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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER 2: MATTER

1. To determine melting point

Heating Cooling

Water bath to ensure uniform heating


Plot graph y axis (Start at 50 o C).

2. The kinetic theory of matter (solid, solid liquid, liquid, liquid-gas, gas)
Matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles (atoms, ions or molecules), there is space between these
particles.
a) arrangement of particles-pack closely together, orderly arrangement, far apart from each other
b) Movement of particles-vibrates, rotate, slowly, rapidly, vigorously, randomly.
c) kinetic energy content-
d) change in energy content-
e) force of attraction-strong, weak, weaker
Temperature,oC

Boiling point

Time, s
to t1 t2 t3
Example:
Graph shows the heating curve of element X.
Describe the graph in terms of states of matter, particle arrangements and changes in energy.

Sample answer:

Stage State of matter Particles arrangement Changes in energy


to t1 Liquid The particles are close to each other. The kinetic energy increases
The particles arrangement is not orderly.
t1 - t 2 Liquid Some of particles are close to each other The kinetic energy is constant
gaseous and some far apart.
The particles arrangement is not orderly.
t2 t3 Gaseous The particles are far away from each other. The kinetic energy increases
The particles arrangement is not orderly.

3. Diffusion the movement of particles (atom/ions/molecule) of substance in between the particles of


another substance / from highly concentrated area to less concentrated area. Gas > liquid > solid
4. Isotope are atoms of the same element (same number of proton) with different number of
neutrons/nucleon number.

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Example: Compare atom 12X and atom 14Y


6 6

Atom X Y 6p
Proton number 6 6 6n
No. of electron 6 6 X
Valence electron 4 4
Number of neutron / nucleon number 6/ 12 8 /14
Chemical properties similar 6p Y
Physical properties different 8n

No. of occupied shell similar

CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULA

1. Empirical formula: chemical formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each
element in a compound, CH2
2. Molecular formula: a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element that is
present in a molecule of the compound, C2H4

a) Unreactive metal reaction oxide metal with Reactive metal ( Mg, Zn burn in excess oxygen /
hydrogen gas, (CuO, PbO ,SnO ) air ) more reactive than H2
b) Diagram Hydrogen

c) Procedure - Weigh and record a crucible with its lid


- Weigh and record the mass of combustion tube - Clean Mg ribbon with sand paper then coil the
with porcelain dish Mg ribbon and place into the crucible. Weigh and
- Add a spatula of copper (II) oxide on the porcelain record.
dish. Weigh the tube again. - Heat strongly
- Allow hydrogen gas flow into the tube for 5 10 - When Mg ribbon start to burn, cover the crucible
minutes. with lid.
- Burn the excess hydrogen. - Lift / raise the lid at intervals.
- Heat copper (II) oxide strongly. - When the burning is complete, remove the lid and
- Turn off the flame when black solid turns brown heat strongly.
completely. -Allow the crucible to cool down.
- Continue the flow of hydrogen until the set of -Weigh and record the crucible with content and
apparatus cool down to room temperature. lid.
- Weigh the combustion tube with its content. -Repeat the process heating, cooling and weighing
- -Repeat the process heating, cooling and until a constant mass is obtained and record.
weighing until a constant mass is obtained and - Observation : White fume / solid formed
record.

Result : - mass of crucible + lid = a g


- combustion tube with porcelain dish = a g - mass of crucible + lid + Mg = b g
- combustion tube with porcelain dish + copper (II) - mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide = c g
oxide = b g - mass of Mg = ( b a ) g
-combustion tube with porcelain dish + copper = c g - mass of oxygen = ( c b) g
- mass of copper = ( c- a) g , Mass of oxygen = ( b- c ) g
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Calculation:
Element / atom Cu O Element / atom Mg O
Mass (g) x y Mass (g) x y
Number of mole x / 64 y / 16 Number of mole x / 24 y / 16
Simplest ratio of mole Simplest ratio of mole
Precaution : Precaution :
1. The flow of H2 must be continuous during 1. Clean Mg ribbon with sand paper to remove the
cooling to prevent hot copper metal from layer of oxide on its surface.
oxidized. 2. Lift / raise the lid at intervals to allow air in
2. Allow hydrogen gas flow into the tube for 5 3. When Mg ribbon start to burn, cover the crucible
10 minutes to unsure air totally removed. The with lid to avoid the white fume produced from
mixture H2 and air may cause an explosion. being escape to the air.
3. To determine all air totally removed, collect the 4. Repeat the process heating, cooling and
air and place lighted splinter, the gas burn quietly. weighing to make sure all magnesium is
[To prepare H2] completely reacted with oxygen.
4. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 5. 2Mg + O2 2MgO
5. Anhydrous calcium chloride to dry the H2 gas.
6. CuO + H2 Cu + H2O

3. Based on the two formulae Na2O, CuI


(a) State the oxidation number for sodium, and copper.
(b) Name both the compound based on IUPAC nomenclature system.
(c) Explain the difference between the names of the two compounds based on IUPAC nomenclature
system.

Sample answer:

Na2O CuI
Oxidation number for +1 +1
sodium and copper
IUPAC Nomenclature Sodium oxide Copper (I) iodide
Reason Does not have roman number Has roman number because
because sodium has only one copper has more than one
oxidation number oxidation number

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE

1. Explain the following statements, referring to the electron arrangement of the elements.
(a) The elements of Group 18 are unreative and exist as monoatomic particles (3 marks)

The points are:


(Duplet /octet) electron arrangement.
No tendency to donate, accept, share electrons
Remain as individual particles

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
(b) The reactivity of Group I elements increases down the group, whereas the reactivity of Group
17 elements decreases down the group. (12 marks)

The points are:

Explanation Group I Group 17


1 Change in proton number Increases Increases
2 Change in number of electrons and electron filled shells Increases Increases
3 Change in atomic size/radius/diameter Increases Increases
4 Strength of electrostatic attraction between nucleus and Decreases /weaker Decreases /weaker
valence electron
5 Tendency to Releases electron Attract t/ accept
increases electron decreases
6 To become Positive ion Negative ion
7 Reactivity Increases Decreases

(2) Explain how the melting point of Group 1 elements change down the group (4 marks)
decreases gradually
Reason
atomic size increases
metallic bonding between the atoms become weaker
Less energy is required / needed to overcome this metallic bonding.

(3) Chemical properties of element in group 17

I Reaction with water Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl


II Reaction with sodium hydroxide Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl + NaOCl + H2O
III Reaction with iron 3Cl2 + 2Fe 2FeCl3 (brown solid)
Chlorine gas

To Soda lime
produce Hot iron wool Sodium hydroxide solution
Cl2 HCl (cons) +
III II
KMnO4(s)
Example: Compare the reactivity of reactions between chlorine and bromine with iron. [Diagram III]

Reaction Reactants Observation


A Iron + chlorine gas The hot iron wool ignites rapidly with a bright flame.
A brown solid is formed.
B Iron + bromine gas The hot iron wool glows moderately with fast.
A brown solid is formed.
Sample answer:
a) Chemical equation: 3Cl2 + 2Fe 2FeCl3
b) The reactivity of reaction A is higher than reaction B.
c) The atomic size of chlorine is smaller than bromine.
d) The forces of attraction of the nucleus toward the electrons are stronger.
e) It is easier for chlorine atom to attract/receive electron.
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(4) Across period 3, atomic radius (atomic size) decreases / electronegativity increases. Explain.

a) Proton number increases by one unit.


b) The number of valence electrons in each atom increases.
c) Positive charge of the nucleus increases, thus
d) Nuclei attraction on valence electron increases.
e) Atomic radius (atomic size) decreases
f) Tendency to receive electron increases (to form negative ion) thus electronegativity increases.

(5) Chemical properties of the oxide of element across Period 3 changes from basic oxide to amphoteric
oxide to acidic oxide.
Basic oxide sodium oxide (Na2O)
Amphoteric oxide Aluminium oxide (Al2O3)
Acidic oxide sulphur dioxide, SO2

CHEPTER 5: CHEMICAL BOND

(a) Group 1 elements react with Group 17 elements to produce compounds that have high melting points.
(4 marks)
The points are:

Ionic compound produced

Because involve transfer of electrons between metal atom and non metal atom.

Metal atom donates valence electron to form positive ion, non metal atom accepts electron to
negative ion.

The oppositely charged ions are held together by strong electrostatic force.

More heat energy is needed to overcome the strong force of attraction.

Formation of ionic compound (metal [Group 1,2 & 13] and non metal [ Group 14, 15, 16& 17])

Sample answer:
1. Electron arrangement of atoms ( Na , 28.1 ; Cl 2.8.7 ) // valence electrons
2. To achieve stable / octet electron arrangement
3. Atom ( Na) releases one / valence electron to form sodium ion, Na+
4. Half equation ( Na Na+ + e)
5. Atom (Cl) gain / accept electron to form chloride ion, Cl-
6. Half equation ( Cl + e Cl- )
7. Oppositely charged ion, Na+ & Cl- are attracted to one another by strong electrostatic force of
attraction to form ionic compound, NaCl
8. Diagram

Formation of covalent compound (nonmetal)


1. electron arrangement of the atom /valence electrons
2. to achieve duplet /octet electron arrangement
3. Atom (Carbon) contributes 4 electrons while (H) atom contributes 1 electron (for sharing).
4. one ( Carbon ) atom share 4 pairs of electrons with 4 (H) atoms to form covalent compound , CH4 /
ratio
5. diagram

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
Compare the physical properties of covalent and ionic compound

Properties Covalent compound ( naphthalene) Ionic compound ( sodium chloride)


Melting and - low - high
boiling - consist of molecules - consist of oppositely charged ions
- weak inter molecular forces - the ions are held together by strong
between molecules electrostatic forces .
- less energy needed to overcome the - more heat energy needed to overcome the
weak forces strong forces
Electrical - consist of molecules - consist of oppositely charged ions
conductivity - does not conduct electricity in any - conduct electricity in molten or aqueous
state (molten or aqueous). solution.
- in molten or aqueous solution, ions can move
freely.

CHAPTER 6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY

1. Factor that affect the electrolysis of an aqueous solution


(a) position of ions in the electrochemical series (cathode)
(b) concentration of ions in the electrolyte - halide ( Chloride, bromide and iodide)
(c) type of electrodes used in the electrolysis ( anode metal )

Application

(i) Electroplating
anode electroplating metal ( less electropositive metal / Cu, Ag, Ni )
cathode metal /object to be electroplated
electrolyte - solution that contains the metal ions of electroplating metal

(ii) Purification
anode impure metal ( Cu Cu2+ + 2e )
cathode pure metal ( Cu2+ + 2e Cu )
electrolyte - solution that contains the metal ions ( Cu2+)

(iii) Extraction of metal (reactive metal, sodium, aluminium)


Down`s Process extraction of sodium from molten sodium chloride.
Extraction of aluminium from molten aluminium oxide ( bauxite)

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
2. To construct the electrochemistry based on tendency to release electron /potential differences - voltaic
cell/ Electrochemical cell.

3. To construct the electrochemistry based on ability / tendency of metal


to displace another metal from it salts solution.
Displacement reaction: a metal which is higher in the electrochemical
series is able to displace a metal below it in a series from its salt solution.

Example: Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu // Zn Zn2+ + 2e / Cu2+ + 2e Cu

copper lead

Copper(II) sulphate
solution

Cell P Cell Q
4. Compare and contrast cell P and Q. Include in your answer the observation and half equation for the
reaction of the electrodes in both cells.

Cell P Characteristics Cell Q


Electrical chemical Energy change Chemical electrical
+ve / anode: copper (OXIDATION) Electrode +ve/cathode: copper
-ve / cathode: copper -ve/ anode: lead (OXIDATION)
Cu2+ , H+ Ions present in Cu2+ , H+
OH- , SO42- the electrolyte OH- , SO42-
Anode :Cu Cu2+ + 2e Anode: Pb Pb2+ + 2e
(type of electrode)
Half equation
Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e Cu ( ECS) Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e Cu (ECS)

Anode: copper electrode become thinner Anode: becomes thinner


Cathode: brown solid formed/ becomes Cathode: becomes thicker / brown solid
thicker. Observation formed
Electrolyte: intensity blue solution / Electrolyte: intensity blue solution
concentration of Cu2+ solution remain. decrease / blue becomes paler
Rate of ionized of copper atom to form
copper (II) ion at the anode same as rate of
discharged copper (II) ion at the cathode.

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
CHAPTER 7: ACID AND BASE

An acid is chemical substance which ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ion, H+

A base is a chemical substance which ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ions, OH-

Alkali is a soluble base.

Basicity is the number of ionisable hydrogen atoms per molecule of an acid.

The pH value of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is 1


The pH value of 1.0 mol dm-3 methanoic acid is 4

1. Explain why these two solutions have different pH values



identify strong acid , weak acid

definition strong acid

definition weak acid

concentration of H+

relationship between pH value and concentration of hydrogen ions, H+

Sample answer:
1. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid while methanoic acid is a weak acid.
2. Hydrochloric acid completely ionizes in water to form higher concentration of hydrogen ions.
HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl- // HCl H+ + Cl- , H3O+ , hydroxonium ion
3. Methanoic acid ionizes partially in water to form lower concentration hydrogen ions
CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+
4. The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions the lower the pH value.

2. Aim: To determine the end point during the neutralization of potassium hydroxide
and hydrochloric acid

Apparatus: 25 cm3 pipette, burette , 250 cm3 conical flask, retort stand, white tile
Material: potassium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 , phenolphathalein.

Procedure:
1. Rinse a burette with a small amount hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 .
2. Clamp the burette on retort stand.
3. Fill the burette with hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 .Adjust the meniscus level of acid to a reading at 0.
4. Record the initial burette reading.
5. Pipette 25.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide 0.1 mol dm-3 into conical flask.
6. Add two drop of phenolphathalein.
7. Add hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 carefully. Swirl the conical flask during the process.
8. When the colour of the mixture turn paler, add hydrochloric acid drop by drop.
9. Stop adding the hydrochloric acid as soon as the solution turns colourless.
10. Record the final burette reading.
11. Repeat steps 1-10 twice. Tabulate your reading.

MAVA = a

MBVB b

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Result :

Titration 1 2 3
Final burette reading, cm3
Initial burette reading, cm3
Volume of hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 , cm3

3. Preparation Standard solution ( 0.1 mol dm-3 NaOH, 100 cm3)

1. calculate the mass of solute ( mole = 0.1 x 100/1000 , 0.01 = mass/ 40)
2. weigh 0.4g of NaOH in weighing bottle using digital balance / electronic balance
3. pour into a beaker, rinse the bottle with distilled water.
4. dissolve NaOH with a little ( 10 20 cm3 )distilled water.
5. transfer the mixture into volumetric flask 100 cm3 rinse the beaker with distilled water.
6. pour the washings into volumetric flask 100 cm3
7. add distilled water, shake well
8. add distilled water drop by drop to finally bring the volume of solution to the 100 cm3 mark /
calibration mark.

Preparation of a standard solution by dilution method

M1V1 = M2V2
M1 initial molarity
V1 - initial volume
M2 final molarity
V2 final volume

NOTE : CONCENTRATION 1. MOLARITY - mol dm-3


2. g dm-3

Neutralization in our daily lives

Agriculture Powdered lime (CaO) , limestone (CaCO3), ashes of burnt wood


Used to treat acidic soil.

Industries 1. Powdered lime (CaO)


Used to treat acidic effluent from factories, acidic gas SO2 emitted by power station and
industries.
2. Ammonia prevent the coagulation of latex by neutralizing the acid produced by
bacteria in the latex.

Health 1. Anti-acids contain bases such as aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide to
neutralize the excess acid in the stomach.
2. Vinegar (citric acid) is used to cure wasp stings that are alkaline in nature.
3. Baking powder (NaHCO3) is used to cure bee stings and ant bites that are acidic in
nature.
4. Toothpaste contains bases that neutralize the acid produces by bacteria in our mouth

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
CHAPTER 8 SALT

A salt is a compound formed when the hydrogen ion, H+ from an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an
ammonium ion, NH4+

Preparation of soluble salt


acid + reactive metal(Zn / Mg) salt + H2 / 2H+ + Mg Mg2+ + H2
acid + base ( metal oxide) salt + water
acid + alkali salt + water / H+ + OH- H2O ( NaOH, KOH, NH4OH)
acid + carbonate metal salt + CO2 + H2O / 2H+ + CO32+ CO2 + H2O
Procedure:
1. pour ( 25 100cm3) acid ( 0.5 2.0 mol dm-3) into a beaker
2. heat slowly
3. add solid (metal / base/ carbonate ) a little until excess / no more dissolve
4. stir
5. filter the mixture into evaporating dish
6. heat (slowly) the filtrate until 1/3 from original volume / saturated solution formed
7. cool down the saturated solution (until crystallized )
8. filter (to separate the crystals)
9. dry / transfer onto filter paper / dry between sheets of filter paper

Observation
Chemical equation

Preparation of insoluble salt precipitation reaction / double decomposition reaction


Pb2+ + SO42- PbSO4

Example : Preparation of lead(II)sulphate.


Procedure
1. pour ( 25 50cm3) of soluble salt Pb(NO3)2 into a beaker
2. add ( 25 50cm3) of soluble salt (Na2SO4)
3. stir
4. filter the mixture
5. rinse residue / solid / precipitate
6. dry between sheets of filter paper
Observation
Chemical equation
Ionic equation

Action of heat on salt

Carbonate oxide metal (base) + CO2 except Na, K and NH4+


Example: CuCO3 CuO + CO2

Nitrate oxide metal + nitrogen oxide + oxygen except Na, K, (2NaNO3 2NaNO2 + O2 )
Example : 2Mg(NO3)2 2MgO + 4NO2 + O2
(Brown gas)

Ammonium chloride ammonia gas + hydrogen chloride gas, (NH4Cl NH3 + HCl )
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Confirmatory test for cation and anion
1. State the material / chemical / reagent
2. procedure
3. observation
4. conclusion

Example: You are given a bottle of ammonium chloride solution. Describe chemical test to
verify the cation and anion.

(a) test for cation (NH4+)


1. pour 2 cm3 the solutions into a test tube
2. add 1 cm3 copper (II) sulphate solution
3. blue precipitate soluble in excess to form dark blue solution.

OR

4. add 2 to 3 drops of Nessler reagent into the test tube


5. brown precipitate.
6. Ammonium ions (NH4+) present.

(b) test for anion (Cl-)


7. pour 2 cm3 the solution into a test tube
8. add 1 cm3 of dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution.
9. white precipitate formed
10. confirm the presence of chloride ions

Example: You are given lead (II) nitrate and aluminium nitrate solution. Describe chemical test to
verify the cation and anion.

(c) test for cation


11. pour 2 cm3 the solutions into different test tubes
12. add 1 cm3 potassium iodide solution into the test tubes
13. yellow precipitate formed
14. lead (II) ion present

(d) test for anion


15. pour 2 cm3 of lead (II) nitrate solution into a test tube
16. add 1 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid
17. add 1 cm3 of iron (II) sulphate solution
18. shake the mixure
19. tilt the test tube, add concentrated sulphuric acid carefully // drop by drop down the side of
the test tube
20. the brown ring formed
21. nitrate ion, NO3- present.

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Aim : To construct the ionic equation for the formation of lead (II) chromate(VI)
[Continuous variation method]

Apparatus : Test tubes of the same size, test tube rack, burette, retort stand with
clamp, ruler, glass rod, dropper.

Material : 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate (VI) solution, 0.5 mol dm-3 lead (II)
nitrate solution.
Procedure :
1. Seven test tubes of the same size were labelled from number 1 to 7. They were placed in a test tube
rack.
2. A burette was filled 0.5 mol dm-3 lead (II) nitrate solution, 5.00 cm3 of the lead (II) nitrate
solution was run into each the seven tubes.
3. Another burette was filled with 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate (VI) solution.
4. Potassium chromate (VI) solution from the burette was added into each of the seven test tubes
according to the volumes specified in the table.
5. The mixture in each test tube was stirred with a clean glass rod.
6. The test tubes were left aside for about an hour.
7. The height of the precipitate in each test tube was measured. The colour of the solution above the
precipitate in each test tube was observed and recorded.

Results:
Test tube 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Volume of 0.5 mol 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
dm-3
Pb(NO3)2 /cm3
Volume of 0.5 mol 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00
dm-3
K2Cr O4 /cm3
Height of precipitate 0.60 1.20 1.80 2.40 3.00 3.00 3.00
(cm)
Colour of solution colourless colourless colourless colourless colourless yellow yellow
above the precipitate

Paper 2

Discussion
The volume of 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate (VI), solution required to exactly react with 5.00 cm3 of 0.5
mol dm-3 lead (II) nitrate solution is 5.00 cm3.

Calculation:
Number of moles lead (II) ions = MV
= 0.5 x 5.00/1000 = 0.0025 mol.

Number of moles chromate (VI) ions = MV


= 0.5 x 5.00/1000 = 0.0025 mol.
Simplest mole ratio of lead (II) ions : chromate (VI) ions
0.0025 : 0.0025
1 : 1

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Discussions:
1. A yellow precipitate of lead (II) chromate (VI) is formed in each of the seven test tubes.
2. The height of the precipitate increases gradually from test tubes 1 to 5 because more and more lead (II)
chromate (VI) is formed due to the increasing amount of potassium chromate (VI) added to the test tubes.
3. The colour of solution above the precipitate in test tubes 1 to 4 are colourless due to the excess lead (II)
nitrate.
4. The colour of solution above the precipitate in test tubes 6 to 7 is yellow due to the excess potassium
chromate (VI).
5. Ionic equation: Pb2+ + Cr2O72- PbCr2O7

Conclusion:
As / when the volume of potassium chromate (VI) solution used increases, the height of the precipitate
increases until it achieves a maximum height.

CHAPTER 9 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

1. Contact process: manufactured sulphuric acid

Stage Equation Explanation


1 S + O2 SO2 Sulphur is burned in the excess of oxygen gas to produce sulphur
dioxide gas.
2 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 SO2 is then heated in excess oxygen gas, catalyst Vanadium (V)
oxide, 1 atm and 450 550 o C , to produce sulphur trioxide gas.
3 SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 Gas sulfur trioxide dissolve in sulphuric acid to produce oleum
4 H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4 Oleum is added to water to produce sulfuric acid

Gas SO3 is not dissolve in water to produce H2SO4 straight away because the reaction will produce a
lot of heat which is dangerous( cause the forming of acid fumes)

Usage of sulphuric acid:

To manufacture fertilizer, soap and detergent


To make explosive material, paint / pigment, polymer
As metal cleaner and electrolyte in car battery.

2. Haber Process

N2 + 3H2 2NH3

Condition: Catalyst: iron, temperature: 450 550 oC, Pressure 200 500 atm

Usage: to manufacture fertilizer


2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4 )2 SO4
3NH3 + H3PO4 (NH4 )3 PO4
NH3 + HNO3 NH4NO3

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3. High percentage of nitrogen is a good fertilser for plants. How to calculate %N in fertiliser?
urea CO(NH2)2 and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), which one is a better fertiliser?
[ RAM : N,14; C,12 ;O,16; H,1]

Sample answer:

% N in Urea = mass of nitrogen / RMM urea x 100


= 2x14 / 60 x 100 = 46.67%

% N in NH4NO3 = 2x14 / 80 x 100 = 35.00 %

Urea is a good fertilizer than ammonium nitrate, because the percentage of nitrogen in urea higher than
ammonium nitrate.

4. Describe how toxic waste product from factory affects the quality of the environment. Your description
should include the following aspects. Source, process and effect.

Sample answer:
1. [Source] sulphur dioxide gas produced by factory or burning of fossil fuels
2. [process ] sulphur dioxide gas dissolves in rain water / water to form acid rain,
2SO2 +O2 + 2H2O ( 2H2SO4]
3. [effect ] toxic waste / acid flows to into lakes and rivers, acid rain lowers the pH value of water, soil
and air.
4. Fish and other aquatic organisms die.
5. acid rain corrodes concrete buildings and metal structures
6. acid destroys trees in forest
7. Acid rain reacts with minerals in soil to produces salt which are leached out the top soil.
8. Plants die of malnutrition and diseases.
9. Soil becomes acidic, unsuitable for growth of plants and destroys the roots of plants.
10. sulphur dioxide causes respiratory problems in humans.

5. POLIMER: - large molecules made up of identical repeating sub-units of monomers which are
joined together by covalent bonds.

Synthetic polymer Monomer Uses


Polythene Ethene Plastic bags, plastic container
Polypropene Propene Piping, car batteries
Polyvinyl chloride, PVC Chloroethene Artificial leather, water pipe
Perspex Methylmethacrylate Safety glass, reflectors

monomer ( ethene) polymer (polyethene)

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ALLOY
An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major
component is a metal.

1. The composition , properties and uses of some alloy

Alloy Composition Properties Uses


Bronze Cu -Hard and strong -in building of statue or monuments.
Tin -does not corrode easily -in making of medals
-has shiny surface -swords and artistic material
Brass Cu -harder than copper -in making of musical instruments and
Zinc kitchenware
Steel Iron Hard and strong -in construction of buildings and bridges
Carbon -in building of the body of cars and railway
tracks
Stainless Iron -shiny -in making of cutlery
steel Carbon -strong -in making of surgical
Chromium -does not rust instrument
Duralumin Aluminium -light -in building of the body of aeroplane and
Copper -strong bullet trains
Magnesium
manganese
Pewter Tin, Copper -lustre, shiny In making of souvenirs
antimony -strong

Bronze is harder than pure copper. Explain.

Reason:
1. The presence of atoms of other metals / tin that are different sizes
2. Disrupt the orderly arrangement of copper atoms
3. Tin atoms reduce the layers of copper atoms from sliding
4. Alloy is stronger and harder than pure metal

2. You have learnt the steel is an alloy of iron. Steel is harder than pure iron. Both iron and steel can rust
when exposed to air and water. Do they rust at the same rate?

Aim : To compare the rate of rusting between iron, steel and stainless steel

Problem Statement
How does the rate of rusting between iron, steel and stainless steel differ?

Hypothesis
Iron rust faster than steel and steel rust faster than stainless steel.

Variables
Manipulated : Iron, steel and stainless steel.
Responding : intensity / amount of dark blue colour / rate of rusting
Fixed : size of nail, concentration of solution, duration of rusting
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Procedure:

1. Clean the nails with sand paper (to removed the rust from all the nails)
2. Place the iron nail, steel nail and stainless steel nail into the test tube A, B and C respectively.
3. Prepare a 5 % jelly solution by adding 5 g jelly to 100 cm3 of boiling water. Add a few drop of potassium
hexacyanoferrate (III) solution.
4. Pour the hot jelly into the test tubes until all the nails are fully immersed.
5. Leave the nails for 3 days.
6. Observe and record the intensity of the dark blue colour.

Tabulation of data
Test tube The intensity of the dark blue colour //
rate of rusting
A
B
C
Paper 2
Conclusion
1. The concentration of Fe2+ ions in the test tube A is higher than in test tube B. No Fe2+ ions are present in
test tube C.
2. The rate of rusting in test tube A is higher than that in test tube B. No rusting takes place in test tube C.
Alloy slow down the rate of rusting.

Properties, composition and uses different type of glass

Type Properties Chemical Uses


composition
Fused glass -Very high softening point SiO2 Lenses, telescope
-Highly heat resistant mirrors, optical fibres,
-Does not crack when temperature changes Laboratory glassware.
-very resistant to chemical reactions
-difficult to be shaped
Soda lime -low softening point SiO2 Flat glass, light bulb,
glass -does not withstand heating CaCO3 / mirrors, glass
-break easily Na2CO3 containers.
-less resistant to chemical reactions
-easy to be shaped
- cracks easily with sudden change in temperature
Borosilicate -lower thermal coefficient SiO2 Laboratory glassware,
-heat resistant B2O3 cooking utensils.
- Does not crack when temperature changes Na2O Automobile
-very resistant to chemical reactions headlights.
-does not break easily
Lead glass -low softening point SiO2 Decorative items,
-high density PbO crystal glass ware,
-High refractive index CaO lens, prism, chandelier

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Composite Materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different
substances such as metal, alloys, glass, ceramics and polymers.

Composite Component Properties of Properties of Uses of


material component composite components
Reinforced Concrete Hard but brittle, low Stronger, high tensile Construction of
concrete tensile strength strength does not framework for
corrode easily, can highway, bridges
Steel Hard with high tensile withstand higher and high-rise
strength but expensive applied forces and building
and can corrode. loads, cheaper.

Super- Copper(II)oxide, Insulators of electricity Conducts electricity Generators,


conductor barium oxide transformers,
electric cable,
amplifiers,
computer parts
MRI

Fibre optics Glass of low Transparent, does reflect reflect light rays and Transmit data in the
refractive index light rays. allow light rays to form of light in
travel along the fiber telecommunications
Glass of high
refractive index
Fibre glass Glass Heavy, strong but brittle Light, strong, tough, Water storage
and non-flexible resilient and flexible tanks, small boat,
wit high tensile helmet
Polyester plastic Light, flexible, elastic strength not
but weak and inflammable, low
inflammable density, easily
coloured, shaped and
moulded.

Photo- Glass Transparent, does reflect Sensitive to light : Photochromic


chromic light rays. darkens when light optical lens, camera
glass intensity is high, lens, car
Silver chloride Sensitive to light becomes clear when windshields, optical
or silver light intensity is low. switches, light
bromide intensity meters.

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
CHAPTER 10: RATE OF REACTION

Rate of reaction is the change in selected quantity of reactants or products per time taken.

Aplication
1. Explain why potatoes fried in boiling oil cook faster than potatoes boiled in boiling water?
Answer:
- Boiling point of oil is higher than boiling point of water
- At higher temperature potatoes is faster to cook

2. Based on the collision theory, explain why we need to store fresh milk in refrigerator.
Answer:
(i) the temperature inside the refrigerator is lower
(ii) bacteria are not active at low temperature
(iii) decomposition of milk caused by bacteria will slow down
(iv) this will keep the milk fresh for along time

Collision theory

Effective collision: Collision which achieve activation energy (minimum amount) and with correct
orientation.

Temperature
1. As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the particles ( H+, S2O32- ) increases /
2. Frequency of collision between particles ( H+, S2O32- ) increases
3. Frequency of effective collision increases
4. Rate of reaction increases

Size of particles (total surface area)


1. The smaller the size of particles,
2. The larger the total surface area exposed to the collision
3. Frequency of collision between particles increases
4. Frequency of effective collision increases
5. Rate of reaction increases

Concentration of the solution


1. The higher the concentration of the solution,
2. The greater the number of particles per volume
3. Frequency of collision between particles increases
4. Frequency of effective collision increases
5. Rate of reaction increases

Catalyst
1. The presence of catalyst provide an alternative pathway / route
2. with lower activation energy
3. Frequency of effective collision between particles increases
4. Rate of reaction increases.

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Note:
1. Catalyst a substance which alters the rate of chemical reaction while remains chemically
unchanged at the end of reaction.
2. Observable changes for measuring the rate of reaction.
(a) volume of gas liberated
(b) precipitate formation
(c) change in mass during reaction, colour ,temperature, pressure

1. Catalyst (Manganese (IV) oxide)


a) Decomposition of sodium chlorate (V), 2NaClO3 2NaCl + 3O2
b) Decomposition hydrogen peroxide , 2H2O2 2H2O + O2

2. Catalytic converters in the car exhaust system contain rhodium, platinum or chromium (III) oxide Cr2O3.

Example:

1. Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature of sodium thiosulphate Na2S2O3 solution on the rate of
reaction
Problem Statement:
How does temperature of sodium thiosulphate Na2S2O3 solution affect the rate of reaction?

Hypothesis:
When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate Na2S2O3 solution increases, the rate of reaction increases.// the
higher the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher the rate of reaction.

Variables:

Manipulated :Temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution.


Responding :Rate of reaction/ Time taken for the cross X to disappear from the sight.
Fixed : Concentration and volume of sulphuric acid, concentration and volume of sodium
thiosulphate solution.

Apparatus : 150 cm3 connical flask, 50 cm3 measuring cylinder,10cm3 measuring cylinder, stopwatch,
thermometer, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze.

Materials: 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thioulphate solution, 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, white paper marked X
at the centre.

Procedure:
1. 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured using measuring cylinder and poured
into a conical flask.
2. The temperature of the solution is measured with a thermometer.
3. The conical flask is placed on a white paper marked`X`.
4. 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is measured and then poured quickly and
carefully into the sodium thiosulphate solution.
5. The stopwatch is started immediately and the conical flask is swirled.
6. The mark `X` is viewed / observed vertically from above.
7.The stopwatch is stopped as soon as the mark disappear from sight.
8.Time taken is recorded.
9. Steps 1 to 9 are repeated by using the different temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution.
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Data and Observation

Experiment Temperature , Time taken for the X mark to 1/ time taken ,


(oC) disappear from view, t (s) 1/t ( s-1)
1 28
2 35
3 40
4 45
5 50

Discussion
Based on plotted graph: [ calculation ]
The higher the temperature of sodium thiosulphate, the shorter the time taken for crossX to disappear
from the sight.
The rate of reaction directly proportional to the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution used. //
As the temperature sodium thiosulphate solution increases, the time taken decreases. Therefore the rate of
reaction increases.

Conclusion :
The rate of reaction increases as the temperature sodium thioulphate solution increases.

Energy profile diagram 1. Ea activation energy without catalyst


2. Ea - activation energy with catalyst
3. Exothermic reaction heat released /given out
4. Energy content in reactants higher than products
5. ^ H is the energy difference in reactants and products
6. Heat given out during bond formation is greater than heat
-^H absorbed during bond breaking
7. Exothermic reacton.

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2. Aim: to investigate effect of catalyst on the rate of decomposition hydrogen peroxide.

Problem statement: how does a catalyst affect the rate of decomposition hydrogen peroxide?

Hypothesis: manganese (IV) oxide, MnO2 increases the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

Variables:
Manipulated : presence of manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2)
Responding : rate of reaction
Fixed : concentration of H2O2, initial temperature of H2O2 solution.

Apparatus: test tube, 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, test tube rack, spatula.

Materials: (5-10) volume of H2O2 solution, manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2) powder, wooden splinter

Procedures:
1. label two test tube as A and B
2. Using a measuring cylinder measure 5 cm3 of 20 volume of H2O2 solution and pour into test
tube A.
3. Add spatula of manganese (IV) oxide powder into test tube A.
4. Shake the test tube.
5. Immediately place a glowing splinter into the test tube.
6. Observe and record the changes.
7. Repeat the same procedure for test tube B without MnO2

Observation: [Paper 2]

Test tube Observation


A Effervescence occurred. The glowing wooden splinter relight.
B No effervescence. The glowing wooden splinter did not relight.

Discussion:
Manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2) increases the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Decomposition
of hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen gas. 2H2O2 2H2O + O2

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
CHAPTER 11: CARBON COMPOUND

1. Hydrocarbon chemical compound containing carbon and hydrogen atom only.


2. Alkene chemical compound containing carbon and hydrogen atom and at least
one carbon-carbon double bond ( C = C )

3. Isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula, but with different structural formula.
Example: C4H10 butane

n-butane

2-methylpropane

C6H12O6

Fermention
CH3COOH
C2H5OH
Br2 Carboxyl
C2H4Br2 Hydroxyl
-COOH
-OH Oxidation
H2
C2H6
C2H4
KMnO4/ H , + Double bond between Esterification
C2H4(OH)2 K2Cr2O7/ H+ C atoms, C=C
H2SO4
A
H2O
d
C2H5OH CH3COO C2H5
d
Ethyl ethanoate
HX i
C2H5Br t
i CnH 2n+ 2 , n = 1,2 alkane
o CnH2n , n = 2, 3 alkene
- CH2- CH2- n CnH 2n+ 1 OH, n = 1, 2 alcohol
CnH 2n+1 COOH , n=0,1.. Carboxylic acid

KMnO4/H+ / K2Cr2O7/ H+
1. C2H4 + [O] + H2O C2H4(OH)2 [ purple turns colourless] //[ orange turns green]

H 2SO4, cons
2. CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COO C2H5 + H2O

H 3 PO4, 60 atm, 300 oC


3. C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH
Yeast
4. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

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Homologous General formula Functional group Member , example


series
Alkane CnH2n + 2 , n = 1,2.. Single covalent bond Ethane
between carbon atoms. C- C

Alkene CnH2n , n = 2.. Double covalent bond Ethene


between carbon atoms. C=C

Alcohols CnH2n + 1 OH, n = 1,2.. Hydroxyl group / - OH Ethanol

Carboxylic CnH2n + 1 COOH, n = Carboxyl group , -COOH Ethanoic acid CH3COOH


acid 0,1,2..

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4. Your are required to prepare one namely ester by using ethanoic acid is one of the reactants. By using a
namely alcohol, describe one experiment to prepare the ester. In your description include the chemical
equation and observation involved.

Ester: ethylethanoate

Material: ethanol, etahanoic acid, water, concentrated sulphuric acid


Apparatus: Boiling tube / test tube, Bunsen burner, test tube holder, beaker
Procedure:
1. Pour 2 cm3 of ethanol into a boiling tube / test tube
2. Add 1 cm3 of ethanoic acid
3. Add 2 to 4 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid
4. Heat the mixture gently for about two minutes
5. Pour the mixture into a beaker containing water.

Observation: Sweet/ pleasant / fruity smell // insoluble in water

Chemical equation: CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COO C2H5 + H2O

4. Dehydration of alcohol
Diagram of set up of apparatus
1. Complete and functional
2. Labels of set up of apparatus correct

Procedure:
a) Place some glass wool in a boiling tube
b) Use a dropper to add propan-1-ol to wet the glass wool.
c) Clamp the boiling tube horizontally and placed unglazed porcelain chips in the mid section of
the boiling tube.
d) Heat the unglazed porcelain chips strongly.
e) Then heat the glass wool gently to vaporize the propanol.
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f) [Description of the chemical test to the gas collected in the test tube.]

Add 1 cm3 of bromine water and shake well.


[Observation]:
Reddish brown colour of bromine decolourised
Or,
Add 1 cm3 of acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution and shake well.
[Observation]:
Purple colour of potassium manganate(VII) solution decolourised

Chemical equation: C3H7OH C3H6 + H2O

Industrial extraction of palm oil

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
5. Table shows results of latex coagulation

Procedure Observation
Propanoic acid (weak acid) is added to latex Latex coagulates immediately
Latex is left under natural conditions Latex coagulates slowly
-
Protein - Rubber particles
membranes - -
Rubber molecules
-
Explain why there is a difference in these observations
Answer:
1. Acid ionizes in water to produce high concentration of / a lot of hydrogen ions
2. Hydrogen ions, H+ neutralize the negative charges on the protein membranes
3. The rubber particles collide and the protein membranes break
4. Rubber molecules are released and combine with one another and entangle.
5. The existence of bacteria in natural conditions
6. The growth of bacteria produce / lactic acid /weak acid / low concentration of H+ ions.
7. Due to the slow bacterial action, the coagulation of latex takes a longer time to occur.
[Monomer of natural rubber: 2 methylbuta-1,3- diene , C5H8 / isoprene ]

Explain how to prevent coagulation of latex

1. Add ammonia solution


2. Ammonia solution contains / ionized to produce hydroxide ions , OH-
3. Hydroxide ions, OH- neutralized the hydrogen ions, H+ / acid produced by the bacteria
4. The rubber particles remain negatively charged and coagulation is prevented.

6. [Paper 3]
Aim: To compare the elasticity / strength of vulcanised and unvulcanised rubber

Problem statement: Does vulcanised rubber more elastic than unvulcanised rubber

Hypothesis: Vulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised rubber


Variable:
Manipulated : vulcanised rubber and unvulcanised rubber
Responding : length of rubber strip / elasticity
Fixed : mass of weight, size of rubber

Material and apparatus:


Retort stand, bulldog clip, meter ruler, weight, vulcanised and unvulcanised rubber

Procedure:
1. Hang both rubber strips to the retort stand with bulldog clip.
2. Measure the initial length of both rubber strips and record.
3. Hang 50 g weight to the end of each rubber using bulldog clip.
4. Remove the weight and measure the length of both rubber strips and record.//
5. Record all the data obtained.

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Unvulcanised rubber Vulcanised rubber

Result / Data

Type of rubber Initial length , cm Length after removal of weight , cm


vulcanised
unvulcanised

Compares and contrasts the properties of vulcanized rubber

Vulcanized rubber Elasticity Unvulcanised rubber


Harder Hardness Less harder
More elastic Elasticity Less elastic
Stronger Tensile strength Weaker
Can withstand higher temperature Resistance to heat Cannot withstand higher
temperature
Less easily oxidized Resistance to oxidation More easily oxidized
Does not become soft and sticky easily Effect of organic solvent Become soft and sticky easily

Conclusion:

1. Vulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised rubber due to the presence of cross-linkage of
sulfur atoms between the rubber molecules. Vulcanised rubber could return to its original length after
removal of the weight.

To prepare vulcanised rubber

Rubber can be vulcanized by dipping natural rubber sheets into disulphur dichloride solution
in methylbenzene or heated with sulphur.

Note:
Vulcanised rubber is more heat resistance due to the presence of cross-linkage of sulfur atoms
increases the size of rubber molecules. Force of attraction between molecules will increase.

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7. Compare and differentiate between namely alkene and alkane

Alkane ( hexane ) Alkene ( hexene )


1 Hydrocarbon ( contain C and H atom)
2 Low melting and boiling point
3 Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvent
4 Cannot conduct electricity
5 Density less than water
6 Completely combustion produce CO2 + H2O

7 Saturated , single covalent bond, C-C Unsaturated , contain at least one double bond C=C

8 Unreactive undergo substitution with Reactive undergo addition reaction( hydrogenation,


halogen in the presence of sunlight / UV ray halogenations, oxidation, polymerization, with halide,
steam(hydration)

9 General formula , CnH2n+2 , n = 1,2 , CnH2n , n= 2

10 Identify test
1. Combustion, burn less soot flame. 1. More soot flame.
(% of carbon per molecule is lower) ( % of carbon per molecule is higher).

Chemical tests
2. add bromine water , brown colour 2. decolorized brown bromine water
remains
3. add acidified KMnO4 , purple colour 3. purple colour is decolourized
remains

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CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK
CHAPTER 12: REDOX

Redox reactions are chemical reactions involving oxidation and reduction occurring simultaneously.

1. Transfer of electron, Mg Mg2+ + 2e // Cu2+ + 2e Cu


2. Loss or gain oxygen, C + 2CuO 2Cu + CO2
3. Loss or gain hydrogen, H2S + Cl2 2HCl + S
4. changes in oxidation number

Rusting of iron

1. When iron exposed to water and oxygen


2. Iron atom releases 2 electrons to form iron (II) ion, Fe2+ / is oxidized to form iron (II) ion, Fe2+
3. Fe Fe2+ + 2e // (anode) [ oxidation]
4. Iron acts as reducing agent
5. Oxygen and water receives /gain electrons to form hydroxide ions.
6. O2 + 2H2O + 4e 4OH- (cathode) [reduction]
7. Oxygen acts as oxidizing agent.
8. Iron (II) ion, Fe2+ combine with hydroxide ion, OH- to form iron (II) hydroxide, Fe(OH)2.
9. Iron (II) hydroxide, Fe(OH)2 oxidized by oxygen to form iron (III) oxide, brown solid/precipitate,
Fe2O3.x H2O. // Fe2+ Fe3+ + e

Effect of the contact of other metals on the rusting of iron.

Aim : To investigate the effect of in contact of other metals on the


rusting of iron.

Problem statement:
How does the effect on rusting when iron is in contact with another metal? //
How does different type of metal in contact with affect the rusting of iron?

Hypothesis :
When a more electropositive metal is in contact with iron, the metal inhibits rusting.
When a less electropositive metal is in contact with iron, the metal speeds up the rusting.

Variable:
Manipulated : Type of metal that in contact with iron.
Responding : Rusting of iron
Fixed : Iron nails, temperature, medium in which iron nails are kept.

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Apparatus : Test tube, test tube rack


Materials : iron nails, magnesium ribbon, copper strip, zinc strip, tin strip, hot jelly solution, potassium
hexacyanoferat (III) , K3Fe(CN)6 solution, phenolphthalein indicator, sand paper.

Procedure:
1. Five iron nails, magnesium ribbon, copper strip, zinc strip and tin strip were cleaned with sand paper.
2. Four iron nails were coiled tightly with the magnesium ribbon, copper strip, zinc strip and tin strip
respectively.
3. All five iron nails were placed in separate test tube.
4. The volume of hot jelly solution that was mixed with a little K 3Fe(CN)6 solution and phenolphthalein
indicator was poured into the each test tube to completely cover all the nails.
5. The test tubes were kept in a test tube rack and were aside for a day.
6. All observations were recorded.

Observation

Metal Observation
Intensity of dark Intensity of pink Condition of nail
blue colouration colouration
Fe Low The surface of the nail was partially covered with
reddish brown solid
Fe- High No reddish brown solid was found on the surface of
Mg the nail.
Fe-Zn High No reddish brown solid was found on the surface of
the nail.
Fe-Sn Moderate Low The whole surface of the nail was covered with
reddish brown solid
Fe-Cu High Low The whole surface of the nail was heavily covered
with reddish brown solid

The nail in test tube A rusted a little. No rusting occurred to the nails in test tubes B and C .The nail in test
tube D rusted but the nail in test tube E rusted even more.

Discussion
1. Based on the observations magnesium and zinc metals inhibit rusting of iron, while copper and tin
metals speed up rusting of iron.
2. This is because magnesium and zinc are more electropositive than iron. Magnesium atom or zinc
atom releases its electron more easily than iron.
Mg Mg2+ + 2e
O2 + 2H2O + 4e 4OH-
3. Copper and tin are less electropositive than iron. Iron atom releases its electrons more easily than
copper atom or tin atom.
4. Fe Fe2+ + 2e
5. The less electropositive metals that in contact with iron, the faster the rusting of iron occurs.
6. The more electropositive metals that in contact with iron prevent iron from rusting.

Conclusion:

Rusting can be prevented when iron is in contact with a more electropositive metal. Rusting occurs faster
when iron is in contact with a less electropositive metal.
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1. Displacement reaction Metal:

Example: Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu // Zn + Cu2+ Cu + Zn2+

a) Zn atom oxidized to Zn2+ , Zn Zn2+ + 2e


b) Oxidation number of Zn changes / increase from 0 to +2,
c) Zn acts as reducing agent.
d) Copper (II) ion reduced to Cu, Cu2+ + 2e Cu
e) Oxidation number of copper changes / decrease from +2 to 0
f) Cu2+ ion acts as oxidizing agent

Example:

An experiment is carried out to determine the relative position of three metals, silver, L and M, in the
electrochemical series.

silver nitrate silver nitrate L nitrate


solution solution solution
Experiment
L M M


grey deposit grey deposit no change
Observation
colourless solution
light blue solution

Based on results, arrange the three metals in order of increasing electropositivity. Explain you answer.

Sample answer:

1. Silver, M and L
2. L can displace silver from silver nitrate solution.
3. L is more electropositive than silver // L is higher than silver in electrochemical series.
4. M metal can displace silver from silver nitrate solution.
5. M is more electropositive than silver // M is higher than silver in the electrochemical series.
6. M cannot displace L from L nitrate solution.
7. M is less electropositive than L // L is higher than M in the electrochemical series.

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2. Displacement of Halogen:

Aim: To investigate oxidation and reduction in the displacement of halogen from its halide solution.

Procedure:
1. Pour 2m cm3 of potassium bromide solution into a test tube.
2. Add 2 cm3 of chlorine water to the test tube and shake the mixture.
3. Add 2 cm3 of 1,1,1-trichloroethane / tetrachlorometane to the test tube and shake the mixture and leave it
on the test tube rack
4. Record theobservation.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 using another halogens and halide solutions.

Tabulation of data:

Halogen Chlorine Bromine Iodine


Halide
solution
Potassium chloride X X
Potassium bromine / X
Potassium iodide / /

Example: Cl2 + 2KI ( 2KCl + I2 // Cl2 + 2I- ( I2 + 2Cl-

Cl2 + 2e ( 2Cl- ( reduction) 2I- ( I2 + 2e (oxidation

bromine water potassium iodide solution

3. Transfer of electron at a distance U-tube

Procedure:
1. clamp a U-tube to a retort stand
2. pour dilute sulphuric acid
3. add solution (oxidizing agent) into one end of the arm of the U-tube
4. Add solution (reducing agent) into the other end.
5. place / dip carbon electrodes into each arm of the U-tube
6. connect the electrodes to a voltmeter/ galvanometer using connecting wire
7. leave the apparatus for 30minutes
8. record the observation

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4. Based on electron transfer, EXPLAIN the oxidation and reduction reaction in

(i) Changing of Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ ions


(ii) Changing of Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions

Use a suitable example for each of the reaction. Include half equations in your answer.

Sample answer:
(i)
a. Fe+2 Fe+3 + e
b. Br2 + 2e 2Br
2. Iron (II) ions releases / donates electron to become iron(III) ions. Iron(II) ions are oxidized.
3. Bromine molecules receive/ gain electrons to form bromide ions. Bromine molecules are reduced.
(any suitable oxidizing agent, Cl2, KMnO4/H+ )
(ii)
1. Fe+3 + e Fe+2
2. Zn Zn+2 + 2e
3. Iron(III) ions gain electron to become iron(II) ions. Iron(III) ions are reduced.
4. Zinc atoms releases/ donates electrons to form zinc ions. Zinc atoms are oxidized.
(a: any suitable reducing agent)

5. Describe an experiment to investigate oxidation and reduction in the change of iron(II) ions to iron(III)
ions and vice versa.

(i) Changing of Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ ions

Procedure:
1. Pour 2 cm3 of freshly prepared iron(II)sulphate solution into a test tube.
2. Using dropper, add bromine water drop by drop until no further changes are observed.
3. Heat slowly / gently
4. Add 3 drops of potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solution / sodium hydroxide solution.
5. Dark blue precipitate // brown precipitate formed.

(ii) Changing of Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions

Procedure:
1. Pour 2 cm3 of iron(III)sulphate solution into a test tube.
2. Add half spatula of zinc / Mg powder to the solution.
3. Shake the mixture until no further changes are observed.
4. Filter the mixture.
5. Add 3 drops of potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) solution / sodium hydroxide solution into the filtrate.
6. Dark blue precipitate // green precipitate formed.

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Reactivity series
K
1. reactive metal with oxygen
Na
Ca
Aim: 1. to investigate the reactivity of metal with oxygen
Mg
2. To arrange metals in term of their reactivity with oxygen
Al
C
Procedure:
Zn Positions of
1. Put one spatula of potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 ,
H carbon and
into a boiling tube.
Fe hydrogen in the
2. Push some glass wool into the boiling tube and clamp horizontally.
Sn reacting series
3. Place one spatula magnesium powder on a piece of asbestos paper
Pb of metal
and put into the boiling tube.
Cu
4. Heat magnesium powder strongly and then heat the solid KMnO4.
Hg
5. Observe and record how vigorous the reaction and colour of
Ag
the residue when it is hot and when it is cold.
Au
2Mg + O2 2MgO
Produce oxygen

2. hydrogen gas with oxide of less


reactive metal
H2 + PbO Pb + H2O

3. carbon with oxide metal


C + 2CuO 2Cu + CO2

Aim:
To determine the position of carbon in the
reactivity series of metals

Procedure:
1. Mix thoroughly a spatula of carbon powder and
a spatula of copper(II)oxide in a crucible.
2. Heat the mixture strongly.
3. Record the observation.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3, using magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide and zinc oxide to replace
copper(II)oxide.
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4. Carbon dioxide with metal


CO2 + 2Mg 2MgO + C

Oxidizing reducing
agent agent

Application of reactivity series in the extraction of metals

Extraction of iron from its ores, hematite, Fe2O3


Extraction of tin from its ores, cassiterite, SnO2
- in blast furnace , carbon / coke as a reducing agent.

Example:
C + O2 CO2
C + CO2 2CO
C, CO2 , 2CO reduced the iron oxides to iron

2 Fe2O3 + 3C 4Fe + 3CO2


Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 2CO2
CaCO3 CaO + CO2 ( lime stone decomposed)
CaO + SiO2 CaSiO3 ( impurities )

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Redox reaction in various chemical cells

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CHAPTER 13: THERMOCHEMISTRY

1. Exothermic
A chemical reaction that gives out heat to the surroundings
- The reactants lose heat energy to form the products
- The energy content of reactants is higher than products
- H negative
2. Energy level diagram (label energy, reactants and product with correct chemical / ionic formula, heat of
reaction with unit.
3. Heat of reaction heat change/releases when 1 mole of product formed. [ kJmol- ]
= mC / mole

Heat of neutralization heat releases when 1 mole of H+ combines with 1 mol of OH- to form
1 mole of water. H+ + OH- H2O

4. Heat of combustion heat releases when 1 mole of alcohol burnt completely in excess oxygen.
C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

5. As the number of carbon atom per molecule increases, the heat of combustion increases, due to more
products formed (CO2 & H2O) . Therefore more heat released when more bonds are formed.

6. To determine heat of combustion (material and apparatus, procedure, tabulation of data, calculation,
observations, precautions).

Procedure:
1. (100 200) cm3 of water is measured using a measuring cylinder
2. and poured into a copper tin.
3. The initial temperature of water is measured and recorded, 1
4. A spirit lamp is filled with butanol/ other alcohol and weighed, x gram
5.The spirit lamp is light and put under the copper can.
6.The water is stirred continuously with a thermometer.
7.When the temperature of water increased by 30oC, the flame is put off.
8.The spirit lamp is weighed again, y gram
9.The highest temperature is recorded, 2
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Results:
Mass of weight of spirit lamp + butanol /g x
Final mass of spirit lamp + butanol /g y
Mass of butanol used/g (x-y) // z
Highest temperature of water /oC 1
Initial temperature of water /oC 2
Increased in temperature /oC (1 - 2 ) // 3

Calculation:
Heat change = mc Heat of combustion of butanol = aJ
= 100 x 4.2 x (2 1) (z/74) mol
=aJ

Precautions:
1. Make sure the flame from the combustion of ethanol touches the bottom of the copper can // The
spirit lamp is placed very close or just beneath the bottom of the copper can.
2. Stir the water in the copper can continuously.
3. The spirit lamp must be weighed immediately (because the ethanol is very volatile).
4. A wind shield must be used during experiment.

Heat of displacement
Aim: To determine the heat of displacement of copper by zinc and iron

Procedure:
1. Measure 25 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 of copper(II)sulphate solution and pour into a plastic cup / polystrene
cup.
2. Record the initial temperature of the solution.
3. Pour 0.5g of zinc powder into the solution.
4. Stir the mixture with thermometer
5. Measure and record the highest temperature of the reacting mixutre.

Tabulation of data:

Metal Initial temperature, oC Highest temperature, oC


Zinc
Iron

Heat of precipitation
Aim: To determine the heat of precipitaion of silver chloride, AgCl

Apparatus: plastic cup, thermometer, measuring cylinder


Material : silver nitrate solution , 0.5 mol dm-3 , sodium chloride solution, 0.5 mol dm-3

Procedure:
1. Measure 20 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of silver nitrate solution and pour into plastic cup.
2. Measure and record the initial temperature of silver nitrate solution.
3. Measure 20 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of sodium chloride solution and pour into plastic cup.
4. Measure and record the initial temperature of sodium chloride solution.
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5. Add the sodium chloride soltuions into the silver nitrate solution quickly and stir the mixture.
6. Measure and record the highest temperature of the reacting mixture.

Tabulation of data:

initial temperature of silver nitrate solution, oC


initial temperature of sodium chloride solution, oC
Average temperature of both solutions, oC
highest temperature of the reacting mixture, oC

Heat of precipitation is the heat released / heat change when one mole of precipitate is formed from their ions
in aqueous solution.

Aplication of exothermic and endothermic reaction

ammonium nitrate
(NH4NO3) Calcium chloride or sodium acetate crystals
magnesium sulphate

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CHAPTER 14: CHEMICALS FOR CONSUMERS

Example:
1. (a) A student washed his socks which had oily stains. Explain the cleansing action of soap on the oily
stains.

In water soap ionizes to form ions/anion CH3(CH2)x COO- and cation, sodium ions, Na+

The anions consists of hydrophilic part ( -COO -) and hydrophobic part (hydrocarbon)

Hydrophilic part dissolve in water only but hydrophobic part dissolve in grease only.

The anions reduce surface tension of water, causing wetting of greasy surface.

During washing and scrubbing, the anions pull the grease and lifted it off the surface and break it into
a small droplets (Emulsifying agent)

Rinsing away the dirty water removes the grease (the dirt) and excess soap and the surface is clean.

(b) Another student carried out four experiments to investigate the cleansing effect of soap and detergent on
oily stains in soft water and
hard water respectively.

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Compare the cleansing effect between


(i) Experiments I and II
(ii) Experiment II and IV

Explain the differences in the observation

Exp. I and II

The oily stain disappears in Experiment I but remains oily in Experiment II.

Hard water contains Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions which reacts with soap ions to form
scum (insoluble salt)

The formation of scum makes anions less efficient for cleaning the oily stain on the sock

In soft water, all anions are used to clean the oily stain

Thus, soap is only effective as a cleansing agent in soft water and ineffective in hard water.

Exp. II and IV
The sock in Experiment II remains oily but is clean in experiment IV.
The soap anions form scum when reacts with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in hard water.
The formation of scum makes anions less efficient for cleaning

The detergent anions CH3(CH2)x OSO3- / CH3(CH2)x SO3- do not form a precipitate with Ca2+
O
and Mg2+ in hard water.
Hence, detergent cleans effectively in hard water but soap does not clean effectively in hard water.

2. Preparation of soap

Procedure
1. pour 10 cm3 palm oil ( vegetable oil ) into a beaker
2. add 50 cm3 of 5.0 mol dm-3 NaOH / KOH solution
3. heat the mixture for (10 minutes)
4. stir
5. stop heating, add 50 cm3 distilled water and solid NaCl
6. boil the mixture for 5 minutes
7. cool
8. filter, wash / rinse
9. dry ( press the residue between filter papers

Test
10. Place a small amount of the residue into a test tube add distilled water, shake it well.
produce a lot of lather ( very foamy)

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Observation : white solid, slippery and produce a lot of lather ( very foamy).

Chemical equation:

3. You are given liquid soap, sample of hard water, sample of soft water and other materials.
Describe an experiment to investigate the effect of cleaning action of the soap in different types of water.
You description must include example of hard water and soft water, observation and conclusion.
[10 marks]
Sample answer:
1. hard water : sea water
2. soft water : distilled water

Materials: liquid soap, sea water, distilled water, pieces of cloth with oil stain.
Apparatus: beaker (suitable container), glass rod, measuring cylinder

Procedure:
1. pour (100 200) cm3 sea water into a beaker/ suitable container
2. Add (10 20 ) cm3 liquid soap into the beaker.
3. stir the mixture
4. Place a piece of cloth with oil stain into the beaker.
5. Record the observation.
6. Repeat step 1 4 using distilled water.

Observation:
1. The oil stain in hard water remained but removed in soft water.

Conclusion:

1. Hard water contains Mg2+ or Ca2+. Soap anion formed scum (insoluble salt) when react with Mg2+ or Ca2+.
2. Soap is not an effective cleansing agent in hard water but only effective in soft water.
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Compare and contrast soap and detergent

Soap Detergent
- +
CH3 (CH2)15 COO Na

Sodium carboxylate Sodium alkyl sulphate Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate

Material : fat, vegetable oil, Petroleum fractions : long chain Petroleum fractions : long chain
NaOH / KOH, mol dm-3 alcohol, NaOH / KOH, alkene, NaOH / KOH,
5 mol dm-3 , H2SO4 5 mol dm-3, H2SO4

Preparation 1. sulphonation 1. alkylation


Saponification 2. neutralization 2. sulphonation
3. neutralization

The additives in detergent

Type Function Example


Fragrances To add fragrance to both the detergent and
fabrics
Biological To remove protein stains such as blood Amylases, proteases, celluloses, lipases
enzymes
Whitening agents To convert stains into colourless Sodium perborate
substances
Suspension agents To prevent the dirt particles removed from Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)
redepositing onto cleaned fabrics
Fillers To add to the bulk of the detergent and Sodium sulphate, sodium silicate
enable it to be pour easily
Optical whitening To add brightness and whiteness to white Fluorescent dyes
fabrics.
Builder To enhance the cleaning efficiency of Sodium tripolyphosphate
detergent by softening the water

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Food additive

Type Function Examples


Preservatives To slow down/ prevent the Salts/sugar: draws the water out of the cells of
growth of microorganism, microorganism and retards the growth of
therefore food can kept for microorganism.
longer periods of time Vinegar: provides an acidic condition that inhibits the
growth of microorganism.
NaNO3 (Burger)
Benzoic acid / sodium benzoate: to slow down the
growth of microorganism.

Antioxidants To prevent oxidation that can Ascorbic acid and vitamin E (Tocopherol)
causes rancid fats and brown
fruits
Flavorings To improve the taste of food Sugar , salt, MSG, vinegar, aspartame and synthetic
and restore taste loss because essences (ester)
of processing.
Stabilizers To prevent emulsion from Lecithin, fatty acid
separating out.
Thickeners Its use to thicken foods Pectin, acacia gum, gelatin

Dyes To add or restore the colour in Natural dyes and artificial dyes: Azo compounds or
food in order to enhance its triphenyl compound.
visual appeal and match
consumers expectations.

Medicine
Type Function Example Effect on health
Analgesic To relieve pain without affected Aspirin -Internal bleeding and
consciousness ulceration
-can cause brain and liver
damage to children
Paracetamol Over dose can cause brain and
liver damage
Codeine Addiction, depression and
nausea
Antibiotics To treat infections cause by Penicillin Can cause allergic reaction.
bacteria (tuberculosis, TB) and (Penicillium
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pneumonia. Can kill or slow notatum)
down the growth of bacteria.
Streptomycin Can cause nausea, vomiting,
dizziness, rashes, fever

Psychotherapeutic To alter the abnormal thinking, -High dose can lead to anxiety,
feelings and behaviors. Divide hallucinations, severe
into 3 categories : depression, and psychological
a) stimulant: to reduce fatigue Amphetamines dependence.

Barbiturate / Overdose can lead to


b) antidepressant:
tranquilizer respiratory difficulties,
to reduce tension and anxiety
sleeplessness, come, death.

chlorpromazine Dizziness, drowsiness, rapid


c) antipsychotic: to treat
haloperidol, heartbeat.
psychiatric illness
clozapine

The existence of Chemicals


1. Detergent:
* wear gloves when working with strong detergents to protect your hands
* use biodegradable detergent
* use appropriate amounts of detergents
2. Food additives
* Be wise consumer. Read the label to know what you are eating.
* Avoid consuming too much salts and sugar
* avoid foodstuff with additives which are you sensitive to.
* avoid rewarding children with junk food.
3. Medicine:
* do not store up medicines.
* no self medication
* do not take medicine prescribe for someone else
* check for expiry date
* follow your doctor`s instructions for taking medicine.
* keep away from children
* do not overdose

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Some common medical plant and their functions

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