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Title Serpent Symbols and Salvation in the Ancient Near

East and the Book of Mormon

Author(s) Andrew C. Skinner

Reference Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10/2 (2001): 4255, 7071.

ISSN 1065-9366 (print), 2168-3158 (online)

Abstract The serpent is often used to represent one of two

things: Christ or Satan. This article synthesizes evi-
dence from Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Greece,
and Jerusalem to explain the reason for this duality.
Many scholars suggest that the symbol of the serpent
was used anciently to represent Jesus Christ but that
Satan distorted the symbol, thereby creating this para-
dox. The dual nature of the serpent is incorporated
into the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the
Book of Mormon.
in the
ancient near east
and the
b o o k o f mo r mo n

andrew c. skinner
Moses and the Brazen Serpent, engraving by Gustave Dor
he image of the serpent was tremendously snakes shedding their skins, continually exposing a

T significant in the ancient world. Societies and

scriptures of the Near East simultaneously at-
tributed two highly symbolic roles to serpents. One
new body in the process. Thus, one of the forms
of the god Atum, believed to be a primeval creator
deity, was the snake or serpent that continued to live
role connected serpents to the heavens by having them season after season. In a fascinating dialogue with
represent deity, creative powers, and healing. The Osiris, the Egyptian god of the netherworld and of
other linked them with the underworld and associated final judgment,2 Atum predicts the destruction of
them with evil, harm, and destructive influences. We the world he created and his own reversion back to
who live in modern times have no difficulty appreci- the form of a serpent or snake.3 As Henri Frankfort
ating this double symbol because, in fact, this duality says, The primeval snake . . . survives when every-
persists in our own day. The symbol of the healing thing else is destroyed at the end of time.4 Thus the
serpent appears on the physicians caduceus, while a serpent was strongly and continually associated with
person of disreputable actionsespecially treachery creation and eternal existence in the ancient Egyptian
is sometimes referred to as a snake. ethos. The Egyptians portrayed life itself by the
A careful reading of Israels sacred writings reveals image of the rearing serpent, and a serpent biting its
that the same duality regarding serpent symbolism tail was a common Egyptian emblem for eternity.
that existed among various peoples of the ancient Another primeval deity mentioned in the Pyra-
Near East was also an integral part of the religious mid Texts is Amun, one of whose two primary rep-
landscape of Jehovahs covenant people. Texts from resentations was that of the snake named Kematef
both the Bible and Book of Mormon identify and (meaning he who has completed his time).5 After
allow us to attach proper name-titles to the two spe- the Eleventh Dynasty (the Egyptian Middle King-
cific beings who are represented by the dual image dom), Amun appeared as the god of the capital of
of the serpent: Christ and Satan. By surveying non- Thebes and eventually merged with the sun god to be
biblical Mediterranean and Mesopotamian cultural become known as Amun-Re, the supreme state god
evidence as well as scripture, I hope to do three in the New Kingdom (c. 15501090 b.c.). At Karnak
things: first, demonstrate the dual nature of serpent it was believed that Amun-Re and his divine consort,
symbolism; second, examine the proposition that the the goddess Mut, gave birth to a son named Khonsu.
ancient serpent myths of the Fertile Crescent and Mut is also symbolized as a snake and is called Mut
Mediterranean-based cultures are echoes of divine the resplendent serpent.6 Thus the divine triad or
truthnamely, that from the beginning the true family, the preeminent unit of social organization
Messiah was legitimately represented by the image among the gods and humans according to the Egyp-
of the serpent, but that the symbol was usurped and tian worldview, was linked to the image of the serpent.
perverted by the quintessential false messiah, Satan; The close ties between birth, the goodness of the
and, third, explore whether or not the Book of gods, rebirth, and the image of the serpent infused
Mormon fits the biblical and Near Eastern cultural Egypt during all of her early historical periods down
environment regarding the dual nature of serpent to the end of the New Kingdom. When corn was
symbolism. harvested and grapes pressed into wine, an offering
was made to the harvest goddess, Thermuthis, who
Egyptian Evidence was depicted as either a snake or a woman with a
The serpent as a dual, polar symbol emerged in serpents head.7 Geb, the god of the earth and the
the cradle of civilization during the earliest periods father of the gods, is referred to as the father of
of history. Serpent symbolism among the ancient snakes that emerge from the earth.8 It is also signifi-
Egyptians demonstrates the most glaring contrasts cant, given Egyptian obsession with the quest for
between worship on the one hand and abhorrence eternal life, that the snake became a symbol of sur-
on the other. vival after death (even resurrection) among the an-
In Egypt the snake was a chthonic animal (a cient Egyptians.9 In the Egyptian Book of the Dead
creature representing any one of a number of gods (sometimes referred to by its more precise title, The
of the earth and underworld) and the embodiment Book of Going Forth by Day), chapter 87, we are
of life-giving powers.1 Attributing life-giving powers told that transformation into a serpent upon death
to snakes may have arisen in part from observing gives new life to the deceased person.10

44 VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, 2001

Opening spread, page 42: This representation of the Aztec god
Quetzalcoatl combines feathered and serpentine symbols of him
with a humanlike face. Courtesy Museo Civico di Numismatica,
Etnografia, e Arti Oriental, Turin, Italy.
Veneration of serpents or snakes in In opposition to all that was good in
predynastic Egypt and during the Old ancient Egypt, the most preeminent of
Kingdom coalesced around the most all the demons, evil gods, or evil pow-
important serpent-goddess of ers was Apophis, who was represented
Lower Egypt: Wadjet. Wadjet by a snake. Apophis was the ser-
(meaning green one) was the pent of darkness, the supreme
general Egyptian term for cobra, opponent of the great sun god
and in that form she became the Re.13 The Egyptian Book of the
symbol of royalty and unifica- Dead fairly crawls with other ser-
tion. In fact, the cobra, or uraeus, pent demons as well, sometimes
became a generic Egyptian ideo- winged or rearing up, occasionally
graph for the concept of immortality. even standing on legs and spitting fire.
Thus the pharaoh was described as the And yet the serpent demons are not more
living years of the uraeus.11 Wadjet was powerful or overpowering than those serpent
attached to the royal crown as protectress of the deities in charge of the forces of good. For example,
king or pharaoh and in the end became the eye counterbalancing Apophis is the snake Mehen (the
of Re. As the green one, the serpent Wadjet coiled one), who was the helpful attendant of the
embodied the forces of growth and health. sun god Re. Mehen assisted Re on his journey
(Significantly, green was the color that symbolized through the realm of night so that he would
resurrection in ancient Egypt.)12 reemerge unharmed morning after morning, day by
day.14 Thus the plans of a supreme spiritual adver-
Above: On this Old sary, represented by a serpent, were foiled by the
Kingdom limestone
game board, game powers of good, also represented by a serpent.
pieces were moved The negative aspects of serpent symbolism
along the body seg-
ments of the serpent would have been particularly keen in the minds of
Mehen, who lies coiled Egyptian royalty as they thought about the afterlife.
up around the goal at In fact, the dangers that had to be overcome after
the center. Drawling by
Michael Lyon based on death during ones journey through the netherworld
an image courtesy of the in order to gain eternal life were so great that discus-
Asmolean Museum,
sion of these matters occupies a significant place in
the funerary papyri of ancient Egypt. Even certain
Pyramid Texts manifest this preoccupation, one of
which indicates that the dead king (pharaoh) gains
Left: From the gilded
eternity by winning the snake game.15 Though little
shrines of Tutankhamen: else is known about this element of the salvific
The head and feet of the process in ancient Egypt, one wonders if this contest
Courtesy Institut franais darchologie orientale, Cairo

Pharaoh are encircled

by the serpent Mehen, was not symbolic of having to pass some kind of
the Enveloper. He eats postmortal test or final judgment in which the
his ever-growing tail as
a symbol of eternal
deceased would
regeneration, a motif be required to
copied by the later demonstrate
Greeks for their cosmic
serpent, Ouroboros (Tail- his knowledge
eater). of special infor-
mation gained
through his
mortal experi-
ences. Perhaps.
Right: The Book of the
Dead, chapter 74,
However, we
shows the serpent deity can assert that,
Nehebkau before a given such
deceased person.


overwhelming evidence from texts and inscriptions, Lagash, placed a representation of a serpent deity at
the serpent stood both for supreme goodness as well the entrance of one of his temples around 2050 B.C.,
as ultimate evil among the ancient Egyptians and presumably to act as a guardian of the sacred edifice
that serpent imagery was incontrovertibly associated where life is renewed. Fourteen hundred years later,
with the afterlife, resurrection, and eternity. King Nebuchadnezzar II, ruler of the Neo-Babylonian
empire (605562 B.C.), dedicated the monumental
Mesopotamian Evidence Ishtar Gate of Babylon to the god Marduk with the
Ancient Mesopotamian culture following inscription:
(indigenous to the area approx-
imately encompassing modern (Nebuchadnezzar, King of
Iraq) displays a dualism associ- Babylon, son of) Nabopolassar
ated with serpent symbolism (King of Babylon am I). The gate
similar to that found in Egypt. of Nana (Ishtar . . . I built) with
The Sumerian god of spring (blue) enamelled bricks . . . for Mar-
vegetation, Tammuz, was linked duk my lord. Lusty bulls of bronze
to the image of the snake. Both and mighty figures of serpents I placed
he and his mother bore the title at their thresholds . . . Marduk, exalted
mother-great-serpent of Heaven, lord . . . eternal life . . . give as a gift.22
that is, the serpent deity who emanated
from the heaven god Anu.16 The snake Regarding the joining of the bull
was also the sacred symbol of the god and serpent images, Karen Joines has
Ningizzida, who was called in Sumerian shown that it also was found through-
mythology the companion of Tammuz.17 out the ancient Near East:
He was the guardian at the door of heaven
who had the power to bestow fertility,
who protected the living by his magic The cultic association of the bull with the
spells, and could ward off death and heal serpent emphasizes the fertility aspect of
disease for the benefit of those who wor- the serpent. . . . The serpent-bull symbolism
shiped him devoutly. The image of is widespread. Egypt, Mesopotamia, and
Ningizzida as a horned serpent on the seals Assyria have influenced the Canaanites at this
of scrolls from ancient Mesopotamia seems point, and Palestine again becomes part of
to have been a sign of his divine power. 19 the larger Near East in its cultic symbolism.23
As with the god Ningizzida, the
Mesopotamian corn goddess, Nidaba, was Not all Mesopotamian serpent images rep-
shown in representations with serpents (spring- resented something beneficent. The oldest
ing from her shoulders). In the Sumerian and mythologies of ancient Mesopotamia have a
Babylonian worldviews the serpent was sym- familiar ring to them because they often
bolic of the regenerative and healing proper- parallel episodes found in the Old Testa-
ties of certain elements and produce of the ment and because their themes reflect the
earth. Therefore, the Sumerians and primeval struggle between two oppos-
Babylonians transformed these A libation vase of 2150 B.C. shows ing powers. The story of the fall of
two lion-bird hybrid figures,
aspects of nature into special serpent similar to the Israelite cherubim,
man and the first familys expulsion
deities as did other Semitic and opening the doors of a Sumerian from the garden (Genesis 3) presents
Mediterranean cultures. 21 temple whose entwined serpents details and undertones also found in the
of the god Ningizzida are re-
The image of the serpent deity in vealed. The inscription reads, To Sumerian tale of Enki and Ninhursag,
ancient Mesopotamia spanned several king of Lagash has dedicated this the Adapa story, and the Gilgamesh epic.
his god Ningizzida, Gudea priest-

time periods as well as cultures. The for the prolongation of his life.
In the Gilgamesh epic, Utnapishtim
greatest sovereign the Sumerians ever Erich Lessing/Art Resource, New and his wife, who have become like
produced, King Gudea of the city-state York. Illustration by Michael Lyon. the gods, present some hope by which

46 VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, 2001

Gilgamesh may also obtain everlasting life. Beyond Phoenician inscriptions, Eshmun is called Adonai,
the Waters of Death there exists a magic, life-giving My Lord, parallel to the use of the Hebrew Adonai
plant that renews a persons youth. Gilgamesh gath- in referring to Jehovah.
ers it, but an evil snake snatches this plant away, The influence of Eshmun seems to have been felt
ending the heros hope of eternal life. That the snake over a long period of time and a wide geographical
benefits from possession of the plant and lives on is region. Scholars believe that coins from the Roman
evidenced by the fact that it sloughs off its old skin period depicting the figure of a youthful god stand-
and enjoys a rejuvenation. Gilgamesh sits down and ing between two serpents reflect the cult of the god
weeps over his own loss and the fact that he has Eshmun, the Healer. Though Asclepius is also rep-
played into the hands of the malevolent serpent.24 resented as a serpent in Greek portrayals, an actual
Thus the serpent in this epic fills a similar role Sidonian coin shows Eshmun leaning on a staff with
as the serpent in Genesis, preventing the renewal of a serpent entwined about it.27 Sidonian depictions of
life by controlling or manipulating certain special Eshmun also parallel ancient Syrian representations
flora to its advantage. Later Persian tradition also of their god of healing, Shadrapa, whose image is that
tells of a special plant that bestowed immortality. But of the serpent. If they do not depict Eshmun, the
Ahriman, the evil adversary of the one true Wise Roman coins certainly depict Asclepius.
Lord (Ahura Mazda), created a serpent to destroy The Greek name of the god of medicine, Ascle-
the miracle-working plant.25 pius, was taken over by the Romans as Aesculapius,
The most troublesome of all serpents in Mesopo- and the staff of Aesculapius with snakes wound
tamian mythology are described in the Babylonian around it is still the famous symbol, or caduceus, of
creation epic (the Enuma Elish)those primeval the medical profession. It is interesting to note that
monster serpents that constitute the forces of authorities believe that the Phoenicians, Greeks, and
chaos in the primeval world of the gods. Described Romans worshiped the god of medicine in the form
as sharp toothed, with fang unsparing, possessing of a serpent for at least two reasons. First, the snake
bodies filled with poison for blood, they gather in was the connecting link between the world of the
council, preparing to wage a war in heaven against quick and the dead, between the living and the dead
the great gods.26 The forces of chaos are headed by (as seen in other cultures such as Egypt); the serpent
none other than Tiamat, who is herself a female ser- could give life or take it, let another creature live or
pent (frequently referred to as a dragon). Ultimately, cause it to die by invoking, as it were, a kind of
chaos is subdued as Tiamat is killed by Marduk, the instant judgment in deciding to strike or not.28 This
champion deity, and her body is cast out of the pres- seems true of both venomous and nonvenomous
ence of the gods, half to form the earths seas and snakes such as constrictors. Second, the snake was the
the other half to form the sky. perfect model of regeneration and immortality since
it sheds its skin every season.29
The precursor of serpent veneration in classical
Phoenician and Greek Evidence Greece is to be found among the ancient Minoans
To the west of Mesopotamia, on the Mediter- on the island of Crete. Between 2000 and 1450 B.C.
ranean coastal plain of northern Syria-Palestine, an the Minoans promoted an advanced maritime cul-
important Phoenician deity named Eshmun of Sidon ture that dominated the islands of the Aegean Sea,
was worshiped. Like the Greek deity Asclepius, Esh- the mainland of Greece, and the coastal regions of
mun was the god of medicine whose symbol was a Asia Minor (modern Turkey). The most important
serpent. And, again like the Greek Asclepius, Eshmun Minoan deity was the mother earth goddess of the
of Sidon apparently oversaw the growth and use of city-state Knossos, or Cnossus, the capital of Cretan
medicinal herbs, the cure of poisons, and also potent civilization. She is similar to fertility goddesses wor-
charms. Since devotees knew about antidotes for poi- shiped elsewhere in ancient Mediterranean and Near
sons and medicinal herbs that come from the ground, Eastern cultures. On Crete she was usually depicted
it seems only natural that they represented both in small statue form as a woman holding a snake in
Eshmun and Asclepius in the form of serpents. In each hand, with a bird perched on top of her head.


As in other places and other cultures, the sloughing Shechem, and Hazor. The serpent-dove motif found
of the snakes skin probably represented the concept at Beth-shan, dating from the 12th century B.C., seems
of renewal to the Minoans on Crete. to have been commonly associated with Ashtoreth,
In the religious thought of the later classical the female consort of the Canaanite deity El. The ser-
Greeks (who were undoubtedly influenced by their pent or snake was also associated with Anat, the god-
Minoan predecessors), the serpent image sometimes dess of war venerated at Ugarit, one of the capital
appeared in tandem with the image of a bird (just as cities of the Canaanites and the repository of tablets
it did on Crete and in the art and literature of Meso- containing the myths of that people.
potamia).30 The Agathos Daimon was often depicted At what was once the largest city in the Holy
as a winged serpent and regarded as a good spirit.31 Land during Canaanite times, Hazor,37 Yigael Yadin
Seemingly, this linkage of serpents and birds cuts found evidence of serpent worship. In the apparent
across a broad spectrum of cultures. Cultic or ritual storeroom of a potters workshop, his team uncov-
vessels unearthed from Early Iron Age Canaan bear ered several complete vessels, including chalices,
decorations with the serpent-dove motif.32 Even the bowls, lamps, and juglets. But the greatest prize was
most famous example of the winged serpent motif what Yadin called a cultic standard. The standard
outside of (but related to) the Near East, namely, the was essentially a bronze plaque with a prong for fas-
Aztec god Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent), is im- tening it to a standard or pole, recalling the brazen
pressive because that god was revered as the founder serpent erected on a staff by Moses. On the face of
of priestly wisdom (almost as if the Aztecs were some- the Hazor plaque was the anthropomorphic image
how familiar with Jesus statement to be wise as ser- of the snake goddess holding a snake in each hand.
pents and harmless as doves [Matthew 10:16]). Just above the goddess was a representation of her
Quetzalcoatls high priests even bore the title Prince emblem, a crescent and a snake, which also appeared
of Serpents.33 on the lower portion of the plaque. Yadin speculates
that the cultic standard must have belonged to the
Evidence from the Holy Land treasures of the sanctuary, and was used probably in
Serpent veneration is attested in virtually every the cultic procession, in which the priests carried the
region of the Mediterranean basin, but nowhere more standards of various gods.38
explicitly than in the Holy Land. Jars and vessels Though examples could be multiplied, suffice it
decorated with snakes give evidence of the existence to say that enough evidence exists to show clearly
of serpent cults in early Canaan. A two-handled that veneration of serpents in one form or another
cylindrical receptacle, dating to the time of Ramses was found throughout the ancient Mediterranean
III (11981166 B.C.), was uncovered at Beth-shan, a region, especially among Israels closest neighbors.
major city lying between the Jezreel and Jordan val- The familiar mythology of the ancient Near East
leys. According to experts, this cultic object, which manifests the primeval struggle between the powers
was decorated with serpents coiled around the sides of good and evil, both of which are often represent-
from bottom to top, with doves perched on the han- ed by snakes. As a bringer of salvation and giver of
dles, may have been used in sacred rites associated everlasting life, the snake became a divine reptile. As
with agriculture.34 In fact, more objects displaying the conveyor of death the snake became the incarna-
serpent imagery have been found among the strata tion of evil spirits. Against the backdrop of this duality
of Beth-shan than at any other site in the Holy Land. we turn now to sacred scripture, where we find critical
Many if not most of these objects date to the Iron information to help us more fully understand and
Age I period.35 A large storage jar decorated with a appreciate the numerous echoes and parallels in
snake in relief has been found at Tel Dan, one of the cognate literature.
two national sanctuaries of the northern kingdom of
Israel. Dating from about the 10th century B.C., it was Serpent Imagery in the Old Testament
uncovered near the high place and was probably The serpent first appears in the scriptures in the
used as some kind of cultic receptacle.36 story of the fall of Adam and Eve (Genesis 3:1). In
According to Philip J. King, the snake goddess the Hebrew language the creature is called a nahash,
was worshiped during the Early Iron Age (1225960 a viper, from which derives the noun for copper or
B.C.) at such sites as Gezer, Beth-shan, Beth-shemesh, brass (nehosheth), also used as an adjective denoting

48 VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, 2001

Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no
bread, neither is there any water; and our soul
loatheth this light bread. And the Lord sent fiery
serpents among the people, and they bit the
people; and much people of Israel died. There-
fore the people came to Moses, and said, We have
sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord, and
against thee; pray unto the Lord, that he take
away the serpents from us. And Moses prayed
for the people. And the Lord said unto Moses,
Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole:
and it shall come to pass, that every one that is
bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live. And
Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon
a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had
bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of
brass, he lived. (Numbers 21:59)

The agent of both harm and healing, death and

life, is, in this instance, the serpent. The people sin
and fiery serpents bite them. Moses constructs a
brass image of the harmful creatures and the people
are spared. But it is really Jehovah who is the cause
working behind the image, the actual instigator of
both death and life. The Israelites may already have
been familiar with images of fiery serpents from their
exposure to Egyptian mythology while sojourning in
Egypt. But the serpent symbol is now seen in its true
The Canaanite cultic standard displays a snake goddess holding a lighta valid and important representation of Gods
snake in each hand. Courtesy the American Schools of Oriental ultimate power over life and death. God is the reality
behind the symbol.
the brass serpent that Moses erected on a pole in In the early part of the story of Israels deliverance
the wilderness for the protection and healing of the from Pharaoh, king of Egypt, Jehovah showed Moses
Israelites (see Numbers 21:49). in a dramatic way that He was the real God represent-
On the one hand, the nahash in Genesis is clearly ed by the image of the serpent or snake, an image that
symbolic of evil, even the evil one (Satan), precisely Pharaoh himself wore on the front of his official head-
because the serpent was in league with the devil, dress as a symbol of his own deity and sovereignty. (It
will be remembered that every pharaoh was regarded
promoting the cause of the adversary and acting as
as a living god on earth by his subjects.) When Moses
his agent to bring about the fall (see Moses 4:531).
threw down his staff, as commanded, it became a ser-
On the other hand, when used by Moses under
pent. God told the Lawgiver that just such a demon-
Gods inspiration, the image of the nahash or, more
stration should be conducted in front of Pharaoh and
precisely, the nahash nehosheth (brass serpent),
his court so that all would know that Jehovah was the
became the agent of life and salvation for Gods one true God who had commissioned his representa-
covenant people. tive, Moses, to stand before the false gods of the
Numbers 21 is particularly intriguing because it Egyptian people, which pantheon included Pharaoh
demonstrates the dual nature of serpent symbolism himself (see Exodus 4:15, 8).
in Israelite culture in a striking fashion. When Moses and Aaron went before Pharaoh,
And the people spake against God, and against they did exactly as the Lord had commanded. Their
Moses, Wherefore have ye brought us up out of staff became a snake, which in the Hebrew text is


denoted by two different terms, one of which is the But John the apostle was also aware of the oppo-
very same word used earlier in Genesis to describe site meaning conveyed by the image of the serpent.
Eves tempter, nahash (see Exodus 7:9, 10, 15). In language similar to certain passages in the Book
Either through sleight of hand or by demonic power, of Mormon, he refers to Satan in his Apocalypse as
Pharaohs magicians were able to duplicate the action the serpent, that old serpent, and the great
and turn their staffs into serpents as well. In what dragon (Revelation 12:9, 14, 15; 20:2). According to
might be viewed as a quintessential showdown be- John, the serpent fought a war in heaven (see Revela-
tween God and the devil, the serpent of Jehovah tion 12:7), was cast out with a third part of the hosts
swallowed up the serpents of Pharaoh as the God of of heaven (see v. 4), and attempted to destroy a
Israel demonstrated his omnipotent supremacy (see woman who had brought forth a son. But he did not
Exodus 7:1013). This scene dramatically illustrates prevail. Selected verses of Revelation 12, arranged in a
the duality of serpent imagery in the scriptures. The slightly different order than the King James Version,
one true God was represented by a serpent. The false illustrate our point and tell the story well:
gods of Egypt were also represented by serpents.
That the image of the serpent continued to exist 7. And there was war in heaven: Michael
as a powerful symbol of God long after the Mosaic and his angels fought against the dragon; and
era ended seems apparent from 2 Kings 18:4: the dragon fought and his angels,
9. And the great dragon was cast out, that
He [King Hezekiah] removed the high places, old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which
and brake the images, and cut down the groves, deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into
and brake in pieces the brasen serpent that Moses the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
had made: for unto those days the children of 4. And his tail drew the third part of the
Israel did burn incense to it: and he called it stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth:
Nehushtan. and the dragon stood before the woman which
was ready to be delivered, for to devour her
Equally apparent from this verse, however, is the idea child as soon as it was born.
that the serpent at some point ceased to be for the 5. And she brought forth a man child, who
Israelites a pure symbol of the one true God to be was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and
worshiped (as Moses intended) and became an idol, her child was caught up unto God, and to his
the object of worship, instead of a reminder of the throne.
reality behind the symbol (Jehovah). We are told 13. And when the dragon saw that he was
that Hezekiah, one of the righteous kings of Judah, cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman
removed the high places and idols of the people which brought forth the man child.
and broke into pieces the brass serpent. Just when 6. And the woman fled into the wilderness,
idolatrous significance was attached to the brass where she hath a place prepared of God. . . .
serpent is not known, but perhaps it occurred dur- 17. And the dragon was wroth with the
ing the reign of Hezekiahs father, King Ahaz (see woman, and went to make war with the remnant
2 Kings 16). of her seed, which keep the commandments of
God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
New Testament Evidence
Many centuries after King Hezekiah, the associa- I interpret these verses to mean that Satan was
tion between deity and the image of the serpent was cast out of heaven not only to tempt and deceive
given its fullest expression by none other than Jesus humankind on the earth, but also to become the
himself, as recorded by the apostle John. And as prime mover behind apostasy, forcing the woman
Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even into the wilderness for a time. The woman appears
so must the Son of man be lifted up: That whoever to be the true church or kingdom of God on earth.
believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal The man child, who rules all nations with a rod of
life (John 3:1415). Thus, according to Jesus, the iron, is Christ, while the wilderness refuge of the
serpent was intended to be the supernal symbol of woman (the church) is the great period of apostasy.
himself and his atonement. However, the serpent does not succeed in destroying

50 VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, 2001

the lake of fire and brim-
stone (see Revelation 20:3,
710). All of this is done by
the power of the righteous
one (Jesus Christ), who is
also symbolized by the ser-
pent image, as we have
noted (see John 3:1415).
Can there be any doubt
that John the apostle was
fully aware of the duality
of serpent symbolism? In
fact, when one considers all
of Jesus words as reported
in the four Gospels, it is
clear that Jesus himself
understood perfectly the
duality of the serpent sym-
bol, as did others in New
Testament times. Not only
did Jesus speak of himself
as the fulfillment of Moses
brazen serpent typology,
but he also spoke of Satan
as a serpentwhich was a
significant image in inter-
testamental times. One
scholar has written:
Foto Marburg/Art Resource, New York

When Jesus tells his disci-

ples that they have been
given authority to tread
upon serpents [ophis]
and scorpions and that
the spirits are subject to
them (Luke 10:1920), he
may have alluded to Ps
91:13 (You will tread
The crucified Lord is shown in the center, flanked by four scenes: The evil serpent in the Garden (upper upon lion and the adder,
left) is contrasted with the brazen serpent of salvation (upper right). In the Harrowing of Hell (bottom left),
the triumphant Savior takes Adam by the right hand to draw him out as He treads on Death and Hell, young lion and the ser-
symbolized by the skeleton and snake, which is similar to the resurrection scene on the right. The text on pent you will trample
the bottom is from 1 Corinthians 15:22, 5455. Decorative iron plate by Philipp Soldan, Germany, 1548.
under foot). Psalm 91
has nothing to do with
the churchrather, as John foresaw, the church Satan; but Jesus words do (cf. Luke 10:1718).
comes out of the wilderness or is restored to the Would a reference to treading upon serpents
earth in later times (see Revelation 14:67). have been understood in first-century Palestine
Ultimately, says John, the old serpent, which is as a reference to Satan and demons? Very much
the Devil, and Satan (Revelation 20:2) will be so. Consider this eschatological hope expressed
bound for 1,000 years, loosed a little season to in one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs:
wreak havoc among the Saints, but finally cast into And Beliar [i.e., Satan] shall be bound by him


[i.e., an agent of salvation on whom the Spirit of gave unto Moses power that he should heal the
God shall rest; Isa 11:2]. And he shall grant to nations after they had been bitten by poisonous
his children the authority to trample on wicked serpents, if they would cast their eyes unto the
spirits (T. Levi 18:12; cf. T. Sim. 6:6; T. Zeb. 9:8). serpent which he did raise up before them, and
Since Satan is represented as a serpent (ophis) in also gave him power that he should smite the
Gen 3:115 and the righteous will trample ser- rock and the water should come forth; yea,
pents under foot, it is not too difficult to see behold I say unto you, that as these things are
how the language of Psalm 91 could be adopt- true, and as the Lord God liveth, there is none
ed and applied to Satan and evil spirits as we other name given under heaven save it be this
find it in Luke 10 and the Testament of Levi 18. Jesus Christ, of which I have spoken, whereby
The targumic tradition also links serpents and man can be saved. (2 Nephi 25:20)
scorpions with Satan and evil spirits (and Gen
3:15, which speaks of the womans seed crushing Later on, another prophet named Nephi (son of
the serpents head, is understood in a messianic Helaman) also made reference to the image of the ser-
sense in the targums).39 pent lifted up in the wilderness by Moses and its clearly
intended association with the Son of God, the Mes-
We may even add at this point that the womans
siah, the giver of eternal life. In fact, it seems fair to say
seed would be able to crush the evil serpents head
that Nephi, son of Helaman, described even more
by the power given to them from the true serpent,
clearly than Nephi, son of Lehi, the messianic implica-
the Messiah!
tions and significance of the brazen serpent symbol.
Serpent Symbolism in the Book of Mormon
It is clear that the righteous peoples of the But, behold, ye not only deny my words, but ye
Book of Mormon understood the symbol of the also deny all the words which have been spoken by
serpent in much the same way that many of their our fathers, and also the words which were spoken
Old Testament forebears did. However, it is monu- by this man, Moses, who had such great power
mentally significant that these American Israelites given unto him, yea the words which he hath spo-
also knew, even from the earliest periods of their ken concerning the coming of the Messiah. Yea,
own history, that the ultimate meaning behind the did he not bear record that the Son of God should
symbol of the serpent was
the Lord Jesus Christ and
his saving and life-giving
power. They understood
the true intent of the
symbol some 600 years
before the Messiah him-
self appeared in mortality
to articulate the message
of the serpents being
raised up in Moses day.
In the sixth century B.C.
Nephi spoke plainly of
this symbolism:

And now, my brethren, I

have spoken plainly that
ye cannot err. And as the
Lord God liveth that
brought Israel up out of
the land of Egypt, and A threatening reptile from Aztec culture. Courtesy Museo Ampara, Puebla, Mexico.

52 VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, 2001

come? And as he lifted up the brazen serpent in And because he had fallen from heaven, and
the wilderness, even so shall he be lifted up who had become miserable forever, he sought also the
should come. And as many as should look upon misery of all mankind. Wherefore, he said unto
that serpent should live, even so as many as should Eve, yea, even that old serpent, who is the devil,
look upon the Son of God with faith, having a who is the father of all lies, wherefore he said:
contrite spirit, might live, even unto that life which Partake of the forbidden fruit, and ye shall not
is eternal. (Helaman 8:1315) die, but ye shall be as God, knowing good and
evil. (2 Nephi 2:1718)
Such evidence causes one to wonder how widely
known and diffused the serpent symbol became and It is worth noting that both Lehi and Nephi have
why its ultimate and most important meaning became a direct connection to John the Revelator in that they
lost. If the Israelites themselves promulgated some all saw the same visions and became familiar with
kind of an association between serpent imagery and the same imagesperhaps even some of the same
salvific power, down to the time of Hezekiah, and the phrases associated with serpent representations of
Nephites also possessed a knowledge of such an asso- Satan.40 As Nephi says when recording the words of
ciation (especially in its true and correct interpreta- his heavenly tutor:
tion), might not the pagan neighbors of Israel also
have had a knowledge, albeit in corrupt form, of ser- And behold, the things which this apostle
pent-savior symbolism? And, in fact, might not the of the Lamb shall write are many things which
serpent plaque found at Hazor by Professor Yadin, thou hast seen; and behold, the remainder shalt
interpreted by him and others as being created ex- thou see.
pressly for use on a raised pole or standard, represent But the things which thou shalt see hereafter
a diffusion of such serpent-savior symbolism? thou shalt not write; for the Lord God hath
Like the Old Testament, the Book of Mormon ordained the apostle of the Lamb of God that
also demonstrates the dual nature of serpent symbol- he should write them. . . .
ism. It is in perfect harmony with the ancient Near And I bear record that I saw the things
Eastern cultural milieu. In this sacred record we find which my father saw, and the angel of the Lord
the serpent used as both the symbol of ultimate good did make them known unto me. (1 Nephi 14:
and the symbol of ultimate evil. And because Joseph 2425, 29)
Smith called the Book of Mormon the most correct
of any book on the earth, we can be assured that the Meanings and Messages across Cultures
image of the serpent was an appropriate potent and
valuable symbol of both good and bad in the lives of The scriptures give us a fairly inclusive perspec-
prophets and disciples of Jesus Christ living in the tive on serpent dualism. Clearly, Satan is well rep-
Western Hemisphere. Just as God was represented by resented as a serpent. But so is the Savior, as the Book
the image of the serpent to Lehis descendants, so too of Mormon unequivocally proclaims. Coming to-
Satan was portrayed by Lehi and his descendants as a gether in the person of Jesus Christ is a wide array
of the positive powers and attributes of all those
serpent, as can be seen in certain passages referring
ancient Near Eastern deities ever associated with the
to the fall of Adam and Eve. Here he is called, as he
image of the serpent.
was in the book of Revelation, the old serpent, the
Like the Egyptian Atum, Christ is the primeval
one who did beguile our first parents, which was the
creator deity (see Moses 1:3233). Reminiscent of
cause of their fall (Mosiah 16:3). In an important Amun, the supreme god of Egypt in the New King-
autobiographical statement we read: dom, Christ literally provides renewal and rebirth
(see Romans 6:39; Mosiah 3:19; 5:7; Alma 5:14;
And I, Lehi, according to the things which I D&C 5:16; and Moses 6:5960). The goodness and
have read, must needs suppose that an angel of bounties of life are not given to us by Thermuthis,
God, according to that which is written had fallen the Egyptian goddess of harvest, but rather by Christ
from heaven; wherefore, he became a devil, hav- (see D&C 59:1620). And resurrection and eternal
ing sought that which was evil before God. life are not bestowed by Osiris but result from the


atoning death of Jesus (see Romans 6:39; 1 Corin- tative symbols that were attributed to him were lost
thians 15:2122). Just as royalty and unity were through apostasy and cultural diffusion.
symbolized by the serpent Wadjet of Egypt, royalty But what of the serpent image as a symbol for
is truly to be ascribed to Christ the King, and unity Christ? If the serpent was a legitimate emblem of
is found in him (see D&C 38:27). Though in ancient the coming Messiah, how and why did Lucifer usurp
Mesopotamia Ningizzida was regarded as the guardian the serpent symbol after Adam and Eve were placed
at the door of heaven, the Book of Mormon teaches on this earth? In a roundabout way, the Prophet
in unequivocal terms that Jesus is the true gatekeeper Joseph Smith may have provided a clue regarding the
who employs no servant or substitute there. origins of serpent imagery as a symbol for Christ
and why Satan appropriated it for his own. When
O then, my beloved brethren, come unto the speaking of the dove as an identifying symbol of the
Lord, the Holy One. Remember that his paths Holy Ghost, Joseph Smith said, The sign of the dove
are righteous. Behold, the way for man is nar- was instituted before the creation of the world, a
row, but it lieth in a straight course before him, witness for the Holy Ghost, and the devil cannot
and the keeper of the gate is the Holy One of come in the sign of a dove.41
Israel; and he employeth no servant there; and A possible implication of this statement is that
there is none other way save it be by the gate; for other signs, symbols, and tokens may have been insti-
he cannot be deceived, for the Lord God is his tuted in premortality to represent deity, but the one
name. (2 Nephi 9:41) that Satan absolutely could not imitate was the dove.
However, as the preeminent counterfeiter and deceiver,
Furthermore, do not the serpents Eshmun of Satan could and does usurp other signs and symbols
Sidon, Asclepius of Greece, and Aesculapius of properly applied to God in order to try to legitimize
Rome share some fundamental similarities with the his false identity as a god. This is why Satan chose to
real healer, Jesus (see Alma 7:1112)? It seems that appropriate and utilize the sign of the serpent as the
such beneficent deities of early civilizations, which best means of deceiving Eve as well as her posterity.
were represented by the image of the serpent cen- The scriptures help us to see that Satan imitates
turies or even millennia before Jesus appeared on and perverts every divine truth; every godly concept,
the scene, bear uncanny resemblances to him. These principle, or practice; and every good and positive
resemblances suggest a connection that, though symbol, image, sign, and token in order to deceive and
unrecoverable solely by an appeal to ancient sources, manipulate the souls of men. This even includes
ties the positive attributes of these serpent-images to appearing as an angel of light (see Alma 30:53; D&C
those of the Savior. 128:20). By usurping and manipulating the symbol
A review of the evidence leads me to the conclu- of the serpent, Satan tried to validate his false identity
sion that the intensely positive and powerful serpent and his lies, insisting that following his ways would
symbols and images from ancient non-Israelite, non- elevate our first parents to the status of the very God
Christian cultures of the Fertile Crescent and Medi- represented by the true image of the serpent (see
terranean basin represent echoes of divine truth once Moses 4:1011). Satan came to Eve clothed, as it were,
known in the very beginning of this earths temporal in the garb of the Messiah, using the signs, symbols,
existence but corrupted early on. That is to say, the and even the language of the Messiah, promising
foreknown and long-awaited Messiah of the world, things that only the Messiah could rightfully promise.
the great Jehovah of the Old Testament and primor- (And [Satan] spake by the mouth of the serpent.) . . .
dial creator of the heavens and the earth, was origi- And the serpent said unto the woman: Ye shall not
nally and legitimately represented by the image or surely die; . . . ye shall be as the gods (Moses 4:7,
symbol of the serpentevidently before the ancient 1011). In reality only the one who worked out an
and renowned civilizations of the Fertile Crescent infinite atonement could legitimately make these
and Mediterranean region developed. It is apparent kinds of promises. Perhaps that is one of the reasons
that this symbol came to be applied to other impor- why Satan is justly called a liar from the beginning
tant deities of various pantheons as the serpent sym- (see Moses 4:4; D&C 93:25).
bol was handed down from culture to culture. Effec- Because Satan appeared as a serpent in the Garden
tively, the true knowledge of God and the represen- of Eden, thereby adopting a symbol of the Messiah,

54 VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, 2001

it seems plausible that, like the sign of the dove, the same dualism. But even more important for our
sign of the serpent had been instituted in premor- present purposes, we may say that the Book of Mor-
tality as a symbol of deity, particularly Jehovah (see mon also presents this same theological understand-
Exodus 4:15; 7:1013; and Numbers 21:59), and ing of serpent symbolism and is a record perfectly at
later on as a symbol of Jehovah-come-to-earth, or in home in the cultural milieu of the ancient Near East.
other words Jesus Christ (see John 3:1415), the true Evidence from all sources (scriptural, cultural,
God of life and salvation. It also seems plausible that historical, and prophetic) leads us to believe that the
the signs of both the dove and the serpent (as spe- serpent symbol appeared first in the Garden of Eden
cific symbols of true deity) were made known to when Satan adopted the form of a snake, which was
Gods children in mortality sometime in the distant intended to point to the true Messiah. Over time, its
past. It is interesting to note that at that archaeological true meaning became corrupted not only as it became
site in the Holy Land where most of the cultic objects established through natural observationthe snake
bearing serpent imagery have been found (Beth- shedding its skin and so onbut also as the symbol
shan), the serpents are usually displayed in associa- passed through many cultures down through the
tion with doves. In addition to the smaller religious ages. The result, of course, was the appearance of the
objects that display the serpent-dove motif, each of
dual nature of serpent symbolism in the various civi-
the two Iron Age I temples at Beth-shan display the
lizations of the Near East and elsewhere.
serpent-dove decoration. A fragment of the relief
It was the late Spencer Palmer of Brigham Young
from the southern temple depicts deities standing
University who observed that a theory of corruption
and holding doves, while serpents wind upward with
their heads almost touching the feet of the deities. In and cultural diffusion is the most compelling expla-
the northern temple, doves sit near the feet of deities nation for the many resemblances to the pure gospel
as serpents glide toward the doves.42 found in various religious traditions around the
world.43 This certainly seems to be the case regarding
Conclusion the powerful and pervasive symbol of the serpent in
It seems clear that enough evidence exists from the ancient world. Enough glimpses and echoes of the
a wide range of sources to establish the dual nature divinely intended meaning of the serpent symbol
of serpent symbols in the ancient Near East exist to enable us to make significant connections to
representing both gods and demons, good and bad, Christ. Of this, the Book of Mormon is a premier
life and death. Furthermore, the Bible exhibits this witness and source. !


9. Lurker, Gods (lnd Symbols ofAncient
Egyp~ 108.
10. Manfred Lurker. "Snakes," in The
F.ncyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea
Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987),
ll. Karen R. Joines, Serpent Symbolism in the
Old Te$rmncnt A Liltg/{istic. Archaeological,
ntld Litemr)' Study (Haddonfield, N.).:
Haddonfield House, 1974), 19.
12. Lurker, Gods and Symbols ofAncient
Egypt, 127.
13. Henri Frankfort, AI/cient Egyptian Reli-
gion (New York: Harper Torchbooks.
14. Lurker, Gods and Symbols of An6ent
15. Frankfort. Ki,lgship and tile Gods, 119.
16. Stephen Herbert Langdon, TIle Mytho-
logy ofAll Races, Volume V: Sem;t;c, ed.
John Arnott MacCulloch (New York:
Cooper Square Publishers, 1964),78.
17. Langdon, Mythology ofAll Race~ 78.
18. E. Douglas Van Iluren, "The God
Ningizzida;' Imq 1 (April 1934): 89.
19. Lurker, "Snakes:' 371.
20. Langdon, Mythology of AU Race~ 78.
21. Ibid., 78.
22. Quoted in Joines, Scrpeflt Symbolism. 68.
23. Ibid.
24. John Gardner and John Maier, Gilgamesh
(New York: Vintage Ilooks, 1985),240-52,
Tablel XI, lines 193-289.
25. Lurker, "Snakes:' 372.
26. Thorkild Jacobsen, "Mesopotamia: The
Cosmos as a State." in The Intellectual
Advel1wre ofAncicl1t Man (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1977), 175.
27. Langdon, Mythology ofAll Races, 74-77.
28. Kelly PetropouJou, Ancient Corinth.
Nnuplion, Tiry", Mycenae, Epidaurus
(Athens: Olympic Color, n.d.), s.v.
29. Lurker, "Snakes," 373.
30. John M. Lundquist, "Babylon in Euro-
pean Thought," in Civilizations of the
Ancient Near East, ed. Jack. M. Sasson
(New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan l
1995), 1:74.
31. Lurker, "Snakes;' 373.
32. Philip J. King, Amos, Hosea, Micah-An
Archacological Commel1/ary (Philadelphia;
Westminster Press. 1988), 134.
33. Lurker, "Snakes:' 371.
34. King, Amos, Hosea. Micah, 133-34.
35. See Joines, Serpetlt Symbolism, 71.
36. King, Amos, Hosea, Micah, 134.
37. See Joshua 11:tl, which calls Hazor"the
Serpent Symbols and Salvation in the head of ailihose kingdoms:' that is. the
Ancient Near East and Book of Mormon capilal of northern Canaan. It was about
Andrew C. Skinner 200 acres of built-up area. See Yigael
Yadin, "Further Light on Biblical Hazor-
1. Manfred Lurker, The Gods atld Symbols Results of the Second Season, 1956." Bibli-
ofAndent Egypt (New York: Thames and cal Arcbneolog;st 20 (May 1957): 44.
Hudson, 1980), 108. 38. Yadin, "Further Light on Iliblical
2. Sabatino Moscati, The Face ofthe Ancient Hazor," 44.
Orient (Garden City: Doubleday Anchor 39. Craig Evans, Noncanollical Writings and
Ilooks, 1%2), 125-27. New Testament Interpretation (Peabody,
3. Henri Frankfort. Kingship and the Gods Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1992), 4.
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 40. 1 Neph~ 11-14 comprises Nephi's grand
1962),145-46. panoramic vision summarizing all that
4. Frankfort, K;ttgsh;p atld the God~ his father saw and heard.
378n.12. 41. Joseph Smith, Teach;ng, of the Prophel
5. Lurker, Gods and Symbols ofAncient loseph Sm;th, sel. Joseph Fielding Smith
Egyp~ 26, 108. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1972),276.
6. Frankfort, K;tlg,h;p alld the God~ 180. 42. See Joines, Serpent Symbolism, 72.
7. Lurker, Gods and Symbols afAncient 43. Spencer J. Palmer, in "Mormon Views of
Egyp~ 108. Religious Resemblances:' BYU Studie$ 16
8. Moscati, Face of the Ancie"t Orient, (summer 1976),666, writes (hat it is rea-
125-26; and Lurker, Gods and Symbols sonable to say that "Adam. the first man,
of Atlcient Egypt, 93. was taught the fulness of the gospel. In

70 VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, 2001

turn he taught it to others. But men,
yielding to the temptations of the evil
one, sinned and departed from the truth.
The original, true doctrines were changed
and warped to suit me appetites of evil.
ambitious men. Thus the principles of
the gospel have appeared in more or less
perverted form in the religious beliefs of