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6/3/2009

CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT


• The transport of substances across the cell
TRANSPORT ACROSS membrane (either lipid bilayer or protein) is
divided into two type:
MEMBRANE
Passive transport
Active transport

CELL MEMBRANE CELL MEMBRANE


• All cells have cell membrane including several STRUCTURE/PROPERTIES & ROLES
organelles. • Hydrophilic phosphate head
• Functions: • Hydrophobic fatty acid tails
– Control what enters and exits the cells to maintain – Forms barrier to polar molecules
an internal balance
– Allow lipid-soluble, non-polar molecules to pass
– Provides protection and support for the cell
• Integral proteins
– Allow certain polar molecules and ions to pass

CELL MEMBRANE CELL MEMBRANE


STRUCTURE/PROPERTIES & ROLES • STRUCTURE/PROPERTIES & ROLES
• Peripheral proteins • Cholesterol
– Act as enzymes, recognition sites and electron – Makes membrane less fluid and more stable
carriers – Fluid mosaic model
– Fluid: molecules can change places within
• Carbohydrates membrane
– Glycolipids and glycoproteins – Mosaic: proteins embedded randomly in the
– Act as recognition sites for bilayer
neurotransmitters, hormones, cell-to-cell • Selectively permeable
recognition

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Fluid Mosaic
Model of the cell CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
membrane
• Importance:
– Allows entry of glucose for respiration to generate
ATP
– Allows excretion of waste product
– Allows secretion of enzymes
– Maintain ionic balance
• Use several methods namely
– Passive transport: no ATP
– Active transport: use ATP from cell

PASSIVE TRANSPORT PASSIVE TRANSPORT


1. Simple diffusion • Factors affecting rate of diffusion
– Net movement of particles from high conc to low – Surface area of membrane
conc – Difference of concentration across the membrane
– Does not require ATP – Thickness of membrane
– Will continue until equilibrium is reached – Temperature
– Eg. of particles: O2, CO2, steroids – Size of particles

Simple Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT


2. Facilitated diffusion
– Diffusion assisted by transport protein
molecules embedded in membrane
– Transport proteins has some properties of
enzyme
– Down concentration gradient
– No ATP required
– Useful for ions and hydrophilic molecules
– Eg: Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻, glucose

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PASSIVE TRANSPORT
• Transport proteins:
– Channel protein
• Water-filled pore in the membrane
• For hydrophilic substances
• Can open and close like gates
– Carrier protein
• Has binding sites for substances to bind
• Can change shape
• Useful for large polar molecules such as amino acids
and sugars

PASSIVE TRANSPORT Osmosis


• Solution = Solvent (water) + Solute (NaCl)
3. Osmosis • Red Blood Cell (99.1% water and 0.9% NaCl)
– Net movement of water molecules from region
with high water potential to lower water Swell and lysis
Shrink and
crenate
No net gain or loss
potential through a partially permeable A B C
membrane
– Move across via hydrophilic pores 100% water 90% water
99.1% water
– Maintain tonicity: Hypotonic, Isotonic, 0% NaCl 0.9% NaCl 10% NaCl

Hypertonic

Hypotonic Isotonic Hypertonic

SOLUTE AND WATER POTENTIAL


• Solute potential
– The potential of a solution to gain water.
– The lower the solute potential, the higher the
tendency to gain water
• Water potential
– The tendency for water molecules to leave the
solution by osmosis

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OSMOSIS Osmotic Pressure


• Amount of hydrostatic pressure needed to
stop or prevent osmosis (movement of water
from high to low concentration areas).

• OP is due to the presence of non-diffusible


solute particles in the solution.

• The greater number of solute particles in the


solution, the greater the osmotic pressure of
that solution.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT ACTIVE TRANSPORT


• Movement of particles from against • Evidence that ATP is required for active
concentration gradient by means of specific transport:
transport protein (protein pumps) and – AT only takes place in living, respiring cells
requires energy from cell. – Factors that influence rate of respiration also
• Occurs in one direction. influence rate of active transport
• Importance: – Large numbers of mitochondria
– Cyanide can stop active transport
– Allows cell to take up more nutrients
– Enables to excrete waste products

ACTIVE TRANSPORT ACTIVE TRANSPORT


• Faster than diffusion. • Protein pumps: pumps molecules against
concentration gradient
1. Substances bind to binding site. – Sodium-potassium pump
– Proton pumps in mitochondria
2. Protein carrier changes shape.
– Ions uptake from soil into root cells
3. Requires ATP.
– Uptake of sodium and glucose from nephron
4. Substances are released. tubule into surrounding cells

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Vesicular Transport EXOCYTOSIS


• Transport of large particles and macromolecules
across plasma membranes

– Exocytosis: moves substance from the cell interior


to the extracellular space. Vesicles fuse with
membrane.

– Endocytosis: enables large particles and


macromolecules to enter the cell
• Phagocytosis pseudopods engulf solids and bring them
into the cell’s interior
• Pinocytosis small amount of fluids is taken into cell

ENDOCYTOSIS