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1. Proceedings of REHVA Annual Conference 2015 Advanced HVAC and Natural Gas Technologies

Riga, Latvia, May 6 9, 2015


Cellulose Fibres Used in Building Materials

Nadezda Stevulova1, Viola Hospodarova2,

1,2Technical University of Kosice

Abstract The paper presents application of cellulose fibres in a pulp form from waste paper to mortar
or plaster. The pulp from waste paper substitutes a part of inorganic filler or binder in cementitious
composites. The characterization of properties and use of mortar or plaster mixtures as well as wood
pulp fibres used in cement-based materials is presented in the article. The results of testing the
technically important parameters (density, water resistance, coefficient of thermal conductivity, tensile
strength at bending) of composites which were obtained by compiling the available works are

Keywords Cellulose fibres, dry plaster mixtures, pulp, and recycled paper, composite


The use of waste fibres as reinforcement in cement composites has enormous potential in building
material production. The composites based on the optimised mixture of cellulosic fibres from the
recycled paper, binder and admixtures present an acceptable behaviour in comparison with cement
composites produced with virgin wood cellulose fibres. The availability of fibrous wastes also supports
their potential utilization through sustainable methods of production of building components.

The task of plaster is not only to improve the appearance of the building, but also to protect it against
the consequences of weather conditions, fluctuations in temperature, humidity and air pollution.
Natural fibres have been used to reinforce cement based products in various applications around the
world. These included materials are obtained from different parts of plants (for example fibres of jute,
flax, hemp, sisal, banana, wood pulp). Due to their good mechanical properties, the tensile strength,
flexibility and crack resistance of the resulting material can be improved. In this paper, fundamental
knowledge on mortar/plaster and on the use of cellulose fibres in composite is presented. Study of
physical and mechanical properties will be conducted in further research.
3. Ceramic Tile Wastes as

Partial Substitution

to Aggregates in Concrete Mix

Engr. Ronaldo S. Gallardo1 and Engr, Jason Maximino C. Ongpeng2

12Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering

De La Salle University Manila, 2401Taft Avenue, 1004 Manila, Philippines,

Mr. N. Tanquerido3, Mr. L. Certeza4

34Undergraduate Senior Students in Civil Engineering, DLSU- Manila

ABSTRACT- This research evaluates the possibility of using ceramic tiles wastes as a substitute on the
coarse aggregate of normal strength concrete. The researchers designed the concrete mixtures with
25%, 50%, 75% and 100% substitution of ceramic tiles wastes to coarse aggregates. The resulting
cylindrical specimens would then be compared to control specimens thru compressive strength tests
using universal testing machine. Through this, the researchers were able to determine which percent
substitution yields the highest compressive strength.

The compressive strength tests show that the samples with 25% and 50% substitution, along with the
control specimen, exceeded the target strength of 15 MPa. The tests show that the samples of the
traditional mix had the highest average compressive strength, followed by the 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%
group. However, when statistical analysis was performed on the control specimens and the samples
with 25% of tiles as coarse aggregates, it was discovered that at a 90% confidence level. This proves that
the wastes generated in the tile industry can be used as a partial substitution to aggregates in producing
concrete mixes.

The effects of partially substituting ceramic tiles waste on the compressive strength of Portland
cement concrete in comparison with the Portland cement concrete using ordinary coarse aggregate
varied. Concrete specimens with 25% and 50% ceramic tiles waste substitution were the only
specimens that were concluded as feasible. On the 28th day, 25% ceramic tiles wastes produced an
average strength of 15.79 MPa and 50% ceramic tiles wastes produced an average strength of 15.58
MPa. In addition to that, hypothesis testing shows that at a 90% confidence level shows that
samples with substituted with 25% and 50% of ceramic tiles in their coarse aggregate volume do
reach 15 MPa. As for the rest of the substitutions, they failed (in both the compressive strength
tests and statistical analysis) to reach the target compressive strength which is set at 15 MPa.
4. Procedia Engineering 108 ( 2015 ) 681 687
Available online at
1877-7058 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the 7th Scientific-Technical Conference Material Problems in Civil Engineering
doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.06.199
7th Scientific-Technical Conference Material Problems in Civil Engineering (MATBUD2015)
Properties of cement mortars modified with ceramic waste fillers
Wioletta Jackiewicz-Reka,*, Kamil Zagowskia, Andrzej Garbacza, Benoit Bissonnetteb
aWarsaw University of Technology, Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
bUniversit Laval 1065, av. de la Mdecine, Qubec G1V 0A6, Canada
The paper presents the results of an experimental program intended to assess the potential of
sanitary ceramic waste utilization as aggregates in cement-based mortars. Their influence was
evaluated with respect to workability (consistency, plasticity, pores volume), mechanical
properties (compressive and flexural strength) and freeze-thaw resistance. The results showed
that partial replacement of fine aggregate with sanitary ceramic fillers up to 20% of cement by
weight improves compressive and flexural strength and reduces shrinkage. The test results
were discussed in the lights of the literature data on influence of ceramic waste on properties of
fresh and hardened concretes. 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the 7th Scientific-
Technical Conference Material Problems in Civil Engineering.
Keywords: Sanitary ceramic waste; Fillers, Mortars; Properties

4. Conclusions
The paper presents the results of a study devoted to the use of ceramic sanitary ware waste as aggregates in
Portland cement mortars. The incorporation of 10-20% (by weight of cement) of sanitary ceramic filler in the
investigated mortar mixtures caused a rise in water demand to achieve given consistency and plasticity
characteristics, but a longer duration of workability retention. Besides, it resulted in significant increases in
flexural and compressive strength and lower shrinkage. Overall, the results obtained in the present study are
consistent with those reported previously for similar waste ceramic aggregates. It tends to confirm the
possibility of using ground sanitary ceramic waste as an effective filler in cement mortars (and eventually
concretes), with rates of addition (by weight of cement) of at least 20 %.


Bolanle Deborah Ikotun

6) The Effect of Admixtures on Concrete Properties

A thesis submitted to the University of Khartoum in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M.Sc in
(Structural Engineering)

7) Feasibility of Mussel Shells in Making Hollow Blocks

Arceo, Chester
Lim, Kyle
Mabasa, Jojo
Marquez, Avery
Sonza, Ethan
Lourdes School of Mandaluyong
St. Ignatius of Laconi
Armand John Yangat
February 22, 2013
8) A
Study on the Optimization of Burning Residual as a
Concrete Additive Used as a CHB Wall Alternative
Alvin Kim A. Antonio
Michael Lorren E. Calitis
Arvin Jon C. Pascual
Andrea Kristel C. Silang
A Thesis Submitted to the School of Civil, Environmental and Geological
Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor
of Science in Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering
Mapa Institute of Technology
December 2012