIjxøH². dUecñH edIm,IelIkkMBs;plitkmμRsUv
k¾dUcCakarnaMecjGgár viFanmYycMnYnEdlTak;TgnwgkaredaHRsayplvi)akkñúgRsuk KYrEtRtUvKitKUrBicarNa
. raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa RtUvbnþrkarBüayamrbs;xøÜnya:gmutmaM kñúgkarsnüaksagRbB½n§ehdæarcnasm<½n§
tP¢ab;BITIRkugeTACnbTEdlmanskþanuBl nig]tþmPaBeRbobeFobx<s;kñúgkarplitRsUv.
RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT )anshkarCamYy naykdæankaMkugRtUl énRksYgBaNiC¢kmμ
KYrcat;viFankarCak;EsþgcuHEqkeq
nigRtYtBinitürk[eXIjGñkEdleFVIBaNiC¢kmμlk;dUrCIKImIEkøgkøay
EdleFVI[xatbg;fvikaksikr k¾dUckar)at;bg;KuNPaBdI nigKuNPaBGgár. RKb;GñknaMecjGgár RtUvEtcgCa
cegáamEdlGac[BYkeKBRgwgxøÜneK edIm,IFanapÁt;pÁg;TaMgKuNPaB nigbrimaN ehIymansmtßPaBRbkYt
RbECgCamYyGñknaMecjbreTs dUcBaküesøakExμrfa {samKÁICakMlaMg}. rdæaPi)al RtUvEtcat;viFankarN_
mYycMnYn edIm,IGnþraKmn_ GMBIGVIEdlKitfaCakarRbkYtRbECgminyutþFm_ EdlRbBwtþedayBaNiC¢krmYycMnYn
CaBiessskmμPaBkñúgkarRbmUlTijRsUvBIBaNiC¢kreRkARbeTs dUcCaBYkBaNiC¢krevotNamCaedIm.
skmμPaBminyutþiFm_enH CaeRKaHfñak;d¾FMmYy nigeFIVeGayxUcxatcMeBaHBaNiC¢krRtwmRtUv ¬Rkumh‘un
GgÁrksikmμrugerOg)antva:GMBIbBaðaenH¦. CabEnßmeTot raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa RtUvEtcat;viFankarN_edIm,I

Gnuvtþkic©RBmeRBog Gnam½y nigPUtþKamGnam½y nigr)aMgbec©keTsBaNiC¢kmμkñúgkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμén
plitplGgár.
PaBxVHxatkñúgkarKaMRTesvakmμksikmμ nigkarEckcayBt’mansþIBIéføelITIpSar nigtMrUvkarKuNPaB
BUCfμI² nigeFVI[RbesIreLIgnUvplitkmμ nigbec©kviC¢a )anRtUvraraMgedaysarEtkarecHdwgTab PaBxVHxatkñúg
karTMnak;TMngépÞkñúg nigRck;eTArkBt’mannUvmankMNt;. pllM)akénkarpSBVpSay nigkarpþl;Bt’man
RtUveFVIeGaylM)akbEnßmeTotedaysarEtPaBxVHxatnUvsþg;darKuNPaB EdleFVI[GñkplitRsUvmankar
enOyNayCamYynwgbBaðaTinñ½ybBa©ÚlksikmμTaMgenH. dUcKñaenHEdr sMrab;GñkplitRsUv KWmankalanuvDÆ
PaBd¾mankMNt;edIm,I kMNt;TMgn; nigsMeNImCak;lak; nigkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμplitplrbs;BYkeK. shKmn_
GñkplitRsUv smaKmksikr nigviTüasßanRsavRCav GacCYyelIkeLIgnUvpllM)akEdlBak;B½n§TaMgenaH
kñúgkMLúgeBlEdlpþl;Bt’man nigkarKaMRTesvakmμdl;BYkeK edayCamYynwgkarbg;tMélTabmYy. kñúgry³
eBlEvg karbegáInnUvkarRbkYtRbECg nigtMrUvkaredIm,IkarBarekrþieQμaH Gacpþl;karelIkTwkcitþd¾xøaMgxøa
cMeBaHGñkplitGgár nigBaNiC¢krGgár eFVIkaredayesμaHRtg;CamYyGñkplitRsUv.
karEkécñplitplksikmμ nigma:XItTIg KWPaKeRcInmanTMrg;mineTAtamnitiviFIRtwmRtUv elIkElgEt
GñkplitGgárFM². plitplksikmμeFVIcracrBIGñkplitRsUvtUc² eTAGñkeRbIR)as;edayrh½s nigsmrmü
ehIytamry³karEckcaytUc²enH )anbgðajfakarsþúkTuk nigehfarcnasm<n½§Ekécñ manPaBtUcbMputenA
kñúgRbeTs. Gñkplit GacnaMykRsUvedaypÞal;eTAkan;TIpSarkñúgtMbn;edayxøÜnÉg b¤k¾lk;[GñkRbmUlTij
¬QμÜjkNþal¦ EdlGacnaMRsUvnaHeTAeGayGñklk;raykñúgTIpSarFM² CaBiessenAPñMeBj. manshRKas
lk;dMumYycMnYn BiesscMeBaHGgárEdlGacRtUv)andwkCBa¢ÚneTAbNþaextáepSg b¤naMecjeTAlk;[RbeTséf
nigevotNam b:uEnþeTaHbIy:agNak¾edayTegVIenH Carbs;shRKasminpøÚvkar ehIyCajwkjab;KμankEnøg
Rbtibtþi nigTIkEnøgsþúkTukCak;lak;cMeBaHRsUvenaHeLIy. b:uEnþkm<úCa )anGPivDÆn_l¥pgEdrnUvRbB½n§
BaNiC¢kmμ nigkarEkécñksikmμxñattUc b¤TMhMtUc nigTMrg;minpøÚvkarFM² EdlRtUv)ancUlrYmedaymnusSCaeRcIn
EdlmanlkçN³snñiTanesdækic© EdlGaceqøIytbedayRbsiT§iPaB eTAnwgpllM)ak nigkalanuvtþnPaB
EdlGacekItman. ehtudUecñH km<úCaRtUvEtEklMGrktþaKnøwHmYycMnYnEdlcMeBaHktþaTaMgenaH RbB½n§plitkmμ
karEkécñ nigRbB½n§TIpSarTMenIb nwgGacbegáItnUvkarbBaÄb;nUvBaNiC¢kmμminpøÚvkar nigkarnaMecjRsUvEdl
minTan;Ekrécñ. KMnitpþÜcepþImRtUv)antMrUvkaredIm,Ilb;bM)at;pllM)ak nigBRgIkkaryl;dwgénkarlanuvtþPaB

. RtUvEtmankarsnüad¾skmμBIrdæaPi)al edIm,IKaMRT nigbegáInsmtßPaBPaBCaGñdwknaMénvis½yÉkCnsMrab;
karEklMGrTaMgenH .
RtUvEtbnþnUvkic©karEdlBak;Bn½§kñúgkarEbgEckCMnYymðÚbGahartamry³shRKasrdæmYy KWRkumh‘un
RKIneRtt (Green Trade Company) EdlmankarTTYlxusRtUvkñúgnam[rdæaPi)al sMrab;karbBa¢aTijGgár
rYmTaMgkareRtombMrugTukGgár EdltMrUvtamkic©RBmeRBogsnþisuxmðÚbGahareRtombMrugrbs;Gas‘an. edIm,I
FanakarEbgEckCMnYymðÚbGahar nigsnþisuxmðÚbGahareRtombMrug kñúgeKalbMNgxagelI GñknaMecjGgár
RtUvEttMrUv[manc,ab;GnuBaØatmunnwgnaMecjGgáreTARbeTsnaMcUl. b:uEnþc,ab;GnuBaØatminEmncat;Tukfa
CakarkMritkarnaMecjGgárenaHeLIy RKan;EtCaÉksaredIm,IeFVIkarnaMecj nigeRbIeFVICaTinñn½ysßitib:ueNÑaH.
briyakasvinieyaKrbs;km<úCa enAEtTn;exSayenAeLIy. FnaKaBiPBelak )aneroblMdab;fñak;
km<úCasþIGMBIbriyakasGaCIvkmμ enACitkMritTabbMput. rdæaPi)alkm<úCaKYrEtEkrlMGrbriyakasvinieyaK
nigcUlrYmya:gskmμCamYyvis½yvinieyaKÉkCnbreTs edImI,CMrujkarGPivDÆn_esdækic©rbs;xøÜn CaBiess
kñúgvis½yksikmμ. km<úCaRtUvEtbnþreFVIesrIkmμ nigGnuvtþRbBwtþikmμCatidUcKña elIRKb;GñkvinieyaKTunbreTs
CaBiesskarvinieyaKhirBaØvtßúRKb;RbePT. karkan;kab; nigkareRbIR)asdI tamry³dIsb,Tanrbs;
GñkvinieyaKTunbreTs karCYlry³eBlEvgminkMNt; nigkarCYlry³eBlxøI RBmTaMgkareFVICakmμsiT§i
KYrRtUv)anelIkykmkBicarNa cMeBaHneya)ayesrIkmμenH. eRkABIenH kñúgkarRbtibtþi KYrEtlb;ecal
pgEdrnUvPaBsμúksμajbc©úb,nñ kariyal½yniymF¶n;F¶r GMeBIBukrlYy nigcMNayminpøÚvkarmYycMnYnpgEdr.
kMENTMrg;epSgeTotEdlGacCakarEklMGrbriyakasCMnYj kñúgRbeTsCadMukMPYnpgEdrenaH KWkmμvIFIkMEN
TMrg;karsMrYlBaNiC¢kmμ. vaKYrEtykcitþTukdak;edayRbugRby½tñ nigRsbCamYykic©RBmeRBog WTO
sþIGMBIkarkarsMrYlBaNiC¢kmμ.
3- karebIkTIpSar
CMerIsneya)ay b¤viFankarN_ edIm,ICMrujkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa eRkaycUl WTO rbs;RbeTskm<úCa
)anrkeXIjKnøwHsMxan;²BIEpñkxøHénKMeragEdl)ansikSaRsavRCav nigcMnucBak;Bn½§mYycMnYn. sMNYrcMbgén
KMeragTaMgmUl KWfaetIeFVIya:gNa edIm,IeGaykm<úCaGacbnþrGPivDÆBaNiC¢kmμGgárrbs;xøÜnenAeRkamlkçxN½Ð
énkarebIkcMhrTIpSar
eTAkan;TIpSarBiPBelakEdlRtUvEsþgecjtamry³karebIkcMhrrbs;xøÜnenAkñúg
karsmhrN_cUleTAkñúgGas‘an nigGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak. kic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBIksikmμ )anpþl;

GtßRbeyaCn_CaeRcIn cMeBaHRbeTsRkIRkdUcCakm<úCa. kic©RBmeRBogtMrUv[RKb;RbeTsCasmaCiklubecal
r)aMgminEmnBn§Ky edaybEgVrvaeTACar)aMgBn§Ky ehIykat;bnßyvaCabeNþIr². kñúgnamCaRbeTs
RkIRkmYy bc©úb,nñkm<úCa)anbBa¢ak;c,as;las;nUvBn§naMcUld¾smrmümYy GMBIpliplksikmμrbs;xøÜn. ktþa
TaMgGs;enH CaGMeNayplCaviC¢mand¾l¥mYysMrab;km<úCa BRgIkkarnMaecjplitplGgárrbs;xøÜn nigeFVIkar
Tak;TajvinieyaKkñúgvis½yenHpgEdr.
viFankat;bnßy]btßmÖFnEdlpþl;edayRbeTsepSg² dl;GñkplitsMxan;² nwgEsþgecj[eXIjfa
km<úCaTTYl)anGtßRbeyaCn_. brimaNkUtaRtUv)anBRgIk TaMgkñúgRbeTsGPivDÆn_ nigkMBugGPivDÆn_
nigeKalkarN¾ MFN kñúgcMeNamsmaCikk¾CaktþamanRbeyaCn_sMrab;karnaMecjGgárkm<úCaEdr. eyIgeCO
Cak;fakm<úCaCaGñkplitRsUvd¾RbkYtRbECg b¤k¾manskþanuBlmYy kñúgcMeNamplitplksikmμCaeRcIn
rbs;xøÜnEdlenAkñúgenaHGgáredIrtYnaTId¾sMxan;pgEdr. mü:agvijeTot dUcEdl)anrMlwkxagelIehIy eyIg
yl;fa eyIgKYrtMrUvkareGayrkSaTukeGaytUcbMput b:uEnþRKb;RKan;nUvGRtaBn§sMrab;karBarplitplksikmμ
ehIyrkSaTuknUvsiT§ipþl;]btßmÖFncMeBaHplitkrkñúgRsukEdlCakarCYyd¾BitR)akdeTAdl;BYkeK edIm,IeGay
køayeTACaGñkRbkYtRbECgxøaMgkøaEfmeTot.
karbegáInkarebIkTIpSartamryHkarcUleTAkñúgGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak nigGas‘an TaMgenHnwgCa
plcMeNjya:gFMEdlRbeTskm<úCa)aneFVIenAkñúgEpñkenH EdlenATIenaHkm<úCaman]tþmPaBeRbobeFobmYy
cMeBaHplitplGgár ekAs‘U eQImUl nigmðÚmGaharEkécñmYycMnYneTot. km<úCaTTYl)aneCaKC½y b¤braC½y
KWEp¥kelIvisalPaBd¾FMeFg EdlBMuRtwmEtsmtßPaBedIm,ItulüPaBrvagc,ab; nigkatþBVkic©rbs;xøÜneRkam
RbBn½§BaNiC¢kmμBhuPaKIenaHeT b:uEnþk¾sßitenAelIfaetItYnaTIrbs;RbeTsxøÜn GacTTYlykkalanuvDÆPaB
nigkarRbQmmuxTUeTAenAkñúgkareFVItMbn;PavUbnIykmμ nigsklPavUbnIykmμedayxøÜnÉkEdrrWeT. ehtudUec©H
km<úCaRtUvEtbnþrcrcaeTVrPaKI nigBhuPaKI edIm,IebIkTIpSar nigTTYl)annUv GSP b¤k¾karebIkcMhrTIpSar
EdlmankUtaesrI nigKμanBn§ ¬QF & DF) cUleTAkñúgRbeTsFM² edIm,InwgTak;TajGñkvinieyaK
breTsedaypÞal; (FDI) cUlmkkñúgRbeTs nigedIm,Ikat;bnßyBn§ b¤k¾Bn§Tab sMrab;karnaMecjGgárkm<úCa .
q>esckþIsnñidæan
eTaHbICaRbeTskm<úCa )aneFVI[mankareCOnelOnd¾sMxan;kñúgkareqøIytbeTAnwgcMnucexSayénnItiviFI
EbgEckdIFøIk¾eday PaBsmamaRténGñkxVHxatdIsMrab;eFVIksikmμenACnbT )anekIneLIgBI 13° kñúgqñaM

1997 dl; 16° kñúgqñaM1999 nig20°kñúgqñaM2004. edIm,Ikat;bnßyplb:HBal;CaGviC¢manenH KYrEtbnþr
TTYlykkargar nigkarRKb;RKgd¾RbsiT§iPaBEdlCab;Tak;TgkñúgkMENTMrg;dIFøI EdlBak;Bn½§nwgsm,TandI
sgÁmkic© nigdIsm,Tanesdækic©. bEnßmeTot viFankarN¾TaMgGs;enHRtUvBRgwg kñúgkarbegáIt nigkarRbtibtþi
énbTbBaØati tTl;nwgGñkqe)akykdIFøI nigFanasnþisuxdIFøI nigRTBüsm,tþirbs;GñkpÁt;pÁg;RsUvFuntUc
nigmFümpgEdr.
Bak;Bn½§nwgkarbegáInplitPaBplitkmμ km<úCaenAEtCaRbeTsmYyEdlTinñplRsUvmankMritTabkñúg
tMbn;enAeLIy. edIm,IedaHRsaybBaðenH shKmn_ksikr nigsßab½nkñúgRsukEdlBak;B½n§ KWCaGgÁkar
shKmn_mUldæand¾sMxan; EdlGacBenøÓnkarGPivDÆn_plitPaBplitkmμ enAkñúgcMENkénkareRbIR)as; nig
karepÞrbec©kviC¢afμI² Bt’manénsßanPaBTIpSar nigbBaðaepSg²eTot. CabEnßmeTot shKmksikr k¾Gac
CYypgEdrdl;sßab½nBak;B½n§nanagayRsYlRbmUlnUvsMNUmBr edIm,InwgrknUvmeFüa)aysMrab;GPivDÆn_én
vis½yRsUv .
eTaHbImankarekIneLIgnUvTinñplRsUv b:uEnþkareRbIR)as;CIKImI nigCIFmμCatiEdlminsmRsb nigkar
erobcMdI enAEtCakarcMNayx<s;enAkñúgdMeNIrkarplitkmμenAkñúgplikmμRsUv. ehtudUecñH kareRbIR)as;CIKImI
nigfñaMsMlab;stVl¥itd¾smRsb )anbgðajCaPsþútag énkarGnuvtþn_d¾manRbeyaCn_mYy EdlKYrEtRtUvCMruj
nigRtUvEtbBa©ÚlenAplitkmμRsUvEdlCalkçN³RbéBNImYycMnYn. edayeyaleTAelIsuxPaBGñkeRbIR)as;
nigbrisßan RbB½n§RsUvRbBlvb,kmμ (SRI) nigkareRbI)as;BUCRsUvRkGUb dUcCanagmøiH KYrRtUvBicarNaeday
RbugRbyt½ñpgEdr kñúgkarBRgIkbec©kviC¢aTaMgenH eTARKb;TIkEnøgkñúgRbeTsEdlenATIenaH mandIRbkbeday
CICatiEdlGacpþl;briyakaslUtlas;RKab;RKan;sMrab;RbB½n§RsUvRbBlvb,kmμenaH (SRI).
xN³EdlRksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniymmankarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHTidæPaBbec©keTsénRbB½n§Fara
saRsþxñatFMnana KMeragxñattUc nigmFümTaMgLay RtUv)anTTYlxusRtUvedaymnÞIrtamextþnImYy². eTaHbI
y:agNak¾eday eyIgeXIjfaépÞdIEdl)aneRsacRsBRKbdNþb;)anEt 10 PaKryénépÞdIdaMduHsarub.
dUcEdl)anpþl;Gnusasn_enAkñúgCMBUkTI 5 karBRgIksmtßPaBépÞsþúkTukTwk nigkarCMrujbec©kviTüaRbmUlTwk
karCMrujnUvkareRbIR)as;d¾manRbsiT§iPaB nignirnþr_PaBénFnFanTwkeRkamdITaMgGs; enAkñúgtMbn;Edlmankar
xVHxatépÞsþúkTwk karGPivDÆn_ nigGnuvtþnUvviFankarN_bn§ÚbnßyPaBCMnn; nigraMgs¶Üt nigkaRKb;RKgTwk

ksikmμ eFVIkarBRgwg nigBRgIkshKmn_ksikreRbIR)as;Twk eFVIkarCMrujkarRKb;RKgGagTenø eGay)an
smrmü nigeGaymanRbsiT§iPaB nigRbB½n§EbgEckTwknana KWRtUvEtelIkykmkBicarNa.
km<úCa enAEtxVHxatGñkpþl;\NTansMrab;Gñkplit nigEkrécñplitplRsUv nigk¾mannUvkarbg;tMél
d¾x<s;mYyénkareRbIR)as;\NTanenAeLIy. ehtudUcenH \NTanCnbT KWCaeRKOgpSMd¾sMxan;sMrab;kar
GPivDÆn_CnbT CaBiesssMrab;karKaMRTplitkmμRsUv RBmTaMgkarbegáIt nigkarBRgIkénBaNiC¢kmμrbs;va.
edIm,IFanakarekIneLIg nigedIm,IeGayGñkRkIRkmanRck;d¾gayRsYleTArk\NTan CaBiesssMrab;eKal
bMNgekIneLIgnUvplitPaBenaH TaMgGs;enH KYrEtRtUvTTYlyknUvviFankarN_mYycMnYnedIm,IBRgIk
nigkat;bnßynUvkarbg;tMéld¾x<s;én\NTanCnbTedaytamryHkarEsVgrk nigkarCMrujnUvsßab½nnana dUcCa
RkumsnSMR)ak; nigshkrN_CaedIm dUcEdlRtUv)andwgc,as;enAkñúgRbeTsxøH²enAGasuIEdl)aneFVIehIy.
eFVIkarepÞr NGOs mYycMnYnEdlkMBugeFVIkargarenH eGayeTACa RbtibtþikrhirBaØvtßúEdlmankarcuHbBa¢I
RtwmRtUv. RtUveFVIeGayRbesIreLIgnUvkarRKb;RKgénsßab½nTaMgenH edIm,IFanafaRbtibtþikrTaMgenaH RtUvrU:v
eTAnwgbTdæan nigGackat;bnßyGRtakarR)ak;edaykarGnuvtþd¾RbesIrnana dUcCaneya)ayrbs;rdæaPi)al
Edl)aneFVIcMeBaH : RbGb;exov :. müa:gvijeTot km<Cú aKYrEtRtUveFVIeGay RbesIreLIgnUvbriyakasvinieyaK
nigkarvinieyaKÉkCnbreTsEdlskmμrwgmaMTaMgLay edIm,IeRCamERCgkarGPivDÆn_esdækic©rbs;xøÜn CaBi
essvis½yksikmμpgEdr. RbeTskm<úCa RtUvbnþeFVIesrIkmμ nigeFVIeGayRtUvKñanUvRbRBitþikmμCaticMeBaH
vinieyaKinbreTsTaMgGs; CaBiessRKb;RbePTTaMgGs;énkarvinieyaKhirBaØvtßúbreTs.
eTaHbI MAFF CARDI nig NGO mYycMnYn )ansgát;F¶n;eTAelIkarRsavRCav
nigkarpSBVpSayk¾eday k¾esvakmμpSBVpSayksikmμTaMgGs;rbs;eK enAEtmankarxVHxatenAeLIysMrab;kar
eqøIytbeTAnwgtMrUvkarrbs;ksikr CaBiessplitkrRsUv. mü:agvijeTot plitPaBkMlaMgBlkmμkm<úCa
k¾sßitenATabenAeLIy ebIeRbobeFobeTanwgGñkRbkYtRbECgkñúgtMbn; nigGnþrCati. plitPaBkargard¾Tab
enH RtUvbNþalmkBImYyEpñkedaysarEtkargarEdlmancMeNHdwgTab nigplitPaBBuMRKb;RKan;enAkñúg
plitkmμRsUvenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa ehIyk¾dUcCaenAkñúgBaNiC¢kmμrbs;va. karbegáIteGaymankEnøgbNþúH
bNþal nigsßab½nKaMRTenAtamtMbn;nImYy² k¾dUcCaesvakmμpSBVpSaymUldæansMrab;CYydl;ksikr KWCa
RbkarsMxan;Nas; edIm,IeFVIeGayRbesIreLIgnUvsmtßPaB nigplitPaBénplitkmμRsUvrbs;Kat; k¾dUcCa
BaNiC¢kmμrbs;vaenAkñúgRbeTs. kareFVIeGayRbesIreLIg nUvkarebIkcMhrd¾smrmüenAkñúgkareFVIhirBaØbTan

eTAdl;ksikr edIm,IeGayKat;GacmanRck;GnuvtþksidæanmYyd¾smrmü nigGacksagnUvRbB½n§eRsacRsb;
pÞal;xøÜnd¾tUcmYy GacedIrtYnaTIy:agsMxan;sMrab;eFVIeGayekIneLIgnUvkarpÁt;pÁg nigkarnaMecjsBVéf¶én
plitplRsUvkm<úCa.
rdæaPi)al KYrrkSanUvkarelIkElgBn§eTAelIdIFøIksikmμEdlepþatEteTAelIépÞdIEdleRbIR)as;Et
b:ueNaÑaH RbesIrCasCagkarelIkElgeTAelIRKb;RbePTéndIFøI nigkarelIkElgnUvBn§R)ak;cMNUlrbss;
ksikr nigrkSakarBak;B½n§eTAelIkarelIkTwkcitþénkarGPivDÆn_ksikmμ nigCnbT nigKaMRTxñattUc²d¾éT
eTot. CabEnßmeTot km<úCaKYrEtbnþebIkcMhrTIpSaresrIsMrab;RKb;RbePTTinñn½ybBa©ÚlksikmμEdlnaMcUl
TaMgLayedayeGayRtUvr:UvKañCamYynwgkic©RBmeRBog WTO nigRbwgERbgegay)ansmrmmükñúgkarsMrb
sMrYlsUcnkrN_m:aRkUesdækic©mYycMnYn dUcCaGRtabþrÚ R)ak; nigGRtaGtiprNa EdlGaceFVIeGayrMxanpgEdr
eTAdl;BaNiC¢kmμGgárrbs;km<úCa.
RKYsarksikrCaeRcIn plitRsUvRKan;EtsMrab;kareRbIR)as;eGayRKb;RKan;enAkñúgRKYsarEtb:ueNaÑH
RKYsarksikrTaMgenaH BMu)anerobcM b¤k¾sakl,gplitedIm,InaMecjenaHeLIy. edIm,IeqøIytbeTAnwgkarRBYy
)armÖenH shKmn_GñkplitRsUv smaKmn_ksikr smaKmn_kinRsUv nigBaNiC¢kr k¾dUcCasßab½nRsavRCav
nigpSBVpSay GacedIrtYnaTId¾sMxan; kñúgkarCYy b¤k¾bBa©úHbBa©ÚlksikrTaMgGs;eGayKitBicarNa nigpøas;bþÚr
plitkmμEdlCaRbéBNIrbs;xøÜn eGayeTACaplitkmμsMrab;TIpSar. CaBiesseTAeTot GñkTaMgGs;enaH
KYrEtpþl;eGayksikrpgEdrnUvtMéld¾TabsMrab;karTTYl)annUvRKb;RbePTénB’tman \NTan nigesvakmμ.
BaNiC¢krRsUvkm<úCa mankarbuinRbsb;kñúgkarTij nigsþúkTuknUvRsUvsMrab;bMeBjkarTamTarBI
GñkbBa¢aTijenAmankMritenAeLIy. karEsVgrkTIpSar KWBMumanCabBaðaenaHeT k¾b:uEnþTnÞwmnwgKat;manTIpSar
Kat;BuMGacpÁt;pÁg)anTal;EtesaHnUvcMnYn nigKuNPaBeGayeTAtamtMrUvkar. karmankMritnUvcMeNHdwgTIpSar
enAbreTsedayehtuEtmankarxVHxaténBt’manBIlkç½NÐTIpSarbreTsenaH KWCakarraraMgepSgeTotsMrab;
GñkkinRsUv nigBaNiC¢krRsUvTaMgLay. edIm,IeqøIytbnwgbBaðaenH shKmn_ksikr b¤k¾smaKmksikr
GñknaMecjRsUv nigGñkkinRsUvTaMgLay k¾dUcCasßab½nBak;B½n§nana dUcCakEnøgpþl;B’tmanBI TBT nig SPS
KYrEteFVIkarCamYyKñaedIm,InwgplitenApliplRsUveyageTAtamKuNPaB nigcMnYnEdlRtUv)anTamTar.
müa:gvijeTot karbegáIt : PUmimYyplitplmYy : k¾GaceqøIytbpgEdreTAnwgbBaðaBak;B½n§enH.

ehdæarcnasm<½n§RkxSt;TUeTA nigkarbg;tMéldwkCBa¢Únx<s; KWenAEtCasmasFatusMxan;mYyenAeLIy
sMrab;karraraMgkarnaMecj. dUcenHedIm,InwgeFVIegayRbesIreLIgnUvplitkmμRsUv k¾dUcCakarnaMecjRsUvkm<úCa
viFankarN_mYycMnYnBak;B½n§nwgkareFVIeGayRbesIreLIgénkarraraMgkñúgRsuk KYrRtUvelIkykmkBicarNa.
raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa RtUvbnþRbwgERbg[Gs;lT§PaBrbs;xøÜnenAkñúgkarsnüaksagRbB½n§ehdæarcnasm<½n§P¢ab;
BITIRkugeTAtMbn;CnbTEdlman]tþmPaBeRbobeFob nigskþanuBlx<s;kñúgkarplitRsUv. eRkABIenH kñúg
karRbtibtþiKYrEtlb;ecalpgEdrnUvPaBsμúksμajbc©úb,nñ kariyal½yniymF¶n;F¶r GMeBIBukrlYy nigcMNay
minpøÚvkarmYycMnYnpgEdr. kMENTMrg;epSgeTotEdlGacCakarEklMGrbriyakasCMnYj kñúgRbeTsCadMu
kMPYnpgEdrenaH KWkmμvIFIkMENTMrg;énkarsMrYlBaNiC¢kmμ. karkMENTMrg;enH KYrEtykcitþTukdak;eday
RbugRby½tñ nigRsbCamYykic©RBmeRBog WTO sþIGMBIkarsMrYlBaNiC¢kmμ .
kic©RBmeRBogsþIGMBIksikmμpþl;GtßRbeyaCn_CaeRcIncMeBaHbNþaRbeTsRkIRk edaylb;bM)at;r)aMg
BaNiC¢kmμminEmnBn§Ky nigr)aMgBn§Ky nig]btßmÖFnkñúgRsuk. kñúgfan³CaRbeTsRkIRkmYy km<úCaRtUvEt
rkSaTukBn§naMcUlÉkraCücMeBaHplitplksikmμ nigrkSarsiT§i]btßmÖFnkñúgRsukcMeBaHGñkplitRsUvbnþ
eTot. ktþaenHpþl;plCaviC¢man sMrab;km<úCaBRgIkkarnaMecjpliitplksikmμrbs;xøÜn nigTak;Taj
vinieyaKkñúgvisy½enHpgEdr.
brimaNkUtaRtUv)anBRgIk TaMgkñúgRbeTsGPivDÆn_ nigkMBugGPivDÆn_ nigeKalkarN¾ MFN kñúg
cMeNamsmaCikk¾CaktþamanRbeyaCn_sMrab;karnaMecjGgárkm<úCaEdr. eyIgeCOCak;fakm<úCa CaGñkRbkYt
RbECgmYy b¤manskþanuBlRbkYtRbECg kñúgcMeNamplitksikmμTaMgGs;EdlenAkñúgenaH plitkmμRsUvedIr
tYnaTId¾sMxan;. ehtudUec©H km<úCaRtUvEtbnþrcrcaeTVrPaKI nigBhuPaKI edIm,IebIkTIpSar nigTTYl)an GSP
b¤TIpSarkUtaesrI nigKμanBn§ QF & DF EfmeTotcUleTAkñúgRbeTsFM² dUcCashrdæGaemrik nigCb:un
CaedIm\

esckþIbEnßm
lT§pleKalrbs;KMeragRsavRCav
1> lT§pleKaledARsavRCav nigeKalbMNg
eQμaHrbs;KMeragRsavRCav
CMrujkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa eRkaycUl
GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak

eKaledA nigeKalbMNg

WTO


sikSaelIrcnasm<n½§ niglkçxN½Ð énBaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa
sikSaelIkarebIkRckTIpSarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa
viPaKelIkarKMramkMEhg énBaNiC¢kmμGgárkm<úCa
GPivDÆneya)ay b¤]bkrN¾ edIm,ICMrujkarnaMecjGgárkm<úCa

2> lT§pleKal viFIsa®sþRsavRCav nigkmμviFIsMrbsMrYlrbs;RKUENnaM

lT§pleKal
KeRmagkargar

kargar
epJIKeRmagkargarCUnRKUENnaM
pþl;cemøIyelIKeRmagRsavRCav

viFIsa®sþ
nigTMnak;TMngCamYYyRKUbNþúHbNþal
nigRKUENnaM tamry³ E-Mail
sresr nigkarpþl;eyabl;
eqøIytmtamry³ E-Mail nigTUrsB½V

FnFan
RkumGñkRsavRCav
RKUENnaM

kalbriecäT
31 Extula
qñaM2006
s)aþh¾TI1 dl;
s)aþh¾TI2
Exvicäika 06

)anGnum½tKeRmagkargar

KeRmagRsavRCavsegçb
¬rYmTaMgCMBUkRsavRCav nigGnusasn_¦

sresr nigkarpþl;eyabl;
eqøIytmtamry³ E-Mail nigTUrsB½V
epJIKeRmagRsavRCavsegçbCUnRKUENnaM BinitüeLIgvij ÉksardMbUg nig
¬bBa¢ak;cMnYnTMB½r kñúgCMBUkRsavRCav¦ CMBUkRsavRCavnimYy²

RKUbNþúHbNþal
RKUENnaM
RkumGñkRsavRCav

pþl;cemøIyelIKeRmagRsavRCav

sresr nigkarpþl;eyabl;
eqøIytmtamry³ E-Mail nigTUrsB½V
viFIsa®sþ

RKUENnaM

BinitüeLIgnUvRTwsþIénÉksarsMxan;²
Tinñn½ybnÞab;bnSM ÉksarBak;B½n§
mYycMnYnTinñn½yBIRksYgBak;B½n§
RsavRCavBI Internet nigkariyal½y

elak Ey:m supl BIs)aþh¾TI4
elak can; b‘unñivtþn_ Exvicäika dl;
s)aþh¾TI4 ExFñÚ
06

kargar
lT§pleKal
bBa©b;karRsavRCav
karRsavRCavCMBUk 1
rcnasm<n½§bc©úb,nñ énkaenaMecj Ggár
rbs;km<úCa
- BaNiC¢kmμGnþrCati EpñkGgár
- brimaNnaMecj nigbNaþTpSar ¬cin Cb:un
kUer:xagt,Úg nigshrdæGaemrik¦
- EbbbTGtItkal BaNiC¢kmμ EpñkGgár
- EbbbTbc©úb,nñ BaNiC¢kmμ EpñkGgár ¬]>
éfLg;d¾ nigevotNam¦
- PaBGnueRKaHBaNiC¢kmμ

FnFan

s)aþh¾TI3
Exvicäika 06

kalbriecäT

bBa©b;karRsavRCav
karRsavRCavCMBUk 2
PaBRbkYtRbECg cMeBaHBaNiC¢kmμGgár
- FnFannigktþaFmμCatiGMeNaypl
- témø nigGRtabþÚrR)ak;
- neya)ayCMrujkarpÁt;pÁg;Ggár
- neya)aysþIGMBI
esrIPavUbnIykmμ
kñúgvis½yGgár
- neya)ayBaNiC¢kmμ
rbs;km<úCa
eRkamRkbx½NÐ kic©RBmeRBog GMBIksikmμ
- karsnüa
rbs;km<úCa
cMeBaH
kic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmμeTVPaKI
nigBhuPaKI
- karsMrYlBaNiC¢kmμrbs;km<úCa
cMeBaHGgár

RbmUlTinñn½yedIm nigTinñn½ybnÞab;bnSM elak can; b‘unñivtþn_
rYmTaMgRbPBBIsßab½nrdæaPi)al
nigsßab½nBak;B½n§epSgeTot . l.
BinitüeLIgvijenA WTO, ASEAN
Wedsites nigÉksarBak;B½n§ rbs;
RbeTsTIbI
RsavRCavBI Internet nigkariyal½y

BIs)aþh¾TI4
Exvicäika dl;;
s)aþh¾TI4 ExFñÚ
06

kargar
lT§pleKal
karRsavRCavCMBUk 3
bBa©b;karRsavRCav
kaeebIkRckTIpSar
- karsnüaBhuPaKI
enAeRkam
kic©RbmeRBogsþIGMBIksikmμ rbs; WTO
- rebobvar³GPivDÆRkugdUha
- karcrcabc©úb,nñ GMBIksikmμ rbs; WTO
- PaBGnueRKaH énkarebIkRck TIpSar
¬]>Ta RbB½n§GnueRKaHTUeTA GSP,
ASEAN
bUkKeRmagkard¾eTeTot
kic©RBmeRBogeTVPaKIrbs;km<úCa¦
- Bn§Ky nigr)aMgminEmnBn§Ky ¬]>Ta
GRtaBn§kUta TRQs r)aMgbec©keTs
cMeBaHBaNiC¢kmμ TBT nigGnam½y
nigPUtKÁam Gnam½y SPS

viFIsa®sþ
RbmUlTinñn½yBaNiC¢kmμedIm
BinitüeLIgvijTinñn½ybnÞab;bnSM
ykB½t_manBI WTO, ASEAN
nigrdæaPi)al Wedsites
BinitüeLIgvijnUvRTwsþI
RsavRCavBI Internet nigkariyal½y

FnFan

kalbriecäT

elak kan; visidæ

BIs)aþh¾TI4
Exvicäika dl;;
s)aþh¾TI4 ExFñÚ
06
BIs)aþh¾TI4
Exvicäika 06
dl;; s)aþh¾TI4
Exmkra 07

karRsavRCavCMBUk 4
bBa©b;karRsavRCav
karlM)akkñúgRsuk nigbNþajTIpSar
- ma:extTIg nigplitkmμ
- TIpSarksikmμ
¬bNþakñúgRsuk
nigeRkARbeTs¦
- kardwkCBa¢Ún nigéføedImsþúkTMnij
- dMeNIrkarplit nigbBaðaKuNPaB
- karRKb;RKgBak;B½n§nwgplitkmμRsUv

eFVIsmÖasCamYyRkumh‘unbak;B½n§
GgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al
nigPñak;garrdæaPi)alepSgeTot
RBmTaMgRksYgBak;B½n§
tamry³cuHGegát nigcuHsaksYr
viPaKBIlT§plénkarcuHGegát

elak Ey:m supl BIs)aþh¾TI4
Exvicäika dl;;
s)aþh¾TI4 ExFñÚ
06

karRsavRCavCMBUk 5
bBa©b;karRsavRCav
CMerIsneya)ay b¤]bkrN¾CMrujkarnaMecj Ggár
- ktþaGMeNayplBak;Bn½§BaNiC¢kmμ³
rYmmanRbsiT§iPaBénkareRbIR)as;dI
FnFan nigktþaGMeNaypld¾éTeTot
kñúgRbeTs
- viFanBak;Bn½§nwgBaNiC¢kmμ³ rYmman
kar]btßmÖ kñúgRsukcMeBaHGgár plitkmμ
GgársrIrag karEkécñ karsþúk
nigma:extTIg ehfarcnasm<½n§ Bn§
nigkarelIkTwkcitþ vinieyaKepSgeTot
\NTakarRsavRCav nigCMnYybec©keTs
- viFanBaNiC¢kmμpÞal;³ rYmman karnaMecj
BaNiC¢kmμ BaNiC¢kmμminRsb bTbBaØatþ ni
- yuTÞsaRsebIkRckTIpSar rYmTaMgkarcrca
WTO GMBIkarebIkRckTIpSar sMrab;
RbeTsRkIRk nigkarcrcaGMBIksikmμ
bUkkarcrcaeTVPaKI nig GSP

eFVIkarviPaK énCMBUkRsavRCav 1-4

elak can; b‘unñivtþn_ BIs)aþh¾TI4
elak kan; visidæ Exvicäika dl;;
elak Ey:m supl s)aþh¾TI4 ExFñÚ
06
BIs)aþh¾TI4
Exvicäika 06
dl;; s)aþh¾TI2
ExkumÖ³ 07

r)aykarN¾RBag ¬RKb;CMBUkRsavRCav¦

r)aykarN¾RBagelIkTI1
dak;CUnRKUENnaMRKb;CMBUkRsavRCav
TTYlcemøIyBIRKUUENnaM

lT§pleKal
sikçasalfñak;tMbn;B-énKeRmag

r)aykarN¾RBag ¬RKb;CMBUkRsavRCav¦

kargar

BieRKaHeyabl;RKb;CMBUkRsavRCav
eFVIesckþIepþIm nigesckþIsegçb
edayrYmbBa©Úleyabl;rbs;RKUENnaM
BieRKaHeyabl;RKb;CMBUkRsavRCav
sresr nigkarpþl;eyabl;
eqøIytmtamry³ E-Mail nigTUrs½BV
viFIsa®sþ

- BinitüeLIgvij nigBiPaKSaelI sikçasalfñak;tMbn;CamYy RKUENnaM
nigGñkbNþúHbNþal
KeRmag cMeBaHkalbriec©T
- TTYlcemøIy GMBIvDÆnPaB
- EksMrYlKeRmag edayeyag
tamlT§plsikçasal fñak;tMbn;
bBa©b;r)aykarN¾RBag
BieRKaHeyabl;RKb;CMBUkRsavRCav
eFVIesckþIepþIm nigesckþIsegçb
edayrYmbBa©Úleyabl;rbs;RKUENnaM
dak;CUnr)aykarN¾RBagbBa©b;
bBa©b;r)aykarN¾
eTARKUENnaM

RkumGñkRsavRCav
RkumGñkRsavRCav
RKUENnaM
FnFan

BIs)aþh¾TI1
dl;; s)aþh¾TI2
Exmkra 07
BIs)aþh¾TI3
Exvicäika 06
dl;; s)aþh¾TI4
ExkumÖ³ 07
kalbriecäT

RkumGñkRsavRCav
RKUENnaM nigGñk
bNþúHbNþal

éf¶TI15-18
Exmkra 07

RkumGñkRsavRCav

BIs)aþh¾TI1
dl;;
s)aþh¾TI3
Exmina 07

RkumGñkRsavRCav

TTYlcemøIyelIBRgagbBa©b;

sresr nigkarpþl;eyabl;
eqøIytmtamry³ E-Mail nigTUrs½BV
dak;CUnr)aykarN¾bBa©b; eTARKUENnaM r)aykarN¾RBagrYmTaMgesckþIepþIm
nigesckþIsegçb Éksareyag
nigtaragTinñn½y
eyabl;elIkarsikSaRsavRCavcugeRkay sresr nigkarpþl;eyabl;
eqøIytmtamry³ E-Mail nigTUrs½BV
r)aykarN¾cugeRkayrYmCamYy
r)aykarN¾cugeRkayRtUv)anbBa©b;
eyabl;rbs;RKUENnaM

r)aykarN¾cugeRkay

sikçasalpþl;neya)aykñúgRbeTs

BiPakSarr)aykarN¾cugeRkay

sikçasalaCamYy RKUENnaM
nigGñkbNþúHbNþal

karpSBVpSayB½tman

karpSBVpSaylT§plsikSaRsavRCav

sikçasalbBa©b;

kMNt;sMKal;

Ab =

bBa©b;

Ab =

bþÚreBl

RKUENnaM
RkumGñkRsavRCav

s)aþh¾TI4
Exmina 07

RKUENnaM
RkumGñkRsavRCav
RKUENnaM nigGñk
bNþúHbNþal
RkumGñkRsavRCav

éf¶TI3-5
Exemsa 07
24-25
Exemsa 07

3> fvikaRsavRCav
raymuxcMNay
kMNÉkasar nigsßiti
- r)aykarN¾ ¬sßitibBa¢aTij cuHsaksYrsMNYr¦
- esovePAsMrab;CaÉksareyag
- RsavRCavTinñn½yBI Internet
cuHeFVITsSnkic© enAtamGgÁkar nigRkumh‘un
- cMNaydwkCBa¢Ún
cMNayelIkarTMnak;TMng
- TUrs½BV
- TUrsar (Fax)
r)aykarN¾RBag
- e)aHBumÖ ftcMlg cgCaesoePA
- cMNayepSg²
srub

)a:n;sμanmUlniFi
US$ 290

US$350

US$200

US$400

US$1,240

KeRmagénkarsikSaRsavRCav
1edIm,IGPivDÆn_eKalneya)aynigCeRmIs
eKalbMNgénkarRsavRCav eKalneya)ayedIm,ICRmujnUvkarnaMecjGgáreRkaykarcUlCasmaCik
WTO

2-Bt’manBisþa
BIRkumGñkRsavRCav

- elak can; b‘unñivtþn_ m®nþIkariyal½y WTO énnaykdæanGas‘an
nigGgÁkarGnþrCati RksYgBaNiC¢kmμ CaRbFanRkumRsavRCav
- elak kan; visidæ m®nþIkariyal½y WTO énnaykdæanGas‘an
nigGgÁkarGnþrCati RksYgBaNiC¢kmμ CasmaCikRkumRsavRCav
- elak Ey:m supl m®nþIkariyal½y sMrbsMrYl nigggÁkarGnþrCati
énnaykdæanGas‘an nigGgÁkarGnþrCati RksYgBaNiC¢kmμ
CasmaCikRkumRsavRCav
- elak ém:eXIl yaMg CaGñkRKb;RKgKMerag TARP CaGñkRtYtBinitü
3-karsegçbén
-éf¶ Gnum½tnUvKMerag ³ ExkBaØa qña 2006
kmμviFIkargarénkarRsavRCav -éf¶ ebIkvKÁbNþúHbNþalkñúgRbeTs³ 16-19 tula 2006
-éf¶ cab;epþImkmμviFIRsavRCav ³31 tula 2006
-éf¶ ebIksikçasalaenAkñúgtMbn;³ 13-17 tula 2006 enATIRkug
hy Gan RbeTsevotnam
- éf¶ Edlcab;epþImeFVIkarRsavRCav³ s)þah_TI 4 Ex tula qñaM 2006
-éf¶ EdlRtUvbBa©b;BRgagelIkTI1 nigRbKl;CUnGñkRtYtBinitü³
s)þah_TI4 ExkumÖ³ qñaM2007
-éf¶ R)arBVeFVIsikçasalafñak;tMbn; ³éf¶TI 15 -18 Ex mkra
qñaM2007
-éf¶ EdlRtUvbBa©b;BRgagelIkTI2 nigRbKl;CUnGñkRtYtBinitü³
s)þah_TI3 ExmIna qñaM2007
-éf¶ eFVIsikçasala sþIBI karENnaMBIeKalneya)ay

EdleFVIenAtamkñúg RbeTs ³ éf¶TI3-5 emsa qñaM2007
-éf¶eFVIsikçasalapSBVpSaybBa©b; ³éf¶TI 24-25 Exemsa
qñaM2007
esckþIsegçb
énkarRsavRCav

karmaneRbobkñúgkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgárrbs;km<úCa
-eTaHbIkm<úCa)anbgðajnUvPaBeConelOn
enAkñúgdMeNIkarEbgEckdICUnRbCaCnk¾edayk¾GRtaénRbCaCnEdlr
s;enAtamCnbT EdlxVHxatdIsMrab;eFVIksikmμekIneLIgBI13°
enAkñúgqñaM1997 eTA 16°enAqñaM1999 nigeLIgdl;20°enA
kñúgqñaM2004
-eTaHbImanPaBRbesIeLIgEpñkplitPaB k¾km<úCaenAEtCaRbeTs
mYyEdlmantinñplTabCageKb:putenAkñúgtMbn;
-karcMNayeTAelI karerobcMdI kareRbIR)as;CI ¬TaMg CIFmμCati
nigCIKImI¦ manéføx<s; CageKkñúgdMNak;kalplitRsUv
-bc©úb,nñenH eyIgeXIjmantMbn;eRsacRsBRtwmEt44/48°b:ueNÑaH
énépÞdIsMrab;eFVIERsTaMgGs;. manKMeragRbB½n§eRsacRsBCaeRcIn
RtUv)anGnuvtþ edaykñúgenaHRksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniymCaGñk
TTYlxusRtUvelIkarpþl;bec©keTs nigRbB½n§KMeragFM² rIÉKMeragFun
tUc nigmFümdak;eGayGnuvtþedaybNþamnÞIrnana.
-mankgVHxatkñúgkarpþl;\NÑTandl;ksikr nigm©as;eragma:suIn
EkécñGgárCaedIm
- ebIeTaHbICaRksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT(MAFF) ,
CARDI niggGgÁkar NGO mYycMnYn )anykcitþTukdak;elIkar
RsavRCav nigpSBVpSayk¾eday k¾esvaTaMgenaHmin)anRCabeGay
TUlMTUlaydl;bNþaksikr eLIy

-rdæaPi)alenArkSakarelIkElgBn§elIdIksikmμ nigBn§elIR)ak;cMNUl
BIRbCaksikr edayeFVIkarelIkTwkcitþelIvisyksikmμ nigkaGPivDÆn_
CnbTtamry³karKaMRTelIKMeragtUc²mYycMnYn.
-RbeTskm<úCa )aneFIVesrIPavUbnIykmμBaNiC¢kmμelIRKb;TMnij
Tak;TgksikmμTaMgGs; nigplitplRsUvpg edayGnueLamtam
kic©RBmeRBogrbs; WTO.
karkRmitkñúgRsuk nigbNþajTIpSar
-ksikrPaKeRcIneFVIRsUvsRmab;Etb®gÁb;kareRbIR)as;kñúg RKYsarEt
b:ueNÑaH BYkKat;minTan;)aneeobcM b¤k¾manbMNgedIm,IpliteFVIkar
naMecjeLIy.
-brimaNpÁt;pÁg;RsUvelITIpSarmineTogTat;
-lT§PaBrbs;QμÜjmankMNt;kñúgkarTij nigsþúkRsUvsRmab;bMeBj
eTAtamtRmUvkar bBa¢aTij.
-karxVHxatehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigtémøRbtibtþikarx<s;enAEtCaktþamYy
d¾sMxan;eFVIeGaymankarraMgsÞHdl;kar naMecj
karcUlTIpSar
-kic©RBmeRBogelIvis½yksikmμpþl;nUvGtßRbeyaCn_Ca eRcInsMrab;
RbeTsRkIRk edayeyageTAelIkarlb;bM)at;ecalnUvr)aMgBn§Ky
nigminEmnBn§KyTaMgLay
-GRtaBn§elIbrimaNEdlkMNt;RtUv)anbegáIn TaMgRbeTsGPivDÆn_
nigRbeTskMBugGPivDÆn_
-c,ab;BiessEcgeday elIkElgdl;RbeTsRkIRkeGaymankar
eGaymankarCYy]btßmedayrdæ b:uEnþedaymineGVIeGayraMgsÞHdl;

bTBiesaFn_BIkarRsavRCav

vis½yBaNiC¢kmμ
- eKalkarN_ RbeTsEdlmankarGnueRKaHbMput (MFN)smaCik
WTOTaMgGs;begáIt»kassMxan;sMrab;GñknaMecj
-TIpSarGgárBiPBwilakCH\T§iBlya:gxøaMgBIRbeTs]btßmÖFndUcCa
shrdæGaemrik Cb:un nigkUer:xagt,Úg
-Bn§KyeTAelIGgárrbs;RbeTseCOnelOinTaMgGs;KWenAmankMrit
x<s;enAeLIy ehIyk¾enAmankMNt;brimaNnaMcUlEdr
-bTBiesaFn_kñúgkareFVIkarrYmKñaCamYybuKÁlBak;B½n§ k¾dUcCabuKÁlik
mkBIbNþasßab½nnana
-begáIn nUvcMenH nigkaryl;dwgelIPaBRbKYtRbECgQñHénkarpÁt;pÁg;
Ggárrbs;km<úCa
-bTBiesaFn_kñúgkarBinitüemIlpllM)akkñúgRsuk nigTMnak;TMng
TIpSarénkarpÁt;pÁg;Ggár nigkarcUlTIpSarénRbeTseKaledAnaMcUl
-bTBiesaFn_kñúgkarbegáIteKalneya)ay nigGnusasn_nanakñúgkar
CMrujkarnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCa
-bTBiesaFn_kñúgkarerobcMkarRsavRCav

5-bBaðaeKalneya)ayEdl
EsþgecjmkBikarRsavRCav
k-bBaðaneya)ay
-etIGVIEdlCaGñkkMNt;nUvkarCMrujkarnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCa?
-etIBn§ nigneya)ayvinieyaKelIvis½yksikmμsBVéf¶eFVIeGayraMgsÞH
dl;karnaMecjGgárEdrb¤eT?
-etIneya)aynaMcUlrbs;RbeTsmyycMnYneFVIweGayraMgsÞHdl;
karnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCaEdrb¤eT?
etIkarnaMecjRsUvedayKμankarkMNt;raraMgkarnaMecjGgár

nigeFVIeGay)at;plcMeNj nigkargarrbs;km<úCaEdrb¤eT?
x-kartMrUveGaymankarpøas; -bnþGnuvtþkarRKb;RKg kargard¾manRbsiT§PaBmYyelIkarEkTRmg;dIFøI
bþÚr
¬dIsm,Tanesdækic© nigsgÁm¦
-eFVIkarBicarNaelIkareFVIesrIPavubnIykmμéndIeRbIR)as; nigdIkmμsiT§
eGaydl;BYkvinieyaKbreTs
-CMrujeGaymankareRbIR)as;plitplGgárFmμCati
-begáItshKmn_ksikredIm,IgayRsYlkñúgkarepÞrbec©kviC¢aTMenIbnig
Bt’manepSg²
-begáIteGaymaneRcInnYv viTüasßanRsavRCav nigGb;rMenAtamtMbn;
-Tak;Taj nUvral;karvinieyaKEpñkhirBaØvtßúRKb;RbePT rYmTaMgkar
vinieyaKpÞal;pgEdr
-bnþrkSakarelIkElgBn§elIdIksikmμ nigBn§elIrbs;rbrsMrab;
eFVIksikmμ
- eFVIeGayRbesIeLIgnUvRbB½n§eRsacRsB nigeFVIkarGPivDÆn_
ehdæarcnasm<½n§
-RGnuvtþ nigkareFVIeGaytémøGKÁIsnITabbMput tamEdlGaceFVIeTA
)an
-bBaÄb;karnaMecjRsUvedaypÞal; eTaHCanaMecjtampøÚvkar nigmin
pøÚvkarkþI
-bnþcrcaeTVPaKI b¤BhuPaKIedIm,IebIkRckTIpSar nigTTYl)anRbB½n§
GnueRKaHTUeTA Epñk BaNiC¢kmμ (GSP)BIRbeTsCaédKU
K-CMhanEdlRtUvtamdanbnþ -eFVIkarCYbRbCuM karsaksYr nigBieRKaHeyabl;CamYyGñkEdl
Tak;Tgkñúgvis½yksikmμenH
-RbmUlnUvBt’manEdlTak;Tg
-eFVIr)aykarN_ nigelIkykCMerIsneya)ayd¾RtwmRtUvmkeRbI

-pþl;nUvsikçasala b¤vKÁbNþúHbNþalepSg²edIm,IpSBVpSaynUv
Bt’manepSg² dl;GñkBak;B½n§
-Rbtibtþi nigBinitüemIlnUvkarERbRbYlénneya)ay
-eFVIkarvaytémøelIkarRbtibtþi
karerobcM nigkarGnuvtþnUveKalneya)ayedIm,IeFVIeGayseRmcnUveKalbMNgénkarsikSaRsavRCav
bBaða
skmμPaB
1-bMNgéneKalneya)ay
-eFVIkarRbmaNnUvPaBRbkYtRbECgénBaNiC¢kmμGgárrbs;km<úCa
edIm,IGPivDÆn_ eKalneya)ay -eFVIkarRbmaNnUvlT§PaBcUlTIpSarrbs;Ggárkm<úCa
nig]bkrN_CaCeRmIs kñúgkarCMruj -eFVIkarRbmaNnUv]bsKÁnanaénkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgárrbs;km<úCa
karnaMecjGgárrbs;km<úCa
-ri³rknUvKeRmagneya)ayedIm,IGnuvtþn_
2-esckþIsnñidæan
PaBRbkYtRbECgrbs;km<úCakñúgkareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgár
-eTaHbIkm<úCamankarrIkcMerInKYre[kt;sMKal;elIdMeNIkar
bnÞab;BIkarRsavRCav
EbgEckdIFøI
k¾edayk¾GRtaénkarxVHxatdIsMRmab;eFVIksikmμcMeBaHRkumRKYsarenA
CnbT mankarekIneLIgBI 13°enAqñaM 19997 eTA 16° enAqñaM
1999 nig 20° enAqñaM2004
-eTAbICamankarbegáInelIplitPaB k¾km<úCaenAEtCaRbeTsmYy
Edlman TinñplTabCageKbMputenAkñúgtMbn;
-kareRbIR)as;CI rYmCamYynwgkarerobcMdIsMrab;eFVIkardaMduHenAEt
CacMNaymYyd¾x<s;enAkñúgdMnak;kalplitkmμ
-RksYgFnFanTwk nig]tþúniym TTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarpþl;bec©keTs
sRmab;RbB½n§KMeragEdlmanTMhFM M² rIÉKMeragtUc nigmFüm
TTYlxusRtUvedaymnÞIrenAtamextþnimYy². bc©úb,nñenHeyIgeXIj
mantMbn;eRsacRsBRbEhl 44>48°énépÞdIdaMduHsrubTaMgGs;.
-enAmankarxVHxatGñkpþl;\NTandl;plitRsUv nigGñkEkécñGgþr

enAeLIy
-eTaHbICaRksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT GgÁkar CARDI
nigGgÁkar NGOs mYycMnYnmanykcitþTukdak;sgát;F¶n;eTAelI
karRsavRCav nigeFVIkarpSBVpSayk¾eday k¾esvapSBVpSayksikmμ
TaMgenaHhak;dUcCaminTan;bMeBjtamtRmUvkarrbs;ksikreLIy
-rdæaPi)alenArkSa karminykBn§cMeBaHdIksikmμ karminykBn§elI
R)ak;cMNUl
edIm,ICakarelIkTwkcitþdl;karGPivDÆn_ksikmμ
nigCnbT
-km<úCa)anebIkesrITIpSarnaMcUlcMeBaHTMnijksikmμRKb;RbePT
edayGnuelameTAtamkic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmμBiPBelak
bBaðaRbQmkñúgRsuk nigTMnak;TMngTIpSar
-ksikrPaKeRcInplitRsUvsRmab;EtbMeBjkareRbIR)as;enAkñúg
RKYrsarEtb:ueNÑaH BYkKat;enAminTan;)anerobcM rWmanbMNgplit
edIm,IeFVIkarnaMecjenAeLIy
-karpÁt;pÁg;RsUvmineTogTat;
-lT§PaBrbs;QμÜjkñúgkarRbmUlTij nigsþúkRsUvsRmab;bMeBjeTA
tamtRmUvkarénkarbBa¢aTijenAmankMNt; enAeLIy
-éføénkardwkCBa¢Ún nigPaBxVHxaténehdæarcnasm<½nKWCa ktþacMbg
naMeGayraMgsÞhdl;karnaMecj.
karcUlTIpSar
-kic©RBmeRBogeTAelIvis½yksikmμpþl;plcMeNjya:geRcIndl;
RbeTsRkIRktamry³karlb;bM)at;Bn§Ky nigr)aMgminEmnBn§Ky
-c,ab;Biessrbs;
WTO
GnuBaØateGayRbeTsEdlmankarGPivDÆn_tictYceFVIkar]btßmkñúgR

3-eKalneya)ay
Edl)anelIkeLIg
edIm,IeFVIkarBicarNa

suk)an EtedayminmankarraraMgdl;kareFVIBaNiC¢kmμ
-eKalkarN_ MFN enAkñúgcMeNamsmaCik WTO KWCaktþasMxan;
CMrujdl;karnaMecj
-TIpSarGgárBiPBelakr\T§iBlya:gxøaMgBIkar]btßmFn BIRbeTs
mYycMnYndUcCa shrdæGaemrik Cb:un nigRbeTskUer:xagt,Úg
ehIyBn§naMcUlnUvplitplGgáreTARbeTsTaMgenaHmankMritx<s;
nigenAmankardak;kMritkUtaenAeLIy.
-Gnuvtþn_eGay)anCabnþeToteTAelIkargar nigkarRKb;RKgeGay
manRbsiTÞiPaBelIkMENTRmg;dIFøI ¬dIsm,TansgÁmkic© nigesdækic©¦
-eFVIkarBicarNaelIkarebIkeGaymankareRbIR)as;dI nigmansiT§i
kan;kab;edayGñkvinieyaKbreTs
-CRmujeGaymankareRbIR)as;plitplGgársrIragÁ nigGsrIragÁ
-eFVIkarbegáItshKmn_ksikredIm,IgayRsYlkñúgkarepÞr bec©kviC¢a
nigBt’manepSg²
-Tak;Tajral;karvinieyaKEpñkhirBaØvtßú
nigkarvinieyaKpÞal;
epSg²eTot
-bnþeFVIkarelIkElgBn§elIkareRbIR)asdI nigBn§elIR)ak;cMNUl
BIksikr
-eFVIeGayRbesIeLIgnUvRbB½n§eRsacRsB nigkarGPivDÆn_ehdæa
rcnasm<½n§
-eFVIeGaytémøGKÁIsnITabbMputtamEdlGaceFVI)an
-CMrujeGaymankarRbkYtRbECgedayyutþiFm’ nigcat;viFankar
GnuvtþnUvkic©RBmeRBog SPS nig TBT
-KYrbBaÄb;karnaMecjRsUveTaHCaRsbc,ab; b¤ minRsbc,ab;kþI
-bnþkarcrcatamry³ ÉketaPaKI b¤ BhuPaKICabnþeTot edIm,IebIk

RckTIpSarkñúgkarnaMecjGgár
nigTTYl)annUvRbB½n§GnueRKaH
BaNiC¢kmμCaTUeTA.
k- tRmUvkar Bt’man nig -RsavRCaveTAelIlT§PaBénkarTak;TajvinieyaKeTAelIvis½yRsUv
karRsavRCavEdlRtUveFVIbnþ
nigGgár
-RsavRCavelIGtßRbeyaCn_eRbobeFobrvagkarplitGgársrIragÁ
(Organic) nig GgárFmμta (Non-Organic)
-RsavRCavrkRbB½n§ma:XItFIg d¾manRbsiT§iPaBmYyedIm,ICMrujnUv
kareFVIBaNiC¢kmμGgáreGay)anRbesIr
-eFVIkarRsavRCaveRbobeFobeTAelI plcMeNjesdækic©énkar
naMecjRsUv nigkarnaMecjGgárfaetImYyNamanplcMeNjeRcIn
Cag.
x- etItMrUveGaymankarpøas;bþÚr -begáItshKmn_ksikreGay)aneRcIntamEdlGaceFVI)an
EbbNaxøH?
RbeyaCn_gayRsYlkñúgkarepÞrbec©kviC¢a nigBt’manfμI²
-begáItviTüasßan Gb;rM nigRsavRCavRbcaMtMbn;nimYy²eGay)aneRcIn
-GUsTajral;karvinieyaKEpñkhirBaØvtßúRKb;RbePT edayrYmTaMgkar
vinieyaKpÞal;elIvis½yRsUvGgárenH
-bnþeFVIkarelIkElgBn§elIkareRbIR)asdI nigBn§elIR)ak;cMNUl
BIksikr
-eFVIeGayRbesIeLIgnUvRbB½n§eRsacRsB nigkarGPivDÆn_ehdæa
rcnasm<½n§
-eFVIeGaytémøGKÁIsnITabbMputtamEdlGaceFVI)an
-CMrujeGaymankarRbkYtRbECgedayyutþiFm’
nigcat;viFankarGnuvtþnUvkic©RBmeRBog SPS nig TBT
-KYrbBaÄb;karnaMecjRsUveTaHCaRsbc,ab; b¤ minRsbc,ab;kþI
-bnþkarcrcatamry³ ÉketaPaKI b¤BhuPaKICabnþeTot edIm,IebIk

RckTIpSarkñúgkarnaMecjGgár
BaNiC¢kmμCaTUeTA.

nigTTYl)annUvRbB½n§GnueRKaH

4-etIKYreFVIkarpøas;bþÚredayrebob
Na?
k-etInrNaCaGñkpþÜcepþImeFVIkar -RksYgBaNiC¢kmμ
pøas;bþÚr?
-RksYgksikmμ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT
-RkumRbwkSaGPivDÆn_km<úCa
-RksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú
-RksYgFnFanTwk nig]tuniym
-RKb;GñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs;
x-etIKYreFVIkarpøas;bþÚredayrebob -RksYg nigsßab½nBak;B½n§ RtUvCMruj nigKaMRTkarbegáIt smaKm
Na?
nigshKmn_ksikreGay)aneRcIn
-RksYgBaNiC¢kmμKYrdak;viFankaredIm,IbBaÄb;nUvkarnaMecjRsUv
edaypÞal;eTAeRkARbeTs
-bnþGnuvtþkarelIkElgBn§dl;ksikr nigeFVIkarPivDÆn_RbB½n§eRsac
RsB nigehdæarcnasm§½neGay)anl¥ ehIybnþcrcaedIm,IebIkTIpSar
sMrab;plitplksikmμExμrbnþeTot
K-etImantMrUvkarFnFanGVIepSg -tMrUvkarFnFanmnusS nigFnFanhirBaØtßú KWCaktþacM)ac;bMput
eTotedIm,IeFVIkarpøas;bþÚr?
kñúgkarGnuvtþnUveKalneya)ayEdl)anelIkeLIg
5- etImankarb:HBal;GVIxøHdl;
sgÁmk¾dUcCaesdækic©kñúgkarGnuvtþ
nUvyuT§sa®sþ Edl)anelIkeLIg?
k-etIkarpøas;bþÚr nigmanplb:H plb:HBal;CaviC¢man³
Bal;dl;sgÁm nigesdækic©dUc -TTYl)annUvshKmn_ksikrd¾manRbsiT§iPaB
pþl;PaBgayRsYlkñúgTMnak;TMngéndMeNIrkarGPivDÆn_
emþc?

nigkareFVITIpSarelIplitplRsUvGgárrbs;xøÜn
-begáInplitPaBénkarplitRsUvrbs;ksikr
-begáItkargarCaeRcInCUnRbCaCn
-BRgIktIpSar nigbegáInbrimaNnaMecjsMrab;plitplGgárrbs;
km<úCa
-BRgIkkarvinieyaKelIvis½yplitRsUv GgárenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
plb:HBal;CaGviC¢man³
-cMeNHdwgrbs;ksikrExμreyIgenAmankMNt;enAeLIy CaehtueFVI
eGaymankarBi)akkñúgkarRsavRCavykbec©kviC¢afμI²mkeRbI
- eFVIeGaymankarraraMgdl;dl;GñknaMecjRsUvedaypÞal;
-rdæaPi)al)at;bg;nUvcMNUlCatiedaysarEtrdæeRbIneya)ay
elIkElgBn§ cMeBaHksikr
-rdæaPi)alcMNayfvikarCaeRcInkñúgkarGPivDÆn_ ehdæarcnasm<½n§
nigRbB½n§eRsacRsBTaMgLay
-ksikrGac)at;bg;»kasénéføRbKYtRbECg
-ksikrRkIRkGacRbQmnwgkar)at;bg;dIsMrab;eFVIksikmμpÞal;xøÜn
x-etIkarb:HBal;enaHGacnwgeFVI KitfaminGaceT BIeRBaHeyIg)an)a:n;RbmaNfa PaBb:HBal;Ca
eGaymanPaBBi)akdl;karGnuvtþé viC¢man vamanTMhMFMCagGviC¢man
nkarpøas;bþÚrEdrrWeT?
K- etIRtUvyk\T§iBlTaMgenHmk -karxatbg;nUvcMNUlrbs;rdæGacTUTat;sgedaykarekIneLIgnUv
BicarNaenAkñúgkarGPivDÆ
brimaNGgárEdl)annaMecj nigkarBRgIknUvplitPaBelIvis½yRsUv
nigkarGnuvtþy:agdUcemþc?
enH
-pþl;karelIkTwkcitþdl;GñkEdleFVIkarnaMecjGgáreTAeRkARbeTs
-BRgwgdl;karKaMRTcMeBaHshKmn_ksikr
6-etIRtUveFVIEpnkarGnuvtþn_tamviFI -RbmUlnUvral;Bt’manEdlBak;B½n§

Na?

-eFVIkarRbCuM nigelIkCasMnYr b¤bBaða nigeFVIkarBiPakSaCamYynwg
GñkEdlBak;B½n§TaMgLay
-pþl;nUvr)aykarN_ nigelIkeLIgnUvCMerIsneya)ayEdlRtwmRtUv
-pþl;nUvsikçasalaepSg²dl;ksikrk¾dUcCaGñkCab;Bak;B½n§
-karEckcaynUvral;Bt’man
-Gnuvtþn_
nigBinitüemIlnUveKalneya)ayEdl)anpøas;bþÚr
-vayttémø¶nUvkarGnuvtþ nigelIkGnusasn_bEnßm

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.