Responsible Gambling DHCM 183

The Official Guide

Boston Business School 520 North Bridge Road #03-01 Wisma Alsagoff Singapore 188742

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The Guide is a useful resource for those seeking to gain the internationally recognised CTH qualifications. The Guide however must be used together with the recommended textbooks.

.............................. 45 Facilities .................................................................................. 59 Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) .............................. 59 Promotional Materials................................................................................................... 23 Gambling Legislation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92 Revocation of an Exclusion Order ...........9 Gambling......................................................................................................... 51 Signage ...... 45 Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment .... 94 ...................................................... 5 Profile of the Gambling Industry ......................................................... Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling ........... 68 Availability of Counselling................................... 52 Casino Lighting............. 87 Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders...... 1 Topic 1 – THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY....................................................................................................... 66 Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling ........................................................................ 93 Exclusion from Remote Gambling ............. 81 Introduction to Exclusion Orders ... 81 Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Topic 2 – RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION..................5 Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes ....... 66 Introduction to the Provision of Information...................................................... 30 Topic 3 – GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES...................................................................... 83 Dealing with Exclusions... 23 Responsible Gambling Legislation ................................................................................................................... 78 Player Rating Systems ......................................................... 60 Creating a Comfortable Environmental ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Topic 5 – PROCEDURES FOR SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING – EXCLUSION ORDERS ......... 11 Forms of Gambling................................................................................................................................ 71 Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability ....................................CONTENTS Introduction ............................................................................. 58 Display of Clocks ............................................................................................ 64 Topic 4 – PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS ......................................... 74 Information on Games ...................................................................................................................................................................... 25 Code of Practice .........................................................................................................................................................................................

.........135 Topic 8 – PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES ........................143 Counselling and Treatment Providers. 95 Underage Gambling ............... 95 The Refusal of Credit............................................................................................................................................................................................145 Appendix One – FORMS ................................................................................................140 Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths ......................126 Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse ..................107 Customer Complaints and Disputes .................................109 Topic 7 – PROBLEM GAMBLING .....................................................................................................................................................124 Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling............................................................116 Introduction to Problem Gambling...........................130 Gambling Behaviour.....................................................................159 Source of References ....................................................................................140 Introduction to Support Programmes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Levels of Gambling......................122 Gambling Addiction ....118 Prevalence of Gambling Problems ...........169 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................Topic 6 – GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS ............

horseracing and sports betting. Identify problem gamblers and understand which groups are at particular risk. Understand how the gambling environment influences players’ behaviour. It provides students with the knowledge to identify problem gambling and to provide information about professional treatment. Provide information on problem gambling support programmes.Responsible Gambling Introduction Description This module has been designed for front line gaming industry professionals. Understand the communication and administrative procedures involved in providing responsible gambling services. Describe the procedures for providing responsible gambling services in the casino environment. types of gambling offered including casino gaming. other games of chance such as lotto National and regional legislation and regulations and industry code of practice Responsible gambling legislation Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 1 . It will promote a greater understanding of Responsible Gambling in accordance with the legislative requirements and worldwide standards. It will equip students with the skills required to assess and address responsible gaming issues in the Casino Gaming Environment. Understand the legislative requirements relating to responsible gaming. Summary of Learning Outcomes On completion of this module students will be able to: • • • • • • • Describe the types of gambling offered. Syllabus The Gambling Industry Profile of the gambling industry.

lighting. implementation of exclusion procedures. signage. external communications including with statutory boards. underage gambling. problem gambling support and treatment services. disputes and complaints.Gambling environment features Procedures for service of responsible gambling Gambling information for players Gambling related incidents Problem Gambling and Support Programmes Communication and documentation Casino layout. availability of natural light. involvement of family or friends Levels of gambling. facilities. information on games. Any legislation and codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry and will not be country specific. refusal of credit. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit and will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions and 5 x 4 mark questions in Section A (40 marks). ATM’s. Internal communication including casino departments and security. attempts to breach exclusion. appropriate environmental features Availability of counseling. chances of winning and probability. positioning of machines Provision of information. CTH is a London based body and the syllabus content will in general reflect this. promotional materials. availability of responsible gaming information Requests for exclusion. Availability of counseling. documentation and administration procedures Assessments This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination set and marked by CTH. Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which students must select and answer three (60 marks). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 2 . identifying problem gamblers. Local centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practise to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not test this local knowledge. providing information on support services. signage and information to be displayed. high risk groups.

. Citadel Press. et al. ISBN 007111131X • Hashimoto.& Cornelius.. ISBN 0471129275 • Kilby. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry. D.. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues. Visits to a range of casinos are essential to allow students to see the application of the theory into practice. Performance. Casino Management: Past Present and Future. ISBN 0787245186 • International Gaming Institute. ISBN 081840311X • Gomez-Mejia. John Wiley and Sons. Resources Learners need access to library and research facilities which should include some or all of the following.J. ISBN 013400177X • Eadington. Management – People.. (1996). & Cardy. John Wiley and Sons. Casino Operations Management. (1998). ISBN 0139795685 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 3 . R.. ISBN 0131926721 • Rudd.J. ISBN 0471266329 • Munting. The Gaming Industry.. University Press of Nevada. Casino Management. L. Pearson.. Manchester University Press. (1996). W. McGraw-Hill. R. Recommended Prior Learning There is no required prior learning however students must have completed formal education to 18 years old or equivalent and an interest in Gambling Operations is essential. (1999).. W.Further guidance Delivery strategies This module covers the theory of Responsible Gambling but wherever possible this should be related to practical situations to reflect the nature of the commercial world. Change.. Balkin. Kendall Hurd Publishing. J. (2005). D..&Fox.D.(1999). Pearson. (2004). Visiting speakers would also be beneficial and will help to contextualise the classroom based learning. Textbooks • Eade. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations. An Economic and Social History of Gambling. K.& Marshall. (1997). ISBN 0942828382 • Friedman.. (1981).. B.

It is not essential to use all the recommended texts and lecturers should use their experience to decide which ones are most appropriate for their Notes on recommended texts The module can be taught with the texts we have identified as relevant to the module syllabus. past module examinations are also available to support lecturers. Where available and appropriate.casinoman. supplementary material familiar to the lecturer and the lecturer’s experience.gamingfloor. but a number of texts which provide sufficient depth to explore the subject area. In general.Magazines. the lecturer’s lesson plans should be based on the module syllabus and supported by relevant texts. Journals and Other Publications • Casino Life Magazine • State and Regional Gaming Acts including: • UK Gaming Act 2005 • Nevada Gaming Control Act • Singapore Casino Control Act Websites www. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 4 . In keeping with a qualification at this level there is no one text which covers the whole www. CTH will always answer any questions from the centre’s Head of Department either by email or by phone.

Define gambling and explain the difference between recreational gambling and problem gambling. Singapore will have its first casino operating by 2009. Currently lotteries as well as other service providers such as horse racing are popular. It will also look at the main reasons for developing responsible gaming programmes. with an emphasis on operators meeting the required probity and performance standards and consistency in care for consumers. developing into a major sector of the world economy. students should be able to: • • • • Profile the gaming industry. Explain the need for responsible gambling programmes. although relatively new will be strictly regulated.Topic 1 THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY Objective This chapter will introduce the students to the gambling industry and look in more detail at the types of gambling available. Explain the different types of gambling including casinos gaming. The Gambling Industry in Singapore The licensed gambling industry in Singapore is diverse. sports betting and internet gambling. Students will get to appreciate the size of the industry and the prevalence of gambling. at the other is local. direct responsibility to all consumers. The industry is one of high public profile – commercial competitiveness on a global basis sits at one end of the scale. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 5 . Gambling in Singapore. Profile of the Gambling Industry The gambling industry has seen unprecedented growth over recent years. lotteries. Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter.

64%) Residents with primary education and below (61%) Residents with average monthly personal income of $2.In Singapore there is a limited target market. 2008. consumers rightly have expectations that they can have access to competitive gaming products. In order to be effective and fair issues of concern have been identified. Substantial efforts have been directed to this issue in Singapore and from this background has emerged the production by the industry of a proactive and balanced response to the expectations of Government and consumers – responsible gambling. appropriate infrastructure and high standards of service as enjoyed elsewhere in the world. sometimes leading to problems in other areas of their lives. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 6 . In recent years. considerable focus by governments of all persuasions has been given to the adverse affect problem gambling can have on some members of the community or individuals who become affected by gambling to the point of no longer having control or rational judgment. respondents who had participated in at least one form of gambling in the last 12 months were classified as gamblers. However. clear requirements understood and consistent standards of business practice prescribed.999 and below (60% . stated that 54% of Singapore residents aged 18 and above reported that they have participated in at least one form of gambling activity in the last 12 months. Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • • • • • Chinese (62%) Male (60%) Residents aged 40 to 59 years (60% . various ethnic groups and a small geographical area.66%) For the purpose of the survey. A recent Singapore report of survey on participation in gambling activities among Singapore residents.

to 72% for highest income households. the US.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 7 . with the exception of bingo (4% of men compared with 10% of women). respondents with higher levels were less likely to gamble. • Respondents who described their ethnic origin as white were more likely to be past year gamblers (70%) than those who classified themselves as Black (39%) or Asian (45%). as different methodologies have been used in different countries). • 3% used fixed odds betting terminals (FOBTs) and 4% gambled in a casino. • Excluding people who had only gambled on the National Lottery Draw in the last year. followed by scratch cards (20%). and an increase in the number of gambling products available. New Zealand. the rate in Britain is higher than that found in Norway. Sweden and Switzerland. had participated in some form of gambling activity within the past year. Looking at international studies of problem gambling prevalence. mainly due to changes in legislation. betting on horse races (17%). had participated in another form of gambling in the past year. the nature of gambling in Britain has changed substantially. 48% of the population. or about 23 million. 61% of those with a degree compared with 73% who were educated to GCSE/O level equivalent.The Gambling Industry in the UK The British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007 stated that since the 1999 survey. • People in higher income households were more likely to gamble. and similar to that of Canada. and lower than Australia. • The most popular activity was the National Lottery Draw (57%). Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • Men were more likely than women to gamble overall (71% compared with 65%). and playing slot machines (14%). Macao and Hong Kong. • In terms of education. • Only a small proportion of people (3%) gambled online (like playing poker or casino games etc) or placed bets with a bookmaker using the internet (4%). the rate increased from 61% among those in the lowest income households. and on each individual activity. South Africa. (Comparisons should be treated with caution. that is about 32 million adults. The survey also indicated the following: • 68% of the population. Singapore.

1% 10. until it was completely banned in the 1890’s. Las Vegas remained the primary location for legal gambling until the 1970’s. Gaming Revenue 2001 – 2004 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues Number of Revenues Gaming Revenue Range Operations (in thousands) Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2004 $250 million and over 15 7.1% 7.381.3% 18.9% 19.398 Under $3 million 97 90.9% 27.0% 31.1% 0.170.333. These are the various categories of growth figures from the years 2001 though to 2004..9% 9.5% 11. gambling started making a comeback in the 1920’s and was fully legalised in Nevada in 1931. video games.8% 1.554 $3 million to $10 million 57 344.6% 37.497 $10 million to $25 million 68 1. with public sentiment shifting back and forth from embracing gambling to prohibiting it. However.3% 11. The statistics shown below are the Gaming revenues from the National Indian Gaming commission.711 $10 million to $25 million 69 1.0% 5.698 $25 million to $50 million 57 2.569 Total 358 16. In fact.6% 12.377 $50 million to $100 million 35 2.169 $3 million to $10 million 57 350.4% 3.911 $100 million to $250 million 40 6.9% 9.122.126 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 Percentage of Operations Revenues 4.8% 15.459.826. and music recordings combined.0% 16. movie tickets.352 Under $3 million 94 77.1% 32.5% 15.204 $100 million to $250 million 32 5.010 $25 million to $50 million 60 2.240.5% 8 . primarily in the form of lotteries.S. Gambling was largely practiced in the early U. including riverboat and Indian reservation casinos.8% 0. gambling has now evolved to the point that at least some form of gambling is legal in all but two states and revenues from gambling eclipse the revenues from theme parks.040.The Gambling Industry in the USA (Tribal Jurisdictions) A look at the history of gambling in the United States shows that it has evolved in waves.1% 8.698 $50 million to $100 million 33 2.0% 2.7% 14. providing American gamblers with an outlet through which to place their bets.200.144.407.510 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2003 $250 million and over 11 5.1% 32.277.488 Total 367 19.3% 15.5% 25. when more forms of casinos began to be legalised.

0% 11.9% 7. These figures are derived from Casino Resorts such as Mohican Sun.5% 11. As a result.717.640.Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2002 $250 million and over 10 4.1 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues The growth in revenue generation was in the 250M$ and above.5% 33.0% 0.8% Table 1. The growth of the gambling industry is evident in the gambling prevalence rates and gaming revenue statistics discussed.0% 17. Summary The onset of world gambling trends and the increase and availability of gambling forms have influenced the way society view gambling.3% 34.519 $10 million to $25 million 65 1.5% 65.965 Total 349 14.6% 18. it seems that the old tribal customs are falling away and gaming is becoming a normal point in society.694. The integrated resorts will also experience growth figures such as these.654 Under $3 million 114 96.3% 2.9% 8.822.257 Total 330 12. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 9 .5% 11.8% 5.064 $100 million and over 31 4. gambling is an enjoyable leisure and entertainment activity.4% 7.6% 17.346 2.8% 3.6% 0.978.8% 13.9% 31.5% 13.9% 15.398.546 $3 million to $10 million 57 385. Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes For the majority of people.1% 28.513 $3 million to $10 million 63 386.067.611 $10 million to $25 million 58 997.755 $25 million to $50 million 43 1. gambling can have negative impacts.606 $25 million to $50 million 55 1.662 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2001 $100 million and over 39 8.399 Under $3 million 101 79. Although this revenue is only from 4% of the casinos.415. However.870.523 $50 million to $100 million 19 1.9% 6.596 $50 million to $100 million 24 1.528.1% 11. for some. the Casino Control Boards in different parts of the world have set up laws to control gambling operations.8% 18.

new research into problem gambling and changing circumstances. the level of betting and the amount of leisure time devoted to gambling. the method of implementation will vary according to the form of gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 10 . Responsible Gambling Programmes are considered ‘living documents’ in the sense that it will be continuously edited and amended to take into new operating practices. Responsible Gambling Programmes have been developed with the participation of various stakeholders in the world gambling industry. particularly the scope and frequency of gambling. and will change over time as new operating methods emerge. which sets out responsible gambling practices and policies. Responsible Gambling Programmes were developed. and promoting responsible gambling initiatives. The need for flexibility to accommodate industry development within an evolving gambling industry is also acknowledged. In recent years there has been growing appreciation of the affect problem gambling has on some members of the community. Though the practices are intended to apply to all gambling providers and all forms of gambling.Furthermore. These programmes are adopted by various world gambling providers in the provision of their services. This responsible gambling course will provide descriptions of responsible gambling practices relevant to each sector of the gambling industry. aimed at delivering important consumer protection and social welfare objectives. as is the need for whole-of-industry support and implementation. The aim of responsible gambling programmes is to minimise the harm to consumers who may be adversely affected by gambling. These programmes are an expression of the commitment of the industry to responsible gambling. A major point of emphasis with the Responsible Gambling Course is urging for the consistency in care for customers. It contains comprehensive information on responsible gaming practices that will assist the operator in the successful implementation of the responsible gambling code. Problem gambling exists when there is a lack of control over gambling.

bingo and charity jackpots in newspapers as well as scratch cards. Responsible gambling practises are the responsibility of all stakeholders in the gambling industry and must be implemented over a range of gambling activities. Gambling. • fantasising about winning large sums of money. and • being in a stimulating environment. provides some of the following pleasures: • playing games. and • fail to control this excessive behaviour by themselves and without assistance. Recreational gambling. Playing the lotto.Summary This section has highlighted the aims of the different government organisations when formulating responsible gambling programmes.1 Define the term Gambling. Gambling Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. Gambling behaviour should be viewed as problematic when gamblers: • gamble excessively and thereby cause significant harm to themselves and to others. which vary in different cultures. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 11 . from the point of view of the gambler. Whether gambling is accounted a vice or a form of recreation depends on moral judgments. casino games and betting on horses and other sporting events are regarded as gambling activities. Activity 1. • feeling artificially endangered. at different points in history and among different individuals.

Traditional casino games include roulette. When an individual gambles excessively and uncontrollably. The player with maximum points at the end of the set will be the winner. is an unequal game of chance. blackjack and poker. The wheel is divided into a number of equal segments separated by spokes or pins. Casino-type games are also played on gaming machines and on the internet. Each segment is associated with a number. Recreational gamblers gamble for the purpose of pleasure.Summary Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. The wheel is spun by a dealer. card and machine games played in a casino. It is also popular in working men’s clubs and British Legion clubs. Blackjack – a card game in which players try to beat the bank by adding the values of the cards as close to 21 without going over. People mainly play Bingo in Bingo clubs. Players may win money or prizes when they complete a line. Forms of Gambling Bingo Bingo is a game of chance where players receive a set of numbers on a card in return for a stake and they mark them off as a caller announces numbers as they are drawn randomly. Games can also be played electronically. Casino Games Casino games include table. multiple lines or complete a card. Casino games permitted in Britain include: • Big Six Wheel – also known simply as The Big Six. including in holiday parks and resorts. played using a large vertical wheel that can be spun. They involve playing or staking against a bank. and the winning segment is indicated by a pointer mounted on a flexible piece of rubber or leather. problem gambling can result. which also rubs against the pins to impart friction and slow the wheel down. • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 12 . Also known as 21.

These two games form the basis of most modern stud poker variation. and then spins a ball in the opposite direction around the circumference of the wheel.a casino dice game in which players bet against the casino on the outcome of one roll or a series of rolls of two dice. • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 13 . In modern casinos the dice are shaken mechanically. whether it is odd or even or on a grouping of numbers. There are a number of variations of Baccarat in the United Kingdom. Sic Bo . in Asia.In the game. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. Craps . A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. and the outcome is keyed into a computer which automatically lights up the winning zones on the table. In recent years. The pot is awarded to the player or players with the best combination of cards. which was then lifted to reveal the roll. Stud Poker – a poker variant in which each player is dealt a mix of face-down and face-up cards in multiple betting rounds. Players can place a variety of bets on specific numbers.a game played with three standard dice that are shaken in a basket or plastic cup.• Baccarat – A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. A player can make any number of bets on the sic bo table. both in casinos and in home games. the colour of the number (red or black). Seven-card stud has become more common.also called Baccarat. Traditionally. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. Poker – a card game where players with fully or partially concealed cards make bets into a central pot. the dice were shaken on a small plate covered with a bowl. Types of poker games include “three-card”. The ball eventually falls onto one of the 37 coloured and numbered pockets on the wheel. and became very popular. Roulette . a croupier spins a wheel in one direction. “casino stud” and “Texas Hold ‘Em”. Fivecard stud first appeared during the American Civil War. Punto Banco .

As you can see. doublesided. Each ball is imprinted with a number 1 through 80. A traditional live casino keno game uses a circular glass enclosure called a "bubble" containing 80 ping pong-like balls which determine the balldraw result. Prior to that (during the Faro heyday). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 14 . Fig 1. one-sided (the royalty stood one way on the card face) and the numbered cards only showed pips. The History of Playing Cards Since the late 16th century. the indices are quite different from those in common use today.2 Playing cards without number Fig 1. without numbers (indices) in the corners. Club) were adopted as a standard throughout much of Northern Europe. rounded-corner playing cards made in London. These "Dexter" cards are an early version of indexed playing cards (numbers on the corners). European-style royalty have been used on "face cards" and "French Suits" (Spade Diamond.Outcomes are based on the combinations that come up on the three dice. standard decks were square-edged. The wagers available and their associated odds can differ from place to place. Payoff combinations are listed on a roulette-style table top that is often lit from underneath in winning areas of the layout to indicate winning combinations. between 1870-1880. Around the Turn-of-the-Century (1900). England. Card Games 1. • Keno – Keno is a lottery-like or bingo-like gambling game played at modern casinos.3 A deck of rare De LaRue Co. Heart. for that reason standard decks in the 18th and 19th century were commonly referred to as a "standard French deck". the double-sided deck with numbers in opposing corners and double sided face cards came into common use as a result of the rising popularitly of round games (such as poker).

pusher and crane grab machines are all gaming machines. clubs and bingo halls. Gaming machines have different maximum prize and bet limits. Machine Categories (UK) There are four broad categories of gaming machine. Three Card Brag A standard 52 card deck is used. The typical game was 4 to 8 players. 1. Bookmakers also site Fixed Odds Betting Terminals (FOBTs) in their betting shops. Category A machines would only be allowed in the new supercasino. Brag Brag was a very popular pre-poker gambling game. (Typical of any game. Category B machines are divided into four subcategories (not shown here): Category Maximum Stake (£) A Unlimited B Varies. The player generally wins by matching the symbols on the central line of three reels. slot machines. Five Card Brag Five cards are dealt to each player. Faro was known as the "King of Gambling Games" and in the late 1860's. Gaming machines are found in lots of different places like family entertainment centres. Because Three Card Brag is a gambling game the players must agree on the stake and have a common understanding of the rules. fixed odds betting terminals.2. The cards in each suit rank in the usual order from high to low: A-K-Q-J-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2. but includes £1 and £2 C 50p 10p(30p when non-monetary D prize) Maximum Prize (£) Unlimited Varies from £250 to £4000 £25 £5 cash or £8 nonmonetary prize Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 15 . if that went ahead. adult gaming centres. and everyone discards two cards to make their best three card brag hand. pubs. depending on the take and the maximum prize they can pay out. Brag was considered the "Queen of Gambling Games". Gaming Machines Fruit machines.) 4. 3. The basic game of three card Brag was one of the games described by Hoyle dates from the late eighteenth century or earlier.

They include red and black plaques which can be exchanged for prizes. invented in 1895 by car mechanic.2. Types of machine • Fruit machines Fruit machines. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 16 . • Fixed Odds Betting Terminal (FOBTs) FOBTs are made available by bookmakers in betting shops. The History of Slot Machines – Liberty Bell Fig 1. football penalty shoot-outs and roulette. a grand total of fifty cents or ten nickels. Diamond. the display often shows three identical symbols in a row. • Pusher machine A gaming machine with a moving tray carrying various items which can be dislodged into a chute by coins pushed in by the player.1 The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell • Charles Fey & Liberty Bell The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell. Charles Fey (1862–1944) of San Francisco. A spin resulting in three Liberty Bells in a row gave the biggest payoff. The outcome of such games is operated by a random number generator. amusement-withprize or all-cash machines. 3. jackpot. such as representations of horseracing. also known as gaming. The Liberty Bell slot machine had three spinning reels. plus the image of a cracked Liberty Bell. • Crane grab machine A crane grab machine uses a mechanical arm to try to pick up prize such as a soft toy and drop it into the chute. FOBT users can bet on a variety of ‘events’. and heart symbols were painted around each reel. The dislodged items are then won by the player. If you win. use a random number generator to determine whether you have won or lost. greyhound racing. spade.

Each reel had ten symbols painted on it. called the Operator Bell. and Three Spinde and the Klondike. In 1964. • How the Original Slots Worked Inside each cast iron slot machine there were three metal hoops called reels. however. Mills was the first person to place fruit symbols: i. The largest game in the UK is the National Lottery. In 1975. a Chicago manufacturer of arcade machines. Gambling supply manufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights to the Liberty Bell. Charles Fey refused to sell. Fey could not build them fast enough in his small shop. Other all electronic versions of gambling games followed including ones for dice. and cherries on machines. Lotteries Singaporeans know lotteries commonly as 4D. Herbert Mills. A lever was pulled that spun the reels. As a result in 1907. When the reels stopped. horse racing. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 17 . Nevada. The hole in the middle of the trade check allowed a detecting pin to distinguish fake nickels or slugs from real nickels. a knock-off of Fey's Liberty Bell. began production of a slot machine. the first electronic slot machine was built by the Fortune Coin Company. A lottery is a game which people enter by selecting a set of numbers that may match those drawn later for the chance of winning money or prizes. Charles Fey was also the inventor of the trade check separator.e. The payoff in coinage was then dispensed from the machine. Charles Fey invented the first draw poker machine. plums. Other types of lotteries include raffles and scratch cards. the first allelectronic gambling machine was built by Nevada Electronic called the "21" machine. Other Charles Fey machines include: the Draw Power. In 1901. lemons. a jackpot was awarded if three of a one kind of symbol lined up. • Demand for Slot Machines Grows The demand for Liberty Bell slot machines was huge. and poker (Dale Electronics' Poker-Matic was very popular).The original Liberty Bell slot machine can still be seen be at the Liberty Belle Saloon & Restaurant in Reno. roulette. Fey rented his machines to saloons and bars based on a 50/50 split of the profits. which was used in the Liberty Bell. • Age of Electronics The first popular electric gambling machine was the 1934 animated horserace machine called PACES RACES. which is regulated by the National Lottery Commission.

politics or stock market movements. These are sold in newsagents and supermarkets. Pools In pools betting. in which numbered tickets are drawn from a container holding all the numbers sold. or you are absolutely wrong (you horse doesn’t win) and you lose the amount you have placed on the bet. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 18 . greyhound racing and other sports takes place at racecources and tracks. spread betting profits and losses can be unlimited. The most common betting pool in Britain is the football pool. if you bet £5 that the first goal will be scored on the 35th minute of play in a football match. but the more wrong you are the more you can lose – and your loss is not limited to the amount of your stake. With spread betting. social welfare and charity organisations as well as for public works projects. The lottery proceeds in some parts of the world are used to bail out the struggling sports bodies. The level of the payout depends on the size of the pool and the number of winning participants. So for example. you could win £25 if the goal is scored at the 40th minute of play or lose £25 if it is scored at the 30th minute of play. Pool betting on horse racing. the more you can win. the more right you are. there is no civic responsibility. is divided between the winning participants. The onus is on the service provider not to accept or payout winnings to the underage public. Scratch Cards Scratch cards are tickets you scratch to find out if you have won a prize. which is based on the results of football matches. Raffles Raffles is a game often held to raise money for charity. With ordinary betting. through betting offices and online. you are either absolutely right (your horse wins) and you win money depending on the odds quoted. People holding the tickets that match the numbers drawn win prizes. players ‘pool’ their stakes and the combined sum. Spread Betting Spread betting allows people to bet on sporting events. Horse racecourse pool betting is offered exclusively by the Tote. Unlike more traditional forms of gambling where you only lose the amount of your bet.Playing the lottery is the easiest form of gambling around as the selling or gaming provider only offers a service to the client. less what the operator takes out.

9 billion in 2006. Although very well organised the Turf Clubs that promote this sport have only a civic responsibility to their is an example of an internet gambling site. While data about revenues is varied. it has exploded in a way that few industries ever do. These sites offer all types of gambling games. However.Horse Racing Wagering on horse racing is an extremely popular form of gambling.bodog. Types of Gambling Sites Internet gambling sites. www. and since then the industry has boomed at such a rate that an estimated 30 million gamblers visited internet gambling sites in July of 2005 alone. Though internet gambling is a relatively recent phenomenon. which can be found at Bodog is one of the biggest online gambling operations. from traditional card games to lotteries and sports wagering. 1. The first online casino began operation in 1995 with an offering of eighteen online games.betcris. other gambling sites include Nine Sportsbook: www. where you can wager on everything from the winner of American Idol to the likelihood that Jessica Simpson will adopt a child. and can be accessed from anywhere in the world. from the horses mouth is a term used by some individuals when placing a bet/wager. it is no surprise that the new wave in gambling is occurring on the World Wide Web. Internet Gambling With the expansive growth of the gambling industry and the evolution of technology. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 19 .com and BetCRIS: www.nine. Some of the more exotic gambling options include what are known as proposition bets. and it also offers some of the most interesting proposition the new industry also raises a variety of concerns over how the law ought to properly deal with internet gambling. This phenomena has truly revolutionised gambling. It is probably the one game of chance that has been responsible for patrons wrong investment (bets placed). can be located anywhere in the world. allowing gamblers to place wagers on all sorts of games and events from the comfort of their home. even conservative estimates have the industry growing from $1 billion in profits in 1997 to a staggering $10.jsp.

2. How Internet Gambling Works Gamblers wishing to bet online are usually required to set up an account with the gambling website and to make a payment into that account before betting. Payments have traditionally been made using major credit or debit cards, private debit cards (debit cards issued by small, private companies), online payment providers (i.e. Paypal), wire transfers, or e-cash (digital money that is purchased from a provider). However, there have been some recent events that have changed the way online gambling is funded. For one, most major American credit companies now prohibit payments to online gambling services. These policies are mostly self-implemented due to the high risk of fraud and bad debt in the online gaming industry. However, the companies have also had some assistance in forming the policies by New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer, who threatened Citibank with criminal prosecution for knowingly assisting in internet gambling that was prohibited by New York law. Though the charges were dropped after Citibank promised to give $400,000 to counselling services for gambling addicts, the threat of prosecution was enough to force these companies’ hands in banning internet gambling credit After credit card companies banned online gambling credit, gamblers began to use online payment providers such as Paypal with increasing frequency. However, Attorney General Spitzer then went after Paypal with a prosecution similar to the one threatened against Citibank. Though Paypal claimed that it already had a policy against allowing payments to online gambling sites the business was still forced to disgorge profits of $200,000 in a settlement with New York. Despite this apparent crackdown by some American financial institutions, gamblers have still found ways to fund their wagers. For one, online gambling sites can mask the code that attaches to credit card payments to make the payment look like it was for something other than gambling, which would allow consumers to continue to use major credit cards regardless of their policies. However, even more legitimate means of payment exist. For example, once Paypal announced that it would prohibit payments to online gambling sites there were plenty of similar online payment providers that began to offer service to gambling sites to pick up Paypal’s slack.

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In addition, gamblers can always set up accounts at foreign banks that do not prohibit transfers to gambling sites or send an international money order to those sites that accept them. One thing is for sure: as long as internet gambling continues to attract more bettors and more money, companies will find ways for bettors to pay for their bets

Activity 1.2 a) Describe in your own words how internet gambling works. b) Explain how internet gambling payments are controlled.

Activity 1.3 Detail how Slot Machines were started.

Activity 1.4 Explain the difference between pool betting and spread betting. Summary Gamblers and gambling operators can choose from a variety of games. The Games of chance that were highlighted in this section were: • • • • • • • • • • • Bingo Big Six Wheel Craps Roulette Craps/Dice Blackjack Punto Banco Lotteries Horse Racing Gambling Machines Internet Gambling

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Chances of winning Lots of people dream of winning the lottery or getting the ‘perfect’ poker hand, but do you know what the real chances are? If you toss a coin 40 times, the chance you will get heads every time is just under 1 in 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion). Keep on reading to see how your odds of winning in games of chance compare to other events. Event Living to be old enough to receive a 100th birthday telegram from the Queen (or King!) 1 Rolling a 2 in a game of craps Roulette wheel landing on one number you select Winning any prize in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ Being dealt a full house in your first five cards in poker The next person you meet being born on the same day and same year as you 20 million tonne asteroid called Apophis hitting Earth on 13 April 2036 2 Being dealt a royal flush in your first five cards in poker Being struck by lightning next year Winning a share of the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot
1 2

Average chance 1 in 8 1 in 36 1 in 37 1 in 57 1 in 4,165 1 in 25,000 1 in 45,000 1 in 650,000 1 in 10,000,000 1 in 14,000,000

UK adults in their thirties Probability changes as the potential event gets closer

You can influence the likelihood of some of these things happening. For example, living a healthy lifestyle will increase your chances of living to 100. But all gambling works on randomness. Even skill-based gambling is subject to chance – no amount of expertise or skill can influence the cards you are dealt in a game of poker. It’s important to be realistic and not to overestimate your chances. Your chance of winning a share in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot with one ticket is one in 14 million. If you spend £1 every week on the Lottery, you would expect to wait about 270,000 years before you win a share of the jackpot! Gambling operators are required to provide customers with information such as the rules, house edge, odds, average return to player, maximum bet level and prize limit.
Source: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 22

Learning Outcome After this chapter. under the Nevada Gaming Control Act. which was established in 1959. Discuss responsible gambling legislation and exclusion orders Discuss Code of Practices followed by gambling providers. with other acts in place for other forms of gambling. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. In enforcing legislation. Gambling Legislation Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. in Singapore casino operators are regulated under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. students should be able to: • • • Explain the purpose of gambling legislation and the scope of legislations influencing the gambling environment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 23 . In the United Kingdom the gambling environment is controlled under the Gambling Act 2005. revoke licences and investigate and prosecute illegal gambling. It will focus more specifically on industry codes of practise for responsible gambling. For example. authorities can levy fines. for example the State of Nevada is controlled by the Nevada Gaming Commission.Topic 2 RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION Objective This chapter will introduce students to the legislative practises that govern gambling providers. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. They are also responsible for advising national and local government on gambling-related issues. Most gambling sections throughout the USA have had input from the State of Nevada as this was the forerunner to most of the legislation in that region. In the USA gambling providers are regulated under the state authority that they are located in.

the liquor act can specify hours during which alcohol can be provided and whether it could be provided complimentary. the gambling service providers are covered by the Gambling Act 2005. lotteries. for the purpose of: • ensuring that the management and operation of a casino is and remains free from criminal influence or exploitation. appeals. non-related acts such as liquor acts and smoking acts also influences the casino operator. covers all aspects of the Gambling industry. in Britain it is called the Gambling Commission and in the USA each state has its own authority. supervision and control of casinos. inspections. in Singapore the authority is known as the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore. as set out in the Casino Control Act 2006 is to maintain and administer systems for the licensing. • ensuring that gaming in a casino is conducted honestly. Other legislations dealing with gambling related issues are the Betting Act and The Common Gaming Houses Act. gambling tax. advertising. vulnerable persons and society at large. In Singapore the casino gambling environment is governed by the Singapore Casino Control Act. The Act. The Objective of the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore.1 What are the objectives of governments for controlling gambling operations? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 24 . from where the casinos can be located. More specific acts are in place dealing with gambling related issues such as advertising. to fines that can be incurred. In the United Kingdom.g.In different countries the authorities responsible for enforcing legislation are known under different names e. and • containing and controlling the potential of a casino to cause harm to minors. For example. Activity 2. and prizes that can be awarded. and fees and duties. Besides the acts governing casinos and gambling.

Youth and Sports. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. National Council on Problem Gambling Singapore In Singapore the introduction of the Casino Control Act 2006 brought about the introduction of a national council to provide services for problem gambling. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues.1 National Council on Problem Gambling Logo The National Council on Problem Gambling (NCPG) was appointed by the Minister for Community Development.Summary Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. The National Council of Problem Gambling was established with the objective of ‘working with the community to reduce the impact of problem gambling on individuals. families and society’. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 25 . Responsible Gambling Legislation As this course concentrates on responsible gaming. the sections of the various gaming acts pertaining responsible gaming will be discussed in more detail. In many countries. (MCYS) in 2005 as part of Singapore’s national framework to address problem gambling. a separate board. council. Fig 2.

• "Committee" means any Committee of Assessors for the time being constituted under section 157 (1). The exclusion process is one of the main features of this section of the act. counselling and rehabilitative services. Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 PART X . • To assess and advise the Government on the effectiveness of treatment.The Council is independent and comprises 19 members with expertise and experience in public communications. unless the context otherwise requires: • "application" means an application for a family exclusion order. • "chairman" means the chairman of the Council.NATIONAL COUNCIL ON PROBLEM GAMBLING The following section highlights the responsibility of the National Council on Problem Gambling as stipulated in the Singapore Control Act 2006. The Council’s main roles are: • To provide advice and feedback to the MCYS on public education programmes to promote public awareness on problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 26 . • To decide on funding applications for preventive and rehabilitative programmes. Definitions In this Part. counselling and rehabilitative programmes. social work. The Council has identified key areas of focus and formed 6 subcommittees: • Sub-committee on Public Communications • Sub-committee on Public Consultation • Sub-committee on Youth • Sub-committee on Responsible Gambling • Sub-committee on Research • Sub-committee on Services MCYS provides secretariat support to the Council and its various sub-committees. psychiatry and psychology. • To decide on the applications for exclusion of persons from casinos.

"panel" means the panel of assessors appointed under section 157 (2). • the Committee is satisfied that the making of the order is appropriate in the circumstances. Where a family member is below 21 years. Application for Family Exclusion Order A written application for a family exclusion order may be submitted to the Council by a family member of the respondent. guardian or other family may apply on his behalf. (c) a parent of the respondent. including an adoptive parent and a step-parent. "family member”. (b) a child of the respondent. and (d) a sibling of the respondent. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 27 . a step-sibling and a half-sibling. "family exclusion order" means a family exclusion order made under section 162. including an adoptive sibling. Alternatively a parent. if the person is at least 16 years of age. the application may be made on his behalf by any family member or relative as approved by the Council or by any person appointed by the Minister.• • • • • • "exclusion order" means an exclusion order made under section 165. the family member must seek permission from the Council. Where a person is unable to make an application (whether by reason of physical or mental infirmity or for any other reason). including an adopted child and a step-child. means: (a) a spouse of the respondent. the Committee may make a family exclusion order against a respondent if: • there is a reasonable apprehension that the respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling. Grounds for Making Family Exclusion Order When an application for family exclusion is made to the Committee. "respondent" means a person against whom a family exclusion order or exclusion order is sought or made. Youth and Sports. "Minister" means the Minister for Community Development. in relation to a respondent.

• there is reason to believe that the respondent’s irresponsible gambling behaviour will continue or recur. and the Committee is satisfied that it would be in the best interests of the respondent and his family members to make the order. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 28 . Applications will then be investigated and the Committee might either confirm the exclusion order or dismiss the application. The Committee may decide that there is a reasonable apprehension that a respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the Committee is satisfied that: • the respondent has caused such harm prior to the complaint. The Committee might also take into accounts events that have taken place outside of Singapore. The Council must be informed of whichever decision was reached with a brief state for reasons for approval or dismissal. and • has done so repeatedly over a period of not less than 3 months or in a particularly irresponsible manner over a lesser period. A family exclusion order may do one or more of the following: • refer the respondent to participate in a program of counselling. or taking part in any gaming on any casino premises. rehabilitation or special education or any combination of these. A respondent is to be regarded as having caused serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the respondent: • has engaged in gambling activities irresponsibly having regard to the needs and welfare of the respondent’s family members.• • the respondent has been given an opportunity to object to the application. • bar the respondent from entering or remaining. • require the respondent to close any deposit account in a casino. Terms of Family Exclusion Order A family exclusion order must specify the period during which it is in force. • require a casino operator to close any deposit account of the respondent with the casino.

An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. and • every casino operator. Variation or revocation of family exclusion order or exclusion order by Council The Council may confirm. if any. The service of family exclusion order or exclusion order A family exclusion order or exclusion order made by a Committee must be served on the respondent and is not binding on the person named in the order until it has been so served. An exclusion order made by the committee will bar the person from any casino premises for as long as any of the above mentioned criteria is applicable. it is only binding once served to the respondent. • has a bankruptcy application filed against him or is an undischarged bankrupt. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 29 . and a copy of every variation or revocation of such order must be provided by the Council to: • the applicant. by written order make an exclusion order against a person if it comes to the attention of the Committee that the person: • is on any social assistance programme funded by the Government or any statutory body. • the Commissioner of Police. or • has a poor credit record.e. on its own motion. • the Authority.Exclusions Orders made by the Committee A Committee may. A copy of every family exclusion order or exclusion order. The same is applicable when an order is amended or is varied. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. i.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 30 . any matter which has arisen at any proceedings of the Committee unless he is expressly authorised to do so by the Minister. a separate board. Summary In many countries. other than: • the Minister. b) Explain the rule governing the upliftment of an exclusion order and the consequences should this not be adhered to. council.Secrecy Except as provided under the above mentioned section.2 a) Explain the various forms of exclusion that are covered in the Singapore Casino Control Act. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. the proceedings of a Committee shall be secret. or • any officer of the Authority. but does not have the force of law. c) Explain the term secrecy. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. Code of Practice A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. In Singapore. • any member or officer of the Council. No member of a Committee shall disclose or divulge to any person. the National Council on Problem Gambling has this responsibility. In the USA. In the UK. One of their main responsibilities is to deal with exclusion orders. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. Activity 2.

record and report complaints and disputes. • Ensure that gambling is conducted in a fair and open way. and • Protect children and vulnerable people from being harmed and exploited by gambling. The licencing objectives are to: • Keep crime out of gambling. under the regulatory framework of the Gambling Act 2005. marketing. the Commission has developed licence conditions and codes of practice that govern how gambling facilities are provided and managed. Comply with requirements to prevent money laundering. including access to an independent element of dispute resolution where necessary. Ensure that key staff. 31 • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . Three licencing objectives were set and the legislation and work of the commission is directed to meet these objectives. hold personal licences from the Commission. Train their staff about problem gambling and about how to interact with customers who may be affected. such as the finance. Provide problem gambling information in other languages if the operator advertises in them.The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) In the UK. to education about the risks of gambling and to treatment of problem gamblers. Follow procedures to prevent underage gambling. These include requiring licensees (where relevant) to: • Put into effect policies and procedures to promote socially responsible gambling. including arrangements for self-exclusion. the Gambling Commission regulates gambling in the public interest. Have tight controls on incentives for customers to gamble. Have systems in place to manage. Make information about responsible gambling and help available to problem gamblers accessible on the licensees’ website home and log-in pages. Ensure there is sufficient information so players can understand the games and odds they face. Implement a code of practice on door supervision to keep children out of casinos. IT. which include how they contribute to research. License Conditions and Codes To secure the three licensing objectives. compliance and managing directors.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 32 . the person should not be allowed access to gambling facilities. • states the individual’s date of birth. Validate and the Government’s own Connexions card).g. • is valid. and the identification and treatment of problem gamblers. and monitor the effectiveness of these. The Commission considers acceptable forms of identification to include any identification carrying the PASS logo (e. and • is legible and has no visible signs of tampering or reproduction. They should check the age of apparently underage customers. and a passport.Besides meeting the licencing conditions described above. Code of Practice for Gambling Operators 1. but cannot provide identification. Licensees must only accept identification which: • contains a photograph from which the individual can be identified. Where a person appears to be underage. Citizencard. Protection of children and other vulnerable persons Licensees must have and put into effect policies intended to promote socially responsible gambling. They further must demonstrate a commitment to public education of the risk of gambling and how to gamble safely. a driving licence (including a provisional licence) with photocard. • Access to gambling by children and young persons All licensees must have and put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. These policies should include measures for: • Combating problem gambling Licensees’ policies and procedures for socially responsible gambling must include a commitment to contribute to research into the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. the different gambling providers are also instructed by law to put into practice protection policies for both Social Responsibility Provisions and Underage Gambling.

service should be refused in any circumstances where any adult is accompanied by a child or young person. This should include appropriate training which must cover the legal requirements on returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. If there is a ‘no under-18s’ premises policy. they have to check the age of apparently underage entrants to the pool and take action when there are unlawful attempts to enter the pool. Lottery licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all those engaged in the promotion of lotteries understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. • requiring customers to affirm that they are of legal age. Such procedures must include: • warning potential customers that underage gambling is an offence. Where football pool or other pool competition entries or payments are collected door to door by the pool betting licensee or the licensee’s authorised agent. The most difficult area to control underage gambling is the remote gambling sector (internet gambling).Licensees must not deliberately provide facilities for gambling in such a way as to appeal particularly to children or young people. Licensees must not permit children or young people to gamble in the adults-only areas of premises to which they have access. • regularly reviewing their age verification systems and implementing all reasonable improvements that may be made as technology advances and as information improves. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all staff understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. Remote licensees have to put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 33 . for example by reflecting or being associated with youth culture. Lottery licensees have the same responsibilities to prevent underage gambling. licensees must pay particular attention to the procedures they use at the entrance to the premises to check customers’ ages. In premises restricted to adults. returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers.

• • • • ensuring that relevant staff are properly trained in the use of their age verification procedures. in the case of any UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. or leaflets that may be collected discreetly and taken away. and appropriate to the size and layout of the premises. enabling their gambling websites to permit filtering software to be used by adults (such as parents or within schools) in order to restrict access to relevant pages of those sites. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that this information is readily accessible including in locations which enable the customer to obtain it discreetly. The information must be prominent. unless the licensee has established that a third party has satisfactorily carried out age verification. licensees should also take all reasonable steps to verify the customer’s age. • Information on how to gamble responsibly and help for problem gamblers Licensees must make information readily available to their customers on how to gamble responsibly and how to access information about and help in respect of problem gambling. the licensee should carry out their own verification and credit check and not permit the customer to withdraw any winnings from their account until age verification has been satisfactorily completed. near gaming machines and near to where ATMs are located • posters. in the case of any non-UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. In particular customer services staff must be appropriately trained in the use of secondary forms of identification when initial verification procedures fail to prove that an individual is of legal age. For gambling premises this should include: • information in the gambling area. toilets and near to exit doors). in other areas (e. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 34 .g.

The information must cover where relevant: • the availability of measures that are accessible to help an individual monitor or control their gambling, such as to restrict the duration of a gambling session or the amount of money they can spend; • the availability of timers or any other forms of reminders or ‘reality checks’ that may be available; • self-exclusion options; and • information about the availability of further help or advice. The information must be directed to all customers who wish to enjoy gambling as entertainment and not be targeted only at those the operator perceives to be ‘problem gamblers’. Licensees who market their services in foreign languages should make responsible gambling information, player’s guides to any games as well as contractual terms available in those languages. • Customer Interaction Licensees must implement policies and procedures for customer interaction where they have concerns that a customer’s behaviour may indicate problem gambling. The policies must include: • identification of the appropriate level of management who may initiate customer interaction and the procedures for doing so; • the types of behaviour that will be logged/reported to the appropriate level of staff and which may trigger customer interaction at an appropriate moment; • the circumstances in which consideration should be given to refusing service to customers and/or barring them from the operator’s gambling premises; and • training for all staff on their respective responsibilities, in particular so that they know who is designated to deal with problem gambling issues. But such policies and procedures should be consistent with, and implemented with due regard to, licensees’ duties in respect of the health and safety of their staff. • Self-exclusion Licensees must put in place procedures for self-exclusion and take all reasonable steps to refuse service or to otherwise prevent an individual who has entered a self-exclusion agreement from participating in gambling.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 35

Licensees must take steps to remove the name and details of a selfexcluded individual from any marketing databases used by the company or group (or otherwise flag that person as an individual to whom marketing material must not be sent), within two days of receiving the completed self-exclusion notification. All reasonable steps should be taken to prevent any marketing material being sent to a self-excluded customer as soon as practicable. Licensees must close any customer accounts of an individual who has entered a self exclusion agreement and return any funds held in the customer account. It is not sufficient merely to prevent an individual from withdrawing funds from their customer account whilst still accepting wagers from them. Where the giving of credit is permitted, the licensee may retain details of the amount owed to them by the individual, although the account must not be active. Licensees must implement procedures designed to ensure that an individual who has self-excluded cannot gain access to gambling; and which include: • a register of those excluded with appropriate records (name, address, other details, and any membership or account details that may be held by the operator); • photo identification (where available and in particular where enforcement of the system may depend on photographic ID), and a signature • staff training to ensure that staff are able to enforce the systems; and the removal of those persons found in the gambling area or attempting to gamble from the premises. Self-exclusion procedures should require individuals to take positive action in order to self-exclude. This can be a signature on a selfexclusion form. Wherever practicable, individuals should be able to self-exclude without having to enter gambling premises. Before an individual self-excludes, licensees should provide or make available sufficient information about what the consequences of self-exclusion are.

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Licensees should take all reasonable steps to extend the selfexclusion to premises of the same type owned by the operator in the customer’s local area. In setting the bounds of that area licensees may take into account the customer’s address (if known to them), anything else known to them about the distance the customer ordinarily travels to gamble and any specific request the customer may make. Licensees should encourage the customer to consider extending their self exclusion to other licensees’ gambling premises in the customer’s local area. Customers should be given the opportunity to discuss self-exclusion in private, where possible. Licensees should take all reasonable steps to ensure that: • the self-exclusion period is a minimum of six months and give customers the option of extending this to a total of at least five years; • a customer who has decided to enter a self-exclusion agreement is given the opportunity to so do immediately without any cooling-off period. However, if the customer wishes to consider the self-exclusion further (for example to discuss with problem gambling groups) the customer may return at a later date to enter into self-exclusion; • at the end of the period chosen by the customer (and at least six months later), maintain the self-exclusion in place, unless the customer takes positive action in order to gamble again. No marketing material may be sent to the individual unless the individual has taken positive action in order to gamble again, and has agreed to accept such material; and • where a customer chooses not to renew, and makes a positive request to begin gambling again, give the customer one day to cool off before being allowed access to gambling facilities. The contact must be made via telephone or in person. • Employment of children and young persons Persons under the age of 16 are considered as children while those 16 or 17 years of age are considered as young persons. Licensees who employ children and young persons must be aware that it is an offence to employ children and young persons to provide facilities for gambling. Children and young persons should not be employed in areas where gambling facilities are provided.
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and make available for gambling. 2. Staff should be trained in procedures should they spot such activity. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 38 . and ensure that information about an offer of credit includes a risk warning of what may happen in the event of default. a report should be made to the Commission. This includes the display of rules about gaming including: • the rules of each type of casino game available to be played. In the latter case. including those who have self-excluded from gambling. ‘Fair and Open’ Provisions Licensees must be able to provide evidence to the Commission. the requirements in respect of reporting suspicious transactions must be followed. • a player’s guide to the house edge.• Provision of credit by licensees and the use of credit cards Licensees who choose to accept credit cards must accept payment by credit card for gambling only where that payment is made to a customer account. In all cases where the operator encounters systematic or organised money lending. pit bosses and croupiers in order to prevent overcrowding or jostling of players. Those involved in organised or systematic money lending should be excluded from the premises. Casino licensees must have policies and procedures in place to ensure that proper supervision of gambling at tables is carried out by supervisors. Credit limits must be set for each customer. Licence conditions related to the layout of the premises should be taken into account. Particular care should be taken to ensure that there are appropriate arrangements in place to cover any cases where it appears that the lending may be commercial in nature or may involve money laundering. and • a player’s guide to the rules of any equal chance games which are made available. showing that their terms are not unfair. • Money lending between customers Licensees should take steps to prevent systematic or organised money lending between customers on their premises. funds deposited via credit card only after the card issuer has approved the transaction. Licensees must take reasonable steps to ensure that offers of credit are not sent to vulnerable persons.

Licensees must keep a record of all complaints that are not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedures. All reasonable steps should be taken to ensure that staff involved in the provision of facilities for gambling are made aware of advice on socially responsible gambling and where to get confidential advice should their gambling become hard to control. In all cases. In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities and a ‘dispute’ is a complaint that is not resolved at the first stage of complaints procedures or relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. betting information and payout information available. Licensees must inform customers of the names and status of the person to contact about their complaint and provide them with a copy of the complaint procedures upon request. Marketing Reward schemes and incentives under which the customer may receive money. Gambling Licensees’ Staff Licensees must put policies and procedures in place to manage relationships between staff and customers. 3. Where disputes are not resolved to the customer’s satisfaction. 4. 5. goods. services or other advantages must be operated in such a way that conditions are clearly set out and available to customers. based on the principle that staff should not engage in any conduct which is.There are specific conditions applicable to betting intermediaries and other betting licensees. Complaints and Disputes Licensees must put in place a written procedure for handling customer complaints and disputes. licensees must make rules. Neither the receipt nor the value or amount of benefit should be dependent on the customer gambling for a pre-determined length of time or with a pre-determined frequency. likely to prejudice the licensing objectives in the discharge of their duties. or dependent on the amount the customer spends on gambling within a pre-determined length of time If licensees offer customers free or discounted alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises they must not do so as a form of enticement. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 39 . the licensee should refer the customers to an independent third party. or could be.

The document covers extensively the various responsible gambling processes within the contributing states. The following Code of Conduct details how they fulfill this pledge.Activity 2.3 What do you understand under customer interaction and why is it important that there are policies in place to facilitate customer interaction? Activity 2. Pledge to the employees • AGA members will educate new employees on responsible gaming. 1. This pledge encompasses all aspects of the business. which are representative as a governing body for the trade (Twenty states that have licensed operations within them have contributed to the formation of this document). The American Gaming Association Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming In the United States of America. This code also covers the commitment the members to continue support for research initiatives and public awareness surrounding responsible gaming and underage gambling. the gambling providers have established the American Gaming Association. advertising and marketing.4 a) Define the term ‘house edge’. • AGA casino companies will train gaming floor employees on responsible gaming and provide periodic refresher training. b) Give an example of unfair gambling. • AGA members will implement communications programs for employees to improve understanding of responsible gaming and related policies and procedures. from employee assistance and training to alcohol service. The American Gaming Association (AGA) and its members pledge to their employees and patrons is to make responsible gaming an integral part of the daily operations across the United States. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 40 .

• AGA casino companies will communicate the legal age to gamble through appropriate signage and/or brochures. • AGA members will display in gaming areas and at ATMs signage that can be easily read bearing a toll-free help-line number. To Prevent Underage Gambling and Unattended Minors in Casinos • AGA casino companies will make diligent efforts to prevent underage individuals from loitering in the gaming area of a casino. without a request from the patron. AGA members will post responsible gaming awareness signage bearing a toll-free help-line number at various locations where employees congregate. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 41 . Pledge to the clientele/patrons To Promote Responsible Gaming • AGA members will make available brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. These will be available and visible in gaming areas and at ATMs. • AGA members will make available on their Web sites information describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. each AGA casino company shall make reasonable efforts to honor a written request from any person that it not knowingly grant that person access to gaming activities at one or more of its facilities. Companies will make copies of these brochures available to employees. • AGA casino companies reserve the right to exclude a patron from gaming. 2. • Each AGA casino company will provide opportunities for patrons to request in writing that they not be sent promotional mailings and for revocation of their privileges for specific casino services such as: o Casino-issued markers o Player club/card privileges o On-site check-cashing In addition.• • AGA members will distribute to new employees brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. • AGA members will make available to patrons and employees information generally explaining the probabilities of winning or losing at the various games offered by the casino.

• Casino advertising and marketing will: o Contain a responsible gaming message and/or a toll-free help-line number where practical. If a child appears to be unsupervised or in violation of local curfews and other laws. advertising and marketing include radio and television ads broadcast off the premises. To Advertise Responsibly This code applies to the advertising and marketing of casino gaming by AGA member companies. print.• • Employees working in relevant areas will receive training in appropriate procedures for dealing with unattended children. o Reflect generally accepted contemporary standards of good taste. o Strictly comply with all state and federal standards to make no false or misleading claims. For the purposes of this code. such as the police department or department of youth services. o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a visibly intoxicated patron. and will provide periodic refresher training to those employees. underage gambling. and release the unattended child to their care. To Serve Alcoholic Beverages Responsibly • AGA casino companies will observe a responsible beverage service policy including the following elements: o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a minor. and the purchase and consumption of alcohol and tobacco by minors. If efforts are unsuccessful. o Casinos will make a diligent effort not to permit gaming by a visibly intoxicated patron. direct mail. • AGA casino companies will train appropriate casino employees in the company's responsible alcoholic beverage service policy. restaurants and entertainment that are often associated with or operated or promoted by casinos. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 42 . security personnel will contact an appropriate third party. billboard and Internet promotions. It does not pertain to advertising and marketing that is primarily of hotels. security or appropriate personnel will be contacted and remain with the child while reasonable steps are taken to locate the parent or responsible adult on property or by telephone.

Pledge to the public To Continue Funding Research • AGA members will continue to provide funding for the National Center for Responsible Gaming. o Feature current collegiate athletes. o Be placed in media specifically oriented to children and/or minors. To Provide Oversight and Review • One year following the adoption of this Code of Conduct each AGA member company will implement the code and begin conducting annual reviews of its compliance with this code. employees and policy-makers. comics or other youth features. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 43 . o Contain claims or representations that gaming activity will guarantee an individual's social. celebrity/entertainer endorsements and/or language designed to appeal specifically to children and minors.• Casino advertising and marketing materials will not: Contain cartoon figures. • AGA members will continue to develop a dialogue surrounding scientific research on gambling and health to communicate to and educate patrons. o Be placed at any venue where most of the audience is normally expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. symbols. which is the leading source of science-based research and information on gambling and health. o Be placed in media where most of the audience is reasonably expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. o 3. o Feature anyone who is or appears to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. o Imply or suggest any illegal activity of any kind. or in close proximity to. • AGA members will use this research to identify the best practices for casinos to follow to promote responsible gaming. financial or personal success. to the extent controlled by the AGA member. o Appear adjacent to.

Providing information on responsible gambling and help for problem gamblers. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 44 . Providing opportunities for self-exclusion Controlling credit given to customers. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. dealing with complaints and disputes and staff issues. training and communication for employees. and Preventing money lending. Providing appropriate customer interaction. and • Reviewing of compliance with the code. In the UK. but does not have the force of law. • Funding for research. marketing ethics. Not providing access to gambling to children and yong persons.Activity 2. • Responsible advertising.5 Explain the difference between an Act and a Code of Practice. clientele and the public. The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) set forth specific licencing conditions as well as codes of practice for licensees. Summary A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. It covers aspects such as: • Education. The AGA’s Code of Conduct is set forth in the form of a pledge to employees. The code of conduct further provides guidelines on fair and open gambling. The Codes of Practice covers aspects to protect children and other vulnerable persons by: • • • • • • • Combating problem gambling. • The promotion of responsible gaming practices. In the USA. • The prevention of underage gambling and unattended minors in casinos.

inviting hospitality amenities to attract and retain loyal guests. Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment Casinos are centres of entertainment. It will highlight the effect that the environment has on the clients’ behaviour. where today up to 50% of revenue can be generated from non-gambling activities such as food and beverage and entertainment. designed to provide constant excitement.Topic 3 GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the features found in a casino gambling environment. others have a nightclub-like environment. Most popular casinos also offer their guests world-class dining facilities. Although the unique excitement of gambling is often the strongest draw. casinos are co-located with luxurious hotels. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 45 . students should be able to: • • • • • • • Describe a typical casino layout Describe additional facilities available in the casinos supporting gambling operations Describe the various forms of signage found in casinos Describe typical casino lighting Describe the placement of clocks within the casino Discuss the availability of ATM within the casino complex Discuss the availability of promotional materials within the casino. for example how it entice them to gamble and lose track of time. most gambling facilities also rely on an array of comfortable. Often. Gambling facilities are often glamorous environments where clients can get transported to fantasy worlds. Learning outcome: After studying this chapter. Previously. up to 90% of casino revenue came from gambling activities.

The movement of staff and clients should be considered and separated where necessary.g. casinos that look empty discourage play. For example. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 46 . the space or perception of space. Furthermore. there is little mystery to set out and explore it on foot. e. intimate settings for their gambling rather than open spacious areas. Architects and interior designers of public spaces have to consider the way their designs will influences people. if a casino has a pathway that runs through it without diverting a customer into the gambling areas. light levels. and to keep them there for as long as possible. signs. if a potential customer can see the entire casino from the entrance. the high rollers will usually be separated from other gamblers.e. to get customers to come into the casino. Where the casino attracts different types of clients. Shopping malls and individual stores are designed to influence the way people spend their time. Casino Layout Casinos must be planned as functional and attractive spaces. acoustic properties and supporting facilities. Designers of casinos face similar issues. factors making up the casino environment include the layout of the casino. Thus. to entertain them once they are in. and customers prefer small.Many studies have been done on the relationship between built environments and behaviour. casinos are designed to maximise revenue earning potential. with products placed strategically to entice customers to buy more item. The phrase built environment refers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity. the customer may never step off the path and engage in the action. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. in some outlets items might be arranged in a way to maximize customer throughput. i. while another store might be designed to keep customers in the store for as long as possible.

1 An overhead floor plan of a casino with supporting facilities Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 47 .Fig 3.

In the casinos of the past, table games were king. Not only were table games the most popular, but they were also the most profitable. On the Las Vegas Strip, where table games once ruled, slots now dominate. Nearly 50% of the total casino win comes from slots. State-wide in Nevada, slots generate over 67% of the total casino win. The comparison is even more dramatic if you were to look at the departmental profits. In the early days of gaming, slots were merely a diversion and were usually placed around the perimeter of the casino. These machines were all pretty much the same: three-reel mechanical slots. With the exception of the cabinetry, denomination, and brand name, the workings of the ‘one-armed bandits’ were essentially the same. You inserted a coin, pulled the handle, and awaited the outcome as mechanical reels spun and clicked into position. General placement deals with where the slot banks and coin booths will be placed. Slot banks refer to groupings of slot machines, whereas coin booths and slot carousels are areas on the casino floor where players can purchase coins and tokens for use in the slot machines. In considering general placement, each slot cabinet that will hold a slot machine must be viewed as an empty box. These ‘empty boxes’ can be used to create traffic patterns or, conversely, to impede traffic patterns. The overriding consideration is to place the machines where the maximum number will be viewed by slot players. Enticements such as the showroom, bingo parlour, keno parlour, casino bars, race and sports books, and restaurants create traffic. These enticements (sometimes called anchors) influence slot placement. For example, slot machines should be placed at the entrance and exit of the bingo parlour or showroom in such a manner that customers exiting will be exposed to the maximum number of machines. Generally, slot aisles are between 5½ and 7 feet (1.6 to 2 meter) in width. Aisles that are too narrow cramp the customer and may have a negative impact on profit maximisation. The extent of seating the slot manager decides to make available will determine the aisle width necessary. Seating in the modern casino is crucial to the success of a slot operation. In Atlantic City, regulations require all aisles to be at least 7 feet wide and only fixed seating can be provided. This fixed seating rule results from concerns that movable seats could impair the customer from exiting in the event of a fire.
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Specific placement deals with placement of the specific models and coin denominations. There are several general philosophies that influence specific slot placement: • • Low hold (loose) machines should be placed in busy walkways to create an atmosphere of activity. The most popular machines should be placed near entrances where they can easily be seen by someone trying to decide whether or not to enter the casino. High hit frequency machines located around the casino pit area will create an atmosphere of slot activity. High earners and test machines should be placed in heavy traffic areas. Gimmick machines (machines in which the top award is a prize like a new car or a trip around the world) should be placed near entrances and in high traffic areas. Loose machines placed next doorways or toilets or in close proximity to the street.

• • •

These are only general philosophies governing slot placement. In application, the slot manager will continue to modify the slot floor configuration to best attract and retain customers through the use of available slot performance data. Traffic flow is kept in mind when designing casinos floor layout. Possible anchors are placed in prominent positions around the casino entrances. (Car displays, attraction machines and large jackpot style machines). Visibility and accessibility of the slots floor have been found to improve the overall performance of the casino. There have been many tried and tested variations in the gambling environment that improve the occupancy rates and increase overall capacity.

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Fig 3.2 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

Although the design depicted in figure 3.2 may appear regimented or rather uninteresting, it is important to note that adaptations such as winding pathways and generous use of pods on the borders of the slot areas are easily accomplished. Adaptations such as these maintain the basic design, while further improving the visibility and accessibility of interior units. A careful review of the environmental psychology literature would yield many beneficial modifications to improve the ambience and functionality of any slot floor.

Fig 3.3 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

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Facilities Resort style casinos are popular family destinations with facilities to entertain clients for days.4 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park.Fig 3. Summary The positioning of machines is critical to the gaming operator as he can entice the clientele into the casino area with relative ease. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 51 . This is contrary to the responsible gambling part of an operator’s portfolio as this also plays an essential role in a client’s spending extra money within the environment. Even smaller casino properties have a range of supporting facilities to attract clients and to increase revenue. USA Activity 3.1 Explain in your own words what you understand by the term ‘enticement’.

attracting guests to stay at the resort for longer. Pilannesburg. games arcades and theme parks. and list the various facilities other than gambling facilities offered by the casinos. How do supporting facilities influence gambling patterns? Summary Supporting facilities are provided to attract and entertain clients. a manmade ocean. theatres. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 52 . These include water sports for the kids including ‘Valley of Waves’.2 Look at any of the mega casino resorts around the world. This is all offered to the discerning outdoor lover to entice him into spending his weekend away with his family. shops. they use very discreet types of subterfuge or enticement in order to make the client feel at home within the gaming areas. South Africa. At Sun City. Activity 3. A very important key element to all successful casinos is the clever installation of various forms of signage. Signage Although the gaming provider has a certain set of instructions. the so-called ‘Africa’s Kingdom of Pleasure’ there are various facilities to encompass the guests overall pleasure. Numerous entertainment venues can be found in resort style casinos. plus a discount structure offered as a bonus at a hotel at the resort. allowing clients to return to gaming activities as soon as possible. These include sports facilities. Packages are offered that include access to all of the facilities. Bars can be found on the casino floor as well as in adjacent areas. Fine dining restaurants are available for those who prefer. Fast food outlets offer fast service.Food and beverage outlets are important features in casinos. It generates additional income for the property and keeps guests at destinations for longer.

People will se an amount of money displayed over a group of slot machines (See Fig 3. The lure of this progressive value to some clients is phenomenal. This has been used to successfully attract many visitors into the casinos around the world. Fig 3. Other signs have to be displayed as a commitment to providing responsible gambling service. these types of signs are used to promote the names or machine reel content that is being used below the sign (See Fig 3.6.). Overhead Signage Although as the name implies. Although the casino does pay for the right to use this type of display they are trying to promote a brand of game type. Progressive Signage Progressives are machines in which the top jackpot continuously increases until won. Although this show of the value’s of the increment. including a progressive amount.5). Most forms of signage are used to either lure the client into the facility or attract customers to specific areas of the gaming floor. the term overhead signage is used mainly above a bank of machines. the general incremental rate is around 1% of the value that is turned over in the machines. in some cases patrons who visit regularly will always stake an amount into the progressive bank of machines.The origination of signage came from Ray ‘Pappy’ Smith in the early 50’s whereby he had an idea to improve the visibility of the casino industry.5 Overhead Signage of the Adams Family 2. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 53 . 1. The amount will be displayed in an attractive neon or media display.

A TFT monitor delivers crisp text. vibrant colour and an improved response time for multimedia applications. The reason behind this form of signage is that it delivers up to date information to members of the public at live feeds. TFT Signage TFT stands for thin-film transistor technology.8 TFT Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 54 . These types of signs are also used for advertising current attractions around the casino area. It has the ability to attract one’s eye while walking the floor. In Machine Signage The display in the paytable of the machine is called a ‘Mikohn’ in machine Display. These displays or signs are used on the ends of the table games or live gaming area to show the clientele the last number or current number that has been rolled on roulette.7 Mikhon in machine 4. Figure 3.6 Progressive Signage 3.Fig 3. Figure 3. this display is a sign that is made up from three different coloured LED’s and is commonly used to display the amount of an individual machines progressive.

5. It reflects the class of the establishment. Fig 3. Fig 3.10 External Overhead Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 55 . Denomination or Bank End Signage These types of either polycarbonate or sphere type signs are strategically placed around the casino floor. running lights or neon for striking effect. External Signage The use of this signage is the pride of any establishment. External signs often make use of Tivoli. This is used to enable the customers to identify the amount of money or area of the casino floor that they are playing in. highlighting the denomination of a bank of machines clearly to the public.9 Bank End Sign (A Topper Sign) 6. These signs are usually well lit and cover the doorway or entrance portal of the casino.

these rules could be referred to resolve the dispute. the different payouts of the game and rules of the game. Games rules and regulations The gambling provider has a legal obligation to display the rules and regulations governing the games of chance that are on offer in the establishment. minimum stake. These must be displayed prominently at the table. In Singapore these will be specific in accordance with the Singapore Control Act 2006. The casino will have to advise the age restriction as well as any dress code and behaviour patterns required in the facility.7.12 Games rules and regulations for Bingo 8. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 56 . Should a dispute arise. the entrance criteria is clear to clients and can be referred to when it is necessary to refuse entrance to clients who do not meet the criteria. By displaying a ‘right of admission reserved sign’. Right of admission reserved The gambling facility has the right (by Law) to certain restrictions for allowing visitors into the casino. There are many variations of signage around the world covering entrance requirements. This includes the table limits. Fig 3.11 Right of Admission Reserved Sign Fig 3.

This signage must include the possible ills of gambling and advice on the various solutions or the counselling lines that are available. Responsible Gambling Programme Signage Gambling legislations around the world require that the gambling providers place responsible gambling signage in highly visible areas of the gambling facilities and surrounding areas such as in the toilets. around the machines and live gaming area’s as well as the foyer of the casino or slots areas.13 Responsible Gambler awareness sign Summary The different types of signage are very instrumental in enticing the playing customer into the establishment. These signs advice clients on options for help as assistance should they have a gambling problem.9. Fig 3. Types of signage used include: • • • • • • • • • Overhead Signage Progressive Signage In Machine Signage TFT media signs Denomination or Bank end signage External Right of Admission reserved Games rules and regulations Responsible Gambling Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 57 .

Although the most responsible gambling programs would encourage natural lighting in the casino environment. this could be a costly venture for a casino operator who might lose revenue and patronage. Activity 3. but rather to highlight certain visual elements and to contribute to the atmosphere in the casino. This is not necessarily a ploy to get the clientele into the casino. Lighting is used to create a mood or enhance a gaming or entertainment activity. The lack of natural daylight in casinos contributes to the fact that gamblers might not be aware of passage of time. with gaming machines packed into every available space. The absence of natural daylight in the casino is drawing much criticism lately. as natural light makes clients aware of passage of time.Casino Lighting Casinos offer dramatic visual environments. New casinos however. The layout of the machines and the lighting used in these areas may make it easy for patrons to lose track of time. Quite often gambling areas are dimly lit.g.3 Describe the consequences that providing natural light within the casino would have on the gambling provider. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 58 . Summary Casino environments are often dimly lit with lighting designed to create atmosphere and highlight special features. e. for example skylights and large windows. are being designed with more features allowing natural light to enter gaming areas. what time of day or night it is. although this is not proved. Most casinos rely solely on artificial lighting.

the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 states that a casino operator shall not provide or allow another person to provide any automatic teller machine within the boundaries of the casino premises and that any casino operator who contravenes this regulation shall be liable to disciplinary action. for the installation of clocks so that every player in a gaming area is able to see the time. Responsible gambling regulations ask gambling providers to provide an opportunity for reality check for patrons. This can contribute to the might contribute to the fact that gamblers might loss track of time.e. Activity 3. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 59 . Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) Throughout various casino environments around the world.Display of Clocks Casinos often do not display clocks in highly visible places. This influence the way clients are made aware of time. i. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. Casino employees can wear wrist watches to keep track of shifts and break times.4 Explain what the term ‘passage of time’ means to you. Summary Clocks are usually not displayed in highly visible places within casinos. However. For example. This is a minimum standard that is required but does not have any forcible effect under the law. time is displayed at cashier’s booths and on other electronic signs around the casino. The logic behind this rational is that there should be no concept of time or passage of time for the clientele at all.

The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. or outside the floor areas within other facilities.g. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 60 . the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor. Furthermore. Figure 3. responsible gambling legislations require responsible gambling signs to be placed at ATM machines as a deterrent to draw more cash. or could be for the gambling section only. room bed and breakfast. Promotional materials can take the form of a package deal for the hotel or resort. some casinos would have ATM’s placed around the floor area. The different package deals are put together by the marketing departments to attract crowds to the venue. Promotional Materials Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. e. e.5 What is the rationale of casino legislations for prohibiting the placement of ATM’s within the casino area? Summary Throughout various casino environments around the world. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor. a ticket to an exclusive show.g.However. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. and gives them a chance to think about whether they should really be drawing more money.13 Problem Gambling Hotline Activity 3. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area.

hotels and resorts. Many casinos offer reward programmes for regular clients in order for them to return time and time again. Invitations to special Sun International events such as the Nedbank Golf Challenge Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Platinum and Gold cardholders can enjoy the MVG Lounge and Prive privileges. Each Sun International Casino has various benefits and offers exclusive to Most Valued Guests that can be enjoyed during your visits. and our MVG Programme demonstrates just how much: • • • • • • • • • Recognition as a Most Valued Guest at all Sun International casinos. the more you earn with Sun International. The higher your status. Earn MVG points for play on slots and tables. Popular promotional materials include gambling vouchers (offer) that one can be redeemed at the casino or slots area. i. one of the most used by Sun International is the Sunscapes voucher. you will be delighted at the benefits you receive. Most of these offers would be for downtimes in the hotel industry. As you progress from Maroon to Silver to Gold and then to the prestigious Platinum. drinks and exciting merchandise.e. Being a Most Valued Guest means more than just recognition and the guarantee of VIP status at Sun International’s casinos and resorts – it also delivers a range of exclusive membership benefits and rewards in exchange for MVG points. where available. This is to make sure that there is a response from the clients who frequent the establishment. Sun International Benefits and Rewards The more you play. This would offer the client a hotel discount structure for two people over certain periods of time. For example. off peak periods. Exclusive accommodation discounts at Sun International’s luxury hotels and resorts Terrific discounts on green fees at Sun International golf courses.One of the best ploys used by the gambling provider is the correct use of promotional materials. the greater your rewards. food. 61 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . At Sun International we value your loyalty. Redeem your MVG points for luxurious accommodation.

sharing. 0800-11-51-50.Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. to secure your accommodation. however should family rooms not be available. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations. where availability allows it. THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. Platinum 80% midweek 80% weekend Gold 70% midweek 55% weekend Silver 50% midweek 25% weekend Maroon Green Fees discount (for cardholder) Accommodation Discounts (maximum three consecutive nights and subject to availability) Green Fees discount (for cardholder only) Recognition as an MVG in every Sun International Casino Invitations to special Sun International events 80% midweek 80% weekend 50% discount on green fees * 70% midweek 55% weekend 30% discount on green fees * 50% midweek 25% weekend 10% discount on green fees * Green Fees discount (for cardholder) * Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 62 . Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. Call this toll-free number.

* * * * * * Gold * * * * * * Silver * * * * * * Maroon * * * * * * * * Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 63 . sharing. THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations.Platinum Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Earn points for play Free Membership Free entry into all Sun International Casinos MVG Partner Card VIP Parking MVG Lounge and Prive privileges Complimentary beverages whilst playing Sun International’s Prive Magazine mailed to you quarterly Dedicated hotel check-in counter and cash desk facilities – where available. This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking.

such as a monkey call. The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. the gambling providers around the globe are now using appropriate environmental features. tickets to events or restaurant vouchers. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room.5 Provide 2 examples of promotional rewards. on the inside of the building. The service provider will then use machinery. The correct use or utilisation of airconditioning above and around the machines can create a feeling of wellness within the service provider’s area. fauna and flora at his disposal to create an ambience. to secure your accommodation. By doing so they can transform a ‘dead and bleary’ looking casino floor into a tropical paradise. to enhance the player’s attention to a promotional machine. where availability allows it. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 64 . Activity 3. Creating a Comfortable Environmental In attempting to transform the original casino environment. however should family rooms not be available. environment. The use of water features. There are also artificial sounds that are used for advertising purposes.Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. The once bland casino floor is now used to take a client into another domain. Call this toll-free number. Summary Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. tumbling through troughs and soothing noises allows one to venture into a dream world not caring about where you are. It might include accommodation offers. The majority of these features are recreated artificially. 0800-11-51-50.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 65 . cooling features can assist with retaining the client within the casino area. also instils a sense of well being in the client. These lighting skills will be used as down lights above the tables. As an example the utilisation of downdrafts within the environment will force the clients to rethink where he is comfortable while playing. room temperature. in other world over provided. Activity 3. complimentary drinks at the service provider’s expense.6 a) Describe the environment that must be created in the casino to make customers comfortable and stimulate interest. b) How does this environment contradict responsible gambling? Summary The utilisation of environmental features has become a challenge for the service provider. The opposite of this is the use of ambient temperatures while playing in the area (22 degrees). The use of correct lighting. although not natural light. the using of automatic dimmers can give a relaxed atmosphere. These temperatures are also used in the improving of bar sales. to upward lighting around the slots floor areas.The correct use of either heating. in some instance he has exceeded expectations. Although there is no natural light in the casino environment. but enhancing his overall playing conditions.

Learning outcome After studying this chapter. This information will inform clients of the options they have and enable them to make informed and responsible choices. The types of information that should be available will be discussed as well of the ways in which this information is made available. Introduction to the Provision of Information Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information.Topic 4 PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS Objective In this chapter the students will be introduced to the provision of information that should be readily available to the clients. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 66 . Having information and understanding the games also contributes to the enjoyment of games participated in. the student should be able to: • • • • • Describe the range of information that should be displayed as well as available upon request Describe the range of responsible gambling information that should be available Describe the range of information on counselling that should be available Describe the win/loss and probability information that should be available Describe the information on games that should be available.

• The chances of winning. odds or returns to player. The provision of information is based on the proposition that consumers must have access to adequate information at the ‘point of gaming’. and • Advice on counseling services. game rules.Clients often do not have access to sufficient information on probable outcomes from specific gambling activities. In addition to the above mentioned. where appropriate. there are certain information that are available to clients upon request. policies for addressing problem gambling issues relevant to the local community. • Identifying problem gambling. • The nature of games. It might often be necessary to publish posters and brochures in a variety of languages. (See Fig 4.1 Responsible gambling poster printed in 6 languages Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 67 . These include: • The gambling provider’s Responsible Gambling Practices documentation including.1) Fig 4. The regulated gambling providers are expected to offer their patrons accurate and meaningful information that are readily available and in clear language explaining topics such as: • The rules and operations of the games. or ‘point of sale’ to enable them to make informed decisions about their participation. They may have incorrect and inflated expectations of the rewards to be received from participation in gambling activities. • Gambling-related complaint resolution mechanisms. Information must be made available in languages that will be understood by clients. • Self-Exclusion provisions.

. Fig 4. Additional information should be available upon request. Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. and • Advice on counseling services. This information should be prominently displayed in all gambling areas and near ATM and POS facilities servicing gambling areas. Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling Many gamblers are not aware that they are at risk of developing gambling problems. lotteries. as appropriate. etc. whether casinos.Summary Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. Internet or Telephone Sports Bookmakers and Online Gaming Licensees are required to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and. Gamblers who are aware of the risks. For this reason. often choose to ignore the risks. • The chances of winning. • Identifying problem gambling. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. Information that should be displayed throughout the establishment includes: • The rules and operations of the games. it is important to remind gamblers of the risks they face. Information must be available in languages understood by clients. where to get help for problem gambling on their websites.1 Responsible Gambling notice found on ATM’s Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 68 .

inside both the casino and the surrounding areas such as the hotel lobby.2 Responsible Gambling advertisement Responsible Gambling Mission Statement Many gambling acts require that a Responsible Gambling Mission Statement is clearly displayed around the gambling provider’s service area. Gambling providers can come out with their own mission statements.2) was used in a local boxing gymnasium. This is interpreted as a logo on an internet page. For example. In addition. for example near the cashier’s booth and standalone change dispensing devices. operators could display the poster and business cards in additional areas of the venue. Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees have to display their responsible gambling mission statements on their websites. One of the well known service providers (Sun International) has the following statement ‘Gamble with your head and not your heart’. service forecourt and children’s play area’s.There are some additional initiatives that could be implemented by outside investments such as town councils. local community services may have brochures that advertise their services and these can also be appropriately displayed. This logo has been advertised at every gambling facility. Although a catchy style of phrase the irresponsible gambler might not take heed to this advice. It is also included on their website. The advert in the example (fig 4. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 69 . Fig 4.

venue fliers. and as a footnote on letterheads. • ‘The XYZ Club supports the responsible enjoyment of our facilities. More interesting and eye catching ways of displaying information can be implemented by engaging professional advertising companies. (See Fig 4. newspaper advertisements. The ‘playing cards’ below was developed for the National Responsible Gambling Council. for example. • Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer contact details. Gambling provider venues with websites could also incorporate a ‘Responsible Enjoyment’ section including: • Promotion of non-alcohol and low-alcohol drinks. • Safe transport options.Other Methods of Displaying Information The gambling provider could promote their responsible approach within. e.4 Playing cards with a responsible gambling message and helpline number Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 70 .: • ‘The XYZ Club.4) Fig 4. mail outs. a responsible community organisation.g. • Tips to gambling within means. • ‘The XYZ Club – promoting responsible enjoyment.

gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. Availability of Counselling ‘It is the Council’s hope that with greater awareness. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. Information on counselling services available and their contact details must be displayed in full view around the casino.’ – NCPG 2008 In accordance with legislative requirements. whether casinos. The examples listed below are just a few of the lines available. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 71 . lotteries.1 Describe what a responsible gambling mission statement and give an example of a statement. and in other gambling facilities such as lottery outlets and gambling websites. stating the name of the organisations whose statement it is. more individuals will come forth to seek professional help. Various countries around the world that have gambling interests have 24 hour counselling hotlines available.. Most of the hotlines are toll free numbers. and there will be less hesitancy among members of the public to refer family members or friends for professional help. Summary Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. etc.Activity 4.

anxiety and even depression. Friendship To Compulsive Gamblers In Singapore the some examples of the counselling facilities are: 1800-X-Gamble Gamblers and their families (18009426253) often have to struggle with financial and debt management problems as well as guilt. Those who want a listening ear. or who are referred by their friends. family. probation. social or health workers Helpline: GamCare is the national centre 084 56000 133 for information. and to obtain information and assistance on gambling problems can call the helplines. Thye Hua Kwan 2 pilot agencies the Ministry of Community Development. Moral Society Youth and Sports (MCYS) is Tel: 6337 1201 funding to provide counselling Care Corner and support services to Counselling problem gamblers and their Centre Tel: 6353-1180 families. National Contact Gamblers Anonymous is a Gamblers number: fellowship of men and women Anonymous 02073843040 who have joined together to do (UK) something about their own gambling problem and to help Offering The other compulsive gamblers do Hand Of the same.K.Examples of the United Kingdom responsible gambling counsellors: Contact details: Gordon House Association 01384241292 accepts individuals who refer themselves. advice and practical help in relation to the social impact of gambling in the U. 72 Thye Hua Kwan Moral Society and Care Corner Counselling Centre Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 .

and • That counsellors are available to provide information and advice. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 73 . seven days a week to answer questions. including substance behavioural addictions (e.Contact Number: 6-RECOVER (6732 6837) Community Addictions Management Programme (CAMP) Its aim is to provide treatment for individuals with various addictions. sex addiction and internet addiction). • That help lines can be called 24 hours a day. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. This information should be displayed throughout the gambling facility and staff should provide information to clients upon request.2 a) b) What is meant by counselling? What is the meaning of a toll free help line? Summary In accordance with legislative requirements. Casino and other gambling facilities have training programmes in place for staff the equip them to provide information to clients. The various advertisements around the casino or gambling facility must make it clear that: • Help is available. the casino staff must be able to assist them. Should the client need help in resourcing the counselling services and help lines. compulsive gambling. Activity 4.g.

If the service provider has a computer generated online system. This is the amount that he could loose over a period of time taking into consideration the he would win or loose on different visits at the service provider. This figure is represented in value to both parties. The detailed report would be used to determine the client’s play at the casino. The service provider will use the online play reports for the marketing rewards systems that are in place at the gambling provider’s establishment. The gambling provider’s around the globe are required to advise the client as to his win/loss records. could work out his accumulated casino win/loss figure as a percentage. these reports would be named individually. a client’s win/loss figures refer to the amount of revenue that the casino has either generated or lost to the client. or if a regular service provider. Clients are afforded verbal access to these statistics whenever they approach the service provider. These reports will advise the service provider or the client as to his specific play patterns. with management’s assistance. The availability of a client’s win/loss statistics at a casino is made available through the player rewards database. as it could determine the worth of the client to the casino. for example the handle tracked report. the player tracking database could be online. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 74 . It could also be used to support an exclusion order when a client has spent excessive amounts on gambling. The probability of loosing in a game of chance is explained to the client when the service provider explains the individual games of chance to the client. as well as the amount of visits per month. and win/loss report. Depending on the service provider’s status within the industry. Although the reward system will not have current hold percentages of the different game types that the client are frequenting. the reports would be manually generated. rewards redeemed report. These statistics are kept by the service provider in order that the service provider can establish the net worth of the client. the client.Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability In casino parlance. and the period of time spent playing.

In the case of slot machines. Maintenance of any misleading or deceptive matter on any payoff schedule or award card or failure on the part of a licensee to make payment in strict accordance with posted payoff schedules or award cards may be deemed an unsuitable method of operation. a reward card for the game that is represented at the place of stake.012 . this simply states that these are minimum internal controls standards required by the gambling provider to meet in order to have the gaming facility/ property fully licensed and operational. The same information is done in a slot machine on the awards paytable. The above example is only a minimum requirement but does cover extensive control on the individual gambling property. These are in the form of the top glass of the slot machine cabinet. In the case of craps. (See Fig 4. Except as specifically provided herein. or (b) The award cards of any game offered for play are displayed at all times when the device is available for play. 2. These are the reward paytables for the staked amount on an individual bet should a winning combination occur. the foregoing requirements will be satisfied if: (a) The player is at all times made aware that payoff schedules or award cards applicable to any game offered for play are readily accessible and will be displayed on the video display screen of the device upon the initiation of a command by the player. keno and faro games the foregoing requirement will be satisfied if published payoff schedules are maintained in a location readily accessible to players and notice of the location of such schedule is posted on or adjacent to the table.As an example the Las Vegas Gaming requirements are as follows: Nevada Gaming Regulation 5.5) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 75 . Payoff schedules or award cards must accurately state actual payoffs or awards applicable to the particular game or device and shall not be worded in such manner as to mislead or deceive the public.Publication of Payoffs 1. The gambling property will place in view on the live gaming table. payoff schedules or award cards applicable to every licensed game or slot machine shall be displayed at all times either on the table or machine or in a conspicuous place immediately adjacent thereto.

for a one dollar (US$) the average hold percentage is 6. which was trying to get the customers to understand the amount that the casino would hold.5% and 1% when played with perfect basic Examples of Slot machine game hold percentages that are offered around the world are in line with a denominational trend.00. as in the layman’s terms – the house percentage/casino win.5 Slot Machine Paytable (Source: http://www.) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 76 .slotmachinest rategy. the house edge is normally expressed as a percentage.Although suggestions have been made to the service providers to advertise the average machine hold percentages. or craps. (This is a long term expectation. Slot Machine Payout Percentages Various ways of describing the house edge on gambling games are traditionally used. and in the short term. With table games like roulette. anything can happen. the gambling trends have shown that the service providers in Las Vegas are using the percentages to entice customers into the service provider’s area. the player can expect to lose between $0. For example. blackjack has a house edge of between 0. blackjack. That means out of every $100 bet. Fig 4. For example.5%.50 and $1. This is been used in contradiction to the responsible gambling mission around the globe.

in proximity to relevant games and on web sites. the more active a casino destination is.92. For example. The payout percentage is basically what percentage of money will get paid out compared to what is wagered. The only difference between a slot machine hold percentage and the casino (house) hold is the term used to describe it. And the higher denomination games usually have a higher payout percentage than the lower denomination slot machine games. In the short term the hold percentages can vary. in August 2006. (Again.But slot machines are normally described according to their payout percentages.5%. as this will determine the hold percentage in the long term. This number is determined by subtracting the payout percentage from 100%.93. this is over the long term.3% Information on the Odds or Win Rates of Major Prizes The gambling provider must make available easily understood and accurate information on the odds or win rates of major prizes. This information should be displayed in gambling areas.6% • Dollar slots . for example. the higher the slot machine payouts are.3% • Five dollar slots . would pay out $99. Usually.50 for every $100 wagered. There are some variables that the machine will have. such as the amount of handle (spins). Typical Slot Machine Payouts and Payout Percentages A typical slot machine payout percentage varies according to what area of the country you're in. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 77 . the slot machine payouts at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City looked something like this: • Quarter slots . Slot machine payouts also vary based on what denomination of slot machine you're playing. A slot machine with a payout percentage of 99. So a slot machine with a 96% payout percentage has a 4% hold percentage. The hold percentage on a slot machine is the same thing as the house edge on a table game.97.) Slot Machine Hold Percentages A slot machine's hold percentage is the amount of money the house can expect to win over the long term.

clients can have realistic expectations. The odds or win rates of major prizes should also be available to clients. The gambling provider could: • Have odds of winning current major prizes readily available at points of sale (POS) and coin exchanges (Slots Booths or Cashiers). Additional Initiatives Operators may choose to display their full complement of documentation in prominent locations such as welcome centres or information centres.Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees must make this information available on their websites. • Alert patrons to the availability of the Guide and promote its use (signage around the gaming area as well as any outside media). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 78 . By having this information. Information on Games Service providers around the world are recognizing the need to instruct the clients in the art of the games of chance. The most popular games that are explained to clients are blackjack and roulette. This will be available from the marketing department. Summary Casinos should make win/loss and probability information available to clients. • Prominently display the relevant Player Information Guide in accessible areas (hotel lobby). the teaching of these games is at best thorough. Although the information is available to inform the client of the risks involved in a game of chance. Training centres for clients are generally built in the large service provider’s facility and are manned by staff that are trained to deal with all requests from client’s for information on live gaming. • Ensure adequate supply of these guides (on desktops or around the live gaming areas within easy reach). Gambling providers operating loyalty programs could also provide player activity records to the relevant patron upon that person’s request.

Casinos can use this information for marketing purposes and reward purposes. This enables the casino to obtain the necessary information needed to keep records of the amount and time spend in the casino. To obtain silver. gold. The maroon card is an entry level card. silver or maroon) based on their level of spent.Summary Many of the large casinos offer to train clients on the rules and play of popular casino games. gold or platinum cards. Player Rating Systems The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. the amount he spent. The reward system will award clients different colour cards (platinum. These figures are recorded in a computerised system and used to form a database of clients that utilize the facility.250 450 50 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 79 . Having a player tracking or rating system in place holds advantages for both the gambling provider as well as the client. The client can have access to his win/loss ratio. Some large casino groups have group wide ratings systems. the player has to use the card each time he plays. clients have to accumulate points as follows: Card Tier Platinum Card Gold Card Silver Card Points Required 4. The Most Valued Guest System (MVG) used by Sun International is an example of a player rating system. To accumulate points. the hours of play and the status of play. Clients who sign up for reward programmes are issued with ‘tracking cards’.

Points from the various casinos within the group can be combined. To earn 1 point on a table game, the client must turnover R2500 and to earn 1 point on slots, the client must turnover R500. This means that for a client to obtain a platinum card, he would have to turnover at least R10, 625 000 on table games or R2, 125 000 on slots. Summary The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. Both the client and the gambling provider can obtain valuable information through player reward systems.

Activity 4.3 Explain what the gambling provider could do to have the odds or win rates available for clients.

Activity 4.4 a) b) What is meant by the term House Edge? Give an example of the House Edge of Blackjack.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


This chapter will explain the procedures for handling requests for exclusions and the implementation of exclusion orders. Students will get to appreciate the extent of work and control involved managing and enforcing exclusion orders. Exclusion procedures must be handled in accordance with legislations and is a very important aspect of responsible gambling.

Learning Outcome
After studying this chapter the student should be able to: • • • • • • Define the various types of exclusion orders Discuss the exclusion procedures stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 Explain the procedures for dealing with exclusion requests and implementation of exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with attempts to breach exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with requests to revoke exclusion orders Explain policies that remote gambling operators should have in place with regards exclusion orders.

Introduction to Exclusion Orders
Responsible Gambling legislations in various countries require gambling providers, including casinos, to make available to their clients and gambling public and to administer exclusion programmes. In Singapore the exclusion process is stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 and in the UK, the Gambling Act 2005 provides guidelines.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


Gambling providers should be able to administer a self-exclusion order upon request from clients. Other exclusion orders that might be handled by responsible gambling commissions or councils include family exclusion orders and automatic exclusion orders or third party exclusion orders. Gambling providers must have policies and procedures in place for handling all types of exclusion orders. Responsible gambling councils will provide registered gambling providers (licensees) with details of excluded persons. The gambling providers are the front line institutions which have to deal with the different types of exclusions. This will incorporate the complete process from interviewing clients requesting for exclusion through to advising the responsible gambling departments of people who has been excluded. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. It also prevents them from loosing any more money on gambling. The exclusion clause was regulated as there would be instances that clients would carry on with gambling if there was no forcible help in the law. For a gambling service provider, dealing with exclusions can be stressful and unpleasant. Extreme caution and care has to be taken when dealing with and enforcing exclusion orders. It might be necessary to exclude regular clients with whom the staff have built a relationship. Management and staff should be able to distance themselves from personal feelings should they know clients on a personal basis. Types of Exclusion Orders • Self Exclusion Casino Self Exclusion refers to an approach to reducing gambling problems whereby an individual voluntarily excludes him or herself from a casino. The individual contracts with the casino that they will not enter the casino, and if they do, they can be removed and charged with trespassing.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families.1 a) What is a ‘deed of exclusions’? b) Explain what is meant by the term self exclusion. • Third Party Exclusion or Automatic Exclusion Under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. family exclusion and third party or automatic exclusion. c) What is meant by an incapacitated applicant? Summary It is a legal requirement for gambling providers to manage and make available exclusion orders. Recipients of Public Assistance or Special Grants as well as undercharged bankrupts will be excluded from casino premises under Third Party Exclusion. Exclusion orders can be in the form of self exclusion.• Family Exclusion In some countries. Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 In topic 2. including Singapore. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. In addition to the procedures discussed previously. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 has specific guidelines for casinos to deal with exclusions. we discussed the procedures followed by the National Council on Problem Gambling when dealing with family exclusions. Activity 5. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 83 . Problem Gambling Councils can exclude a person whose gambling behaviour has caused serious harm to his/her family. upon application by a family member.

as the case may be.Different types of gambling providers in different countries around the world. Section 120 . prohibiting the person from entering or remaining on the casino premises. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises. whether on the voluntary application of the person or otherwise. The following sections from the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 will be examined as an example. (2) An oral exclusion order lapses after 14 days. regulated under various gambling legislations. Section 122 . (3) A person who has been given an exclusion order under this section may appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. (2) A voluntary application under subsection (1) shall be in writing and signed by the applicant in the presence of a person authorised by the casino operator to witness such an application. the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of that order. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises.Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police (1) The Commissioner of Police may.Exclusion orders by casino operator (1) A casino operator may give a written exclusion order under this section to a person. the casino operator shall notify the Authority and the Council of that order or the revocation of that order. by an exclusion order given to a person orally or in writing.Exclusion orders by Authority (1) The Authority may. (3) As soon as practicable after a casino operator gives an exclusion order under subsection (1) or revokes the order. (2) As soon as practicable after making an exclusion order. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 84 . will have similar guidelines to adhere to. Section 121 . (3) As soon as practicable after the Authority gives an exclusion order under this section. by a written exclusion order given to a person. the Authority shall notify each casino operator of that order.

(2) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Commissioner of Police or the Minister. without reasonable excuse. on appeal. (c) a casino employee.Excluded person not to enter casino premises (1) An excluded person shall not enter or remain. Section 127 .Removal of excluded persons from casino premises (1) This section applies to the following persons on any casino premises: (a) the person for the time being in charge of the casino.List of persons excluded by casino operator The Authority may. require a casino operator to furnish a list of persons excluded from the casino premises by the casino operator. Section 125 . Section 126 . (3) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Authority or the Minister. from time to time. Section 124 . permit an excluded person to enter or remain on the casino premises. the Authority shall give notice of the revocation to each casino operator as soon as practicable after it occurs. (b) an agent of the casino operator.Duration of exclusion orders (1) An exclusion order made under section 121 or 122 remains in force in respect of a person unless and until it is revoked by the person who gave the order or by the Minister. (2) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall comply with any order made under section 163 (2) (d) to close any deposit account of a respondent named in that order. (2) Any person. being subject to an exclusion order made under section 121 or 122. who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence. or take part in any gaming. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 85 . the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of the revocation. on any casino premises.Section 123 .Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises (1) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall not.

(2) If a person to whom this section applies enters or remains on any casino premises in contravention of this Act. or (ii) remove such a person from the casino premises or cause such a person to be removed from the casino premises.(2) (3) A person to whom this section applies who knows that an excluded person is about to enter or is on the casino premises shall — (a) notify an inspector as soon as practicable. (3) If winnings referred to in subsection (2) comprise or include a non-monetary prize. Any person who fails to comply with subsection (2) shall be –– (a) liable to disciplinary action.Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police Section 123 . or (b) a minor (as defined in section 130).Duration of exclusion orders Section 124 .Exclusion orders by Authority Section 122 . the casino operator shall pay the value of that prize to the Consolidated Fund. in any other case. (5) The amount of winnings to be forfeited under this section shall be investigated and determined by an authorised person whose decision shall be final. all winnings (including linked jackpots) paid or payable to the person in respect of gaming on gaming machines or playing any game approved under section 100 in the casino are forfeited to the Consolidated Fund. in the case of a casino operator or a licensed special employee. and (b) using no more force than is reasonably necessary — (i) prevent the excluded person from entering the casino premises. Summary The Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 includes the following sections with regards exclusion: Section 120 . Section 128 .Forfeiture of winnings (1) This section applies to any person who is — (a) an excluded person.List of persons excluded by casino operator Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 86 . or (b) guilty of an offence. any amount of goods and services tax payable in respect of the supply to which the prize relates is to be taken into account.Exclusion orders by casino operator Section 121 . (4) In determining the value of a non-monetary prize for the purposes of subsection (3).

They will not deal with the case at all.Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises Section 127 . These rooms are equipped with both video and voice recording system. Once the request for exclusion is received by the senior management or the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. but refer it to the department or manager dealing with exclusion orders. Requests for Exclusion Requests for self-exclusion are primarily dealt with within the service provider’s facility. This process must also be dealt with in a professional manner. he/she will follow the policies and procedures set. will be the first person to hear about a problem. The frontline staff members are trained in dealing with requests for help and are instrumental in getting the process started. Depending on the country or region of the operations or the size and organisation of the gambling establishment.Section 125 . Large casinos have Responsible Gambling Departments with Responsible Gambling Liaison Officers who will deal with exclusions.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises Section 128 . Most gambling establishments have an interview room in which they can facilitate the clients in private.Forfeiture of winnings Dealing with Exclusions Gambling providers will deal with exclusions in accordance with national or regional legislations. Security Departments are also extensively involved the implementation and administration of exclusion order. such as the dealer. various departments might be involved in exclusion procedures. In most instances a front line staff member. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 87 . In smaller organisations Duty Managers would handle exclusion procedures.Excluded person not to enter casino premises Section 126 . from the time of request until the completion of paperwork. or they might be asked advice with regards exclusions. cashier or security officer.

The person administering the exclusion order will then check the completed self-exclusion forms together with. In most cases. from the service provider’s website and other areas of the casino. It must be clear what type of exclusion is requested for and will be instituted and the implications of an exclusion order. where appropriate. These forms will include the stated wish of the patron to be reminded of their desire to be excluded from the specified gambling provider. the process and conditions should be explained to him. Player reward ratings obtained from the database indicating the client’s win/loss data. although there might be provision for a request to be made online. Duty Manager or Security Officer is tasked to provide assistance with self exclusions. Details will also be entered in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register. In many instances the client will avail himself on the premises in question. This form can be obtained from reception. in a quiet area. a photo of the relevant person.When a person request for self-exclusion. A self-exclusion form would then be completed by the client. he has to obtain the following documentation: • • • Client’s identification document. within the gambling areas. Documentation When the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. the client would be present himself. This request might have to be followed up by a personal interview. Sample Form Please see Appendix 1 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 88 . by phone or by writing in to the establishment. but there are suggestions in the different Responsible Gambling provisions for this event to take place away from the gambling facility. Credit forms and account details from the cashiering department.

• Exclusion Requested by Third Party/Family Member If a staff member is approached by a third party requesting exclusion for another person with whose welfare they have a clear. 4. urging them to make personal contact with counselling groups or directly with the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. 3. staff will: 1.Exclusion Form and details of local community support to the third party. The Officer will encourage them to discuss the options with the person believed to have a problem with gambling. provision of photo. close. clearly explain the form and detail specific requirements – for example. If the patron does not wish to proceed. ask the patron to sign it. Should the patron refuse this. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should give a copy of the Approved Self-Exclusion Form to the patron. 3. Should the patron agree to proceed. the staff member will: 1. All of the aforesaid actions have to be done in the presence of the afflicted patron/client (respondent). 2. • go through the procedures and guidelines and the need for a signed agreement. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will provide a copy of the Approved Self. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will advise the third party that Self-Exclusion procedures and documents are available. Refer the third party to the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will: • outline the effects and consequences of self-exclusion. personal interest. staff will suggest a meeting with the Manager on duty (if different to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer).Processing Exclusion Orders • Self-Exclusion Upon being approached by a patron seeking assistance. Immediately explain the need to refer the matter to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 89 . if possible. 2. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will complete the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and.

Once the self-exclusion form is signed and witnessed it comes into effect three days after signing. contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. These exclusion procedure would have been audited by the internal audit function of the relevant service provider to make sure that the process is legal (becomes binding once forms completed). Counselling Contact Information Gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self-exclusion and/or express a concern that they have a gambling problem. frequency) and actions taken by the venue with regard to patrons seeking self-exclusion. Additional Initiatives by the Gaming Provider Throughout all Responsible Gambling Practices documentation. are advised of the self-exclusion. The Security Official/ Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will maintain confidentiality of information and the Responsible Gambling Incident Register is to be kept in a secure place. Assessment and Review To ensure the effectiveness of self-exclusion procedures. inquiries. including the security management. breaches. • Have clear reporting procedures (staff to management) of relevant incidents (observations. the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will be identified as the source of information for self exclusion provisions. The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should record the self-exclusion and all actions undertaken in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and take all reasonable steps to ensure that the management staff. • Review the policy for self-exclusion on a regular basis to see if it is working and what areas may need improvement. the gambling provider can: • Provide regular staff information and training on self-exclusion. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 90 . Where a player loyalty scheme is in effect the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer can enable players to access their own detailed playing records to assess pattern of play. after which time no self-excluded person may gamble with the relevant gambling provider.

After checking the positive identification he will ask the client to fill in the correct forms. the consequences surrounding breach. If the person decides to self exclude permanently from the establishment. 2. This dis-action will last as long as the self exclusion (ban) is in place. but current legislated exclusion periods are 6 months. Correspondence or Promotional Material All gambling providers are not to send correspondence or promotional material to gambling customers who are excluded from their services or who request that this information not be sent to them.2 What details should be recorded on a self-exclusion form? Summary 1.Self-Exclusion from Other Gambling Providers Self-exclusion gambling customers are to be given support and encouragement in seeking self-exclusions from other gambling providers. 4. He will also inform the client of the effect of when the exclusion will take place. He should not give the client the alternative to be able to back out of the exclusion. and except as required by law. and how long the exclusion will be in force. The information that they have requested self exclusion (ban) should be highlighted within the client database/player tracking systems in order that the various departments dealing with the database information are made aware of the current status of the client. their details removed from databases and player-tracking systems. as an example in the UK they give the exclusion forms to the client to complete or fill in at home. The second step is to get the personal details correct. Activity 5. date starting. loyalty programs involving the person are terminated or revoked. checking all the relevant documentation 3. The first step that the officer dealing with this event will do is to try and make the client feel at ease. by asking. explaining the process with each step 5. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 91 . There are suggestions that the exclusion should be one year.

this is only at gambling providers. credit department. trespass is an unauthorised entry upon land. in some circumstances. Trespass is an intentional tort and. Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders The manager or official who completes the exclusion order will advise the client that the exclusion order stops him/her from utilizing all the facilities at the gaming provider’s establishment. 7. Activity 5. The rationale from the service provider’s security departments behind the trespass arrest is that it should be enough of a warning that clients do not attempt to breach the exclusion order. Should the customer breach his agreement. In legal terms. this should be done as quietly as possible. The complete process should be done with as much secrecy – so as not to embarrass the client. Once the completed forms have been completed the official that is responsible for the process. from the start of the process. After the client has completed the form. 10. can be punished as a crime. will inform the relevant departments of the exclusion. not the internet provider.3 a) What is meant by the term breach of exclusion? b) How would a service provider deal with a client who continually attempts to breach his exclusion order? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 92 . he will if possible take a digital photograph of the client. 8. online player reward system of the exclusion that has taken place. 9. It is also explained to the client. These actions are done so as should the client visit the establishment. legal department. 11. that should he breach his exclusion order that the service provider can have him arrested for trespass on the service provider’s property.6. he can be asked to leave as he is in breach of his exclusion. marketing. A trespass gives the aggrieved party the right to bring a civil lawsuit and collect damages as compensation for the interference and for any harm suffered. By law he has to inform. security. resort style.

Summary A person who breaches his exclusion order can be arrested for trespassing. Summary As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. so does the revocation procedures. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. Revocation of an Exclusion Order As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. this revocation could be done by a General Manger of the service provider. The channels are the same for applying for a revocation than for an exclusion order. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. The council or department responsible will investigate the request for revocation and make a decision that would be binding. There is often a minimum period of exclusion before it can be revoked. in Singapore this process will go before the NCPG. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 93 . The terms and conditions of exclusion orders should be clearly explained to those excluded from the premises. The minimum duration of exclusion orders also varies from country to country. so does the revocation procedures. In Singapore. but in South Africa. the NCPG may confirm. Revocation of exclusion orders are handled through similar channels than requests for exclusion. For example. The forms would have to be completed correctly and lodged with the governing body. In many cases the client might want his exclusion revoked within a month of the commencement of the exclusion order.

Upon exclusion. and this action is written to the audit log for the system. The website is to operate such that the submission of a completed self exclusion triggers technical responses that block access by the player to the site. the exclusion is to be permanent and may only be varied with the approval of the regulator in whose jurisdiction the site from which the exclusion was initiated is located. Where a player chooses to be excluded from all sites all licensed providers must suspend any account and deactivate any registration of the player. Persons can choose to be excluded from one site. (b) that particular gaming site.Exclusion from Remote Gambling Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. all accounts should be suspended and deactivated. Self Exclusions – Remote Gambling Persons will be allowed to exclude themselves from: (a) a particular type of gaming at that site. As with casino gambling. Self-exclusion must be for a minimum of seven days. In the event that a player excludes him or herself from the site or all sites on three separate occasions. gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self exclusion contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. Summary Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. different regions and countries will have guidelines as to how this should be handled. from a particular type of site or from all gaming sites. or (c) all Australian gaming sites. The option of permanent exclusion must be provided. The example below is of the Australian exclusion process. Approval may require the presentation of sufficient evidence that the player is not a problem gambler. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 94 . As appropriate.

As young people of today is easily influenced by culture and advertisements. Learning outcome After studying this chapter. It will highlight policies and procedures as well as regulations with regards to underage gambling. Gambling legislations stipulate minimum requirements to prevent underage gambling and gambling providers also implement their own policies and procedures to control and prevent underage gambling. gambling providers and responsible gambling agencies are working together to combat underage gambling. Gambling providers are tasked to prevent youths from gambling and keeping them out of gambling environments.Topic 6 GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS Objective This chapter will familiarise students with procedures for handling gambling related incidents in casinos. refusal of credit and complaints and disputes. This might include thorough staff training on properly certifying the age of patrons suspected of being underage. the student should be able to: • • • Explain procedures for preventing and dealing with underage gambling Explain the procedures for refusing credit Discuss the procedures for dealing with customer complaints and disputes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 95 . gambling providers should not advertise facilities in such a way that might entice youths to gamble. In addition. Underage Gambling The issue of underage gambling is one of the major concerns for the service providers throughout the global casino and gambling industry.

For example. But. Interestingly. in Canada. and countries illustrate the tremendous variations found in the way the law treats issues involving the minimum age to place a legal wager. until 1987. the same minimum age applies to different forms of legal gambling. most legal minimum ages are still at 18. This list of states.. Similarly. The legal age requirement to work in a casino is also 21 years old. there has been one significant exception: In every state in America. the minimum age for lotteries is never less than 18. In the USA. and some casinos restrict local play to residents over 25. the trend is exactly the opposite. are also the most dangerous forms of gambling. Similarly. casinos are open to 18 and 19 year-olds.S. In Singapore the legal age to enter and gamble in a casino is 21 years old. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 96 . in 1969 the government of the Bahamas set the minimum age for gambling at 21. in America. and. Twelve of the 16 states (Länder) in Germany have also lowered the age for casino gambling from 21 to 18. Countries outside the United States seem to be more internally consistent: They usually have one minimum age that applies throughout that nation. but the minimum is now 18. including slot machines. the drinking age has been raised from 18 to 21. most states put the minimum age for gambling in a casino at 21. while in the U. In France. in England anyone over 16 may buy a lottery ticket. Because casino gaming is usually associated with the availability of alcoholic beverages. Portugal has different rules for tourists and locals: Casinos are open to foreigners over 18. the minimum age is almost always 21. the legal consequences when an underage minor is involved in otherwise legal gambling do not vary from one province to another. but citizens of Portugal may not enter Portuguese casinos unless they are over 21. and a dealer who knowingly sells a ticket to a 16 year-old faces loss of his license and a criminal fine. the minimum age was 21. when parliament lowered it to 18. provinces. Lawmakers in other nations also have concluded that maturity is reached at a younger age. Casino-style games.Legal Age of Gambling in Various Countries Gambling and the Law identifies the following minimum ages for gambling as regulated in various countries. in other countries.

In fact 12 of 16 states in the united federal republic have lowered the minimum from 21 to 18. France: Parliament lowered the minimum gaming age for casinos from 21 to 18 in 1987. and there has been a trend toward lowering the minimum gambling age. restricted to cleaning and serving of foods. slot machines in restaurants and bars. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 97 . casinos have been open to anyone over 18 years old. Germany: The national government under Hitler passed laws in 1933 and 1938. prohibiting gaming by minors under the age of 21. This age limit remained until the 1980s. Finland: The minimum age limit is 18 for Finland’s various casinostyle games. limited visitors from noncommunist bloc countries. casino employees must be at least 21 years old. The legal age to gamble in a casino is 18 years old.Antigua and Barbuda: Minors younger than 18 are not allowed where casino gaming is taking place.’ limited to ‘members’ at least 21 years old. but the minimum age has been lowered to 18. Bingo: minimum age is set by bingo licensee. The Bahamas: The Lotteries and Gaming Act of 1969 required players to be at least 21. Belgium: Casinos are technically ‘private clubs. Aruba: No one under 18 years old is allowed in casinos. state (Länder) governments set their own age limits. and low-stakes table games in arcades. Denmark: Casino guest must be at least 18 years old. To work in a Bingo hall minimum age of 16 to 17 years old. British Columbia. 19 years old. Canada: Casinos. Bulgaria: Casinos opened in 1967. including true casinos. Persons under the age of 18 are not allowed to work or sell bingo tickets. Since 1990. Great Britain: Casinos are technically membership clubs and noone under 18 may join. Today.

except in sweepstakes and calcuttas where persons between the ages of 16 and 18 years can participate. have imposed a policy of not allowing minors on the main casino areas. Australia: Persons under the age of 18 years are not permitted in the casino. though they may. Australia: A person under the age of 18 years cannot place a bet in any form of gaming and betting. Canada: An individual must be at least 19 to enter or gamble in a casino. Spain: Minors under 18 are not allowed to gamble or enter into casinos. or slot machines parlors. Casinos. It is against the law to sell a lottery ticket to anyone under 18. and casinos are prohibited from advertising that is specifically directed at encouraging individuals below 19 years of age to play games of chance in a casino. bingo halls. casino employees may be 18. Quebec. under 18. New South Wales. New Zealand: No one under 20 years old may enter the gaming area of a casino. Australia: Minors. Australia: Individuals under 18 years old may not enter casinos. Portugal: A unique system: Casinos are open to foreigner over 18 years old. However.Greece: An unusual age restriction: individuals must be at least 23 years old to enter a casino. Victoria. on their own. if accompanied by an adult. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 98 . but Portuguese nationals are barred unless they are over 21 and in some casinos over 25. Canada: No person under the age of 19 years may participate in gaming. Ontario. be in other gaming areas. may not legally gamble. Queensland. Tasmania. Canada: No one under 18 years old may enter a casino. Nova Scotia.

are at risk of becoming hooked on betting.While preventing underage gambling is a business imperative on its own.about 975. A staggering 91 per cent of under-18s had gambled at least once in their It said liberal parents must take some of the blame for the crisis.000 people .000 . But it is the Government's controversial decision to loosen the gambling laws that attracted the fiercest criticism. said: 'The opportunity provided by the internet to gamble in privacy may exacerbate young people's ability to access gambling opportunities. The rise of the internet had also increased youngsters' opportunities to bet. commercial casino companies have further reason to implement proactive measures that discourage and prevent the behaviour because they are subject to substantial fines if they fail to enforce regulations on underage gambling. It recommended treating gambling as a 'potential public health issue' alongside Last updated at 12:58 AM on 20th October 2008 One million children are addicted to gambling and New Labour's lenient gaming laws are largely to blame. experts warn. A study by the Gambling Commission also found that two million under-18s.had gambling problems.9million. while 14 per cent. The report found children were most likely to gamble on slot machines and scratchcards. of the University of Leeds.the rise of the internet has also increased opportunity to bet. bookmakers and betting websites were allowed to advertise on TV. some as young as ten. The study said teenagers who gamble are more likely to suffer depression. The report by the industry regulator the Gambling Commission found that 7 per cent of young people . smoking and obesity. use alcohol and drugs and fall into truancy and crime. Experts warned that vulnerable children were becoming hooked after casinos. Report author Professor Gill Valentine. But it raised concerns about the boom in online betting that allowed youngsters to stake money secretly. One million children are addicted to gambling say experts By Ian Drury (www. were at risk of developing 'serious' addictions. Danger: Labour's lenient gambling laws have been blamed for one million children being addicted to gambling . or 1.' Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 99 .mainly adults -have problems. The figures undermine the Government's own statistics on betting addiction which claim that only 250.

Professor Valentine said: 'There is some indication that traditional authoritarian models are being replaced by a more liberal approach. For example.Heather Wardle.' A spokesman for the Department for Culture. Similar patterns by age were observed in 1999. adviser on pathological gambling for the Royal College of Psychiatrists. gambling prevalence in the past year was lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups: 58% for those aged 16-24 and 57% for those aged 75 and over. except the two oldest. Mark Griffiths. Sarah Pigott The prevalence of participation in gambling appears to be related to the age of respondents. said he feared gambling problems among under-18s would spiral with the relaxation of the laws. He said: 'The Government is trying to deal with it with a light touch but I very much fear we are going to see a disaster with a rise in the number of gambling addicts. Media and Sport said: 'The Gambling Act 2005 placed the protection of children and vulnerable people at the heart of gambling regulation for the first time.' Dr Emanuel Moran. Kerry Sproston. It established a robust new regulator and introduced key offences with tough penalties in relation to children. Rebecca Constantine. Compared with prevalence rates from 1999.On the role of parents. Prevalence was highest among those aged 35-44 (73%). Jim Orford.' Gambling Prevalence by Age in the UK (British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007) . had decreased. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 100 . the proportion of those aged 25-34 who had gambled in the last year decreased from 78% in 1999 to 71% in 2007. Bob Erens. Overall. overall participation in gambling in each age group. This may contribute to adults' willingness to introduce children to illegal under-age gambling.

those aged 16-24 who had gambled in the past year tended to take part in a greater number of activities: 20% took part in four or more activities in the last year. For the National Lottery Draw and other lotteries. and then decreased with age. the prevalence fell from 26% for those aged 16-34. the opposite pattern was true with prevalence being lowest among those aged 16-24. and 10% had gambled on six or more different activities. where 24% had participated in four or more activities. dog races. slot machines. online gambling. for scratchcards the prevalence fell from 30% of those aged 25-34 to 10% for those aged 75 and over.1 Participation in any gambling activity. other betting with a bookmaker. prevalence was greatest among the younger age groups and decreased with advancing age.’ Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 101 . horse races. Scratchcards. in the past year. by age and by year For many activities. For example. Despite having a large number of non-participants. primarily betting on private and unlicensed games — especially betting on card games and sports and buying instant lottery tickets. Similarly. The only age group to have estimates in excess of this were those aged 25-34.Fig 6. with slot machines. ‘Youths 16 and 17 years old gamble less than adults and differently from adults. to 2% of those aged 75 and over. table games in a casino and private betting were all most popular among those aged 25-34.

The adolescents (16-17 year olds) were notably absent from casino play. for example a driving licence. on-course betting and family entertainment centres in the UK. with one-quarter of all adults participating in the past year. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 102 .‘Casino gambling (especially slot machines) was the second most common form of adult gambling. The security department will check the age of the client and if they believe that the client is underage take action to prevent access and/or remove the underage person from the premises. This usually entails ‘policing’ the area and denying underage people access to gambling areas. with barely 1 percent reporting any casino wagers. In the United Kingdom no under-18s are allowed into any part of the gambling facilities on these premises. If an adult client knowingly brings children on to the premises. and • Take action if there are unlawful attempts to enter adult-only areas. • Refuse the client entry into adult-only areas if the client cannot provide a suitable form of identification when asked to do so. Casino operators are also not allowed to serve an adult who has a child or underage person with him/her. passport or Connexions card. operators must: • Check the age of the client if the client looks as though the client may be under 18.’ Preventing Underage Gambling Casino operators must ensure that they prevent underage gambling in all areas of the casino. the client can be asked to provide a suitable form of identification. To make sure that underage people do not gain access to adult-only areas. but must not enter adult-only areas. among other factors. In Bingo halls. under-18s are allowed on the premises. the client will face exclusion or prosecution. ‘Suitable identification’ is identification that is valid and contains both the client’s photo and date of birth. This presumably reflects well on the enforcement efforts (particularly against fake IDs) of casino operators. In order to prove age.

As far as lotteries are concerned. including technikon or university campuses. if the person selling lottery tickets believes that the client may be under the age of 16. The global casino operators must not target under-18s by advertising their products in a way that makes them attractive to this age group. • The use of animation should be monitored to ensure that characters are not associated with animated characters on children's programmes. the service provider will ask the client to prove his identity before selling the client a ticket. at a minimum.Remote Gambling The RGA represents the world's largest licensed. Controlling Underage Gambling . • Advertising of gambling should not appear in media directed primarily to those under the legal age. • Age restriction should. be posted at all places where gambling takes place. nor appear to be under the legal age. and key decision makers around the world. • The gambling industry should not be advertised at venues where the audience is reasonably and expected to be below the legal age. • Celebrity or other testimonials in advertising of gambling should not be used that would primarily appeal to persons under the legal age. • Advertisements of gambling should not be advertised or promoted on outdoor displays. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 103 . Advertising Guidelines • Person depicted as gamblers in advertising should not be. legislators. games. clothing or other material. • Advertising of gambling should not contain symbols or language that is intended to appeal to minors or those under the legal age. that are adjacent to schools or youth centres. such as billboards. • Industry promotions should not involve utilising children's toys. and stock market-listed remote gambling companies and provides the industry with a single voice on all the issues of importance to regulators.

it is not always easy to ensure that children are excluded. Age verification is. The RGA is working with various other bodies to try and get more reliable date of birth information made available. A clear message to this effect should also appear during the registration process. The primary tool for this is the use of age verification (AV) procedures. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 104 . As and when that happens age verification procedures will become more robust. RGA members are also strongly recommended to: • Make links available to. except where the operator is satisfied that adequate age verification checks had already been made by the card issuer and are for this reason referred to as ‘high risk payment types’. reputable filtering services like the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA )so that parents and others can take any necessary steps to prevent their personal computers being used for inappropriate purposes. • Make clear through messaging or the display of a ‘no under 18s’ sign on the homepage of the internet site that children are not permitted to gamble. but it must be acknowledged that the availability and reliability of electronic evidence varies greatly from country to country. or provide adequate information about. and • Include a clear policy for dealing with underage gamblers. The majority of on-line payment methods are only available to over 18s so offer very limited risk of under age gambling. Pre-pay cards would also fall into this category.Even though it is illegal for anyone under the age of 18 to engage in betting or gaming. and will continue to be. In some instances this means that gambling operators can do no more than make reasonable endeavors to ensure a new customer’s exact date of birth. an inexact science. Operators should adopt reasonable measures to minimise underage gambling. Children do. have greater access to some forms of payment that can be used to fund remote gambling. RGA members’ efforts will concentrate on those payments methods that are readily available to children and indeed are targeted at them by the banks. however.

WAP etc). internet. It is up to individual operators to choose a verification system best suited to their particular business model.As a minimum. If this leads to proof that the customer is an adult then the account can be reactivated. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 105 . A maximum period of 72 hours will be allowed in which to initiate those checks. AV must be undertaken for any customer who has not previously been identified as over 18 if they seek to register and gamble with a high risk payment type. Experian. digital TV. they will not be able to withdraw any winnings until it is confirmed that they are adults. If after the verification period the operator has failed to verify that the customer is an adult then the account should be suspended. During the verification period: • Customers may be able to deposit funds and gamble. It would also be good practice to perform the same level of checks on all potential customers who provide a date of birth of between 18 and 21 years old because industry experience shows that if someone who is underage seeks to register then they normally give an age which is close to their real age. All reasonable endeavors should then be made to complete AV checks with the minimum of delay. The operator should then make all reasonable efforts to contact the customer to resolve the outstanding account issue. Whichever they choose it must include an element of objective validation via a verification service. phone. for example a passport or birth certificate. or through direct access to reliable documentation. This is irrespective of the remote gambling channel they are seeking to use (e. or at any later stage. or 192. such as that provided by companies like GB and • Any deposited funds must be available for prompt return if during this period. AV checks should be initiated as soon as possible after a customer seeks to deposit money to gamble. it is proved that the customer is underage.g. however. This will be known as the ‘verification period’.

• Refund the value of all deposits net of withdrawals. Activity 6. • Void all wagers (that the RGA member is a party to) that have taken place.2 What are the rules regarding paying out winnings to an underage person? Activity 6. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 106 . subject to data protection laws. Age must be verified before entrance is granted and where a person suspected to be underage is noticed within the gambling are.3 Under employment regulations. they will. age verification should be done.If at any time an RGA member becomes aware that a customer is underage. and • Close the account. Consideration should also be given as to whether any other bodies or agencies should be made aware of the child’s interest in gambling. except where there are grounds to believe that a fraud has been perpetrated: • Suspend the account immediately. There is also merit in providing the underage customer with contact details for Gamcare or a similar organisation. what is the difference between children and youth? Summary Gambling providers have to prevent underage persons form entering casinos and gambling premises.1 How does a staff member ascertain a client’s age? Activity 6.

The Refusal of Credit As the global casino industry relies heavily on credit play within their facilities. The investigation would be done by a credit manager and his credit control team. lotteries. The various Gambling and casino legislations have specific instructions for allowing or not allowing credit. Youths who gamble are especially at risk of developing gambling problems. Gambling providers have to take care not to carry out marketing activities in such ways that would entice youths to gamble.The legal age for gambling varies in different countries. etc. This credit is always applied for when the client has exhausted his facility and needs extra cash to get himself liquid again. Many high rollers or serious gamblers have credit lines within the establishments that they frequent. the refusal of credit is always a very difficult situation in the casino and gaming environment. sports betting. All of these applications would be investigated and either approved or disapproved. telephonically or by written application. In Singapore only those above the age of 21 can gamble and in UK the minimum age to gamble in a casino is 18 years. The manager would also have to be careful not allowing extra credit whereby the habit of gambling on credit may start or escalate gambling problem. There are many occasions when clients might request for either credit or extension of credit. The casino manager is faced with a decision about extending extra credit as the client may have gotten himself onto a downward spiral. The Singapore Control Act does not allow for credit at all. This could be the manager’s standard reply. the client can ask for a credit extension in person. But once a decision has been made it would be binding. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 107 . Should credit be allowed. by loosing each time he visits the casino. The issue of underage gambling also extends to remote gambling.

In the United States of America. Casino Global Area MA 02123 03/16/05 Recipient Address Goes Here> Hello. we welcome the opportunity to do business with you on a cash basis. This can be used as a referral at a later date.1 Letter – Refusal of Credit A record of the request will be kept by the cashdesk as proof of the credit application. from the initiation of the process of the application form to the approval or disallowance of the credit. Your credit application was denied because <reason for denial>. the refusal should still be logged at the cashdesk by the staff member or manager dealing with the request. In the meantime. they might take it as an insult and respond with verbal abuse or bad behaviour. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 108 . Regards. When your situation changes. Staff should know how to respond in these situations. Thank you for taking the time to apply for credit with 1234 Casino. the credit personnel will deal with this request in total.A written example of refusing credit from the credit department is discussed below: Company Address: 1234. we would be happy to reconsider your application. When a client is refused credit. Credit Manager encl: <List of enclosed items goes here> Fig 6. Should the client ask for the credit in person. We welcome your business but unfortunately we are unable to extend credit to you at this time.

Customer Complaints and Disputes It is convenient for customers to be dogmatic about the old ‘customer is always right’ ideal. Legislations around the world have clear guidelines on whether credit play is allowed. some customers take advantage of their power position.g. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 109 . e. Problems escalating to complaints can be caused by the casino. This must always be dealt with tactfully. This is especially the case where customers spend (or loose) a large amount of money. Casinos and gambling providers have to work within rules and regulations set by governments and the organisation. issued by the Gambling Commission. Managers and staff are also well trained in handling complaints. Licensees must put in place procedures for resolving customer complaints and disputes and the existence and terms of such procedures must be drawn to the attention of all customers. external parties or by the guests themselves. using their eternal status of ‘right’ to take advantage of business owners and service providers. It is easier to deal with a customer in a large casino environment as there is support services which the management can use too assist them with the complaint or dispute. even when clients are unsatisfied. However. the surveillance departments will help with the investigation of a complaint or dispute. casinos can also institute their own guidelines and refuse credit for various reasons. and have limited or no power to bend these rules. Under the Code of Practice for Gambling Operators.Summary Clients might request for credit once they have exhausted their cash facilities. Gambling providers know that it is important to satisfy guests in order for them to return. Besides the fact that there might be legislations preventing credit play.

If the customer comes in angry. try to concentrate on the customer's message instead of their anger.In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the Licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities. and • All complaints are handled in accordance with the procedure. • If you come to an agreement indicating that the customer is wrong. Don't talk. Always do your best to avoid turning a minor disagreement into a major argument. try to avoid making the situation embarrassing for them. • Involve management and bring the complaint under the attention of a supervisor or manager as soon as possible. Wait until you have the customer's entire story. Handling Complaints • At the beginning of the interaction. Becoming angry or argumentative would only prove that your sole concern is yourself and your interests. paraphrase the customer's statements. you will create a downward spiral that will never end well. always. always. even if you know you did nothing wrong. • Customers are given a copy of the complaints procedure on request or on making a complaint. always apologize. If you let the customer drive you to angry statements and outbursts. • To prove you were listening closely. Interrupting the customer's monologue would be regarded as a lack of interest and respect. • Remember that your objective is to show the customer you want to help. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 110 . • If the confrontation escalates and the customer becomes angry. • Don't come to any quick conclusions. and a ‘dispute’ is any complaint which: • Is not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedure: and • Relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. • Above all. do what you can to make sure he leaves placated. Licensees must ensure that: • Customers are told the name and status of the person to contact about their complaint. listen. so they feel you've heard them out in full.

who operate over 90% of Britain’s licensed casinos. In the event that no agreement can be reached on an appropriate arbitrator. they work on behalf of their members to raise awareness. and provide them with a vital source of information and advice. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. engage in policy development and promote best practice. They act as a central point for comment and opinion for members. the complainant shall be asked to set out in writing the nature of the dispute.Dispute Resolution An unresolved complaint will result in a dispute. BCA is the leading trade association for the casino industry in Great Britain. The British Casino Association recommends the following procedures for handling disputes. If the parties cannot agree on an independent arbitrator they may refer the matter to the Casino Regulator Code of Practice Complaints Board. by notice in writing. the dispute will be referred to an arbitrator or mediator nominated by the Council (to be appointed). Within 21 days of the date of the notice the parties may refer the matter to a mutually agreed arbitrator or mediator (as the case may be). the matter shall be arbitrated. • Both parties will make every effort to resolve the dispute by negotiations. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. Formed in 1973. either party may. Each member of the Casino Regulator Code of Practice will comply with the following dispute resolution procedures: • When a dispute arises between the Casino and its user. If either party nominates arbitration rather than mediation before a mediator is appointed. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 111 .

Summary The customers might not always be right.4 What is the difference between a complaint and a dispute? Activity 6. Unresolved complaints results and disputes. but they have the right to complaint when they are not satisfied with the services received. either party may. The Code of Practice has specific provisions for handling complaints and disputes. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. by notice in writing. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 112 . Nothing contained in this clause will deny a party the right to seek injunctive relief from an appropriate court where failure to obtain such relief would cause irreparable damage to the party concerned. Casino staff must be trained and confident in handling problems and complaints.The arbitrator will have the right to determine procedures and may or may not allow the appearance of lawyers on behalf of the parties and may co-opt other expert assistance. Activity 6.5 How would a Casino Manager handle a dispute in a casino? Describe the process involved. Arbitration of any dispute shall take place in accordance with any rules or directions published by the Council from time to time and the law of the state where the industry member is located.

the gambler. while Simpson was rated. Officials surmised that Simpson likely accumulated points but did not cash them in. only after she caught the eye of an investigator for the Division of Gaming Enforcement.000 fine the commission imposed on Borgata in February for not stopping a 19-year-old from earning more than $1.the freebies casinos lavish on their best players based on the amount of money they wager and the amount of time they spend gambling. 137 times playing at the tables. Simpson was arrested for underaged gambling at the Sands. who was 20 at the time. 4:34 PM The Casino Control Commission imposed a record $157. New Jersey Casino Control Commission Chairwoman Linda Kassekert said regulators imposed a hefty fine against Bally's because Simpson had faced casino employees while playing at the tables on ‘137 separate incidents over 18 days.000 in comps while playing table games. In that time. In New Jersey. who suspected she was underaged. officials said. The month before. she was not given any comps -. But it was not the first time Simpson had been caught gambling. Simpson.Bally's hit with record fine for underaged gambling spree by Judy DeHaven/The Star-Ledger Business Desk Wednesday November 12. which closed in November 2006. was busted at Bally's in February 2006.’ ‘That was a lot of time for her to be interacting with casino employees who should have picked up on the fact that she was underaged. Candeda Simpson.’ Kassekert said. Officials said in this case. patrons have to be 21 years of age to gamble at a casino. 2008. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 113 . The fine surpasses one the $105.500 fine against Bally's casino for allowing an underaged gambler to play 18 times over the course of the month. was rated 146 times as a high roller.

Activity 6. Meanwhile. The DICJ said the Sands Macao should have conducted a thorough ID-check to ensure that no minors enter the casino and has written to the Sands. On February 23. asking it to pay the amount in full to the mother of the young winner. without specifically defining what happens after they have already entered. Current gaming legislation only stipulates that someone under the age of 18 is not permitted inside a ml When the mother of a 16-year-old girl won the right to keep HK$740. she would not be allowed to enter any of Macau’s casinos for an unspecified period of time and she was reminded by the bureau that no one under the age of 18 is allowed in gaming areas. Macau’s Gaming Committee. is reportedly inactive and has yet to appoint members.6 Case Study – Underage Gambling Look at the following incident that took place in Macau and answer the following questions: a) Explain the consequences of underage gambling for both the licensee as well as the gambler. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 114 . A Macau legislator said new laws should be drafted immediately to define what happens once a minor enters a casino. chaired by Macau Chief Executive Edmund Ho. b) Would the outcome of the incident have been any different should it have taken place in the UK? “16-year-old changes the rules” http://www. Macau’s Director of Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau (DICJ) Manuel Joaquim das Neves said the mother would be entitled to receive the full winnings from the Sands Macao. which should be responsible for the future direction of the industry as well as policy-making.destinationmacau. the young girl unknowingly turned the tables on Macau’s old gaming laws.000 in winnings from the Sands Macao on Friday. plays and wins money.

Sands Macao has fully complied with that direction.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 115 . arguing that she was too young to be in the casino in the first place. The Sands Macao did not give the winnings to the young girl immediately after she won the jackpot on February 20. “Sands Macao reaffirms its serious ongoing commitment in complying with all Macao laws including the exclusion of underage persons entering in its casino.” the statement concluded.On Saturday. received a direction as to the manner in which the prize should be dealt with. the Sands Macao released an official statement to the press insisting that it is strongly committed to responsible gambling. The statement reads: “Sands Macao assisted DICJ in every way. and after detailed consideration by the regulator of the facts and the Macao laws.

betting and participating in a lottery. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter. Introduction to Problem Gambling Gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance (National Research Council. although some people do make a living as professional gamblers. The majority of gambling is social or recreational. The UK Gambling Act 2005 describes it more specifically in terms of gaming (i. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Define problem gambling Describe the levels of gambling and types of gamblers Discuss the prevalence of gambling based on demographic correlates Describe the stages of gambling addiction Discuss the impacts and costs of problem gambling Describe the various phases of gambling and recovery for both the gambler and the spouse of a compulsive gambler Describe specific gambling behaviour that can contribute to or indicate gambling problems. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 116 . Students will get to understand the impacts of problem gambling on the gamblers’ life.e.Topic 7 PROBLEM GAMBLING Objective This chapter will introduce students to problem gambling. It usually involves risk taking and in some cases requires particular knowledge or skills. 1999). playing a game of chance for a prize). the spouse and the community. It will help students to differentiate between different levels of gambling and signs that might indicate a gambling problem.

the National Gambling Impact Study Commission found in its 1999 study that pathological gambling often occurs in conjunction with other behavioral problems. and emotional problems.’ Many families of pathological gamblers suffer from a variety of financial. The presence of a gambling facility within 50 miles roughly doubles the chance of problem and pathological gambling. a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble. 65% to 80%) of cases of problem gamblers receiving counseling can be attributed to the availability and popularity of gambling machines outside casinos.5% of teens ages 16-17 can be classified as ‘problem or pathological gamblers’ with 2% being classified as ‘at risk. This ‘problem gambling’ can include a complex range of behaviours of varying severity. and a range or other difficulties stemming from the severe financial hardship that commonly results from problem and pathological gambling. Research suggests that the earlier a person begins to gamble. with 15 million being at risk. A national prevalence study found that 3 million adults are problem gamblers and 2. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 117 . drinking. domestic violence. and personality disorders. (Hardoon and Derevensky 2002: 264. Children of compulsive gamblers are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors such as smoking.e. The incidence of problem gambling is highest amongst those that play gambling machines and participate in horse racing and the lowest for those partaking in lotteries. including substance abuse. The National Adolescent Review found that 1.5 million adults are pathological gamblers. A large percentage (i. the more likely he or she is to become a pathological gambler. including divorce. physical. These children are also at risk of developing problem or pathological gambling themselves.A minority of people who gamble do so in ways which disrupts their personal or family lives. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. and using drugs. mood disorders. over gambling. see also Lesieur and Rosenthal. 1991) In the UK. child abuse and neglect. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’.

Level 0 Gambling This refers to only people who have never gambled. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble.gambler with no gambling problems. Level 1 Gambling This refers to social or recreational gambling where wagering has not resulted in any significant problems. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 118 . this conceptualisation can be used to better understand prevalence of gambling. problem gambling can include a range of behaviours of varying severity. Level 1 . level 2 gamblers with some gambling problems. A distinct classification is ‘past year level 0 gamblers’ used to describe who have not gambled in the past year. Levels of Gambling The National Research Council in the USA has a conceptualisation of the degree to which people gamble in the general population. it also describes the widest range and variety of gamblers. In Countries where gambling is allowed. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’.no gambling.gamblers with significant gambling problems. over gambling.Summary While gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance. As long as no gambling related problems occur the gamblers are classified as level 1. These levels can be distinguished in simple terms. level 0 . from those who bet $1 a year to those who visit casinos twice a month. They see the degree of gambling as occurring along a continuum. Due to this fact. and level 3 . this level includes a large majority of the population.

Gambling has begun to interfere with daily functioning. entire paycheque spent on gambling. Level three gamblers are often referred to as disordered gamblers and problem gamblers as well as compulsive gamblers.D. some may have begun to develop gambling related debts.Level 2 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that some gambling related problems have developed. Around 79 percent of the general population are level two recreational gamblers with no problems.. that is non gamblers according to the NRC definition. Marriage break up. Otherwise there is great diversity within this group of the general population. What is certain is that individuals in this group never present themselves for treatment. From one percent to around 3 percent of the general population have significant gambling problems. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 119 . professional gamblers are not addicted to gambling. Thus. Some may have been criticised for how often or how much they gamble. identified six types of gamblers: • Professional Gamblers Professional gamblers make their living by gambling and thus consider it a profession. Around 10 percent of the general population are Level 2 gamblers who have some gambling related problems. At this level individuals began to show the signs and symptoms that result in a diagnosis of pathological gambling. frequency and degree of gambling problems are what distinguish level 2 from level three. loss of home or job. some may have begun to borrow from household funds. In the general population approximately 10 percent are Level 0. They patiently wait for the best bet and then try to win as much as they can. Level two gambling can be referred to as at risk gambling. Robert L. They are skilled in the games they choose to play and are able to control both the amount of money and time spent gambling. Custer. Level 3 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that significant gambling related problems have developed. and in transition gambling. M. The nature. Disordered gambling and problem gambling can be used to describe both level two and level three gamblers.

’ whose source of relaxation comes from playing golf. For them. • Compulsive Gamblers Compulsive gamblers have lost control over their gambling. They are identical to relief and escape drinkers. As they continue to gamble. gambling may be a distraction or a form of relaxation. Gambling is a major source of relaxation and entertainment. depression. • Relief and Escape Gamblers Custer's fifth type. Compulsive gamblers cannot stop gambling. gamble to find relief from feelings of anxiety. They are likely to be involved in fixing horse or dog races. In addition. compulsive gamblers may engage in activities such as stealing. yet these individuals place gambling second in importance to family and vocation. friends and employers are negatively affected. Compulsive gambling is a progressive addiction that harms every aspect of the gambler's life. Relief and escape gamblers are not compulsive gamblers. antisocial or personality gamblers use gambling as a way to get money by illegal means.• Antisocial or Personality Gamblers In contrast to professional gamblers. a yearly trip to Las Vegas and casual involvement in the lottery. They use gambling to escape from crisis or difficulties. Gambling provides an analgesic effect rather than a euphoric response. Serious social gamblers still maintain control over their gambling activities. Examples of such betting are the occasional poker game. They may attempt to use a compulsive gambling diagnosis as a legal defense. social or vocational obligations. anger. • Serious Social Gamblers In contrast. lying or embezzling which go against their moral standards. boredom or loneliness. For them. serious social gamblers invest more of their time in gambling. This type of gambler could be compared to a ‘golf nut. relief and escape gamblers. gambling is the most important thing in their lives. Super Bowl bets. sociability and entertainment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 120 . no matter how much they want to or how hard they try. their families. or playing with loaded dice or marked cards. • Casual social gamblers Casual social gamblers gamble for recreation. Gambling does not interfere with family.

Gambling therefore attracts individuals who derive pleasure from the venues. and the thrill of anticipation. In addition.Benefits of Gambling From the above. a major benefit of gambling is recreation.1 How would casino staff be able to distinguish a level 2 gambler from a level 3 gambler? Activity 7. it can be seen that gambling does not affect all individuals negatively. Activity 7. level 0 . the risk of one's money.2 Explain the difference between a professional gambler and a pathological gambler. These are: • Professional gamblers • Antisocial or personality gamblers. Summary the level of gambling individuals engage in can be distinguished in simple terms. six types of gamblers can be identified based on their gambling habits. From the consumers' perspective. Level 1 .no gambling. • Casual social gamblers • Serious social gamblers • Relief and escape gamblers • Compulsive gamblers Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 121 . and level 3 . while also buying the hope of a win.gamblers with some gambling problems. level 2 .gambler with no gambling problems. the social interaction.gamblers with significant gambling problems.

Demographic Correlates of Disordered Gambling The individuals who make up the 11 to 13 percent of the general population who are either Level two or Level three gamblers have disproportionately more young. mobility educational attainment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 122 . divorced or separated. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government. The correlation between these variables is clear. less education being consistently associated with lower socioeconomic status. as well as trends over time. Distributions of values within a demographic variable. Commonly-used demographics include race. are both of interest. marketing or opinion research. income. and even location.A or culturally alienated minorities else where) have been shown to be associate with the risk of developing disordered gambling habits. • Age Age is inversely related to problem gambling in the general population. age. or the demographic profiles used in such research. Divorce and Separation as likely to be results of disordered gambling. disabilities. • Marital Status Disordered gamblers are consistently much more likely to be unmarried. As with ethnicity there may be other issues that confuse or confound this finding i.S.Prevalence of Gambling Problems Prevalence of gambling will usually be analysed based on demographic characteristics. • Social and Economic Status Lower social economic status is consistently associated with increased rated of disordered gambling.’ (Petry) • Race Ethnic minorities (non white ethnicity in the U.e. home ownership. Correlation does not mean cause or the direction of causality. poorly educated. ‘Disordered gambling is young adults and adolescents than it is older adults. and across households. employment status. unemployed. What is not clear is which influences which.

Petry (2005) • Substance Abusers (Cocaine.• Gender Male gender is repeatedly and consistently shown to be correlated with problem gambling. Marijuana. This likely has some relation to the role that poor impulse plays in addiction and how substance abuse affects impulse control. • Employees in Special Fields Specific studies revealed gambling problems in a larger number of employees than expected in the general population in institutional settings. Prevalence Rates in Special Populations Four other special groups have been identified as populations over represented in Level two and there and therefore other members of those groups are more at risk of becoming gambling addicts. This suggests that these individuals are becoming more generalised in their gambling behaviour. • Education There is a general correlation between lower education achievement and problem gambling. academic health centres. This is likely due to increased availability of non productive time. • Gamblers or People Taking Exit Polls at Casinos Who Also Purchased Lottery Tickets These gamblers are more likely to have gambling problems than the general population. While the relationship is unclear for university health centres the likely hood of poorly screened employees plus the exposure to gambling likely play a role in the rates among casino workers. That is if an opportunity presents itself they are much more likely to gamble. • Older Adults Those over the age 61 years begin gambling as recreational and social activity. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 123 . Alcohol) Substance abusers experience gambling problems more frequently than the general population. gaming and casino employees. While gambling problems are not generally a problem among older adults there are statistically recognisable increases after retirement.

until all money is lost or the game is terminated. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. and • Unlawful behaviour may occur to support the habit and pay debts.Activity 7. Disproportionately more young. financial ruin and criminal behaviour to support the gambling habit. When the above mentioned symptoms are present.A? Summary Prevalence of gambling problems are usually analysed based on demographic characteristics. gambling is considered a disorder. the gambler begins to risk more. As the gambling progresses. Stages of Gambling Addiction Naken (1988) identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 124 . unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population are level 2 and level 3 gamblers. • Gambling continues. whether winning or losing. The most common symptoms of problem gambling are: • Occasional gambling becomes habitual. • Loss of control over time spent gambling. This often leads to severe personal problems. A pathological gambler usually progresses from occasional gambling to habitual gambling. • Gambling until large debts are accumulated.S. both personally and financially.3 What are the demographic correlates that profile the pathological gambler in the U. Gambling Addiction A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. unemployed. • Lack for concern for society’s expectations and law. poorly educated.

Stage Three – Losing Control The gambler loses all control. • Most of the gambler’s awake hours are spent gambling or taking steps to gamble. • The gambler begins stealing money and using other dishonest means to gamble. • Gambling addiction dominates every facet of the gambler’s life. • The gambler’s productivity decreases (irresponsibility. • The gambler has a new sense of competence. power and control. • The gambler’s most important relationships become severely damaged or destroyed. • Lies and deception become a regular part of the gambler’s life. The recovery process will depend on the stage of addiction the person is in when seeking treatment. The following changes take place at this stage: • The gambler’s whole lifestyle is affected by gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 125 . conflict with coworkers) • The gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler.Problem gamblers go through the same stages. • The gambler feels a sense of euphoria and exhilaration. • These changes are not yet obvious to others. • The gambler views gambling as harmless entertainment or as a release. Relationships with others are negatively affected (arguing with family and friends. • The gambler’s social world consists mostly of other gamblers. Stage One – Internal Change The gambler develops a dependence on gambling. procrastination). • Chaos and complete loss of control characterize the gambler’s life. • The gambler becomes more consumed with gambling. • The gambler becomes totally enslaved to gambling. The following changes take place at this stage: • The euphoria from gambling is gone but the gambler keeps gambling anyway. The following changes take place at this stage: • Negative changes take place within the gambler. Gambling becomes his or her master. Stage Two – Lifestyle Change A gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler.

and giving up formerly important social or recreational activities in order to gamble. The gambler attempts suicide. friends and work colleagues. stress or depression. but rather in stages.• • • • Legal problems mount (the gambler may be arrested for stealing or embezzling). The aspects include: • Personal and Psychological Characteristics Difficulties in controlling expenditure. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. relationship breakdown. anxiety. or lack of time with the family. • Gambling behaviours Chasing losses. Naken identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling Psychological Issues Associated With Problem Gamblers There are a number of features widely recognised as characteristics of problem gambling. The gambler files for bankruptcy. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 126 . The gambler begins contemplating suicide. use of gambling as an escape from boredom. although not all of these aspects have to be present in a person who is regarded as being a problem gambler. Addiction does not happen overnight. • Interpersonal problems Gambling-related arguments with family members. thoughts of suicide or attempted suicide. spending more time or money on gambling than intended and making repeated but failed attempts to stop gambling. Summary A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. thinking about gambling for much of the time. depression or guilt over gambling.

in the case of assets that are liquidated to finance gambling). though not only. and criminal behaviour due to gambling. For example.• Job and study problems Poor work performance. non-problem. gamblers who report no such effects of gambling on their performance at work. these may result in court cases and prison sentences.000 will probably not suffer significant adverse consequences. passing bad cheques. theft.000 a year out of an income of $200. or in the future. • Legal problems Examples are misappropriation of money. whereas the same expenditure out of an income of $50. The level of expenditure and time spent on gambling activities does not mean that a person has a problem with gambling. • Financial effects Large debts. source of the problem associated with problem gambling is the financial loss which then has a range of repercussions for the social and personal life of the gambler. This is unlike alcohol or tobacco. In severe cases. Financial Loss is the main trigger for problem gamblers to give rise to a range of social and personal repercussions. Affordability is very important. lost time at work or studying and resignation or sacking due to gambling. The financial and social impact of problem gambling is felt in the workplace. This compares to frequent. because they are relative to each person’s available leisure time and disposable income. factors which are found to vary enormously across socioeconomic groups. Problem gamblers are also more likely to ask for advances on their pay and to borrow from fellow employees. where absenteeism. The primary. where the harms appear to stem mainly from the quantity consumed. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 127 .000 will probably entail highly problematic outcomes. unpaid borrowings and financial hardship for the individual or family members (either in the present. lower productivity and job loss can be costly to both workers and employers. a high income gambler who loses $10. in the case of high gambling commitments out of current earnings.

But for problem gamblers. suicide Financial – debts. The main impacts stem from the following: • • • • • • Personal – stress.1 Impact of problem gambling on a gambler’s life Research from around the world indicates that for every problem gambler. up to 12 other people are affected (family. Violence Fig 7. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 128 . excessive spending on gambling has serious consequences for the family. assets losses. Often it means that bills don’t get paid. job loss Impact on the Family For non-problem gamblers. depression. Asset Loss Impacts Community Service Interpersonal Charities. imprisonment Interpersonal – neglect of family. Public purse Theft. domestic/other violence. fraud. Fraud. Prison Bankruptcy Legal Neglect. and colleagues). Poor Performance Personal Work & Study Financial Debt. ill health. anxiety. divorce Community Services – loads on public purse and charities Work and study – poor performance.Stress Job loss. loan sharks. absenteeism. utilities are cut off and the grocery money dwindles. friends. embezzlement. the money spent on gambling does not affect family finances to the extent that it is money put aside for entertainment. bankruptcy Legal – theft.

petty. Activity 7. The severe financial impact of gambling will also lead to other problems such as debts. Shift in spending away from small business. unlawful borrowing of money and even crime and legal problems. holidays. including his family life. Increased welfare demand. Costs of Problem Gambling Problem gambling does not only have cost implications for the gambler and his/her family. but health and mental distress for the partners. but also for the government and the community. and these commitments have severe consequences for the well being of their family. and even food. maturity. a pleasant home. Summary Problem gambling impacts all aspects of a gambler’s life. not only generate relationship frictions. a serviceable car. The children of problem gamblers are affected in many ways and. The most immediate concern for children’s welfare in problem gambling households is poverty. and power of adult partners. This. organised or white collar. access to help. may have less control over the situations in which they find themselves. The following are examples of the costs of gambling: • • • • • Cost of regulation. Cost of crime. Family breakdown. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 129 . his work and his social life. mood swings and stress accompanying their gambling. He will also expereince a range of personal and psychological characteristics such as anxiety and depression.Problem gamblers tend to devote large amounts of money and time on gambling. lacking the autonomy.4 Explain the psychological issues associated with a problem gambler. together with deception about their gambling and the anxiety. Problem gambling eats up resources that otherwise would be spent on household members – from family entertainment.

develops unreasonable optimism and has prolonged episodes of loosing. He can’t stop gambling and borrows money legally but delays paying his debts. only thinks about gambling. starts losing time off from work and his personality starts to change – he becomes irritable. • Winning Phase During the winning phase the gambler will experience instances from. he starts gambling alone. He becomes alienated from his friends and family. starts bragging about his wins. He starts covering up and lying. fantasies about winning the ‘Big One’. At this stage. • Desperation Phase In the phase he starts borrowing heavily. the gambling problem leads to the following: • Hopelessness • Suicide Thoughts & attempts • Arrests • Divorce • Alcohol • Emotional Breakdown • Withdrawal Symptoms Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 130 . He might blame others for his demise. His home life becomes unhappy. • Losing Phase Then comes the loosing phase. His reputation gets affected. Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse The following are the various phases that a compulsive gambler will pass through. restless and withdrawn. occasional gambling – frequent winning. Panic sets in and he begins committing illegal acts.Governments and the local community often pay the costs of treating and supporting problem gamblers. excitement prior to him winning – more frequent gambling. He has a marked increase in amount of money and time spent gambling. both legal and illegally but are unable to repay his debts. He will start increasing the amount and number of bets hoping to win the big one.

Chart 7.1 The phases that the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 131 .

takes stock of his life. starts taking decisions.• Critical Phase In this phase the gamblers realizes that he must stop gambling and has an honest desire for help. she will accept the increase in gambling. feels rejected. starts worrying. has a restitution plan and improves his family life. starts giving attention to others. spends more time with his family and his preoccupation with gambling decreases. has less irritating behavior patterns. starts understanding himself and starts sacrificing for others. financial crises starts. He starts thinking responsibly. avoids her family and friends. • Stress Phase In this phase the spouse spends less time with family. The spouse of a compulsive gambler will go through various phases through the onset and intensifying of the gambling problems. keep concerns to herself. arguments start easily. his self respect starts to return and his family and friends begin to trust him again. starts to question unpaid bills. puts more demands on the gambler. attempts to control the gambling. she will make excuses for the gambling. has an insight into himself. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 132 . The following phases and impacts are identified: • Denial Phase The spouse will deny that any gambling is happening in the family. starts paying the bills. considers the gambling problem as temporary. examines his spiritual need. He accepts self weakness and strengths. provides bailouts. easily reassured. but also that of their spouses and family members. Becomes more relaxed. Effects of Compulsive Gambling on the Spouse Compulsive gambling does not only devastate the gambler’s life. • Growth Phase In this phase he starts dealing with problems promptly. returns to work. She starts isolating herself. accept the remorse offered by the gambler. has a budget. • Rebuilding Phase During this phase he develops new goals and new interests.

She becomes more relaxed. • Rebuilding Phase In this phase the spouse deals with her resentments and begins problem solving. She stops giving money (bailouts). anxiety and panic.• Exhaustion Phase During this phase the spouse has intense resentment towards the gambler. she starts to meet her own needs. She accepts her friends again. Her physical symptoms are filled with rage. she gets confused and doubts her sanity. she has closeness with her friends and family and starts understanding others. Activity 7. She does a personal inventory. she becomes more affectionate and trusting. starts sacrificing for others and she has a sense of achievement. her self confidence returns. has a desire for help and her guilt diminishes. She recognizes her self needs and has realistic planning and decision making. starts helping others. The first three phases lead to the feelings listed below: • Helplessness • Hopelessness • Mental Breakdown • Substance Abuse • Divorce • Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts • Critical Phase During this phase she becomes hopeful and accepts the problem as an illness. her thinking becomes impaired.5 What is meant by the term ‘rebuilding phase’? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 133 . • Growing Phase During this phase she starts communicating with everyone. and starts sharing again. She has better self esteem.

2 The phases that the Spouse of the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 134 .Chart 7.

• Leaving the venue to find money. Only two of these indicators need to be displayed for 80% confidence of problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 135 . When they notice clients behaving irrationally. it must be brought under the attention of a manager or responsible gambling officer. Some predictors of problem gambling are: • Gambling continuously. • Crying after loosing. • Playing very fast. Gambling behaviour displayed by male and female problem gamblers varies slightly. and • Being nervous and edgy.Summary The compulsive gambler will pass through the following stages through addiction and recovery: • Winning phase • Losing phase • Desperation phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growth phase The spouse of the compulsive gambler will experience a variety of personal and psychological effects that can be described through the following phases: • Denial phase • Stress phase • Exhaustion phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growing phase Gambling Behaviour Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem.

• Impaired judgment on when to stop. • Excessive gambling risks. and • Anti-social behaviour due to excessive loss of money. Gambling providers have to serve and promote alcoholic beverages responsibly.Male problem gamblers can be identified with three of the following cues: • Gambling for more than 3 hours without taking a break • Sweating a lot • Difficulty in stopping at closing time • Displaying anger Female problem gamblers can be identified by two of the following cues: • Kicking machines • Being nervous or edgy • Gambling so intensely so as not to be aware of surroundings • Multiple ATM withdrawals • Being angry if machine or spot is taken Alcohol and Gambling Casinos make alcoholic beverages available to clients as part of the service provided. and improve the impact of problem gambling and alcohol related problems. Intoxicated patrons must not be sold or supplied with liquor and may be removed from the premises. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 136 . • More distortion about the time spent on gambling. or not chasing their losses. The adoption of best practice principles can lessen gambling and liquor abuses. but also for the community. Alcoholic beverages should not be offered as an enticement to gamble. Intoxicated patrons must not be provided with gambling services. The consumption of alcoholic beverages affects a person’s judgment. not only for the venue. The consumption of alcohol together with gambling activities may lead to: • Social gamblers wagering more than they normally would. As part of the responsible gaming programme the gambling providers need to be aware of the implications of combining alcohol and gambling.

internet. In Singapore it will be possible to track the frequency of visits of local residents to the casino. there is no way to monitor the amount of money in the client’s bank account. or get to know the client’s by name. Clients who are unable to control the amount they spend in the casino are at high risk of developing gambling problems. The problem becomes twofold as at this stage the client could become a social burden to the country of his residency. When it becomes a responsible gaming issue is unfortunately once the client has spent his life savings or entire salary. Frequency of Visit Frequency of visits can be one of the first indications of gambling problems. Amount of Spend One of the biggest problems faced by the casino is the actual amount of money that clients should be allowed to spend. they could be tracked through the staff members that keep daily records of visitors. e. as they would be required to produce identification upon entry and pay an entrance fee. visits not only to casinos but also to any other form of gambling. horse racing. increases. Whether or not gambling creates. This entrance criteria is strictly been put into place to protect the person who may have the underlying tendencies to become a habitual gambler. When a gambler starts to become an irresponsible gambler. or contributes to other addictive behaviours is a matter of some debate. Alternatively if clients are not part of a player tracking system. as is the question of which addiction comes first. The onus has always been on the client to control his spend. This is where the term ‘High Roller’. The amount of spend is also how the casino judge the value of their clientele. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 137 .‘Low Roller’ come into play. Casinos can track the frequency of visits through their reward systems. Although it is possible to monitor the amount spent by a client.g.One characteristic of many problem gamblers is the high degree of involvement in other forms of addictive behaviour such as alcohol or drug abuse. but the tracking of a client can only be done if the client is a member of the player tracking system. lotto as well as sports books.

In some instances a client could visit a service area several times a day. e. The downfall of the system is that the client could be in the establishment for a longer period of time than what the casino management know or take notice of. Responsible gambling ethics suggest that the casino should inform the clients when they are visiting too often or spending too much time in the casino.g. as well as length of play that they record in the reward system. Gambling providers’ player tracking rewards programs are set to work out the clients’ average spend within the casino or gambling area. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 138 . The second part of the downfall side of the length of visit is that the client could give false information when playing on the live gaming tables. Management has to balance business objectives with responsible gambling ethics. Length of Visit The length of visit is very difficult to ascertain within the casino industry as the only way the casino can gauge the length of visit is by the entrance figures on a daily basis. after work and again after evening dinner. This figure in the database takes the following into consideration: • Time spent gambling • Average bet • Percentage hold of the game being played • Amount of visits that the client visits. lunchtime. are still to meet the revenue budgets set. there are no exit figures required. But casinos. From the example it shows that the customer could visit the integrated resort or any casino around four times in one day. Another problem is that one casino might not be aware of the number of visits a client makes to another casino. these visitations would show a trend towards problem gambling. The onus is on the gambling provider to have the responsibility to check all the facilities for clients/patrons who may be lounging around and not being responsible in the vacating of the premises. before work. as businesses. Although this might seem extravagant. Although the Singapore Control Act requires that there is a record kept of the entrance figures for visitation to the integrated resorts.

Behavioural patterns that can be monitored by casinos include the frequency of visits. the length of visits and the amount spent. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 139 .Summary Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. The consumption of alcohol influences the gambler’s behaviour in various ways and gambling providers has to be ethical with regards the service and promotion of alcoholic beverages.

These are recognised internationally and provide a service to the gambling industry as such. they all attempt to help the client resolve the issues that he has with gambling. support groups such as Gamblers Anonymous. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 140 . Support programmes can be in the form of medical treatment. Although these problem gambling support services take different approaches to the gamblers problem. students should be able to: • • • Discuss the need and demand for problem gambling treatment programmes. governmental organisations as well as private organisations. Introduction to Support Programmes Throughout the casino environment there coexists various different forms of problem gambling support services. Describe access and referrals to treatment programmes. Students will get to appreciate the need and demand for such services. The gambling service providers are positive about there approach to the clients when recommending support for the clients who have a gambling problem. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter.Topic 8 PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the treatment and support programmes available for problem gamblers. Provide examples of counselling and treatment programmes and discuss the work done by treatment providers.

Although advertising of gambling is very restricted at present.The Gaming Industry and Gambling Addiction Services The gaming industry has typically viewed pathological gambling as a rare mental disorder that is predominantly physically and/or psychologically determined.a By Ian Drury. have taken the initiative to address the issue of gambling addiction within their businesses. Mail on Sunday. gambling providers in the UK are not compelled to supply patrons with help and advice about gambling problems. observations from abroad appear to demonstrate that efforts by the gaming industry to address gambling addiction tend to compete with heavily financed gaming industry advertising campaigns that may work directly to counteract their effectiveness (Griffiths.000 people called a betting addiction hotline last year compared with just over 30. Implementation of secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry. this is likely to become much more liberal over the next decade. Nearly 38. Some gambling providers however. Gambling addicts soar by 25% under Labour's lax laws as average debts rises to £17. Currently. such as employee training programmes and exclusion programmes. In addition. 2005e). October 16. and have been reluctant to engage directly in interventions.000 in the previous year. UNITED KINGDOM -. It supports recent findings that suggest many problem gamblers have transient problems that often selfcorrect. 2008. mandatory and voluntary exclusion programmes and gambling venue partnerships with practitioners and government agencies to provide information and improved access to formal treatment services.000 p.The number of problem gamblers seeking help has rocketed by 25 per cent since Labour controversially relaxed the laws. The Demand for Counselling and Treatment From the article below. the demand for treatment of gambling related problems in the UK can be seen. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 141 . Secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry have included the development and implementation of employee training programmes. have not always been of the highest quality and compliance has often been uneven.

Around 50 per cent placed their bets in bookmakers' shops while nearly one in seven gambled on the Another fifth played fruit machines. When we add to this the results for married and employed individuals in the light of the process of addiction we will examine later. bingo or scratchcards. up nearly £4. up 36 per cent. roulette and other card games often played on internet sites.407 requests for help to online advisers. the demographic material suggests that middle aged gamblers are much more likely to seek treatment. The number of counseling sessions offered by Gamcare increased to 9.594 last year.000.806 calls to its helpline last year was a 25 per cent increase on 2006.between 3 and 4 percent . Women problem gamblers were more likely to fritter away money on 'games of chance' – table games. The number of gamblers seeking treatment is much higher as some of them will also get counselling through Gamblers Anonymous and other organisations. usually found in betting shops.000 in 12 months. Almost 60 per cent of those calling by phone were involved in gambling on fixed odds terminals. There were also 1. Seven per cent of callers admitted to owing more than £100. In terms of age. Worryingly. fruit machines. It must also be remembered that not all problem gamblers seeks treatment.500. GamCare is just one organisation in the UK offering counselling to problem gamblers.were under 18. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 142 . we can guess (hypothesize) that the middle aged problem gambler has more to lose than the younger gambler. or staking money over the counter on horses.And the average amount of debt soared from £13. Most commonly. a small proportion . The number of problem gamblers is much higher than the number seeking treatment. Thirty per cent of those seeking help via the website said they had problems with 'table games' . Demographics of Gamblers Seeking Treatment Nancy Petry’s research on treatment seeking gamblers is in sharp contrast to the demographic profile of heavy and problem gamblers. Gamcare's annual report said the record 37.800 to £17. greyhounds and football. those seeking help were aged between 26 and 35. The number of women problem gamblers ringing the helpline jumped from 13 to 18 per cent to comprise nearly a fifth of callers.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 143 . However. this might be against the gambling providers’ business interest and this is one of the reasons why gambling providers do not always live up to the expectations of responsible gambling practices. Not all problem gamblers will seek treatment. • Ethnicity In American demographic studies it is found that Caucasians are more likely to seek treatment than other ethnicities. Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths People suffering from problem gambling can access free or selffunded treatment via a number of routes. • Gender Men are heavily over represented in treatment seeking population. There is a serious need for treatment and counselling as the number of problem gamblers are increasing every year. Summary Responsible gambling practices require gambling providers to act responsibly by referring problem gamblers to treatment and counselling programmes.• Age Younger gamblers are underrepresented in the demographic group of gamblers seeking treatment. Unlike the profile of the problem gambler where they are over represented there are few young people seeking treatment for gambling problems. • Socioeconomic status Education: The more educated a level three gambler the more likely they were to seek treatment Income: Higher income level three gamblers appear to be more likely to seek treatment than lower income gamblers. • Marital status Married gamblers are more likely to seek treatment than unmarried gamblers.

a person is given the choice of where he or she is treated. and even if the GP is not able to provide the treatment. Many GPs. for example. These units have specialist addiction management psychiatrists and nurses. however. One of the problems with this particular referral path is that the problem gambler may not have any motivation to stop. while the specialist addiction team provides ongoing monitoring and counseling. counsellors. Activity 8.1 What is meant by court referrals? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 144 . Some providers will allow individuals to drop in without an appointment. a GP may not necessarily refer someone to another centre. appropriate prescriptions and treatment for addiction-related health problems. It is not unknown for a problem gambler to say they will attend gambling treatment as a way of helping them get a reduced sentence. These support centres can also be reached through the internet and by contacting them on toll-free hotlines. Where possible.Self-referrals Problem gamblers can self-refer by contacting one of the many available community addiction centres and clinics where they can have an individual consultation before commencing a treatment programme. will refer the person to the local addiction specialist for an assessment and a treatment plan. Some prefer to be looked after in the familiar surroundings of their general practice. This may involve the GP providing certain parts of treatment. When this is the case. Other people however. Court referrals It is also worth mentioning that there are an increasing number of court cases involving problem gambling and that judges often give non-custodial sentences alongside referral for gambling treatment. prefer to be looked after at a specialist addiction unit because of the anonymity this allows and the fact that everyone is there for the same reason (BBC Health: Help from your GP). arrangements can often be made for the person to be seen by the community specialist addiction nurse or counselor within the general practice. Often treatment is provided on a ‘shared-care’ basis. GP referrals Some GPs have undergone additional training in addiction management and run special clinics within their own surgery. and social workers working with them.

and about 1. it seems to have beneficial effects for only a minority of participants. some evidence suggests that GA may not be very effective. This organisation. It is one of the most well-known and most frequently used resources for excessive gamblers. thus decreasing their feelings of isolation. Gamblers meet on a weekly basis. functions according to the same principles.000 chapters exist in the U. Combining professional therapy and GA participation may improve retention and abstinence. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) was founded in California in 1957.Summary The compulsive gambler or client has at his disposal different ways of which he can access treatment. These include self-referrals. Gamblers Anonymous is the most popular intervention for problem gambling. Counselling and Treatment Providers Gamblers Anonymous (GA) The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. including participation in Gam-Anon. gamblers can open up. or ask for help. However. Thus. By participating in GA meetings. which was inspired by Alcoholics Anonymous. GP referrals and court referrals. Moreover. even relate to other gamblers who are experiencing or have experienced the same things. the spousal component of GA. The contactable references are through either the internet or newspapers (media). Retrospective reports indicate that 70 to 90 % of GA attendees drop out and that less than 10 % become active members. discuss their gambling problems. This is a self help group that has a set of principles which they are guided by. while GA may help some people achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 145 . have not been sufficiently evaluated.S. only 8 % of attendees achieve a year or more of abstinence. Marital and family treatments. Studies suggest that only 8 % of GA attendees achieve a year of abstinence.

12. 5. except when to do so would injure them or others. Gamblers who join undertake a 12step program during which gamblers reflect on their problem and modify their behaviour. 11. We admitted to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. We sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him. We admitted we were powerless over gambling – that our lives had become unmanageable. We were entirely ready to have these defects of character removed. According to GA. 3. promptly admitted it. 4. We continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong. 7. GA groups are a very important resource for gamblers who. We made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to them all. These questions are below: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 146 . Having made an effort to practice these principles in all our affairs. quite often. These 12 steps are presented below. praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out. We made a searching and fearless moral and financial inventory of ourselves. Gamblers Anonymous offers the following questions to anyone who may have a gambling problem. 10. 8. 1. We make direct amends to such people wherever possible. success is complete abstinence from gambling for a period of at least two years. we tried to carry this message to other compulsive gamblers. We humbly asked God (of our understanding) to remove our shortcomings. These questions are provided to help the individual decide if he or she is a compulsive gambler and wants to stop gambling. 9. find comfort and understanding within them. its members see gambling as an irreversible disease and promote total abstinence. We made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of this Power of our own understanding. 2.Gamblers Anonymous is essentially based on the medical model – in other words. 6. We came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to a normal way of thinking and living.

16. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 147 . Did you ever lose time from work or school due to gambling? Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy? Did gambling affect your reputation? Have you ever felt remorse after gambling? Did you ever gamble to get money with which to pay debts or otherwise solve financial difficulties? Did gambling cause a decrease in your ambition or efficiency? After losing did you feel you must return as soon as possible and win back your losses? After a win did you have a strong urge to return and win more? Did you often gamble until your last dollar was gone? Did you ever borrow to finance your gambling? Have you ever sold anything to finance gambling? Were you reluctant to use "gambling money" for normal expenditures? Did gambling make you careless of the welfare of yourself or your family? Did you ever gamble longer than you had planned? Have you ever gambled to escape worry. has become the leading authority on the provision of counselling.1. a registered charity. disappointments or frustrations create within you an urge to gamble? Did you ever have an urge to celebrate any good fortune by a few hours of gambling? Have you ever considered self destruction or suicide as a result of your gambling? Most compulsive gamblers will answer yes to at least seven of these questions. 9. 13. 19. 12. 15. 14. 6. information and advice to anyone suffering through a gambling problem. 11. 18. or considered committing. 5. GamCare provides support. 3. 8. trouble. 4. advice and practical help in addressing the social impact of gambling in the UK. 10. 7. 20. an illegal act to finance gambling? Did gambling cause you to have difficulty in sleeping? Do arguments. 17. 2. boredom or loneliness? Have you ever committed. GamCare GamCare.

Those in residential treatment are provided with 'minders' or support workers who help them budget and avoid those places. needs an inherently different approach to treatment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 148 . This is not so much due to differences in the various addictions themselves but due to the associated behaviors. and situations. They strive to develop strategies that will: • Improve the understanding of the social impact of gambling • Promote a responsible approach to gambling • Address the needs of those adversely affected by a gambling dependency GamCare operates the national telephone helpline for anyone affected by a gambling problem and operates a network of both face-to-face and online counselling and support services. they build their own support networks and develop their own personal relapse prevention strategies. They do not wish to restrict the choices or opportunities for anyone to operate or engage in gambling opportunities that are available legally and operated responsibly. Over the time they remain in treatment they are 'weaned' off this high level of support as. GamCare works to support the development and implementation of responsible practice by the gambling industry. therefore new clients will almost certainly have been severely abusing the trust of others to support their habit. Gordon House Association works only with the most severe gambling addicts. Gordon House Association also provides an Outreach Support Service and an Internet Counseling Service. that led to their gambling in the past. Therefore Gordon House Association provides an extremely high level of support to clients early in recovery. although having some parallels to a substance-based addiction. Additionally. with the help of the others in treatment and their therapy sessions.GamCare takes a non-judgemental approach to gambling. Gordon House – United Kingdom Gordon House Association believes that a severe addiction to gambling.

The Internet Counseling Service is hosted on the Gordon House Association's Website and provides confidential individual face-to-face counseling for those with access to the necessary computer equipment and voice or text service to those without such access or those requiring total anonymity.g. As a leader in the community services. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 149 . Because they specialise in gambling they create therapeutic communities that consist entirely of addicted gamblers. and give. Their dedicated and professional team of counsellors is all trained under a special gambling intervention programme run by the Community Addictions Management Programme of Mental Health and MCYS. Their main objectives are. There are also 'chat rooms' where trained counselors can answer questions and membership groups. • To understand the root of the problem and introduce ways to address and cope with the issues. Youth and Sports (MCYS) to provide specialised gambling counselling and support services for gambling addicts as well as their immediate families. support.The Outreach Support Service provides an individual face-to-face service in the home of the client and group support sessions at each of the residential centres for those able to travel. without it being 'sensationalised' or misunderstood. where they can seek. unique 'forums' wherein clients can discuss and learn to deal with the reasons why they compulsively gambled and the extremes to which they have gone to support their gambling. • To reduce the frequency of problem gambling. Gordon House has over 31 years' experience of providing specialised support and treatment to acutely addicted gamblers. e. Care Corner Counselling . This has allowed them to develop treatment interventions that are purely gambling focused and address the extremes of associated behaviours. ex-residents. they pride themselves as the first port of call for clients that need help. Their gambling addiction solutions include a gambling hotline as well as clinical counselling. and • To introduce an alternative healthy lifestyle to the addicts.Singapore Care Corner Counselling Centre is one of the 2 pilot agencies appointed by the Ministry of Community Development.

or any other addiction. internet and gaming. • Medical support and medication during treatment to prevent withdrawal and anxiety. offer information. • A hub for recovery support groups and 12 Step fellowships. • A resource centre for recovering people. The services offered by CAMP include: • Counselling and rehabilitation (with pharmacotherapy when necessary). social and psychological. • Individual. professionals. Relapse Prevention Training. student and volunteers. CAMP – Community Addictions Management Programmes – Singapore CAMP helps anyone suffering from an addiction related problem. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 150 . and • An opportunity for the renewal and transformation of family relationships. the counsellors will refer callers to the relevant agencies where you can get the help they need. • Assessment of severity of the addiction. If services are required that cannot be provided by CAMP. The counsellors will listen attentively and provide advice. They run two Gambling Helplines and a General Addictions Helpline to provide support. • A holistic. All calls will be treated as confidential. They also run courses for professionals interested in studying addictions and treatment. which includes Medical Assessment. and Psycho-dynamic Therapy when necessary. • Medically supervised Detoxification Management. Mental Status Exam. eating disorders. The center addresses all addictions including gambling. Anybody with questions or concerns about gambling. and advice to callers.The Care Corner Centre provides: • A meeting place of safety and learning for recovering people. • Counselling using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. and motivational assessment. families treatment. alcoholism. drug addiction. Group and Family Therapy. can call their help lines for immediate support. information and emotional support. when necessary. The helpline is manned by a team of trained counsellors. caring nurturing environment. 12-Step Support.

In some cases. where the client is adjudged a danger to themselves or to others provision is made for in-patient treatment at one of three designated addiction treatment clinics. for example the Kenilworth Addiction Treatment Centre in South Africa. All therapists follow the six-session treatment programme developed for this programme by the medical director. Activity 8. People who call this Centre are offered a free diagnostic consultation with one of 39 clinical psychologists or psychiatric social workers with specialist training in gambling problems located at one of thirteen centres around the country. Preventive education. understanding the nature of the problem. patients may then join a course of six specially designed individual outpatient sessions which are focused on overcoming denial. It comprises a free help-line available 24 hours a day staffed by telephone counsellors specially trained to deal with gambling problems. Clients are also offered professional assistance with legal and financial management problems where needed. Treatment in Private Clinics Gambling addicts can also seek treatment in private clinics. Outpatient follow-up.3 What is the difference between Gamblers Anonymous and GamAnon? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 151 .2 Explain in detail what Gamblers Anonymous is and how it works. repairing relationships with families and accessing self-help groups. Training and educational programmes. Referral Services. If the diagnosis warrants it. Activity 8.• • • • • Peer led support groups. All this is paid for by the RGP (Responsible Gambling Program).

Kerviel kept insisting that he had been acting in the best interests of the bank.Summary The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous. according to sources close to the bank. gamblers meet on a weekly basis. Besides counselling services. involving £3. betting more and more money in the hope of recovering what he had lost until the losses spiraled out of control. Activity 8. In Singapore Care Corner and Camp offer counselling services. “the fact that he had already lost more than a billion pounds appeared lost on him. gambling addicts can also receive professional treatment at private clinics worldwide. and if he was given time it would make a lot of money for the bank. Kerviel.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 152 .” They quoted one insider as saying that Kerviel “seems to have been some kind of Walter Mitty character who had managed to convince himself that he had come up with a great new trading strategy. Mr. Other programmes available in the UK are GamCare and Gordon House. discuss their gambling problems. In this programme. the chief executive of corporate and investment banking at Société Générale.4 Case Study – Bank Fraud Excerpts of Problem Gambling from the South African Responsible Gambling News Letter 2008 issue Nine The Ultimate Problem Gambler Is Jerome Kerviel accused of perpetrating the biggest bank fraud in history. 31.7 billion." But “in fact. put the 31-year-old French junior trader through a six-hour grilling (this was before the full extent of the loss was realised). and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. had fallen into the classic trap which has ensnared so many other gamblers . actually just a problem gambler of a different type? When Jean-Pierre Mustier.he chased his losses. As Gordon Rayner and Peter Allen of the Daily Telegraph newspaper reported.

when he failed to disable the bank's automatic alert system and his irregular trading suddenly showed up. using up to £60 billion of the bank's money to bet on whether markets would rise or fall.a modest sum for a trader who had been at the bank for eight years – was desperately trying to get noticed. Kerviel. but as the markets plunged in the early part of this week this trebled before the bank was able to shut down the fake accounts he had created.2 billion.” Kerviel graduated from the Université Lumière in Lyon with a master's degree in finance and landed a job in the bank's compliance department in 2000.. lists sailing as a hobby in his CV and was so accomplished at judo that he trained children in his spare time. “instead. which specializes in the futures markets. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 153 . however. they believe that Mr. At the time the losses were around £1. who was earning around £75 000 . In 2005 he was promoted to the Delta One trading team.Kerviel has come across as something of a mystery man. So in December last year he allegedly decided to start trading by himself. None of these facts give a clue. Rayner and Allen quoted bank sources as saying that there was no evidence that he was out for personal gain. He was allegedly able to hack into the bank's computers to hide his trading till he made a basic slip-up on Friday. as to his motivation for embarking on his unauthorised trading spree. According to colleagues he is a “computer genius” with unspecified “personal problems” who speaks fluent English. but made little impact and was restricted to the most basic type of trading.

What Wessels obviously did not know was that the Vodacom website instructs subscribers on how to avoid the temptation that nearly brought him to ruin. 5 Case Study – Text Messages SMS’s and Gambling The law will soon provide protection for people like Hendricus Wessels. which not only agreed to settle Wessels’s bill but offered him a 12-month complimentary package which would enable him to SMS to his heart’s content — although Virgin Mobile executive head of corporate affairs Nicholas Maweni added that we’ll make sure he can’t use it to enter competitions or partake in any premium offerings. I really thought I was going to win a car. although it tossed him a bone. Vodacom promptly suspended his service. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 154 . Then to his rescue came Virgin Mobile. His quest for a new set of wheels ground to a halt on New Year’s Eve when Vodacom informed him of the staggering bill he had run up. In addition. by SMS-ing "Stop" or "Opt out" to 30800.Activity 8. Wessels is willing to enter treatment and told reporter Wendy Knowles that Virgin Mobile’s rescue foray had come as a complete relief. But he sent off an average of 320 SMSs a day in the last two weeks of 2007. I got swept up. Virgin Mobile had offered him a session with the Western Cape National Responsible Gambling Programme. The SMSs kept coming. I have learned a big lesson. An understandably relieved not to mention sadder and wiser. Maweni said. the pensioner who ended up owing Vodacom R48 000 because he responded like Pavlov’s legendary dog to SMSs urging him to keep entering and win a BMW car. But even this meant financial ruin. so to speak. When a consternated Wessels confessed that he had no way of paying it. If Wessels had responded like the dog by salivating when he heard a bell ring no harm would have been done. telling me to carry on entering. in the shape of a concession which would allow him to pay off the amount.

Activity 8. to run their "hit list" against the Opt-Out register and ensure that any names on the DMA register are deleted from their database. who disappeared at the end of February after auditors started investigating the station’s financial affairs. His wife. and it will soon be law for any company embarking on a direct marketing campaign . The court granted a provisional sequestration order against Roos. Roos and his wife had to appear in court on 9 May to show cause why it should not be made final. Entering your name on this list. was cited as a respondent. according to papers submitted to the Cape High Court. so you’ll have to send a specific "Stop" SMS to put an end to those. 35 000 South Africans have registered on the Opt-Out Register of the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) since March last year. In terms of the order. sending a text message. According to the Burger newspaper Roos dropped out of sight on 29 February after attending a rugby match at Newlands. Mario Roos. according to the station’s managing director. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 155 . is as simple as well. such as your bank or cellphone network. Gavin Meiring. email. till recently an employee of Radio Heart 104. A portion of this money was then paid to internet gambling operators and. Monique. Otherwise contact the DMA’s call centre on 0861 362 362 or log on to www. the amount of missing cash might be even higher than stated. which is updated every month.dmasa.According to Nowles. followed by your ID number.1 MILLION IN RADIO FUNDS Missing former radio station financial manager. Simply send an SMS to the DMA. You could still get unsolicited SMSs from companies you already do business with. paid for his gambling debts by misusing his firm’s electronic banking and credit-card system to transfer more than R7-million into his own bank account. telephone or snail mail . 6 Case Study – Embezzlement Gambler allegedly grabbed R7.whether by SMS.

amounting to R2408 709. Gavin Meiring said Roos had been registered and authorised to use the banking system. it is clear that he was a regular gambler and used (the station’s) credit-card to pay off his gambling debts. Meiring stated that between 2 January and 29 February Meiring made 36 transfers to his bank account. 7 Case Study – Exclusion Man sues Crown Casino after gambling $1.of which R256 213. the Foschini Group.Meiring testified in court papers that he failed to report for work on March 3.4 billion AUSTRALIA -. and it was then established that he had flown to London on a business-class ticket on March 1. Radio Igaga. According to Meiring.4 billion in a 14-month spree. It had been established that on 1 March he had transferred another R4. The case is looking to be a landmark case for the Australian gaming industry. which will see Crown and senior executives Mr.9FM and its sister station. Activity 8. Crown Casino chief executive Rowen Craigie was allegedly part of a plan to entice chronic gambler Harry Kakavas back to the Southbank venue. Craigie and chief operating officer John Williams face serious claims of unconscionable conduct.54 was used to pay off his gambling debts.5-million from Radio Igaga’s account.A gambling addict is suing Crown Casino for allegedly targeting him when he was banned from every casino in Australia.95 . Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 156 . known as Cash Focus. when he was hired. leading him to gamble $1. He said the station had been unaware of the fact that Roos was under investigation for the theft of R61 000 from his former employers. The theft was not discovered until Meiring became suspicious from media reports about Roos’s disappearance and reviewed the station’s electronic banking transactions. to make transfers from the accounts of Heart 104.

Kakavas in a separate criminal trial. wore a hidden recording device that captured Crown's senior managers allegedly trying to lure him back to the casino's baccarat tables. "Over a period of time I observed Mr.. Kakavas. Horman said. back to the casino by Mr. In one recorded conversation Crown senior executive Richard Doggert is alleged to have revealed that he had been told to invite Mr. A separate recording Mr. The statement. "Harry Kakavas has apparently just dropped between 3 and 4 million in Las Vegas last week. Bill Horman. A statement from Crown's general manager of community affairs. Doggert allegedly told Mr. Williams. prepared for Mr.According to amended Supreme Court documents Mr. Bill (Horman) and Howard (Aldridge) get a draft copy of the letter in which it would take for Harry to let back (sic) to play at Crown. who is suing the casino for damages. Kakavas was allegedly contacted by Mr." In January 2005 Mr. but did not "give a monkey's" about what happened beyond Victorian borders. Kakavas back to Melbourne." according to the amended statement of claim. Kakavas's gambling addiction and related mental issues as early as 1998. Kakavas that Crown management was aware of an interstate exclusion order from 2004." Mr. Regards JW (John Williams). Kakavas in a condition which caused me some concern. a Gold Coast property developer. warned of several suicide threats from the property developer. allegedly thought up by Crown management after it was discovered he had lost a large amount in Las Vegas casinos. "Williams asked Doggert to contact the plaintiff (Kakavas) because Williams wanted to look clean if the plaintiff's exclusion order could not be lifted. I will then discuss with Rowen (Craigie). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 157 . also reveals that the casino was aware of Mr. Kakavas. Williams. On a number of occasions he talked about committing suicide. Despite the warning email correspondence from October 2004 reveals a plan to lure Mr.

Kakavas finally returned to Crown he lost $36." the court documents claim Mr.7 million over 14 months. but we want you to start (gambling) slowly. Start slowly and the jet will come later. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 158 . during which he allegedly turned over $1. with the case expected to be heard in the middle of next year. Kakavas is seeking more than $50 million in damages. Enjoy the facilities first. Mr. When Mr. Williams said. 2009.4 billion."We want you to come back. We don't want you to start too quickly because you've had a problem in the past.

Appendix One FORMS Singapore pools application for exclusion form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 159 .

printable from the internet for their clients. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 160 .Suffolk (UK) exclusion forms.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 161 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 162 .

Application to be removed from the exclusion program Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 163 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 164 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 165 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 166 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 167 .

Remittance of unlawful winnings form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 168 .

from the Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee Web site: http://www. Kendall Hurd Publishing. W.A History of Saloon Gambling in the Old West. M. Will History Repeat Itself. J. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry. (accessed 31/12/08) Howard. (1996). K.htm. (1997). Performance. The Gaming Industry. ons/Document/ Pearson ISBN 013400177X Eadington. 04 June 2004. Casino Management: Past Present and Future. Old West Gambling & Gaming.htm. B. (accessed 31/12/08) Friedman. ISBN 081840311X Gambling Commission UK. et al. Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee.gamblingcommission... ISBN 0787245186 Howard. Old West Gambling & Gaming . Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice June 2007 available online at http://www. Internet Gambling.pdf.& Cornelius. ISBN 0471129275 James Oliver. (2004). Citadel Press. Change. M.L. at http://www. (2005). How Online Gambling Works: Paying to Play. McGraw-Hill.. (1981). ISBN 007111131X Hashimoto. John Wiley and Sons. (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 169 .. R. W. at http://entertainment. Publisher & ISBN Ed Grabianowski.(1999). Casino Management. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues.uiowa. Management – People. & Cardy. (1998).htm..bcvc. (accessed 31/12/08) Gomez-Mejia.html. (accessed 31/12/08) International Gaming Institute.Source of References: • Eade.

&Fox. Gaming Statutes and Regulations. Gaming and Racing. (accessed 31/12/08) (2005).. John Wiley and atest&method=part&sl=1. American Psychological Association.mcys. Manchester University Press. (2004). Singapore CASINO CONTROL ACT 2006. USA – Provide responsible gambling services (accessed 31/12/08) Nevada Gaming Commission and State Gaming Control Board. Responsible Conduct of Gambling Course. Student Notes Report of Survey on Participation in Gambling Activities among Singapore Residents . An Economic and Social History of Gambling. ISBN 1591471737. (accessed 31/12/08) Ministry Of Community Development.. ISBN 0131926721 Nancy (1996).2008 – Ministry of Community Development. Petry (2005).gov. Casino Operations Management.J. (accessed 31/12/08) NSW Office of Liquor. 9781591471738 National Qualifications for Improvement of Services.. (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 170 . Youth And Sports.nv. Report Of Survey On Participation In Gambling Activities Among Singapore Residents. 2008 available online at http://www.gaming.J. (2008). R. available online at http://statutes. ISBN 0471266329 Ministry of Communication Youth and Sports. online at ngSurveyReport2008.agc. (2008).• Youth and Sports – 28 May 2008 Republic Of Singapore Government Gazette Acts Supplement. http://www. Economic and Social History of Gambling.pdf.

& Marshall. Hammer. Does Internet Gambling Strengthen the U. (2001).pdf.• Responsible Gambling Advisory Committee.20_-_31Mar03. (accessed 31/12/08) Rudd.. L. Economy? Don’t Bet on at http://www.S. (2006) Viva E-Vegas: The State of Online Gambling.xhtml?story_id=1210000309E 8&page=6..indiana. (accessed 31/12/08) Western Cape Gaming and Racing Board – Summary Report on Responsible Gambling in The Western Cape: Main findings & Comparisons -2002 • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 171 . ISBN 0139795685 Ryan D. nsible_Gambling_Manual_-_V. Northern Territory – Responsible Gambling available online at http://nt.. (accessed 31/12/08) Sharing Recovery Through Gamblers Anonymous by Inc Staf Gamblers Anonymous Publis (1984) – ISBN 0-917839-00-5 Sixto Ortiz Jr. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations. (1999).newsfactor.

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