Responsible Gambling DHCM 183

The Official Guide

Boston Business School 520 North Bridge Road #03-01 Wisma Alsagoff Singapore 188742

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The Guide is a useful resource for those seeking to gain the internationally recognised CTH qualifications. The Guide however must be used together with the recommended textbooks.

.................................................... 79 Topic 5 – PROCEDURES FOR SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING – EXCLUSION ORDERS .................... 30 Topic 3 – GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES............................................................................................................................................................................ 52 Casino Lighting............................CONTENTS Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes .................................................................................................................................................................................. 81 Introduction to Exclusion Orders ......................................... 64 Topic 4 – PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS ..................... 45 Facilities ........................................... 23 Gambling Legislation ............................. 94 ........ 25 Code of Practice ........................................................................... 81 Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 .................... 93 Exclusion from Remote Gambling ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66 Introduction to the Provision of Information..................................... 78 Player Rating Systems .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23 Responsible Gambling Legislation ............9 Gambling........................................................................................................ 5 Profile of the Gambling Industry ....... 71 Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability ......................................... 66 Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling .......... 92 Revocation of an Exclusion Order .......................................................................................................................... 45 Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment ................................................................................. 87 Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders............ 11 Forms of Gambling........ 68 Availability of Counselling..................................... 51 Signage ................................................................................................................... 83 Dealing with Exclusions........................................................................................................................................... 59 Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) .... 58 Display of Clocks ........................................................................ Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling ........................................... 1 Topic 1 – THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY..................................................................................... 74 Information on Games ..................................................................... 60 Creating a Comfortable Environmental .................................................. 59 Promotional Materials................................................................. 12 Topic 2 – RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION.........................................

.... 95 Underage Gambling ........................................................................................................................................................................159 Source of References ...........................................................................116 Introduction to Problem Gambling.......................169 ....................... 95 The Refusal of Credit....130 Gambling Behaviour............145 Appendix One – FORMS .......................................................118 Prevalence of Gambling Problems ....................................................116 Levels of Gambling........................................................................................................................................................................................126 Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse .............................................................................109 Topic 7 – PROBLEM GAMBLING ..................................................................................................................................124 Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling......................................................................................................................135 Topic 8 – PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES ................................................................................................143 Counselling and Treatment Providers................................................................................................122 Gambling Addiction ........................................................................140 Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths ...107 Customer Complaints and Disputes ........................................................................................Topic 6 – GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS ......................................140 Introduction to Support Programmes.

Understand how the gambling environment influences players’ behaviour. Understand the communication and administrative procedures involved in providing responsible gambling services. Provide information on problem gambling support programmes. Understand the legislative requirements relating to responsible gaming. types of gambling offered including casino gaming. Identify problem gamblers and understand which groups are at particular risk. Describe the procedures for providing responsible gambling services in the casino environment. Syllabus The Gambling Industry Profile of the gambling industry. Summary of Learning Outcomes On completion of this module students will be able to: • • • • • • • Describe the types of gambling offered. horseracing and sports betting. other games of chance such as lotto National and regional legislation and regulations and industry code of practice Responsible gambling legislation Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 1 . It will promote a greater understanding of Responsible Gambling in accordance with the legislative requirements and worldwide standards. It provides students with the knowledge to identify problem gambling and to provide information about professional treatment. It will equip students with the skills required to assess and address responsible gaming issues in the Casino Gaming Environment.Responsible Gambling Introduction Description This module has been designed for front line gaming industry professionals.

appropriate environmental features Availability of counseling. Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which students must select and answer three (60 marks). high risk groups. positioning of machines Provision of information. information on games. Availability of counseling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 2 . chances of winning and probability. signage and information to be displayed. Internal communication including casino departments and security. availability of natural light. attempts to breach exclusion. identifying problem gamblers. CTH is a London based body and the syllabus content will in general reflect this. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit and will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions and 5 x 4 mark questions in Section A (40 marks). providing information on support services. disputes and complaints. lighting. external communications including with statutory boards. ATM’s. refusal of credit.Gambling environment features Procedures for service of responsible gambling Gambling information for players Gambling related incidents Problem Gambling and Support Programmes Communication and documentation Casino layout. facilities. problem gambling support and treatment services. underage gambling. Local centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practise to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not test this local knowledge. implementation of exclusion procedures. documentation and administration procedures Assessments This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination set and marked by CTH. signage. involvement of family or friends Levels of gambling. promotional materials. Any legislation and codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry and will not be country specific. availability of responsible gaming information Requests for exclusion.

Casino Management. Pearson. Change. & Cardy. (1996).J. B. ISBN 013400177X • Eadington. Management – People. ISBN 007111131X • Hashimoto. R.& Marshall. Manchester University Press.. ISBN 0471129275 • Kilby.&Fox. ISBN 0139795685 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 3 . ISBN 0131926721 • Rudd. Textbooks • Eade. W. University Press of Nevada. (2005). McGraw-Hill. The Gaming Industry. L. D.J. (1981). D. (2004). John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0942828382 • Friedman. (1997). (1999). (1998). ISBN 0787245186 • International Gaming Institute.Further guidance Delivery strategies This module covers the theory of Responsible Gambling but wherever possible this should be related to practical situations to reflect the nature of the commercial world. Visits to a range of casinos are essential to allow students to see the application of the theory into practice.. Casino Management: Past Present and Future.. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues.. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations. Casino Operations Management. J.D.. Pearson. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry. Visiting speakers would also be beneficial and will help to contextualise the classroom based learning... Citadel Press.. An Economic and Social History of Gambling.. R. Resources Learners need access to library and research facilities which should include some or all of the following.. Recommended Prior Learning There is no required prior learning however students must have completed formal education to 18 years old or equivalent and an interest in Gambling Operations is essential. ISBN 0471266329 • Munting.. Balkin. ISBN 081840311X • Gomez-Mejia. Kendall Hurd Publishing. (1996).(1999). et al. John Wiley and Sons. K. W. Performance.& Cornelius..

It is not essential to use all the recommended texts and lecturers should use their experience to decide which ones are most appropriate for their students. Journals and Other Publications • Casino Life Magazine • State and Regional Gaming Acts including: • UK Gaming Act 2005 • Nevada Gaming Control Act • Singapore Casino Control Act Websites www. In keeping with a qualification at this level there is no one text which covers the whole syllabus. CTH will always answer any questions from the centre’s Head of Department either by email or by phone.gamingfloor. the lecturer’s lesson plans should be based on the module syllabus and supported by relevant Notes on recommended texts The module can be taught with the texts we have identified as relevant to the module syllabus. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 4 .casinoman. past module examinations are also available to support lecturers.Magazines. Where available and appropriate. In general. supplementary material familiar to the lecturer and the lecturer’s www. but a number of texts which provide sufficient depth to explore the subject area.

developing into a major sector of the world economy. students should be able to: • • • • Profile the gaming industry. direct responsibility to all consumers. Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 5 . Define gambling and explain the difference between recreational gambling and problem gambling. The industry is one of high public profile – commercial competitiveness on a global basis sits at one end of the scale. with an emphasis on operators meeting the required probity and performance standards and consistency in care for consumers. sports betting and internet gambling. Explain the need for responsible gambling programmes. Explain the different types of gambling including casinos gaming. Students will get to appreciate the size of the industry and the prevalence of gambling. It will also look at the main reasons for developing responsible gaming programmes. The Gambling Industry in Singapore The licensed gambling industry in Singapore is diverse. although relatively new will be strictly regulated.Topic 1 THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY Objective This chapter will introduce the students to the gambling industry and look in more detail at the types of gambling available. Profile of the Gambling Industry The gambling industry has seen unprecedented growth over recent years. lotteries. Gambling in Singapore. at the other is local. Currently lotteries as well as other service providers such as horse racing are popular. Singapore will have its first casino operating by 2009.

999 and below (60% .In Singapore there is a limited target market. sometimes leading to problems in other areas of their lives. Substantial efforts have been directed to this issue in Singapore and from this background has emerged the production by the industry of a proactive and balanced response to the expectations of Government and consumers – responsible gambling. However.64%) Residents with primary education and below (61%) Residents with average monthly personal income of $2. considerable focus by governments of all persuasions has been given to the adverse affect problem gambling can have on some members of the community or individuals who become affected by gambling to the point of no longer having control or rational judgment. various ethnic groups and a small geographical area. In recent years. consumers rightly have expectations that they can have access to competitive gaming products. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 6 . appropriate infrastructure and high standards of service as enjoyed elsewhere in the world. In order to be effective and fair issues of concern have been identified. respondents who had participated in at least one form of gambling in the last 12 months were classified as gamblers. Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • • • • • Chinese (62%) Male (60%) Residents aged 40 to 59 years (60% . 2008. A recent Singapore report of survey on participation in gambling activities among Singapore residents.66%) For the purpose of the survey. stated that 54% of Singapore residents aged 18 and above reported that they have participated in at least one form of gambling activity in the last 12 months. clear requirements understood and consistent standards of business practice prescribed.

or about 23 million. to 72% for highest income households. had participated in some form of gambling activity within the past year. the rate in Britain is higher than that found in Norway. Macao and Hong Kong. followed by scratch cards (20%). 61% of those with a degree compared with 73% who were educated to GCSE/O level equivalent. (Comparisons should be treated with caution. as different methodologies have been used in different countries). • Only a small proportion of people (3%) gambled online (like playing poker or casino games etc) or placed bets with a bookmaker using the internet (4%). mainly due to changes in legislation. • 3% used fixed odds betting terminals (FOBTs) and 4% gambled in a casino.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 7 . and on each individual activity. Looking at international studies of problem gambling prevalence. had participated in another form of gambling in the past year. and playing slot machines (14%). • People in higher income households were more likely to gamble. and an increase in the number of gambling products available.The Gambling Industry in the UK The British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007 stated that since the 1999 survey. with the exception of bingo (4% of men compared with 10% of women). • The most popular activity was the National Lottery Draw (57%). the rate increased from 61% among those in the lowest income households. • Excluding people who had only gambled on the National Lottery Draw in the last year. New Zealand. betting on horse races (17%). the nature of gambling in Britain has changed substantially. Sweden and Switzerland. and similar to that of Canada. 48% of the population. The survey also indicated the following: • 68% of the population. the US. Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • Men were more likely than women to gamble overall (71% compared with 65%). • Respondents who described their ethnic origin as white were more likely to be past year gamblers (70%) than those who classified themselves as Black (39%) or Asian (45%). that is about 32 million adults. South Africa. • In terms of education. Singapore. and lower than Australia. respondents with higher levels were less likely to gamble.

6% 37. Gambling was largely practiced in the early U.122.497 $10 million to $25 million 68 1.698 $50 million to $100 million 33 2.169 $3 million to $10 million 57 350.S.. In fact. primarily in the form of lotteries. and music recordings combined. when more forms of casinos began to be legalised.040.5% 15. These are the various categories of growth figures from the years 2001 though to 2004.1% 7. video games.459. movie tickets.8% 1. However.554 $3 million to $10 million 57 344.826.8% 0.144.8% 15.0% 31. with public sentiment shifting back and forth from embracing gambling to prohibiting it.170.9% 19. The statistics shown below are the Gaming revenues from the National Indian Gaming commission.569 Total 358 16.0% 5. Gaming Revenue 2001 – 2004 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues Number of Revenues Gaming Revenue Range Operations (in thousands) Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2004 $250 million and over 15 7.9% 9.0% 2.0% 16.1% 32.333.240. providing American gamblers with an outlet through which to place their bets.The Gambling Industry in the USA (Tribal Jurisdictions) A look at the history of gambling in the United States shows that it has evolved in waves.9% 9.126 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 Percentage of Operations Revenues 4.3% 15.9% 27.407. gambling started making a comeback in the 1920’s and was fully legalised in Nevada in 1931.510 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2003 $250 million and over 11 5.381. gambling has now evolved to the point that at least some form of gambling is legal in all but two states and revenues from gambling eclipse the revenues from theme parks. Las Vegas remained the primary location for legal gambling until the 1970’s.277.7% 14.6% 12.352 Under $3 million 94 77.200.488 Total 367 19.4% 3.204 $100 million to $250 million 32 5.398 Under $3 million 97 90.1% 32.911 $100 million to $250 million 40 6.1% 0.5% 25.5% 8 .698 $25 million to $50 million 57 2.3% 18.010 $25 million to $50 million 60 2. including riverboat and Indian reservation casinos.1% 8.377 $50 million to $100 million 35 2.5% 11. until it was completely banned in the 1890’s.1% 10.711 $10 million to $25 million 69 1.3% 11.

654 Under $3 million 114 96.0% 11.398.6% 17.528. The integrated resorts will also experience growth figures such as these.755 $25 million to $50 million 43 1.822.0% 0.596 $50 million to $100 million 24 1.5% 11.Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2002 $250 million and over 10 4.523 $50 million to $100 million 19 1.9% 8.965 Total 349 14. These figures are derived from Casino Resorts such as Mohican Sun.8% 18.1% 11.694.8% 5. gambling is an enjoyable leisure and entertainment activity.1 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues The growth in revenue generation was in the 250M$ and above.4% 7.6% 0. Although this revenue is only from 4% of the casinos.9% 7.870.399 Under $3 million 101 79.9% 6. Summary The onset of world gambling trends and the increase and availability of gambling forms have influenced the way society view gambling. gambling can have negative impacts. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 9 .546 $3 million to $10 million 57 385.519 $10 million to $25 million 65 1. it seems that the old tribal customs are falling away and gaming is becoming a normal point in society.346 2.415.3% 34.611 $10 million to $25 million 58 997.067.3% 2.513 $3 million to $10 million 63 386.9% 15. the Casino Control Boards in different parts of the world have set up laws to control gambling operations.0% 17. As a result.1% 28.5% 65.8% 3.606 $25 million to $50 million 55 1.6% 18.662 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2001 $100 million and over 39 8.257 Total 330 12. However.8% 13.978.064 $100 million and over 31 4.5% 11.8% Table 1. Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes For the majority of people.640.5% 33.717. The growth of the gambling industry is evident in the gambling prevalence rates and gaming revenue statistics discussed.5% 13.9% 31. for some.

which sets out responsible gambling practices and policies. Responsible Gambling Programmes were developed. A major point of emphasis with the Responsible Gambling Course is urging for the consistency in care for customers. as is the need for whole-of-industry support and implementation. In recent years there has been growing appreciation of the affect problem gambling has on some members of the community. Responsible Gambling Programmes are considered ‘living documents’ in the sense that it will be continuously edited and amended to take into new operating practices. and will change over time as new operating methods emerge. new research into problem gambling and changing circumstances. Responsible Gambling Programmes have been developed with the participation of various stakeholders in the world gambling industry. particularly the scope and frequency of gambling. and promoting responsible gambling initiatives. Problem gambling exists when there is a lack of control over gambling. aimed at delivering important consumer protection and social welfare objectives. These programmes are an expression of the commitment of the industry to responsible gambling. This responsible gambling course will provide descriptions of responsible gambling practices relevant to each sector of the gambling industry. Though the practices are intended to apply to all gambling providers and all forms of gambling. These programmes are adopted by various world gambling providers in the provision of their services. It contains comprehensive information on responsible gaming practices that will assist the operator in the successful implementation of the responsible gambling code.Furthermore. the level of betting and the amount of leisure time devoted to gambling. The aim of responsible gambling programmes is to minimise the harm to consumers who may be adversely affected by gambling. The need for flexibility to accommodate industry development within an evolving gambling industry is also acknowledged. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 10 . the method of implementation will vary according to the form of gambling.

• feeling artificially endangered. which vary in different cultures. • fantasising about winning large sums of money. Gambling. and • being in a stimulating environment. and • fail to control this excessive behaviour by themselves and without assistance. Gambling behaviour should be viewed as problematic when gamblers: • gamble excessively and thereby cause significant harm to themselves and to others.1 Define the term Gambling. Gambling Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. Activity 1. bingo and charity jackpots in newspapers as well as scratch cards. Playing the lotto. at different points in history and among different individuals. Recreational gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 11 . from the point of view of the gambler. Responsible gambling practises are the responsibility of all stakeholders in the gambling industry and must be implemented over a range of gambling activities.Summary This section has highlighted the aims of the different government organisations when formulating responsible gambling programmes. Whether gambling is accounted a vice or a form of recreation depends on moral judgments. casino games and betting on horses and other sporting events are regarded as gambling activities. provides some of the following pleasures: • playing games.

card and machine games played in a casino.Summary Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. Blackjack – a card game in which players try to beat the bank by adding the values of the cards as close to 21 without going over. Players may win money or prizes when they complete a line. The wheel is divided into a number of equal segments separated by spokes or pins. Traditional casino games include roulette. They involve playing or staking against a bank. People mainly play Bingo in Bingo clubs. problem gambling can result. played using a large vertical wheel that can be spun. The player with maximum points at the end of the set will be the winner. It is also popular in working men’s clubs and British Legion clubs. blackjack and poker. Casino Games Casino games include table. and the winning segment is indicated by a pointer mounted on a flexible piece of rubber or leather. multiple lines or complete a card. Forms of Gambling Bingo Bingo is a game of chance where players receive a set of numbers on a card in return for a stake and they mark them off as a caller announces numbers as they are drawn randomly. Games can also be played electronically. Also known as 21. The wheel is spun by a dealer. is an unequal game of chance. Recreational gamblers gamble for the purpose of pleasure. Each segment is associated with a number. Casino-type games are also played on gaming machines and on the internet. which also rubs against the pins to impart friction and slow the wheel down. Casino games permitted in Britain include: • Big Six Wheel – also known simply as The Big Six. When an individual gambles excessively and uncontrollably. • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 12 . including in holiday parks and resorts.

a croupier spins a wheel in one direction. Poker – a card game where players with fully or partially concealed cards make bets into a central pot. and the outcome is keyed into a computer which automatically lights up the winning zones on the table. There are a number of variations of Baccarat in the United Kingdom. Types of poker games include “three-card”. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine.a casino dice game in which players bet against the casino on the outcome of one roll or a series of rolls of two dice. In recent years. A player can make any number of bets on the sic bo table. Stud Poker – a poker variant in which each player is dealt a mix of face-down and face-up cards in multiple betting rounds. Sic Bo .In the game. which was then lifted to reveal the roll. Craps . and became very popular. • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 13 . both in casinos and in home games. The pot is awarded to the player or players with the best combination of cards. In modern casinos the dice are shaken mechanically. These two games form the basis of most modern stud poker variation.• Baccarat – A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker.also called Baccarat. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. Punto Banco . in Asia. Traditionally. “casino stud” and “Texas Hold ‘Em”. and then spins a ball in the opposite direction around the circumference of the wheel. Roulette . Players can place a variety of bets on specific numbers. the dice were shaken on a small plate covered with a bowl. Seven-card stud has become more common. A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. whether it is odd or even or on a grouping of numbers. The ball eventually falls onto one of the 37 coloured and numbered pockets on the wheel. the colour of the number (red or black).a game played with three standard dice that are shaken in a basket or plastic cup. Fivecard stud first appeared during the American Civil War.

A traditional live casino keno game uses a circular glass enclosure called a "bubble" containing 80 ping pong-like balls which determine the balldraw result. • Keno – Keno is a lottery-like or bingo-like gambling game played at modern casinos. These "Dexter" cards are an early version of indexed playing cards (numbers on the corners). for that reason standard decks in the 18th and 19th century were commonly referred to as a "standard French deck". Each ball is imprinted with a number 1 through 80. Around the Turn-of-the-Century (1900). one-sided (the royalty stood one way on the card face) and the numbered cards only showed pips. the indices are quite different from those in common use today. without numbers (indices) in the corners. Payoff combinations are listed on a roulette-style table top that is often lit from underneath in winning areas of the layout to indicate winning combinations. As you can see. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 14 . European-style royalty have been used on "face cards" and "French Suits" (Spade Diamond. Heart.2 Playing cards without number Fig 1. Card Games 1.3 A deck of rare De LaRue Co. The History of Playing Cards Since the late 16th century. The wagers available and their associated odds can differ from place to place. Prior to that (during the Faro heyday). Fig 1.Outcomes are based on the combinations that come up on the three dice. between 1870-1880. England. doublesided. the double-sided deck with numbers in opposing corners and double sided face cards came into common use as a result of the rising popularitly of round games (such as poker). rounded-corner playing cards made in London. standard decks were square-edged. Club) were adopted as a standard throughout much of Northern Europe.

pubs. depending on the take and the maximum prize they can pay out. The cards in each suit rank in the usual order from high to low: A-K-Q-J-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2. 1.2. The basic game of three card Brag was one of the games described by Hoyle dates from the late eighteenth century or earlier. Faro was known as the "King of Gambling Games" and in the late 1860's. Machine Categories (UK) There are four broad categories of gaming machine. Category A machines would only be allowed in the new supercasino. and everyone discards two cards to make their best three card brag hand. Five Card Brag Five cards are dealt to each player. Gaming Machines Fruit machines. Because Three Card Brag is a gambling game the players must agree on the stake and have a common understanding of the rules. adult gaming centres. pusher and crane grab machines are all gaming machines. Gaming machines are found in lots of different places like family entertainment centres. (Typical of any game. fixed odds betting terminals. Three Card Brag A standard 52 card deck is used. Bookmakers also site Fixed Odds Betting Terminals (FOBTs) in their betting shops.) 4. if that went ahead. Gaming machines have different maximum prize and bet limits. The player generally wins by matching the symbols on the central line of three reels. slot machines. clubs and bingo halls. 3. but includes £1 and £2 C 50p 10p(30p when non-monetary D prize) Maximum Prize (£) Unlimited Varies from £250 to £4000 £25 £5 cash or £8 nonmonetary prize Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 15 . The typical game was 4 to 8 players. Brag was considered the "Queen of Gambling Games". Brag Brag was a very popular pre-poker gambling game. Category B machines are divided into four subcategories (not shown here): Category Maximum Stake (£) A Unlimited B Varies.

a grand total of fifty cents or ten nickels. They include red and black plaques which can be exchanged for prizes. also known as gaming. amusement-withprize or all-cash machines. spade. The History of Slot Machines – Liberty Bell Fig 1. Types of machine • Fruit machines Fruit machines. use a random number generator to determine whether you have won or lost. If you win. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 16 . Charles Fey (1862–1944) of San Francisco. • Fixed Odds Betting Terminal (FOBTs) FOBTs are made available by bookmakers in betting shops. 3. jackpot. plus the image of a cracked Liberty Bell. The dislodged items are then won by the player. The Liberty Bell slot machine had three spinning reels. • Crane grab machine A crane grab machine uses a mechanical arm to try to pick up prize such as a soft toy and drop it into the chute. such as representations of horseracing.2.1 The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell • Charles Fey & Liberty Bell The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell. the display often shows three identical symbols in a row. Diamond. • Pusher machine A gaming machine with a moving tray carrying various items which can be dislodged into a chute by coins pushed in by the player. football penalty shoot-outs and roulette. The outcome of such games is operated by a random number generator. FOBT users can bet on a variety of ‘events’. invented in 1895 by car mechanic. and heart symbols were painted around each reel. greyhound racing. A spin resulting in three Liberty Bells in a row gave the biggest payoff.

Charles Fey invented the first draw poker machine. Mills was the first person to place fruit symbols: i. The payoff in coinage was then dispensed from the machine. In 1901. lemons. the first electronic slot machine was built by the Fortune Coin Company. Charles Fey was also the inventor of the trade check separator. The hole in the middle of the trade check allowed a detecting pin to distinguish fake nickels or slugs from real nickels. which is regulated by the National Lottery Commission. As a result in 1907. which was used in the Liberty Bell. Fey could not build them fast enough in his small shop. Other types of lotteries include raffles and scratch cards. Charles Fey refused to sell. When the reels stopped. a Chicago manufacturer of arcade machines. Gambling supply manufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights to the Liberty Bell. plums. Each reel had ten symbols painted on it. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 17 . horse racing. Herbert Mills. In 1964. • Demand for Slot Machines Grows The demand for Liberty Bell slot machines was huge. and poker (Dale Electronics' Poker-Matic was very popular). Other all electronic versions of gambling games followed including ones for dice. • How the Original Slots Worked Inside each cast iron slot machine there were three metal hoops called reels. Fey rented his machines to saloons and bars based on a 50/50 split of the profits. In 1975. and cherries on machines. The largest game in the UK is the National Lottery.e.The original Liberty Bell slot machine can still be seen be at the Liberty Belle Saloon & Restaurant in Reno. the first allelectronic gambling machine was built by Nevada Electronic called the "21" machine. however. Lotteries Singaporeans know lotteries commonly as 4D. a jackpot was awarded if three of a one kind of symbol lined up. called the Operator Bell. Nevada. a knock-off of Fey's Liberty Bell. A lottery is a game which people enter by selecting a set of numbers that may match those drawn later for the chance of winning money or prizes. Other Charles Fey machines include: the Draw Power. A lever was pulled that spun the reels. roulette. • Age of Electronics The first popular electric gambling machine was the 1934 animated horserace machine called PACES RACES. began production of a slot machine. and Three Spinde and the Klondike.

social welfare and charity organisations as well as for public works projects. Scratch Cards Scratch cards are tickets you scratch to find out if you have won a prize. Unlike more traditional forms of gambling where you only lose the amount of your bet. Pools In pools betting. there is no civic responsibility. if you bet £5 that the first goal will be scored on the 35th minute of play in a football match. So for example. Raffles Raffles is a game often held to raise money for charity. spread betting profits and losses can be unlimited. less what the operator takes out. players ‘pool’ their stakes and the combined sum. you are either absolutely right (your horse wins) and you win money depending on the odds quoted. is divided between the winning participants. but the more wrong you are the more you can lose – and your loss is not limited to the amount of your stake. The level of the payout depends on the size of the pool and the number of winning participants. Pool betting on horse racing. politics or stock market movements. you could win £25 if the goal is scored at the 40th minute of play or lose £25 if it is scored at the 30th minute of play. With spread betting. Spread Betting Spread betting allows people to bet on sporting events. the more right you are. greyhound racing and other sports takes place at racecources and tracks. through betting offices and online. Horse racecourse pool betting is offered exclusively by the Tote. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 18 . the more you can win. in which numbered tickets are drawn from a container holding all the numbers sold. which is based on the results of football matches. The lottery proceeds in some parts of the world are used to bail out the struggling sports bodies. The most common betting pool in Britain is the football pool. or you are absolutely wrong (you horse doesn’t win) and you lose the amount you have placed on the bet. With ordinary betting. The onus is on the service provider not to accept or payout winnings to the underage public. People holding the tickets that match the numbers drawn win prizes.Playing the lottery is the easiest form of gambling around as the selling or gaming provider only offers a service to the client. These are sold in newsagents and supermarkets.

where you can wager on everything from the winner of American Idol to the likelihood that Jessica Simpson will adopt a child. These sites offer all types of gambling games. Some of the more exotic gambling options include what are known as proposition bets.9 billion in 2006. and since then the industry has boomed at such a rate that an estimated 30 million gamblers visited internet gambling sites in July of 2005 alone. allowing gamblers to place wagers on all sorts of games and events from the comfort of their home.bodog. which can be found at http://www. Internet Gambling With the expansive growth of the gambling industry and the evolution of technology.bodog. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 19 .com and BetCRIS: www. www. other gambling sites include Nine Sportsbook: www. Though internet gambling is a relatively recent phenomenon. Bodog is one of the biggest online gambling operations.betcris. The first online casino began operation in 1995 with an offering of eighteen online games. While data about revenues is varied. from the horses mouth is a term used by some individuals when placing a bet/wager. Types of Gambling Sites Internet gambling sites. the new industry also raises a variety of concerns over how the law ought to properly deal with internet gambling. it has exploded in a way that few industries ever do. from traditional card games to lotteries and sports is an example of an internet gambling site.Horse Racing Wagering on horse racing is an extremely popular form of gambling.jsp. it is no surprise that the new wave in gambling is occurring on the World Wide Web. Although very well organised the Turf Clubs that promote this sport have only a civic responsibility to their However. It is probably the one game of chance that has been responsible for patrons wrong investment (bets placed). This phenomena has truly revolutionised gambling. can be located anywhere in the world. and it also offers some of the most interesting proposition bets. 1. and can be accessed from anywhere in the even conservative estimates have the industry growing from $1 billion in profits in 1997 to a staggering $10.nine.

2. How Internet Gambling Works Gamblers wishing to bet online are usually required to set up an account with the gambling website and to make a payment into that account before betting. Payments have traditionally been made using major credit or debit cards, private debit cards (debit cards issued by small, private companies), online payment providers (i.e. Paypal), wire transfers, or e-cash (digital money that is purchased from a provider). However, there have been some recent events that have changed the way online gambling is funded. For one, most major American credit companies now prohibit payments to online gambling services. These policies are mostly self-implemented due to the high risk of fraud and bad debt in the online gaming industry. However, the companies have also had some assistance in forming the policies by New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer, who threatened Citibank with criminal prosecution for knowingly assisting in internet gambling that was prohibited by New York law. Though the charges were dropped after Citibank promised to give $400,000 to counselling services for gambling addicts, the threat of prosecution was enough to force these companies’ hands in banning internet gambling credit After credit card companies banned online gambling credit, gamblers began to use online payment providers such as Paypal with increasing frequency. However, Attorney General Spitzer then went after Paypal with a prosecution similar to the one threatened against Citibank. Though Paypal claimed that it already had a policy against allowing payments to online gambling sites the business was still forced to disgorge profits of $200,000 in a settlement with New York. Despite this apparent crackdown by some American financial institutions, gamblers have still found ways to fund their wagers. For one, online gambling sites can mask the code that attaches to credit card payments to make the payment look like it was for something other than gambling, which would allow consumers to continue to use major credit cards regardless of their policies. However, even more legitimate means of payment exist. For example, once Paypal announced that it would prohibit payments to online gambling sites there were plenty of similar online payment providers that began to offer service to gambling sites to pick up Paypal’s slack.

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In addition, gamblers can always set up accounts at foreign banks that do not prohibit transfers to gambling sites or send an international money order to those sites that accept them. One thing is for sure: as long as internet gambling continues to attract more bettors and more money, companies will find ways for bettors to pay for their bets

Activity 1.2 a) Describe in your own words how internet gambling works. b) Explain how internet gambling payments are controlled.

Activity 1.3 Detail how Slot Machines were started.

Activity 1.4 Explain the difference between pool betting and spread betting. Summary Gamblers and gambling operators can choose from a variety of games. The Games of chance that were highlighted in this section were: • • • • • • • • • • • Bingo Big Six Wheel Craps Roulette Craps/Dice Blackjack Punto Banco Lotteries Horse Racing Gambling Machines Internet Gambling

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Chances of winning Lots of people dream of winning the lottery or getting the ‘perfect’ poker hand, but do you know what the real chances are? If you toss a coin 40 times, the chance you will get heads every time is just under 1 in 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion). Keep on reading to see how your odds of winning in games of chance compare to other events. Event Living to be old enough to receive a 100th birthday telegram from the Queen (or King!) 1 Rolling a 2 in a game of craps Roulette wheel landing on one number you select Winning any prize in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ Being dealt a full house in your first five cards in poker The next person you meet being born on the same day and same year as you 20 million tonne asteroid called Apophis hitting Earth on 13 April 2036 2 Being dealt a royal flush in your first five cards in poker Being struck by lightning next year Winning a share of the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot
1 2

Average chance 1 in 8 1 in 36 1 in 37 1 in 57 1 in 4,165 1 in 25,000 1 in 45,000 1 in 650,000 1 in 10,000,000 1 in 14,000,000

UK adults in their thirties Probability changes as the potential event gets closer

You can influence the likelihood of some of these things happening. For example, living a healthy lifestyle will increase your chances of living to 100. But all gambling works on randomness. Even skill-based gambling is subject to chance – no amount of expertise or skill can influence the cards you are dealt in a game of poker. It’s important to be realistic and not to overestimate your chances. Your chance of winning a share in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot with one ticket is one in 14 million. If you spend £1 every week on the Lottery, you would expect to wait about 270,000 years before you win a share of the jackpot! Gambling operators are required to provide customers with information such as the rules, house edge, odds, average return to player, maximum bet level and prize limit.
Source: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 22

students should be able to: • • • Explain the purpose of gambling legislation and the scope of legislations influencing the gambling environment. Most gambling sections throughout the USA have had input from the State of Nevada as this was the forerunner to most of the legislation in that region. which was established in 1959. For example. under the Nevada Gaming Control Act. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 23 . Discuss responsible gambling legislation and exclusion orders Discuss Code of Practices followed by gambling providers. revoke licences and investigate and prosecute illegal gambling. In the USA gambling providers are regulated under the state authority that they are located in. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. for example the State of Nevada is controlled by the Nevada Gaming Commission. authorities can levy fines. in Singapore casino operators are regulated under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. In the United Kingdom the gambling environment is controlled under the Gambling Act 2005. with other acts in place for other forms of gambling. Gambling Legislation Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts.Topic 2 RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION Objective This chapter will introduce students to the legislative practises that govern gambling providers. They are also responsible for advising national and local government on gambling-related issues. It will focus more specifically on industry codes of practise for responsible gambling. Learning Outcome After this chapter. In enforcing legislation. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state.

appeals. as set out in the Casino Control Act 2006 is to maintain and administer systems for the licensing.1 What are the objectives of governments for controlling gambling operations? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 24 .g. gambling tax. For example. Activity 2. In Singapore the casino gambling environment is governed by the Singapore Casino Control Act. to fines that can be incurred. The Act. and fees and duties.In different countries the authorities responsible for enforcing legislation are known under different names e. covers all aspects of the Gambling industry. vulnerable persons and society at large. advertising. in Singapore the authority is known as the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore. for the purpose of: • ensuring that the management and operation of a casino is and remains free from criminal influence or exploitation. In the United Kingdom. The Objective of the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore. Besides the acts governing casinos and gambling. • ensuring that gaming in a casino is conducted honestly. Other legislations dealing with gambling related issues are the Betting Act and The Common Gaming Houses Act. More specific acts are in place dealing with gambling related issues such as advertising. supervision and control of casinos. and prizes that can be awarded. the gambling service providers are covered by the Gambling Act 2005. from where the casinos can be located. in Britain it is called the Gambling Commission and in the USA each state has its own authority. the liquor act can specify hours during which alcohol can be provided and whether it could be provided complimentary. non-related acts such as liquor acts and smoking acts also influences the casino operator. and • containing and controlling the potential of a casino to cause harm to minors. lotteries. inspections.

families and society’. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 25 . Responsible Gambling Legislation As this course concentrates on responsible gaming.Summary Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. a separate board. In many countries. The National Council of Problem Gambling was established with the objective of ‘working with the community to reduce the impact of problem gambling on individuals. Fig 2. Youth and Sports. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. National Council on Problem Gambling Singapore In Singapore the introduction of the Casino Control Act 2006 brought about the introduction of a national council to provide services for problem gambling. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. (MCYS) in 2005 as part of Singapore’s national framework to address problem gambling. the sections of the various gaming acts pertaining responsible gaming will be discussed in more detail.1 National Council on Problem Gambling Logo The National Council on Problem Gambling (NCPG) was appointed by the Minister for Community Development. council. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues.

counselling and rehabilitative programmes. The Council has identified key areas of focus and formed 6 subcommittees: • Sub-committee on Public Communications • Sub-committee on Public Consultation • Sub-committee on Youth • Sub-committee on Responsible Gambling • Sub-committee on Research • Sub-committee on Services MCYS provides secretariat support to the Council and its various sub-committees. • To assess and advise the Government on the effectiveness of treatment. • "Committee" means any Committee of Assessors for the time being constituted under section 157 (1). Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 PART X .The Council is independent and comprises 19 members with expertise and experience in public communications. social work. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 26 . unless the context otherwise requires: • "application" means an application for a family exclusion order. The Council’s main roles are: • To provide advice and feedback to the MCYS on public education programmes to promote public awareness on problem gambling. Definitions In this Part. • To decide on funding applications for preventive and rehabilitative programmes. psychiatry and psychology. • To decide on the applications for exclusion of persons from casinos. The exclusion process is one of the main features of this section of the act.NATIONAL COUNCIL ON PROBLEM GAMBLING The following section highlights the responsibility of the National Council on Problem Gambling as stipulated in the Singapore Control Act 2006. • "chairman" means the chairman of the Council. counselling and rehabilitative services.

in relation to a respondent. Where a family member is below 21 years. "panel" means the panel of assessors appointed under section 157 (2). "family member”. Application for Family Exclusion Order A written application for a family exclusion order may be submitted to the Council by a family member of the respondent. "respondent" means a person against whom a family exclusion order or exclusion order is sought or made. and (d) a sibling of the respondent. (c) a parent of the respondent. including an adoptive sibling. Where a person is unable to make an application (whether by reason of physical or mental infirmity or for any other reason). the family member must seek permission from the Council. if the person is at least 16 years of age.• • • • • • "exclusion order" means an exclusion order made under section 165. (b) a child of the respondent. Grounds for Making Family Exclusion Order When an application for family exclusion is made to the Committee. guardian or other family may apply on his behalf. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 27 . Youth and Sports. the application may be made on his behalf by any family member or relative as approved by the Council or by any person appointed by the Minister. including an adoptive parent and a step-parent. including an adopted child and a step-child. the Committee may make a family exclusion order against a respondent if: • there is a reasonable apprehension that the respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling. means: (a) a spouse of the respondent. a step-sibling and a half-sibling. • the Committee is satisfied that the making of the order is appropriate in the circumstances. "Minister" means the Minister for Community Development. "family exclusion order" means a family exclusion order made under section 162. Alternatively a parent.

rehabilitation or special education or any combination of these. The Council must be informed of whichever decision was reached with a brief state for reasons for approval or dismissal. • there is reason to believe that the respondent’s irresponsible gambling behaviour will continue or recur. A family exclusion order may do one or more of the following: • refer the respondent to participate in a program of counselling. Applications will then be investigated and the Committee might either confirm the exclusion order or dismiss the application. or taking part in any gaming on any casino premises. • bar the respondent from entering or remaining. The Committee might also take into accounts events that have taken place outside of Singapore. • require a casino operator to close any deposit account of the respondent with the casino.• • the respondent has been given an opportunity to object to the application. Terms of Family Exclusion Order A family exclusion order must specify the period during which it is in force. A respondent is to be regarded as having caused serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the respondent: • has engaged in gambling activities irresponsibly having regard to the needs and welfare of the respondent’s family members. The Committee may decide that there is a reasonable apprehension that a respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the Committee is satisfied that: • the respondent has caused such harm prior to the complaint. and • has done so repeatedly over a period of not less than 3 months or in a particularly irresponsible manner over a lesser period. and the Committee is satisfied that it would be in the best interests of the respondent and his family members to make the order. • require the respondent to close any deposit account in a casino. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 28 .

if any.Exclusions Orders made by the Committee A Committee may. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. A copy of every family exclusion order or exclusion order. • has a bankruptcy application filed against him or is an undischarged bankrupt. and • every casino operator. and a copy of every variation or revocation of such order must be provided by the Council to: • the applicant. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 29 . The same is applicable when an order is amended or is varied. Variation or revocation of family exclusion order or exclusion order by Council The Council may confirm. An exclusion order made by the committee will bar the person from any casino premises for as long as any of the above mentioned criteria is applicable. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. • the Authority. The service of family exclusion order or exclusion order A family exclusion order or exclusion order made by a Committee must be served on the respondent and is not binding on the person named in the order until it has been so served. it is only binding once served to the respondent. or • has a poor credit record. on its own motion. i.e. by written order make an exclusion order against a person if it comes to the attention of the Committee that the person: • is on any social assistance programme funded by the Government or any statutory body. • the Commissioner of Police.

committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 30 . Code of Practice A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. the proceedings of a Committee shall be secret.Secrecy Except as provided under the above mentioned section. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. One of their main responsibilities is to deal with exclusion orders. In the USA. c) Explain the term secrecy. the National Council on Problem Gambling has this responsibility. Activity 2. Summary In many countries. b) Explain the rule governing the upliftment of an exclusion order and the consequences should this not be adhered to. other than: • the Minister. council. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. No member of a Committee shall disclose or divulge to any person. but does not have the force of law. a separate board. any matter which has arisen at any proceedings of the Committee unless he is expressly authorised to do so by the Minister. In the UK.2 a) Explain the various forms of exclusion that are covered in the Singapore Casino Control Act. or • any officer of the Authority. In Singapore. • any member or officer of the Council.

Have tight controls on incentives for customers to gamble. which include how they contribute to research. Have systems in place to manage. • Ensure that gambling is conducted in a fair and open way. IT. the Gambling Commission regulates gambling in the public interest.The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) In the UK. Implement a code of practice on door supervision to keep children out of casinos. Three licencing objectives were set and the legislation and work of the commission is directed to meet these objectives. Follow procedures to prevent underage gambling. Ensure that key staff. to education about the risks of gambling and to treatment of problem gamblers. marketing. Comply with requirements to prevent money laundering. Make information about responsible gambling and help available to problem gamblers accessible on the licensees’ website home and log-in pages. compliance and managing directors. and • Protect children and vulnerable people from being harmed and exploited by gambling. Train their staff about problem gambling and about how to interact with customers who may be affected. The licencing objectives are to: • Keep crime out of gambling. hold personal licences from the Commission. the Commission has developed licence conditions and codes of practice that govern how gambling facilities are provided and managed. Ensure there is sufficient information so players can understand the games and odds they face. License Conditions and Codes To secure the three licensing objectives. 31 • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . including arrangements for self-exclusion. such as the finance. record and report complaints and disputes. under the regulatory framework of the Gambling Act 2005. Provide problem gambling information in other languages if the operator advertises in them. including access to an independent element of dispute resolution where necessary. These include requiring licensees (where relevant) to: • Put into effect policies and procedures to promote socially responsible gambling.

Protection of children and other vulnerable persons Licensees must have and put into effect policies intended to promote socially responsible gambling. the person should not be allowed access to gambling facilities. Where a person appears to be underage. They should check the age of apparently underage customers. and • is legible and has no visible signs of tampering or reproduction. • states the individual’s date of birth. Validate and the Government’s own Connexions card). the different gambling providers are also instructed by law to put into practice protection policies for both Social Responsibility Provisions and Underage Gambling. They further must demonstrate a commitment to public education of the risk of gambling and how to gamble safely. Code of Practice for Gambling Operators 1. • Access to gambling by children and young persons All licensees must have and put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. a driving licence (including a provisional licence) with photocard.g. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 32 . These policies should include measures for: • Combating problem gambling Licensees’ policies and procedures for socially responsible gambling must include a commitment to contribute to research into the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. The Commission considers acceptable forms of identification to include any identification carrying the PASS logo (e. and the identification and treatment of problem gamblers. Licensees must only accept identification which: • contains a photograph from which the individual can be identified. and a passport.Besides meeting the licencing conditions described above. • is valid. and monitor the effectiveness of these. but cannot provide identification. Citizencard.

Lottery licensees have the same responsibilities to prevent underage gambling. licensees must pay particular attention to the procedures they use at the entrance to the premises to check customers’ ages. Remote licensees have to put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. • regularly reviewing their age verification systems and implementing all reasonable improvements that may be made as technology advances and as information improves. returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. service should be refused in any circumstances where any adult is accompanied by a child or young person. The most difficult area to control underage gambling is the remote gambling sector (internet gambling). Licensees must not permit children or young people to gamble in the adults-only areas of premises to which they have access. Lottery licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all those engaged in the promotion of lotteries understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all staff understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. • requiring customers to affirm that they are of legal age. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 33 . they have to check the age of apparently underage entrants to the pool and take action when there are unlawful attempts to enter the pool.Licensees must not deliberately provide facilities for gambling in such a way as to appeal particularly to children or young people. for example by reflecting or being associated with youth culture. This should include appropriate training which must cover the legal requirements on returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. If there is a ‘no under-18s’ premises policy. In premises restricted to adults. Where football pool or other pool competition entries or payments are collected door to door by the pool betting licensee or the licensee’s authorised agent. Such procedures must include: • warning potential customers that underage gambling is an offence.

In particular customer services staff must be appropriately trained in the use of secondary forms of identification when initial verification procedures fail to prove that an individual is of legal age.g. unless the licensee has established that a third party has satisfactorily carried out age verification. near gaming machines and near to where ATMs are located • posters. the licensee should carry out their own verification and credit check and not permit the customer to withdraw any winnings from their account until age verification has been satisfactorily completed. The information must be prominent. in the case of any UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. toilets and near to exit doors). and appropriate to the size and layout of the premises. enabling their gambling websites to permit filtering software to be used by adults (such as parents or within schools) in order to restrict access to relevant pages of those sites. in the case of any non-UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. or leaflets that may be collected discreetly and taken away.• • • • ensuring that relevant staff are properly trained in the use of their age verification procedures. licensees should also take all reasonable steps to verify the customer’s age. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that this information is readily accessible including in locations which enable the customer to obtain it discreetly. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 34 . For gambling premises this should include: • information in the gambling area. • Information on how to gamble responsibly and help for problem gamblers Licensees must make information readily available to their customers on how to gamble responsibly and how to access information about and help in respect of problem gambling. in other areas (e.

The information must cover where relevant: • the availability of measures that are accessible to help an individual monitor or control their gambling, such as to restrict the duration of a gambling session or the amount of money they can spend; • the availability of timers or any other forms of reminders or ‘reality checks’ that may be available; • self-exclusion options; and • information about the availability of further help or advice. The information must be directed to all customers who wish to enjoy gambling as entertainment and not be targeted only at those the operator perceives to be ‘problem gamblers’. Licensees who market their services in foreign languages should make responsible gambling information, player’s guides to any games as well as contractual terms available in those languages. • Customer Interaction Licensees must implement policies and procedures for customer interaction where they have concerns that a customer’s behaviour may indicate problem gambling. The policies must include: • identification of the appropriate level of management who may initiate customer interaction and the procedures for doing so; • the types of behaviour that will be logged/reported to the appropriate level of staff and which may trigger customer interaction at an appropriate moment; • the circumstances in which consideration should be given to refusing service to customers and/or barring them from the operator’s gambling premises; and • training for all staff on their respective responsibilities, in particular so that they know who is designated to deal with problem gambling issues. But such policies and procedures should be consistent with, and implemented with due regard to, licensees’ duties in respect of the health and safety of their staff. • Self-exclusion Licensees must put in place procedures for self-exclusion and take all reasonable steps to refuse service or to otherwise prevent an individual who has entered a self-exclusion agreement from participating in gambling.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 35

Licensees must take steps to remove the name and details of a selfexcluded individual from any marketing databases used by the company or group (or otherwise flag that person as an individual to whom marketing material must not be sent), within two days of receiving the completed self-exclusion notification. All reasonable steps should be taken to prevent any marketing material being sent to a self-excluded customer as soon as practicable. Licensees must close any customer accounts of an individual who has entered a self exclusion agreement and return any funds held in the customer account. It is not sufficient merely to prevent an individual from withdrawing funds from their customer account whilst still accepting wagers from them. Where the giving of credit is permitted, the licensee may retain details of the amount owed to them by the individual, although the account must not be active. Licensees must implement procedures designed to ensure that an individual who has self-excluded cannot gain access to gambling; and which include: • a register of those excluded with appropriate records (name, address, other details, and any membership or account details that may be held by the operator); • photo identification (where available and in particular where enforcement of the system may depend on photographic ID), and a signature • staff training to ensure that staff are able to enforce the systems; and the removal of those persons found in the gambling area or attempting to gamble from the premises. Self-exclusion procedures should require individuals to take positive action in order to self-exclude. This can be a signature on a selfexclusion form. Wherever practicable, individuals should be able to self-exclude without having to enter gambling premises. Before an individual self-excludes, licensees should provide or make available sufficient information about what the consequences of self-exclusion are.

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Licensees should take all reasonable steps to extend the selfexclusion to premises of the same type owned by the operator in the customer’s local area. In setting the bounds of that area licensees may take into account the customer’s address (if known to them), anything else known to them about the distance the customer ordinarily travels to gamble and any specific request the customer may make. Licensees should encourage the customer to consider extending their self exclusion to other licensees’ gambling premises in the customer’s local area. Customers should be given the opportunity to discuss self-exclusion in private, where possible. Licensees should take all reasonable steps to ensure that: • the self-exclusion period is a minimum of six months and give customers the option of extending this to a total of at least five years; • a customer who has decided to enter a self-exclusion agreement is given the opportunity to so do immediately without any cooling-off period. However, if the customer wishes to consider the self-exclusion further (for example to discuss with problem gambling groups) the customer may return at a later date to enter into self-exclusion; • at the end of the period chosen by the customer (and at least six months later), maintain the self-exclusion in place, unless the customer takes positive action in order to gamble again. No marketing material may be sent to the individual unless the individual has taken positive action in order to gamble again, and has agreed to accept such material; and • where a customer chooses not to renew, and makes a positive request to begin gambling again, give the customer one day to cool off before being allowed access to gambling facilities. The contact must be made via telephone or in person. • Employment of children and young persons Persons under the age of 16 are considered as children while those 16 or 17 years of age are considered as young persons. Licensees who employ children and young persons must be aware that it is an offence to employ children and young persons to provide facilities for gambling. Children and young persons should not be employed in areas where gambling facilities are provided.
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Particular care should be taken to ensure that there are appropriate arrangements in place to cover any cases where it appears that the lending may be commercial in nature or may involve money laundering. Credit limits must be set for each customer.• Provision of credit by licensees and the use of credit cards Licensees who choose to accept credit cards must accept payment by credit card for gambling only where that payment is made to a customer account. 2. Licensees must take reasonable steps to ensure that offers of credit are not sent to vulnerable persons. • Money lending between customers Licensees should take steps to prevent systematic or organised money lending between customers on their premises. In all cases where the operator encounters systematic or organised money lending. Staff should be trained in procedures should they spot such activity. a report should be made to the Commission. and make available for gambling. Those involved in organised or systematic money lending should be excluded from the premises. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 38 . and • a player’s guide to the rules of any equal chance games which are made available. including those who have self-excluded from gambling. and ensure that information about an offer of credit includes a risk warning of what may happen in the event of default. funds deposited via credit card only after the card issuer has approved the transaction. Licence conditions related to the layout of the premises should be taken into account. In the latter case. This includes the display of rules about gaming including: • the rules of each type of casino game available to be played. showing that their terms are not unfair. Casino licensees must have policies and procedures in place to ensure that proper supervision of gambling at tables is carried out by supervisors. ‘Fair and Open’ Provisions Licensees must be able to provide evidence to the Commission. the requirements in respect of reporting suspicious transactions must be followed. • a player’s guide to the house edge. pit bosses and croupiers in order to prevent overcrowding or jostling of players.

Marketing Reward schemes and incentives under which the customer may receive money. Neither the receipt nor the value or amount of benefit should be dependent on the customer gambling for a pre-determined length of time or with a pre-determined frequency. Gambling Licensees’ Staff Licensees must put policies and procedures in place to manage relationships between staff and customers. Licensees must inform customers of the names and status of the person to contact about their complaint and provide them with a copy of the complaint procedures upon request. Licensees must keep a record of all complaints that are not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedures. the licensee should refer the customers to an independent third party. goods. or dependent on the amount the customer spends on gambling within a pre-determined length of time If licensees offer customers free or discounted alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises they must not do so as a form of enticement. Where disputes are not resolved to the customer’s satisfaction. In all cases. 3. licensees must make rules. 5. Complaints and Disputes Licensees must put in place a written procedure for handling customer complaints and disputes. services or other advantages must be operated in such a way that conditions are clearly set out and available to customers. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 39 . 4. based on the principle that staff should not engage in any conduct which is. betting information and payout information available. All reasonable steps should be taken to ensure that staff involved in the provision of facilities for gambling are made aware of advice on socially responsible gambling and where to get confidential advice should their gambling become hard to control. or could be. likely to prejudice the licensing objectives in the discharge of their duties. In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities and a ‘dispute’ is a complaint that is not resolved at the first stage of complaints procedures or relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction.There are specific conditions applicable to betting intermediaries and other betting licensees.

The American Gaming Association Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming In the United States of America. • AGA casino companies will train gaming floor employees on responsible gaming and provide periodic refresher training.3 What do you understand under customer interaction and why is it important that there are policies in place to facilitate customer interaction? Activity 2. which are representative as a governing body for the trade (Twenty states that have licensed operations within them have contributed to the formation of this document). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 40 . The following Code of Conduct details how they fulfill this pledge.4 a) Define the term ‘house edge’. the gambling providers have established the American Gaming Association. The document covers extensively the various responsible gambling processes within the contributing states. This code also covers the commitment the members to continue support for research initiatives and public awareness surrounding responsible gaming and underage gambling.Activity 2. Pledge to the employees • AGA members will educate new employees on responsible gaming. The American Gaming Association (AGA) and its members pledge to their employees and patrons is to make responsible gaming an integral part of the daily operations across the United States. This pledge encompasses all aspects of the business. 1. b) Give an example of unfair gambling. • AGA members will implement communications programs for employees to improve understanding of responsible gaming and related policies and procedures. advertising and marketing. from employee assistance and training to alcohol service.

• AGA casino companies will communicate the legal age to gamble through appropriate signage and/or brochures. • AGA casino companies reserve the right to exclude a patron from gaming. AGA members will post responsible gaming awareness signage bearing a toll-free help-line number at various locations where employees congregate. Companies will make copies of these brochures available to employees. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 41 . each AGA casino company shall make reasonable efforts to honor a written request from any person that it not knowingly grant that person access to gaming activities at one or more of its facilities. • AGA members will display in gaming areas and at ATMs signage that can be easily read bearing a toll-free help-line number. without a request from the patron.• • AGA members will distribute to new employees brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. 2. • AGA members will make available to patrons and employees information generally explaining the probabilities of winning or losing at the various games offered by the casino. These will be available and visible in gaming areas and at ATMs. Pledge to the clientele/patrons To Promote Responsible Gaming • AGA members will make available brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. To Prevent Underage Gambling and Unattended Minors in Casinos • AGA casino companies will make diligent efforts to prevent underage individuals from loitering in the gaming area of a casino. • AGA members will make available on their Web sites information describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. • Each AGA casino company will provide opportunities for patrons to request in writing that they not be sent promotional mailings and for revocation of their privileges for specific casino services such as: o Casino-issued markers o Player club/card privileges o On-site check-cashing In addition.

and will provide periodic refresher training to those employees. direct mail. security or appropriate personnel will be contacted and remain with the child while reasonable steps are taken to locate the parent or responsible adult on property or by telephone. advertising and marketing include radio and television ads broadcast off the premises.• • Employees working in relevant areas will receive training in appropriate procedures for dealing with unattended children. For the purposes of this code. o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a visibly intoxicated patron. To Advertise Responsibly This code applies to the advertising and marketing of casino gaming by AGA member companies. It does not pertain to advertising and marketing that is primarily of hotels. and release the unattended child to their care. such as the police department or department of youth services. and the purchase and consumption of alcohol and tobacco by minors. restaurants and entertainment that are often associated with or operated or promoted by casinos. o Casinos will make a diligent effort not to permit gaming by a visibly intoxicated patron. • Casino advertising and marketing will: o Contain a responsible gaming message and/or a toll-free help-line number where practical. To Serve Alcoholic Beverages Responsibly • AGA casino companies will observe a responsible beverage service policy including the following elements: o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a minor. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 42 . • AGA casino companies will train appropriate casino employees in the company's responsible alcoholic beverage service policy. If efforts are unsuccessful. billboard and Internet promotions. print. security personnel will contact an appropriate third party. If a child appears to be unsupervised or in violation of local curfews and other laws. underage gambling. o Reflect generally accepted contemporary standards of good taste. o Strictly comply with all state and federal standards to make no false or misleading claims.

to the extent controlled by the AGA member. o Imply or suggest any illegal activity of any kind. employees and policy-makers. Pledge to the public To Continue Funding Research • AGA members will continue to provide funding for the National Center for Responsible Gaming. celebrity/entertainer endorsements and/or language designed to appeal specifically to children and minors. symbols. o Be placed at any venue where most of the audience is normally expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity.• Casino advertising and marketing materials will not: Contain cartoon figures. • AGA members will continue to develop a dialogue surrounding scientific research on gambling and health to communicate to and educate patrons. • AGA members will use this research to identify the best practices for casinos to follow to promote responsible gaming. o Feature current collegiate athletes. o 3. o Be placed in media specifically oriented to children and/or minors. o Appear adjacent to. o Feature anyone who is or appears to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. o Contain claims or representations that gaming activity will guarantee an individual's social. comics or other youth features. o Be placed in media where most of the audience is reasonably expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. To Provide Oversight and Review • One year following the adoption of this Code of Conduct each AGA member company will implement the code and begin conducting annual reviews of its compliance with this code. which is the leading source of science-based research and information on gambling and health. or in close proximity to. financial or personal success. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 43 .

but does not have the force of law. Not providing access to gambling to children and yong persons. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. Providing information on responsible gambling and help for problem gamblers. It covers aspects such as: • Education. and Preventing money lending. The Codes of Practice covers aspects to protect children and other vulnerable persons by: • • • • • • • Combating problem gambling. and • Reviewing of compliance with the code. marketing ethics. • The prevention of underage gambling and unattended minors in casinos. clientele and the public. dealing with complaints and disputes and staff issues. In the USA. Providing appropriate customer interaction. • The promotion of responsible gaming practices. • Responsible advertising. training and communication for employees. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 44 . Providing opportunities for self-exclusion Controlling credit given to customers. Summary A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. In the UK. The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) set forth specific licencing conditions as well as codes of practice for licensees. • Funding for research.Activity 2. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. The AGA’s Code of Conduct is set forth in the form of a pledge to employees. The code of conduct further provides guidelines on fair and open gambling.5 Explain the difference between an Act and a Code of Practice.

It will highlight the effect that the environment has on the clients’ behaviour. up to 90% of casino revenue came from gambling activities. Previously. casinos are co-located with luxurious hotels. where today up to 50% of revenue can be generated from non-gambling activities such as food and beverage and entertainment. designed to provide constant excitement. Gambling facilities are often glamorous environments where clients can get transported to fantasy worlds. most gambling facilities also rely on an array of comfortable. Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment Casinos are centres of entertainment. Often. inviting hospitality amenities to attract and retain loyal guests. for example how it entice them to gamble and lose track of time. Learning outcome: After studying this chapter. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Describe a typical casino layout Describe additional facilities available in the casinos supporting gambling operations Describe the various forms of signage found in casinos Describe typical casino lighting Describe the placement of clocks within the casino Discuss the availability of ATM within the casino complex Discuss the availability of promotional materials within the casino. Most popular casinos also offer their guests world-class dining facilities.Topic 3 GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the features found in a casino gambling environment. Although the unique excitement of gambling is often the strongest draw. others have a nightclub-like environment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 45 .

casinos that look empty discourage play. with products placed strategically to entice customers to buy more item. For example. Thus. and to keep them there for as long as possible. i. to entertain them once they are in. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 46 . to get customers to come into the casino. there is little mystery to set out and explore it on foot. the customer may never step off the path and engage in the action. if a potential customer can see the entire casino from the entrance. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. Architects and interior designers of public spaces have to consider the way their designs will influences people. The movement of staff and clients should be considered and separated where necessary. The phrase built environment refers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity. Designers of casinos face similar issues. signs. the space or perception of space.Many studies have been done on the relationship between built environments and behaviour. Shopping malls and individual stores are designed to influence the way people spend their time. light levels. e. casinos are designed to maximise revenue earning potential. the high rollers will usually be separated from other gamblers. Where the casino attracts different types of clients.g. if a casino has a pathway that runs through it without diverting a customer into the gambling areas. Casino Layout Casinos must be planned as functional and attractive spaces. acoustic properties and supporting facilities. while another store might be designed to keep customers in the store for as long as possible. factors making up the casino environment include the layout of the casino. and customers prefer small. Furthermore.e. in some outlets items might be arranged in a way to maximize customer throughput. intimate settings for their gambling rather than open spacious areas.

1 An overhead floor plan of a casino with supporting facilities Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 47 .Fig 3.

In the casinos of the past, table games were king. Not only were table games the most popular, but they were also the most profitable. On the Las Vegas Strip, where table games once ruled, slots now dominate. Nearly 50% of the total casino win comes from slots. State-wide in Nevada, slots generate over 67% of the total casino win. The comparison is even more dramatic if you were to look at the departmental profits. In the early days of gaming, slots were merely a diversion and were usually placed around the perimeter of the casino. These machines were all pretty much the same: three-reel mechanical slots. With the exception of the cabinetry, denomination, and brand name, the workings of the ‘one-armed bandits’ were essentially the same. You inserted a coin, pulled the handle, and awaited the outcome as mechanical reels spun and clicked into position. General placement deals with where the slot banks and coin booths will be placed. Slot banks refer to groupings of slot machines, whereas coin booths and slot carousels are areas on the casino floor where players can purchase coins and tokens for use in the slot machines. In considering general placement, each slot cabinet that will hold a slot machine must be viewed as an empty box. These ‘empty boxes’ can be used to create traffic patterns or, conversely, to impede traffic patterns. The overriding consideration is to place the machines where the maximum number will be viewed by slot players. Enticements such as the showroom, bingo parlour, keno parlour, casino bars, race and sports books, and restaurants create traffic. These enticements (sometimes called anchors) influence slot placement. For example, slot machines should be placed at the entrance and exit of the bingo parlour or showroom in such a manner that customers exiting will be exposed to the maximum number of machines. Generally, slot aisles are between 5½ and 7 feet (1.6 to 2 meter) in width. Aisles that are too narrow cramp the customer and may have a negative impact on profit maximisation. The extent of seating the slot manager decides to make available will determine the aisle width necessary. Seating in the modern casino is crucial to the success of a slot operation. In Atlantic City, regulations require all aisles to be at least 7 feet wide and only fixed seating can be provided. This fixed seating rule results from concerns that movable seats could impair the customer from exiting in the event of a fire.
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Specific placement deals with placement of the specific models and coin denominations. There are several general philosophies that influence specific slot placement: • • Low hold (loose) machines should be placed in busy walkways to create an atmosphere of activity. The most popular machines should be placed near entrances where they can easily be seen by someone trying to decide whether or not to enter the casino. High hit frequency machines located around the casino pit area will create an atmosphere of slot activity. High earners and test machines should be placed in heavy traffic areas. Gimmick machines (machines in which the top award is a prize like a new car or a trip around the world) should be placed near entrances and in high traffic areas. Loose machines placed next doorways or toilets or in close proximity to the street.

• • •

These are only general philosophies governing slot placement. In application, the slot manager will continue to modify the slot floor configuration to best attract and retain customers through the use of available slot performance data. Traffic flow is kept in mind when designing casinos floor layout. Possible anchors are placed in prominent positions around the casino entrances. (Car displays, attraction machines and large jackpot style machines). Visibility and accessibility of the slots floor have been found to improve the overall performance of the casino. There have been many tried and tested variations in the gambling environment that improve the occupancy rates and increase overall capacity.

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Fig 3.2 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

Although the design depicted in figure 3.2 may appear regimented or rather uninteresting, it is important to note that adaptations such as winding pathways and generous use of pods on the borders of the slot areas are easily accomplished. Adaptations such as these maintain the basic design, while further improving the visibility and accessibility of interior units. A careful review of the environmental psychology literature would yield many beneficial modifications to improve the ambience and functionality of any slot floor.

Fig 3.3 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

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Even smaller casino properties have a range of supporting facilities to attract clients and to increase revenue. Summary The positioning of machines is critical to the gaming operator as he can entice the clientele into the casino area with relative ease.4 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park. This is contrary to the responsible gambling part of an operator’s portfolio as this also plays an essential role in a client’s spending extra money within the environment.1 Explain in your own words what you understand by the term ‘enticement’. Facilities Resort style casinos are popular family destinations with facilities to entertain clients for days. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 51 .Fig 3. USA Activity 3.

These include sports facilities.Food and beverage outlets are important features in casinos. Fast food outlets offer fast service. Packages are offered that include access to all of the facilities.2 Look at any of the mega casino resorts around the world. a manmade ocean. Bars can be found on the casino floor as well as in adjacent areas. South Africa. Pilannesburg. shops. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 52 . How do supporting facilities influence gambling patterns? Summary Supporting facilities are provided to attract and entertain clients. allowing clients to return to gaming activities as soon as possible. they use very discreet types of subterfuge or enticement in order to make the client feel at home within the gaming areas. A very important key element to all successful casinos is the clever installation of various forms of signage. and list the various facilities other than gambling facilities offered by the casinos. games arcades and theme parks. These include water sports for the kids including ‘Valley of Waves’. Fine dining restaurants are available for those who prefer. theatres. attracting guests to stay at the resort for longer. This is all offered to the discerning outdoor lover to entice him into spending his weekend away with his family. plus a discount structure offered as a bonus at a hotel at the resort. the so-called ‘Africa’s Kingdom of Pleasure’ there are various facilities to encompass the guests overall pleasure. Activity 3. At Sun City. It generates additional income for the property and keeps guests at destinations for longer. Numerous entertainment venues can be found in resort style casinos. Signage Although the gaming provider has a certain set of instructions.

The origination of signage came from Ray ‘Pappy’ Smith in the early 50’s whereby he had an idea to improve the visibility of the casino industry. People will se an amount of money displayed over a group of slot machines (See Fig 3. Although the casino does pay for the right to use this type of display they are trying to promote a brand of game type. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 53 . including a progressive amount. Other signs have to be displayed as a commitment to providing responsible gambling service. The amount will be displayed in an attractive neon or media display. The lure of this progressive value to some clients is phenomenal. the general incremental rate is around 1% of the value that is turned over in the machines. Although this show of the value’s of the increment. these types of signs are used to promote the names or machine reel content that is being used below the sign (See Fig 3. Overhead Signage Although as the name implies. the term overhead signage is used mainly above a bank of machines. Most forms of signage are used to either lure the client into the facility or attract customers to specific areas of the gaming floor. Progressive Signage Progressives are machines in which the top jackpot continuously increases until won. in some cases patrons who visit regularly will always stake an amount into the progressive bank of machines.5 Overhead Signage of the Adams Family 2. 1.5).). Fig 3. This has been used to successfully attract many visitors into the casinos around the world.6.

this display is a sign that is made up from three different coloured LED’s and is commonly used to display the amount of an individual machines progressive. It has the ability to attract one’s eye while walking the floor.7 Mikhon in machine 4. These displays or signs are used on the ends of the table games or live gaming area to show the clientele the last number or current number that has been rolled on roulette. TFT Signage TFT stands for thin-film transistor technology.8 TFT Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 54 . In Machine Signage The display in the paytable of the machine is called a ‘Mikohn’ in machine Display. A TFT monitor delivers crisp text. Figure 3. These types of signs are also used for advertising current attractions around the casino area.Fig 3. The reason behind this form of signage is that it delivers up to date information to members of the public at live feeds. Figure 3.6 Progressive Signage 3. vibrant colour and an improved response time for multimedia applications.

10 External Overhead Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 55 . running lights or neon for striking effect. Fig 3.9 Bank End Sign (A Topper Sign) 6. This is used to enable the customers to identify the amount of money or area of the casino floor that they are playing in. These signs are usually well lit and cover the doorway or entrance portal of the casino. It reflects the class of the establishment. Fig 3. highlighting the denomination of a bank of machines clearly to the public. External signs often make use of Tivoli. Denomination or Bank End Signage These types of either polycarbonate or sphere type signs are strategically placed around the casino floor.5. External Signage The use of this signage is the pride of any establishment.

these rules could be referred to resolve the dispute. minimum stake. the entrance criteria is clear to clients and can be referred to when it is necessary to refuse entrance to clients who do not meet the criteria. Games rules and regulations The gambling provider has a legal obligation to display the rules and regulations governing the games of chance that are on offer in the establishment. Fig 3. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 56 . The casino will have to advise the age restriction as well as any dress code and behaviour patterns required in the facility. There are many variations of signage around the world covering entrance requirements. This includes the table limits. the different payouts of the game and rules of the game. These must be displayed prominently at the table.12 Games rules and regulations for Bingo 8. In Singapore these will be specific in accordance with the Singapore Control Act 2006.7. By displaying a ‘right of admission reserved sign’. Right of admission reserved The gambling facility has the right (by Law) to certain restrictions for allowing visitors into the casino.11 Right of Admission Reserved Sign Fig 3. Should a dispute arise.

This signage must include the possible ills of gambling and advice on the various solutions or the counselling lines that are available. These signs advice clients on options for help as assistance should they have a gambling problem. Fig 3.13 Responsible Gambler awareness sign Summary The different types of signage are very instrumental in enticing the playing customer into the establishment.9. around the machines and live gaming area’s as well as the foyer of the casino or slots areas. Responsible Gambling Programme Signage Gambling legislations around the world require that the gambling providers place responsible gambling signage in highly visible areas of the gambling facilities and surrounding areas such as in the toilets. Types of signage used include: • • • • • • • • • Overhead Signage Progressive Signage In Machine Signage TFT media signs Denomination or Bank end signage External Right of Admission reserved Games rules and regulations Responsible Gambling Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 57 .

Casino Lighting Casinos offer dramatic visual environments. for example skylights and large windows. what time of day or night it is.g. This is not necessarily a ploy to get the clientele into the casino. as natural light makes clients aware of passage of time. The lack of natural daylight in casinos contributes to the fact that gamblers might not be aware of passage of time. The layout of the machines and the lighting used in these areas may make it easy for patrons to lose track of time. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 58 . e. Quite often gambling areas are dimly lit. Summary Casino environments are often dimly lit with lighting designed to create atmosphere and highlight special features.3 Describe the consequences that providing natural light within the casino would have on the gambling provider. Although the most responsible gambling programs would encourage natural lighting in the casino environment. but rather to highlight certain visual elements and to contribute to the atmosphere in the casino. Most casinos rely solely on artificial lighting. are being designed with more features allowing natural light to enter gaming areas. with gaming machines packed into every available space. although this is not proved. The absence of natural daylight in the casino is drawing much criticism lately. this could be a costly venture for a casino operator who might lose revenue and patronage. Activity 3. New casinos however. Lighting is used to create a mood or enhance a gaming or entertainment activity.

The logic behind this rational is that there should be no concept of time or passage of time for the clientele at all.Display of Clocks Casinos often do not display clocks in highly visible places. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. This influence the way clients are made aware of time. However. This is a minimum standard that is required but does not have any forcible effect under the law. Activity 3. This can contribute to the might contribute to the fact that gamblers might loss track of time. Casino employees can wear wrist watches to keep track of shifts and break times. for the installation of clocks so that every player in a gaming area is able to see the time. i.4 Explain what the term ‘passage of time’ means to you. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 states that a casino operator shall not provide or allow another person to provide any automatic teller machine within the boundaries of the casino premises and that any casino operator who contravenes this regulation shall be liable to disciplinary action. Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) Throughout various casino environments around the world. Summary Clocks are usually not displayed in highly visible places within casinos.e. For example. Responsible gambling regulations ask gambling providers to provide an opportunity for reality check for patrons. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 59 . time is displayed at cashier’s booths and on other electronic signs around the casino.

or could be for the gambling section only. Furthermore. room bed and breakfast.However.13 Problem Gambling Hotline Activity 3. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. and gives them a chance to think about whether they should really be drawing more money. e. The different package deals are put together by the marketing departments to attract crowds to the venue. Promotional materials can take the form of a package deal for the hotel or resort. Promotional Materials Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 60 . The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time.5 What is the rationale of casino legislations for prohibiting the placement of ATM’s within the casino area? Summary Throughout various casino environments around the world. some casinos would have ATM’s placed around the floor area.g. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. responsible gambling legislations require responsible gambling signs to be placed at ATM machines as a deterrent to draw more cash. a ticket to an exclusive show. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. or outside the floor areas within other facilities. Figure 3. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor.g. e.

Invitations to special Sun International events such as the Nedbank Golf Challenge Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Platinum and Gold cardholders can enjoy the MVG Lounge and Prive privileges. one of the most used by Sun International is the Sunscapes voucher. Being a Most Valued Guest means more than just recognition and the guarantee of VIP status at Sun International’s casinos and resorts – it also delivers a range of exclusive membership benefits and rewards in exchange for MVG points. the more you earn with Sun International. you will be delighted at the benefits you receive. Most of these offers would be for downtimes in the hotel industry. drinks and exciting merchandise. As you progress from Maroon to Silver to Gold and then to the prestigious Platinum. Sun International Benefits and Rewards The more you play. Each Sun International Casino has various benefits and offers exclusive to Most Valued Guests that can be enjoyed during your visits. where available. 61 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 .One of the best ploys used by the gambling provider is the correct use of promotional materials. The higher your status. For example. Many casinos offer reward programmes for regular clients in order for them to return time and time again. hotels and resorts. food. Redeem your MVG points for luxurious accommodation.e. and our MVG Programme demonstrates just how much: • • • • • • • • • Recognition as a Most Valued Guest at all Sun International casinos. This would offer the client a hotel discount structure for two people over certain periods of time. Earn MVG points for play on slots and tables. off peak periods. Popular promotional materials include gambling vouchers (offer) that one can be redeemed at the casino or slots area. This is to make sure that there is a response from the clients who frequent the establishment. Exclusive accommodation discounts at Sun International’s luxury hotels and resorts Terrific discounts on green fees at Sun International golf courses. At Sun International we value your loyalty. the greater your rewards. i.

Call this toll-free number. THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. Platinum 80% midweek 80% weekend Gold 70% midweek 55% weekend Silver 50% midweek 25% weekend Maroon Green Fees discount (for cardholder) Accommodation Discounts (maximum three consecutive nights and subject to availability) Green Fees discount (for cardholder only) Recognition as an MVG in every Sun International Casino Invitations to special Sun International events 80% midweek 80% weekend 50% discount on green fees * 70% midweek 55% weekend 30% discount on green fees * 50% midweek 25% weekend 10% discount on green fees * Green Fees discount (for cardholder) * Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 62 . This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. where availability allows it. 0800-11-51-50. however should family rooms not be available. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations. to secure your accommodation. Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family.Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. sharing.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 63 . THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. * * * * * * Gold * * * * * * Silver * * * * * * Maroon * * * * * * * * Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking.Platinum Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Earn points for play Free Membership Free entry into all Sun International Casinos MVG Partner Card VIP Parking MVG Lounge and Prive privileges Complimentary beverages whilst playing Sun International’s Prive Magazine mailed to you quarterly Dedicated hotel check-in counter and cash desk facilities – where available. sharing.

the gambling providers around the globe are now using appropriate environmental features. Summary Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit.Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. such as a monkey call. Activity 3. It might include accommodation offers. The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. Call this toll-free number. fauna and flora at his disposal to create an ambience. however should family rooms not be available. to enhance the player’s attention to a promotional machine. tumbling through troughs and soothing noises allows one to venture into a dream world not caring about where you are. where availability allows it. The service provider will then use machinery. The use of water features. The once bland casino floor is now used to take a client into another domain. 0800-11-51-50. The majority of these features are recreated artificially. Creating a Comfortable Environmental In attempting to transform the original casino environment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 64 . By doing so they can transform a ‘dead and bleary’ looking casino floor into a tropical paradise. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. There are also artificial sounds that are used for advertising purposes. environment. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room. The correct use or utilisation of airconditioning above and around the machines can create a feeling of wellness within the service provider’s area. to secure your accommodation.5 Provide 2 examples of promotional rewards. tickets to events or restaurant vouchers. on the inside of the building.

in some instance he has exceeded expectations. also instils a sense of well being in the client. although not natural light. These temperatures are also used in the improving of bar sales. Although there is no natural light in the casino environment. As an example the utilisation of downdrafts within the environment will force the clients to rethink where he is comfortable while playing. Activity 3. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 65 . These lighting skills will be used as down lights above the tables. The use of correct lighting. but enhancing his overall playing conditions. b) How does this environment contradict responsible gambling? Summary The utilisation of environmental features has become a challenge for the service provider. The opposite of this is the use of ambient temperatures while playing in the area (22 degrees). complimentary drinks at the service provider’s expense. the using of automatic dimmers can give a relaxed atmosphere.6 a) Describe the environment that must be created in the casino to make customers comfortable and stimulate interest. room temperature. in other world over provided.The correct use of either heating. cooling features can assist with retaining the client within the casino area. to upward lighting around the slots floor areas.

Having information and understanding the games also contributes to the enjoyment of games participated in. Introduction to the Provision of Information Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 66 . The types of information that should be available will be discussed as well of the ways in which this information is made available. Learning outcome After studying this chapter. This information will inform clients of the options they have and enable them to make informed and responsible choices.Topic 4 PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS Objective In this chapter the students will be introduced to the provision of information that should be readily available to the clients. the student should be able to: • • • • • Describe the range of information that should be displayed as well as available upon request Describe the range of responsible gambling information that should be available Describe the range of information on counselling that should be available Describe the win/loss and probability information that should be available Describe the information on games that should be available.

and • Advice on counseling services.1 Responsible gambling poster printed in 6 languages Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 67 . where appropriate. (See Fig 4. They may have incorrect and inflated expectations of the rewards to be received from participation in gambling activities. It might often be necessary to publish posters and brochures in a variety of languages. • The nature of games. • Gambling-related complaint resolution mechanisms. policies for addressing problem gambling issues relevant to the local community.1) Fig 4. The regulated gambling providers are expected to offer their patrons accurate and meaningful information that are readily available and in clear language explaining topics such as: • The rules and operations of the games. Information must be made available in languages that will be understood by clients. • The chances of winning. game rules. These include: • The gambling provider’s Responsible Gambling Practices documentation including. In addition to the above mentioned. or ‘point of sale’ to enable them to make informed decisions about their participation. • Identifying problem gambling.Clients often do not have access to sufficient information on probable outcomes from specific gambling activities. • Self-Exclusion provisions. The provision of information is based on the proposition that consumers must have access to adequate information at the ‘point of gaming’. odds or returns to player. there are certain information that are available to clients upon request.

• Identifying problem gambling. Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers.Summary Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. Fig 4. it is important to remind gamblers of the risks they face. and • Advice on counseling services. Internet or Telephone Sports Bookmakers and Online Gaming Licensees are required to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and.1 Responsible Gambling notice found on ATM’s Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 68 . • The chances of winning. where to get help for problem gambling on their websites. as appropriate. whether casinos.. Information must be available in languages understood by clients. etc. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. This information should be prominently displayed in all gambling areas and near ATM and POS facilities servicing gambling areas. Gamblers who are aware of the risks. For this reason. Information that should be displayed throughout the establishment includes: • The rules and operations of the games. lotteries. often choose to ignore the risks. Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling Many gamblers are not aware that they are at risk of developing gambling problems. Additional information should be available upon request.

In addition. operators could display the poster and business cards in additional areas of the venue. Fig 4. for example near the cashier’s booth and standalone change dispensing devices. Gambling providers can come out with their own mission statements. Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees have to display their responsible gambling mission statements on their websites. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 69 .2) was used in a local boxing gymnasium.2 Responsible Gambling advertisement Responsible Gambling Mission Statement Many gambling acts require that a Responsible Gambling Mission Statement is clearly displayed around the gambling provider’s service area.There are some additional initiatives that could be implemented by outside investments such as town councils. local community services may have brochures that advertise their services and these can also be appropriately displayed. service forecourt and children’s play area’s. Although a catchy style of phrase the irresponsible gambler might not take heed to this advice. The advert in the example (fig 4. This is interpreted as a logo on an internet page. For example. This logo has been advertised at every gambling facility. One of the well known service providers (Sun International) has the following statement ‘Gamble with your head and not your heart’. inside both the casino and the surrounding areas such as the hotel lobby. It is also included on their website.

g. • Safe transport options. for example. a responsible community organisation. newspaper advertisements. e.4 Playing cards with a responsible gambling message and helpline number Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 70 . venue fliers.: • ‘The XYZ Club. • ‘The XYZ Club supports the responsible enjoyment of our facilities. • Tips to gambling within means. • ‘The XYZ Club – promoting responsible enjoyment.4) Fig 4.Other Methods of Displaying Information The gambling provider could promote their responsible approach within. mail outs. More interesting and eye catching ways of displaying information can be implemented by engaging professional advertising companies. • Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer contact details. Gambling provider venues with websites could also incorporate a ‘Responsible Enjoyment’ section including: • Promotion of non-alcohol and low-alcohol drinks. The ‘playing cards’ below was developed for the National Responsible Gambling Council. and as a footnote on letterheads. (See Fig 4.

more individuals will come forth to seek professional help.Activity 4.’ – NCPG 2008 In accordance with legislative requirements. stating the name of the organisations whose statement it is. whether casinos. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. Various countries around the world that have gambling interests have 24 hour counselling hotlines available. and in other gambling facilities such as lottery outlets and gambling websites. Summary Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. Availability of Counselling ‘It is the Council’s hope that with greater awareness. etc. Information on counselling services available and their contact details must be displayed in full view around the casino. Most of the hotlines are toll free numbers. The examples listed below are just a few of the lines available. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 71 .1 Describe what a responsible gambling mission statement and give an example of a statement. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. lotteries. and there will be less hesitancy among members of the public to refer family members or friends for professional help..

Thye Hua Kwan 2 pilot agencies the Ministry of Community Development. social or health workers Helpline: GamCare is the national centre 084 56000 133 for information. anxiety and even depression. Moral Society Youth and Sports (MCYS) is Tel: 6337 1201 funding to provide counselling Care Corner and support services to Counselling problem gamblers and their Centre Tel: 6353-1180 families. probation.Examples of the United Kingdom responsible gambling counsellors: Contact details: Gordon House Association 01384241292 accepts individuals who refer themselves. family. National Contact Gamblers Anonymous is a Gamblers number: fellowship of men and women Anonymous 02073843040 who have joined together to do (UK) something about their own gambling problem and to help Offering The other compulsive gamblers do Hand Of the same.K. Friendship To Compulsive Gamblers In Singapore the some examples of the counselling facilities are: 1800-X-Gamble Gamblers and their families (18009426253) often have to struggle with financial and debt management problems as well as guilt. Those who want a listening ear. or who are referred by their friends. advice and practical help in relation to the social impact of gambling in the U. 72 Thye Hua Kwan Moral Society and Care Corner Counselling Centre Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . and to obtain information and assistance on gambling problems can call the helplines.

Activity 4.g. the casino staff must be able to assist them. compulsive gambling. The various advertisements around the casino or gambling facility must make it clear that: • Help is available. sex addiction and internet addiction). This information should be displayed throughout the gambling facility and staff should provide information to clients upon request. Casino and other gambling facilities have training programmes in place for staff the equip them to provide information to clients.Contact Number: 6-RECOVER (6732 6837) Community Addictions Management Programme (CAMP) Its aim is to provide treatment for individuals with various addictions.2 a) b) What is meant by counselling? What is the meaning of a toll free help line? Summary In accordance with legislative requirements. • That help lines can be called 24 hours a day. Should the client need help in resourcing the counselling services and help lines. seven days a week to answer questions. including substance behavioural addictions (e. and • That counsellors are available to provide information and advice. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 73 .

the reports would be manually generated.Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability In casino parlance. Although the reward system will not have current hold percentages of the different game types that the client are frequenting. as well as the amount of visits per month. for example the handle tracked report. rewards redeemed report. Depending on the service provider’s status within the industry. the client. The gambling provider’s around the globe are required to advise the client as to his win/loss records. The probability of loosing in a game of chance is explained to the client when the service provider explains the individual games of chance to the client. This figure is represented in value to both parties. Clients are afforded verbal access to these statistics whenever they approach the service provider. these reports would be named individually. or if a regular service provider. and win/loss report. These statistics are kept by the service provider in order that the service provider can establish the net worth of the client. These reports will advise the service provider or the client as to his specific play patterns. The service provider will use the online play reports for the marketing rewards systems that are in place at the gambling provider’s establishment. could work out his accumulated casino win/loss figure as a percentage. If the service provider has a computer generated online system. It could also be used to support an exclusion order when a client has spent excessive amounts on gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 74 . as it could determine the worth of the client to the casino. with management’s assistance. This is the amount that he could loose over a period of time taking into consideration the he would win or loose on different visits at the service provider. and the period of time spent playing. The detailed report would be used to determine the client’s play at the casino. a client’s win/loss figures refer to the amount of revenue that the casino has either generated or lost to the client. The availability of a client’s win/loss statistics at a casino is made available through the player rewards database. the player tracking database could be online.

The same information is done in a slot machine on the awards paytable. These are in the form of the top glass of the slot machine cabinet. payoff schedules or award cards applicable to every licensed game or slot machine shall be displayed at all times either on the table or machine or in a conspicuous place immediately adjacent thereto.As an example the Las Vegas Gaming requirements are as follows: Nevada Gaming Regulation 5. 2. a reward card for the game that is represented at the place of stake. The gambling property will place in view on the live gaming table. Payoff schedules or award cards must accurately state actual payoffs or awards applicable to the particular game or device and shall not be worded in such manner as to mislead or deceive the public.012 . (See Fig 4. Except as specifically provided herein. the foregoing requirements will be satisfied if: (a) The player is at all times made aware that payoff schedules or award cards applicable to any game offered for play are readily accessible and will be displayed on the video display screen of the device upon the initiation of a command by the player. In the case of craps. keno and faro games the foregoing requirement will be satisfied if published payoff schedules are maintained in a location readily accessible to players and notice of the location of such schedule is posted on or adjacent to the table.Publication of Payoffs 1.5) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 75 . or (b) The award cards of any game offered for play are displayed at all times when the device is available for play. These are the reward paytables for the staked amount on an individual bet should a winning combination occur. In the case of slot machines. The above example is only a minimum requirement but does cover extensive control on the individual gambling property. this simply states that these are minimum internal controls standards required by the gambling provider to meet in order to have the gaming facility/ property fully licensed and operational. Maintenance of any misleading or deceptive matter on any payoff schedule or award card or failure on the part of a licensee to make payment in strict accordance with posted payoff schedules or award cards may be deemed an unsuitable method of operation.

and in the short term. anything can happen.) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 76 . (This is a long term expectation.5 Slot Machine Paytable (Source: http://www. which was trying to get the customers to understand the amount that the casino would hold. the house edge is normally expressed as a percentage. blackjack.50 and $1.5%. For example. That means out of every $100 bet. Fig 4. the player can expect to lose between $0. blackjack has a house edge of between Examples of Slot machine game hold percentages that are offered around the world are in line with a denominational trend. This is been used in contradiction to the responsible gambling mission around the globe. the gambling trends have shown that the service providers in Las Vegas are using the percentages to entice customers into the service provider’s area.5% and 1% when played with perfect basic strategy.Although suggestions have been made to the service providers to advertise the average machine hold percentages. For example.00. as in the layman’s terms – the house percentage/casino win. or craps. With table games like roulette. for a one dollar (US$) the average hold percentage is 6.slotmachinest rategy. Slot Machine Payout Percentages Various ways of describing the house edge on gambling games are traditionally used.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 77 . such as the amount of handle (spins). as this will determine the hold percentage in the long term.92. in August 2006. The only difference between a slot machine hold percentage and the casino (house) hold is the term used to describe it.3% Information on the Odds or Win Rates of Major Prizes The gambling provider must make available easily understood and accurate information on the odds or win rates of major prizes. A slot machine with a payout percentage of 99. the slot machine payouts at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City looked something like this: • Quarter slots . This number is determined by subtracting the payout percentage from 100%. For example. would pay out $99. This information should be displayed in gambling areas.) Slot Machine Hold Percentages A slot machine's hold percentage is the amount of money the house can expect to win over the long term. this is over the long term. the higher the slot machine payouts are. the more active a casino destination is. for example. (Again. in proximity to relevant games and on web sites.6% • Dollar slots . There are some variables that the machine will have. And the higher denomination games usually have a higher payout percentage than the lower denomination slot machine games.3% • Five dollar slots .But slot machines are normally described according to their payout percentages.97. The payout percentage is basically what percentage of money will get paid out compared to what is wagered. Slot machine payouts also vary based on what denomination of slot machine you're playing. In the short term the hold percentages can vary.50 for every $100 wagered. The hold percentage on a slot machine is the same thing as the house edge on a table game.93. Usually. So a slot machine with a 96% payout percentage has a 4% hold percentage.5%. Typical Slot Machine Payouts and Payout Percentages A typical slot machine payout percentage varies according to what area of the country you're in.

This will be available from the marketing department. clients can have realistic expectations. The gambling provider could: • Have odds of winning current major prizes readily available at points of sale (POS) and coin exchanges (Slots Booths or Cashiers). Training centres for clients are generally built in the large service provider’s facility and are manned by staff that are trained to deal with all requests from client’s for information on live gaming. Although the information is available to inform the client of the risks involved in a game of chance. The most popular games that are explained to clients are blackjack and roulette. Summary Casinos should make win/loss and probability information available to clients. Information on Games Service providers around the world are recognizing the need to instruct the clients in the art of the games of chance. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 78 . • Prominently display the relevant Player Information Guide in accessible areas (hotel lobby). By having this information. Gambling providers operating loyalty programs could also provide player activity records to the relevant patron upon that person’s request. • Alert patrons to the availability of the Guide and promote its use (signage around the gaming area as well as any outside media). The odds or win rates of major prizes should also be available to clients.Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees must make this information available on their websites. the teaching of these games is at best thorough. • Ensure adequate supply of these guides (on desktops or around the live gaming areas within easy reach). Additional Initiatives Operators may choose to display their full complement of documentation in prominent locations such as welcome centres or information centres.

To accumulate points. Having a player tracking or rating system in place holds advantages for both the gambling provider as well as the client. The reward system will award clients different colour cards (platinum. This enables the casino to obtain the necessary information needed to keep records of the amount and time spend in the casino.Summary Many of the large casinos offer to train clients on the rules and play of popular casino games. gold. Some large casino groups have group wide ratings systems. Casinos can use this information for marketing purposes and reward purposes. gold or platinum cards.250 450 50 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 79 . The client can have access to his win/loss ratio. the hours of play and the status of play. the player has to use the card each time he plays. Clients who sign up for reward programmes are issued with ‘tracking cards’. The Most Valued Guest System (MVG) used by Sun International is an example of a player rating system. To obtain silver. Player Rating Systems The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. These figures are recorded in a computerised system and used to form a database of clients that utilize the facility. The maroon card is an entry level card. silver or maroon) based on their level of spent. the amount he spent. clients have to accumulate points as follows: Card Tier Platinum Card Gold Card Silver Card Points Required 4.

Points from the various casinos within the group can be combined. To earn 1 point on a table game, the client must turnover R2500 and to earn 1 point on slots, the client must turnover R500. This means that for a client to obtain a platinum card, he would have to turnover at least R10, 625 000 on table games or R2, 125 000 on slots. Summary The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. Both the client and the gambling provider can obtain valuable information through player reward systems.

Activity 4.3 Explain what the gambling provider could do to have the odds or win rates available for clients.

Activity 4.4 a) b) What is meant by the term House Edge? Give an example of the House Edge of Blackjack.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


This chapter will explain the procedures for handling requests for exclusions and the implementation of exclusion orders. Students will get to appreciate the extent of work and control involved managing and enforcing exclusion orders. Exclusion procedures must be handled in accordance with legislations and is a very important aspect of responsible gambling.

Learning Outcome
After studying this chapter the student should be able to: • • • • • • Define the various types of exclusion orders Discuss the exclusion procedures stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 Explain the procedures for dealing with exclusion requests and implementation of exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with attempts to breach exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with requests to revoke exclusion orders Explain policies that remote gambling operators should have in place with regards exclusion orders.

Introduction to Exclusion Orders
Responsible Gambling legislations in various countries require gambling providers, including casinos, to make available to their clients and gambling public and to administer exclusion programmes. In Singapore the exclusion process is stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 and in the UK, the Gambling Act 2005 provides guidelines.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


Gambling providers should be able to administer a self-exclusion order upon request from clients. Other exclusion orders that might be handled by responsible gambling commissions or councils include family exclusion orders and automatic exclusion orders or third party exclusion orders. Gambling providers must have policies and procedures in place for handling all types of exclusion orders. Responsible gambling councils will provide registered gambling providers (licensees) with details of excluded persons. The gambling providers are the front line institutions which have to deal with the different types of exclusions. This will incorporate the complete process from interviewing clients requesting for exclusion through to advising the responsible gambling departments of people who has been excluded. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. It also prevents them from loosing any more money on gambling. The exclusion clause was regulated as there would be instances that clients would carry on with gambling if there was no forcible help in the law. For a gambling service provider, dealing with exclusions can be stressful and unpleasant. Extreme caution and care has to be taken when dealing with and enforcing exclusion orders. It might be necessary to exclude regular clients with whom the staff have built a relationship. Management and staff should be able to distance themselves from personal feelings should they know clients on a personal basis. Types of Exclusion Orders • Self Exclusion Casino Self Exclusion refers to an approach to reducing gambling problems whereby an individual voluntarily excludes him or herself from a casino. The individual contracts with the casino that they will not enter the casino, and if they do, they can be removed and charged with trespassing.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


Recipients of Public Assistance or Special Grants as well as undercharged bankrupts will be excluded from casino premises under Third Party Exclusion. Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 In topic 2. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families.1 a) What is a ‘deed of exclusions’? b) Explain what is meant by the term self exclusion. including Singapore. c) What is meant by an incapacitated applicant? Summary It is a legal requirement for gambling providers to manage and make available exclusion orders. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 83 . Exclusion orders can be in the form of self exclusion. upon application by a family member. In addition to the procedures discussed previously. family exclusion and third party or automatic exclusion. • Third Party Exclusion or Automatic Exclusion Under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 has specific guidelines for casinos to deal with exclusions. we discussed the procedures followed by the National Council on Problem Gambling when dealing with family exclusions. Activity 5.• Family Exclusion In some countries. Problem Gambling Councils can exclude a person whose gambling behaviour has caused serious harm to his/her family.

by an exclusion order given to a person orally or in writing.Different types of gambling providers in different countries around the world. (3) A person who has been given an exclusion order under this section may appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. will have similar guidelines to adhere to. whether on the voluntary application of the person or otherwise. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 84 . prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises.Exclusion orders by casino operator (1) A casino operator may give a written exclusion order under this section to a person. (3) As soon as practicable after the Authority gives an exclusion order under this section. Section 121 . (2) As soon as practicable after making an exclusion order. Section 120 .Exclusion orders by Authority (1) The Authority may. prohibiting the person from entering or remaining on the casino premises. the casino operator shall notify the Authority and the Council of that order or the revocation of that order. (3) As soon as practicable after a casino operator gives an exclusion order under subsection (1) or revokes the order. (2) An oral exclusion order lapses after 14 days. as the case may be. The following sections from the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 will be examined as an example. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises.Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police (1) The Commissioner of Police may. (2) A voluntary application under subsection (1) shall be in writing and signed by the applicant in the presence of a person authorised by the casino operator to witness such an application. by a written exclusion order given to a person. regulated under various gambling legislations. Section 122 . the Authority shall notify each casino operator of that order. the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of that order.

(3) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Authority or the Minister. the Authority shall give notice of the revocation to each casino operator as soon as practicable after it occurs.Section 123 .Duration of exclusion orders (1) An exclusion order made under section 121 or 122 remains in force in respect of a person unless and until it is revoked by the person who gave the order or by the Minister. (b) an agent of the casino operator.List of persons excluded by casino operator The Authority may.Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises (1) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall not. (2) Any person. being subject to an exclusion order made under section 121 or 122. without reasonable excuse. (2) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Commissioner of Police or the Minister. (2) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall comply with any order made under section 163 (2) (d) to close any deposit account of a respondent named in that order. Section 126 .Removal of excluded persons from casino premises (1) This section applies to the following persons on any casino premises: (a) the person for the time being in charge of the casino. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 85 . Section 125 . who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence. Section 127 . the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of the revocation. from time to time. or take part in any gaming. permit an excluded person to enter or remain on the casino premises. (c) a casino employee. on any casino premises.Excluded person not to enter casino premises (1) An excluded person shall not enter or remain. on appeal. require a casino operator to furnish a list of persons excluded from the casino premises by the casino operator. Section 124 .

(3) If winnings referred to in subsection (2) comprise or include a non-monetary prize.Exclusion orders by casino operator Section 121 .Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police Section 123 .(2) (3) A person to whom this section applies who knows that an excluded person is about to enter or is on the casino premises shall — (a) notify an inspector as soon as practicable. (4) In determining the value of a non-monetary prize for the purposes of subsection (3).Exclusion orders by Authority Section 122 . or (b) a minor (as defined in section 130). or (ii) remove such a person from the casino premises or cause such a person to be removed from the casino premises. and (b) using no more force than is reasonably necessary — (i) prevent the excluded person from entering the casino premises. in any other case. (5) The amount of winnings to be forfeited under this section shall be investigated and determined by an authorised person whose decision shall be final. Summary The Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 includes the following sections with regards exclusion: Section 120 . all winnings (including linked jackpots) paid or payable to the person in respect of gaming on gaming machines or playing any game approved under section 100 in the casino are forfeited to the Consolidated Fund. Section 128 . any amount of goods and services tax payable in respect of the supply to which the prize relates is to be taken into account. Any person who fails to comply with subsection (2) shall be –– (a) liable to disciplinary action. (2) If a person to whom this section applies enters or remains on any casino premises in contravention of this Act.List of persons excluded by casino operator Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 86 . or (b) guilty of an offence. the casino operator shall pay the value of that prize to the Consolidated Fund.Duration of exclusion orders Section 124 .Forfeiture of winnings (1) This section applies to any person who is — (a) an excluded person. in the case of a casino operator or a licensed special employee.

Section 125 . will be the first person to hear about a problem. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 87 . In smaller organisations Duty Managers would handle exclusion procedures. In most instances a front line staff member. such as the dealer. They will not deal with the case at all. Most gambling establishments have an interview room in which they can facilitate the clients in private. These rooms are equipped with both video and voice recording system. The frontline staff members are trained in dealing with requests for help and are instrumental in getting the process started.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises Section 128 . Once the request for exclusion is received by the senior management or the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. he/she will follow the policies and procedures set. This process must also be dealt with in a professional manner. various departments might be involved in exclusion procedures. Depending on the country or region of the operations or the size and organisation of the gambling establishment. cashier or security officer. Security Departments are also extensively involved the implementation and administration of exclusion order. Large casinos have Responsible Gambling Departments with Responsible Gambling Liaison Officers who will deal with exclusions. but refer it to the department or manager dealing with exclusion orders. or they might be asked advice with regards exclusions. from the time of request until the completion of paperwork. Requests for Exclusion Requests for self-exclusion are primarily dealt with within the service provider’s facility.Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises Section 127 .Excluded person not to enter casino premises Section 126 .Forfeiture of winnings Dealing with Exclusions Gambling providers will deal with exclusions in accordance with national or regional legislations.

although there might be provision for a request to be made online. Player reward ratings obtained from the database indicating the client’s win/loss data. in a quiet area. Sample Form Please see Appendix 1 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 88 . Details will also be entered in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register. the client would be present himself. In most cases. he has to obtain the following documentation: • • • Client’s identification document. the process and conditions should be explained to him. This form can be obtained from reception. Credit forms and account details from the cashiering department. within the gambling areas. In many instances the client will avail himself on the premises in question.When a person request for self-exclusion. but there are suggestions in the different Responsible Gambling provisions for this event to take place away from the gambling facility. It must be clear what type of exclusion is requested for and will be instituted and the implications of an exclusion order. from the service provider’s website and other areas of the casino. where appropriate. Documentation When the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Duty Manager or Security Officer is tasked to provide assistance with self exclusions. This request might have to be followed up by a personal interview. The person administering the exclusion order will then check the completed self-exclusion forms together with. by phone or by writing in to the establishment. a photo of the relevant person. These forms will include the stated wish of the patron to be reminded of their desire to be excluded from the specified gambling provider. A self-exclusion form would then be completed by the client.

Processing Exclusion Orders • Self-Exclusion Upon being approached by a patron seeking assistance. close. personal interest. Refer the third party to the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. 3. Immediately explain the need to refer the matter to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. the staff member will: 1. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will provide a copy of the Approved Self. All of the aforesaid actions have to be done in the presence of the afflicted patron/client (respondent). • Exclusion Requested by Third Party/Family Member If a staff member is approached by a third party requesting exclusion for another person with whose welfare they have a clear. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 89 . provision of photo. urging them to make personal contact with counselling groups or directly with the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Should the patron agree to proceed. The Officer will encourage them to discuss the options with the person believed to have a problem with gambling. 3. Should the patron refuse this. staff will: 1. clearly explain the form and detail specific requirements – for example. ask the patron to sign it.Exclusion Form and details of local community support to the third party. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should give a copy of the Approved Self-Exclusion Form to the patron. if possible. The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will: • outline the effects and consequences of self-exclusion. 2. • go through the procedures and guidelines and the need for a signed agreement. 4. If the patron does not wish to proceed. staff will suggest a meeting with the Manager on duty (if different to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer). 2. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will advise the third party that Self-Exclusion procedures and documents are available. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will complete the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and.

Assessment and Review To ensure the effectiveness of self-exclusion procedures.Once the self-exclusion form is signed and witnessed it comes into effect three days after signing. the gambling provider can: • Provide regular staff information and training on self-exclusion. • Have clear reporting procedures (staff to management) of relevant incidents (observations. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 90 . are advised of the self-exclusion. The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should record the self-exclusion and all actions undertaken in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and take all reasonable steps to ensure that the management staff. breaches. the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will be identified as the source of information for self exclusion provisions. Where a player loyalty scheme is in effect the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer can enable players to access their own detailed playing records to assess pattern of play. The Security Official/ Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will maintain confidentiality of information and the Responsible Gambling Incident Register is to be kept in a secure place. contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. including the security management. • Review the policy for self-exclusion on a regular basis to see if it is working and what areas may need improvement. frequency) and actions taken by the venue with regard to patrons seeking self-exclusion. Counselling Contact Information Gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self-exclusion and/or express a concern that they have a gambling problem. Additional Initiatives by the Gaming Provider Throughout all Responsible Gambling Practices documentation. These exclusion procedure would have been audited by the internal audit function of the relevant service provider to make sure that the process is legal (becomes binding once forms completed). after which time no self-excluded person may gamble with the relevant gambling provider. inquiries.

If the person decides to self exclude permanently from the establishment. checking all the relevant documentation 3.2 What details should be recorded on a self-exclusion form? Summary 1. This dis-action will last as long as the self exclusion (ban) is in place. their details removed from databases and player-tracking systems. and how long the exclusion will be in force. by asking. After checking the positive identification he will ask the client to fill in the correct forms. The first step that the officer dealing with this event will do is to try and make the client feel at ease. There are suggestions that the exclusion should be one year. 4. date starting. the consequences surrounding breach. He should not give the client the alternative to be able to back out of the exclusion. 2. The information that they have requested self exclusion (ban) should be highlighted within the client database/player tracking systems in order that the various departments dealing with the database information are made aware of the current status of the client. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 91 . as an example in the UK they give the exclusion forms to the client to complete or fill in at home.Self-Exclusion from Other Gambling Providers Self-exclusion gambling customers are to be given support and encouragement in seeking self-exclusions from other gambling providers. loyalty programs involving the person are terminated or revoked. The second step is to get the personal details correct. Correspondence or Promotional Material All gambling providers are not to send correspondence or promotional material to gambling customers who are excluded from their services or who request that this information not be sent to them. He will also inform the client of the effect of when the exclusion will take place. and except as required by law. Activity 5. explaining the process with each step 5. but current legislated exclusion periods are 6 months.

this is only at gambling providers. Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders The manager or official who completes the exclusion order will advise the client that the exclusion order stops him/her from utilizing all the facilities at the gaming provider’s establishment. Activity 5. marketing. from the start of the process. online player reward system of the exclusion that has taken place. 10. in some circumstances. The rationale from the service provider’s security departments behind the trespass arrest is that it should be enough of a warning that clients do not attempt to breach the exclusion order. Trespass is an intentional tort and.6. Should the customer breach his agreement. trespass is an unauthorised entry upon land. can be punished as a crime. A trespass gives the aggrieved party the right to bring a civil lawsuit and collect damages as compensation for the interference and for any harm suffered. Once the completed forms have been completed the official that is responsible for the process. he can be asked to leave as he is in breach of his exclusion. that should he breach his exclusion order that the service provider can have him arrested for trespass on the service provider’s property. These actions are done so as should the client visit the establishment. this should be done as quietly as possible. The complete process should be done with as much secrecy – so as not to embarrass the client. By law he has to inform. 7. It is also explained to the client. resort style.3 a) What is meant by the term breach of exclusion? b) How would a service provider deal with a client who continually attempts to breach his exclusion order? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 92 . not the internet provider. credit department. 11. In legal terms. After the client has completed the form. 9. he will if possible take a digital photograph of the client. will inform the relevant departments of the exclusion. 8. security. legal department.

The terms and conditions of exclusion orders should be clearly explained to those excluded from the premises. the NCPG may confirm. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. Revocation of an Exclusion Order As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. In many cases the client might want his exclusion revoked within a month of the commencement of the exclusion order. in Singapore this process will go before the NCPG. so does the revocation procedures. The council or department responsible will investigate the request for revocation and make a decision that would be binding. The minimum duration of exclusion orders also varies from country to country.Summary A person who breaches his exclusion order can be arrested for trespassing. The forms would have to be completed correctly and lodged with the governing body. this revocation could be done by a General Manger of the service provider. There is often a minimum period of exclusion before it can be revoked. The channels are the same for applying for a revocation than for an exclusion order. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. In Singapore. so does the revocation procedures. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 93 . but in South Africa. Summary As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. For example. Revocation of exclusion orders are handled through similar channels than requests for exclusion.

gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self exclusion contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. As with casino gambling. Self Exclusions – Remote Gambling Persons will be allowed to exclude themselves from: (a) a particular type of gaming at that site. In the event that a player excludes him or herself from the site or all sites on three separate occasions. the exclusion is to be permanent and may only be varied with the approval of the regulator in whose jurisdiction the site from which the exclusion was initiated is located. different regions and countries will have guidelines as to how this should be handled. Upon exclusion. As appropriate. or (c) all Australian gaming sites. Self-exclusion must be for a minimum of seven days. Summary Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. Where a player chooses to be excluded from all sites all licensed providers must suspend any account and deactivate any registration of the player. and this action is written to the audit log for the system. Persons can choose to be excluded from one site.Exclusion from Remote Gambling Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. The website is to operate such that the submission of a completed self exclusion triggers technical responses that block access by the player to the site. The option of permanent exclusion must be provided. (b) that particular gaming site. Approval may require the presentation of sufficient evidence that the player is not a problem gambler. from a particular type of site or from all gaming sites. The example below is of the Australian exclusion process. all accounts should be suspended and deactivated. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 94 .

the student should be able to: • • • Explain procedures for preventing and dealing with underage gambling Explain the procedures for refusing credit Discuss the procedures for dealing with customer complaints and disputes. Underage Gambling The issue of underage gambling is one of the major concerns for the service providers throughout the global casino and gambling industry.Topic 6 GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS Objective This chapter will familiarise students with procedures for handling gambling related incidents in casinos. refusal of credit and complaints and disputes. It will highlight policies and procedures as well as regulations with regards to underage gambling. gambling providers and responsible gambling agencies are working together to combat underage gambling. gambling providers should not advertise facilities in such a way that might entice youths to gamble. Gambling providers are tasked to prevent youths from gambling and keeping them out of gambling environments. Gambling legislations stipulate minimum requirements to prevent underage gambling and gambling providers also implement their own policies and procedures to control and prevent underage gambling. Learning outcome After studying this chapter. This might include thorough staff training on properly certifying the age of patrons suspected of being underage. In addition. As young people of today is easily influenced by culture and advertisements. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 95 .

Legal Age of Gambling in Various Countries Gambling and the Law identifies the following minimum ages for gambling as regulated in various countries. Because casino gaming is usually associated with the availability of alcoholic beverages. but the minimum is now 18. But. In Singapore the legal age to enter and gamble in a casino is 21 years old. and some casinos restrict local play to residents over 25. Casino-style games. most states put the minimum age for gambling in a casino at 21. In the USA. Similarly. the minimum age was 21. the same minimum age applies to different forms of legal gambling. In France.S. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 96 . Portugal has different rules for tourists and locals: Casinos are open to foreigners over 18. in 1969 the government of the Bahamas set the minimum age for gambling at 21. casinos are open to 18 and 19 year-olds. and countries illustrate the tremendous variations found in the way the law treats issues involving the minimum age to place a legal wager. in other countries. the drinking age has been raised from 18 to 21. Countries outside the United States seem to be more internally consistent: They usually have one minimum age that applies throughout that nation. when parliament lowered it to 18. including slot machines. the minimum age for lotteries is never less than 18. This list of states. Lawmakers in other nations also have concluded that maturity is reached at a younger age. For example. and a dealer who knowingly sells a ticket to a 16 year-old faces loss of his license and a criminal fine. Similarly. the minimum age is almost always 21. The legal age requirement to work in a casino is also 21 years old. until 1987. are also the most dangerous forms of gambling. in Canada. while in the U. the trend is exactly the opposite. in England anyone over 16 may buy a lottery ticket. there has been one significant exception: In every state in America. most legal minimum ages are still at 18.. and. Interestingly. the legal consequences when an underage minor is involved in otherwise legal gambling do not vary from one province to another. in America. but citizens of Portugal may not enter Portuguese casinos unless they are over 21. Twelve of the 16 states (Länder) in Germany have also lowered the age for casino gambling from 21 to 18. provinces.

Finland: The minimum age limit is 18 for Finland’s various casinostyle games. Canada: Casinos. restricted to cleaning and serving of foods. slot machines in restaurants and bars.Antigua and Barbuda: Minors younger than 18 are not allowed where casino gaming is taking place. Today. The Bahamas: The Lotteries and Gaming Act of 1969 required players to be at least 21. Persons under the age of 18 are not allowed to work or sell bingo tickets. British Columbia. Bulgaria: Casinos opened in 1967. and there has been a trend toward lowering the minimum gambling age. limited visitors from noncommunist bloc countries. The legal age to gamble in a casino is 18 years old. To work in a Bingo hall minimum age of 16 to 17 years old. Great Britain: Casinos are technically membership clubs and noone under 18 may join.’ limited to ‘members’ at least 21 years old. Denmark: Casino guest must be at least 18 years old. casino employees must be at least 21 years old. In fact 12 of 16 states in the united federal republic have lowered the minimum from 21 to 18. Belgium: Casinos are technically ‘private clubs. This age limit remained until the 1980s. Aruba: No one under 18 years old is allowed in casinos. and low-stakes table games in arcades. prohibiting gaming by minors under the age of 21. Germany: The national government under Hitler passed laws in 1933 and 1938. state (Länder) governments set their own age limits. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 97 . Since 1990. casinos have been open to anyone over 18 years old. Bingo: minimum age is set by bingo licensee. 19 years old. France: Parliament lowered the minimum gaming age for casinos from 21 to 18 in 1987. including true casinos. but the minimum age has been lowered to 18.

and casinos are prohibited from advertising that is specifically directed at encouraging individuals below 19 years of age to play games of chance in a casino. Spain: Minors under 18 are not allowed to gamble or enter into casinos. though they may. Canada: An individual must be at least 19 to enter or gamble in a casino. However. Victoria. Nova Scotia. Australia: Individuals under 18 years old may not enter casinos. New Zealand: No one under 20 years old may enter the gaming area of a casino.Greece: An unusual age restriction: individuals must be at least 23 years old to enter a casino. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 98 . Queensland. on their own. bingo halls. have imposed a policy of not allowing minors on the main casino areas. Portugal: A unique system: Casinos are open to foreigner over 18 years old. Canada: No person under the age of 19 years may participate in gaming. Australia: A person under the age of 18 years cannot place a bet in any form of gaming and betting. Quebec. if accompanied by an adult. It is against the law to sell a lottery ticket to anyone under 18. casino employees may be 18. Tasmania. but Portuguese nationals are barred unless they are over 21 and in some casinos over 25. Australia: Minors. under 18. be in other gaming areas. Australia: Persons under the age of 18 years are not permitted in the casino. may not legally gamble. except in sweepstakes and calcuttas where persons between the ages of 16 and 18 years can participate. Ontario. Canada: No one under 18 years old may enter a casino. or slot machines parlors. Casinos. New South Wales.

the rise of the internet has also increased opportunity to bet.9million. are at risk of becoming hooked on betting. experts warn. The rise of the internet had also increased youngsters' opportunities to bet. It recommended treating gambling as a 'potential public health issue' alongside drinking.While preventing underage gambling is a business imperative on its own. some as young as ten. bookmakers and betting websites were allowed to advertise on TV.mainly adults -have problems. while 14 per cent. A staggering 91 per cent of under-18s had gambled at least once in their lives. Danger: Labour's lenient gambling laws have been blamed for one million children being addicted to gambling . smoking and obesity. But it raised concerns about the boom in online betting that allowed youngsters to stake money secretly. Report author Professor Gill Valentine. The report found children were most likely to gamble on slot machines and scratchcards.000 .' Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 99 .had gambling Last updated at 12:58 AM on 20th October 2008 One million children are addicted to gambling and New Labour's lenient gaming laws are largely to blame. It said liberal parents must take some of the blame for the crisis. commercial casino companies have further reason to implement proactive measures that discourage and prevent the behaviour because they are subject to substantial fines if they fail to enforce regulations on underage gambling. One million children are addicted to gambling say experts By Ian Drury (www.dailymail. use alcohol and drugs and fall into truancy and of the University of Leeds. Experts warned that vulnerable children were becoming hooked after casinos.000 people . But it is the Government's controversial decision to loosen the gambling laws that attracted the fiercest criticism.about 975. were at risk of developing 'serious' addictions. said: 'The opportunity provided by the internet to gamble in privacy may exacerbate young people's ability to access gambling opportunities. A study by the Gambling Commission also found that two million under-18s. or 1. The study said teenagers who gamble are more likely to suffer depression. The figures undermine the Government's own statistics on betting addiction which claim that only 250. The report by the industry regulator the Gambling Commission found that 7 per cent of young people .

Compared with prevalence rates from 1999. Professor Valentine said: 'There is some indication that traditional authoritarian models are being replaced by a more liberal approach.Heather Wardle. For example.' Gambling Prevalence by Age in the UK (British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007) . He said: 'The Government is trying to deal with it with a light touch but I very much fear we are going to see a disaster with a rise in the number of gambling addicts. gambling prevalence in the past year was lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups: 58% for those aged 16-24 and 57% for those aged 75 and over. adviser on pathological gambling for the Royal College of Psychiatrists. This may contribute to adults' willingness to introduce children to illegal under-age gambling. the proportion of those aged 25-34 who had gambled in the last year decreased from 78% in 1999 to 71% in 2007.' A spokesman for the Department for Culture. Media and Sport said: 'The Gambling Act 2005 placed the protection of children and vulnerable people at the heart of gambling regulation for the first time. overall participation in gambling in each age group. Bob Erens. Kerry Sproston. Sarah Pigott The prevalence of participation in gambling appears to be related to the age of respondents. It established a robust new regulator and introduced key offences with tough penalties in relation to children. said he feared gambling problems among under-18s would spiral with the relaxation of the laws. Prevalence was highest among those aged 35-44 (73%). had decreased.' Dr Emanuel Moran. except the two oldest. Rebecca Constantine. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 100 . Overall. Similar patterns by age were observed in 1999.On the role of parents. Jim Orford. Mark Griffiths.

the opposite pattern was true with prevalence being lowest among those aged 16-24. Scratchcards.1 Participation in any gambling activity. For the National Lottery Draw and other lotteries. other betting with a bookmaker. horse races. with slot machines. prevalence was greatest among the younger age groups and decreased with advancing age. The only age group to have estimates in excess of this were those aged 25-34. to 2% of those aged 75 and over. online gambling. and 10% had gambled on six or more different activities. where 24% had participated in four or more activities. dog races. and then decreased with age. the prevalence fell from 26% for those aged 16-34. those aged 16-24 who had gambled in the past year tended to take part in a greater number of activities: 20% took part in four or more activities in the last year. For example. table games in a casino and private betting were all most popular among those aged 25-34. by age and by year For many activities. in the past year. Despite having a large number of non-participants. Similarly. ‘Youths 16 and 17 years old gamble less than adults and differently from adults. primarily betting on private and unlicensed games — especially betting on card games and sports and buying instant lottery tickets. slot machines.’ Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 101 . for scratchcards the prevalence fell from 30% of those aged 25-34 to 10% for those aged 75 and over.Fig 6.

on-course betting and family entertainment centres in the UK. In Bingo halls. The adolescents (16-17 year olds) were notably absent from casino play. operators must: • Check the age of the client if the client looks as though the client may be under 18. Casino operators are also not allowed to serve an adult who has a child or underage person with him/her. but must not enter adult-only areas. To make sure that underage people do not gain access to adult-only areas. the client can be asked to provide a suitable form of identification. If an adult client knowingly brings children on to the premises. The security department will check the age of the client and if they believe that the client is underage take action to prevent access and/or remove the underage person from the premises. under-18s are allowed on the premises. In order to prove age. ‘Suitable identification’ is identification that is valid and contains both the client’s photo and date of birth. with one-quarter of all adults participating in the past year.‘Casino gambling (especially slot machines) was the second most common form of adult gambling. • Refuse the client entry into adult-only areas if the client cannot provide a suitable form of identification when asked to do so. In the United Kingdom no under-18s are allowed into any part of the gambling facilities on these premises. among other factors. passport or Connexions card.’ Preventing Underage Gambling Casino operators must ensure that they prevent underage gambling in all areas of the casino. the client will face exclusion or prosecution. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 102 . with barely 1 percent reporting any casino wagers. for example a driving licence. and • Take action if there are unlawful attempts to enter adult-only areas. This presumably reflects well on the enforcement efforts (particularly against fake IDs) of casino operators. This usually entails ‘policing’ the area and denying underage people access to gambling areas.

at a minimum. • Industry promotions should not involve utilising children's toys. • The gambling industry should not be advertised at venues where the audience is reasonably and expected to be below the legal age. such as billboards. • Advertising of gambling should not contain symbols or language that is intended to appeal to minors or those under the legal age. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 103 . the service provider will ask the client to prove his identity before selling the client a ticket. • Celebrity or other testimonials in advertising of gambling should not be used that would primarily appeal to persons under the legal age. • Advertising of gambling should not appear in media directed primarily to those under the legal age. • Age restriction should. nor appear to be under the legal age. and key decision makers around the world. Advertising Guidelines • Person depicted as gamblers in advertising should not be. legislators. • The use of animation should be monitored to ensure that characters are not associated with animated characters on children's programmes.As far as lotteries are concerned. including technikon or university campuses. Controlling Underage Gambling . that are adjacent to schools or youth centres. clothing or other material. The global casino operators must not target under-18s by advertising their products in a way that makes them attractive to this age group. • Advertisements of gambling should not be advertised or promoted on outdoor displays. be posted at all places where gambling takes place. if the person selling lottery tickets believes that the client may be under the age of 16. and stock market-listed remote gambling companies and provides the industry with a single voice on all the issues of importance to regulators. games.Remote Gambling The RGA represents the world's largest licensed.

Age verification is. A clear message to this effect should also appear during the registration process. The primary tool for this is the use of age verification (AV) procedures. or provide adequate information about. however. have greater access to some forms of payment that can be used to fund remote gambling. Pre-pay cards would also fall into this category. The majority of on-line payment methods are only available to over 18s so offer very limited risk of under age gambling. RGA members’ efforts will concentrate on those payments methods that are readily available to children and indeed are targeted at them by the banks. an inexact science. RGA members are also strongly recommended to: • Make links available to. In some instances this means that gambling operators can do no more than make reasonable endeavors to ensure a new customer’s exact date of birth. but it must be acknowledged that the availability and reliability of electronic evidence varies greatly from country to country. • Make clear through messaging or the display of a ‘no under 18s’ sign on the homepage of the internet site that children are not permitted to gamble. and • Include a clear policy for dealing with underage gamblers. except where the operator is satisfied that adequate age verification checks had already been made by the card issuer and are for this reason referred to as ‘high risk payment types’. it is not always easy to ensure that children are excluded. and will continue to be. reputable filtering services like the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA )so that parents and others can take any necessary steps to prevent their personal computers being used for inappropriate purposes. The RGA is working with various other bodies to try and get more reliable date of birth information made available.Even though it is illegal for anyone under the age of 18 to engage in betting or gaming. As and when that happens age verification procedures will become more robust. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 104 . Operators should adopt reasonable measures to minimise underage gambling. Children do.

This will be known as the ‘verification period’. they will not be able to withdraw any winnings until it is confirmed that they are adults. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 105 . AV must be undertaken for any customer who has not previously been identified as over 18 if they seek to register and gamble with a high risk payment type. All reasonable endeavors should then be made to complete AV checks with the minimum of delay. Whichever they choose it must include an element of objective validation via a verification service. for example a passport or birth certificate. or 192.As a minimum. If this leads to proof that the customer is an adult then the account can be reactivated. During the verification period: • Customers may be able to deposit funds and gamble. or through direct access to reliable documentation. Experian. internet. It is up to individual operators to choose a verification system best suited to their particular business model. The operator should then make all reasonable efforts to contact the customer to resolve the outstanding account issue. This is irrespective of the remote gambling channel they are seeking to use (e. If after the verification period the operator has failed to verify that the customer is an adult then the account should be suspended. WAP etc). however. It would also be good practice to perform the same level of checks on all potential customers who provide a date of birth of between 18 and 21 years old because industry experience shows that if someone who is underage seeks to register then they normally give an age which is close to their real age. it is proved that the customer is underage. A maximum period of 72 hours will be allowed in which to initiate those checks.g. AV checks should be initiated as soon as possible after a customer seeks to deposit money to gamble. or at any later stage. and • Any deposited funds must be available for prompt return if during this period. such as that provided by companies like GB Group. digital TV.

If at any time an RGA member becomes aware that a customer is underage. what is the difference between children and youth? Summary Gambling providers have to prevent underage persons form entering casinos and gambling premises. Activity 6. • Refund the value of all deposits net of withdrawals.2 What are the rules regarding paying out winnings to an underage person? Activity 6. • Void all wagers (that the RGA member is a party to) that have taken place. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 106 . subject to data protection laws.3 Under employment regulations. except where there are grounds to believe that a fraud has been perpetrated: • Suspend the account immediately. There is also merit in providing the underage customer with contact details for Gamcare or a similar organisation. Consideration should also be given as to whether any other bodies or agencies should be made aware of the child’s interest in gambling. Age must be verified before entrance is granted and where a person suspected to be underage is noticed within the gambling are. age verification should be done. they will.1 How does a staff member ascertain a client’s age? Activity 6. and • Close the account.

lotteries.The legal age for gambling varies in different countries. by loosing each time he visits the casino. telephonically or by written application. the client can ask for a credit extension in person. Youths who gamble are especially at risk of developing gambling problems. Gambling providers have to take care not to carry out marketing activities in such ways that would entice youths to gamble. The casino manager is faced with a decision about extending extra credit as the client may have gotten himself onto a downward spiral. In Singapore only those above the age of 21 can gamble and in UK the minimum age to gamble in a casino is 18 years. The manager would also have to be careful not allowing extra credit whereby the habit of gambling on credit may start or escalate gambling problem. All of these applications would be investigated and either approved or disapproved. The investigation would be done by a credit manager and his credit control team. But once a decision has been made it would be binding. the refusal of credit is always a very difficult situation in the casino and gaming environment. There are many occasions when clients might request for either credit or extension of credit. This credit is always applied for when the client has exhausted his facility and needs extra cash to get himself liquid again. The various Gambling and casino legislations have specific instructions for allowing or not allowing credit. sports betting. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 107 . This could be the manager’s standard reply. The Refusal of Credit As the global casino industry relies heavily on credit play within their facilities. Should credit be allowed. The Singapore Control Act does not allow for credit at all. Many high rollers or serious gamblers have credit lines within the establishments that they frequent. The issue of underage gambling also extends to remote gambling. etc.

we would be happy to reconsider your application. Credit Manager encl: <List of enclosed items goes here> Fig 6. the refusal should still be logged at the cashdesk by the staff member or manager dealing with the request.1 Letter – Refusal of Credit A record of the request will be kept by the cashdesk as proof of the credit application. the credit personnel will deal with this request in total. from the initiation of the process of the application form to the approval or disallowance of the credit. Regards. In the meantime. This can be used as a referral at a later date. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 108 . Staff should know how to respond in these situations. we welcome the opportunity to do business with you on a cash basis. We welcome your business but unfortunately we are unable to extend credit to you at this time. Should the client ask for the credit in person. Thank you for taking the time to apply for credit with 1234 Casino. When your situation changes. Casino Global Area MA 02123 03/16/05 Recipient Address Goes Here> Hello. they might take it as an insult and respond with verbal abuse or bad behaviour.A written example of refusing credit from the credit department is discussed below: Company Address: 1234. When a client is refused credit. In the United States of America. Your credit application was denied because <reason for denial>.

Under the Code of Practice for Gambling Operators. Problems escalating to complaints can be caused by the casino. and have limited or no power to bend these rules. Customer Complaints and Disputes It is convenient for customers to be dogmatic about the old ‘customer is always right’ ideal. It is easier to deal with a customer in a large casino environment as there is support services which the management can use too assist them with the complaint or dispute. This is especially the case where customers spend (or loose) a large amount of money. e.Summary Clients might request for credit once they have exhausted their cash facilities. using their eternal status of ‘right’ to take advantage of business owners and service providers. Besides the fact that there might be legislations preventing credit play. external parties or by the guests themselves. even when clients are unsatisfied. This must always be dealt with tactfully. Casinos and gambling providers have to work within rules and regulations set by governments and the organisation. the surveillance departments will help with the investigation of a complaint or dispute. However.g. some customers take advantage of their power position. casinos can also institute their own guidelines and refuse credit for various reasons. Licensees must put in place procedures for resolving customer complaints and disputes and the existence and terms of such procedures must be drawn to the attention of all customers. Legislations around the world have clear guidelines on whether credit play is allowed. Managers and staff are also well trained in handling complaints. Gambling providers know that it is important to satisfy guests in order for them to return. issued by the Gambling Commission. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 109 .

try to concentrate on the customer's message instead of their anger. Don't talk. listen. Licensees must ensure that: • Customers are told the name and status of the person to contact about their complaint. Handling Complaints • At the beginning of the interaction. If you let the customer drive you to angry statements and outbursts. do what you can to make sure he leaves placated. • To prove you were listening closely. Always do your best to avoid turning a minor disagreement into a major argument. so they feel you've heard them out in full. • Above all. Becoming angry or argumentative would only prove that your sole concern is yourself and your interests. Interrupting the customer's monologue would be regarded as a lack of interest and respect. even if you know you did nothing wrong. If the customer comes in angry. • Customers are given a copy of the complaints procedure on request or on making a complaint. and • All complaints are handled in accordance with the procedure. • Involve management and bring the complaint under the attention of a supervisor or manager as soon as possible. • Remember that your objective is to show the customer you want to help. and a ‘dispute’ is any complaint which: • Is not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedure: and • Relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. • If the confrontation escalates and the customer becomes angry. • Don't come to any quick conclusions. Wait until you have the customer's entire story. you will create a downward spiral that will never end well. always. always. try to avoid making the situation embarrassing for them. always apologize. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 110 . paraphrase the customer's statements. • If you come to an agreement indicating that the customer is wrong.In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the Licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities.

They act as a central point for comment and opinion for members. either party may. and provide them with a vital source of information and advice. The British Casino Association recommends the following procedures for handling disputes. they work on behalf of their members to raise awareness. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 111 . the dispute will be referred to an arbitrator or mediator nominated by the Council (to be appointed). Within 21 days of the date of the notice the parties may refer the matter to a mutually agreed arbitrator or mediator (as the case may be). Formed in 1973. the matter shall be arbitrated. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. by notice in writing. BCA is the leading trade association for the casino industry in Great Britain. In the event that no agreement can be reached on an appropriate arbitrator.Dispute Resolution An unresolved complaint will result in a dispute. If the parties cannot agree on an independent arbitrator they may refer the matter to the Casino Regulator Code of Practice Complaints Board. engage in policy development and promote best practice. • Both parties will make every effort to resolve the dispute by negotiations. who operate over 90% of Britain’s licensed casinos. If either party nominates arbitration rather than mediation before a mediator is appointed. Each member of the Casino Regulator Code of Practice will comply with the following dispute resolution procedures: • When a dispute arises between the Casino and its user. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. the complainant shall be asked to set out in writing the nature of the dispute.

Casino staff must be trained and confident in handling problems and complaints. but they have the right to complaint when they are not satisfied with the services received. Nothing contained in this clause will deny a party the right to seek injunctive relief from an appropriate court where failure to obtain such relief would cause irreparable damage to the party concerned.The arbitrator will have the right to determine procedures and may or may not allow the appearance of lawyers on behalf of the parties and may co-opt other expert assistance. The Code of Practice has specific provisions for handling complaints and disputes. by notice in writing. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 112 . Unresolved complaints results and disputes. Arbitration of any dispute shall take place in accordance with any rules or directions published by the Council from time to time and the law of the state where the industry member is located.4 What is the difference between a complaint and a dispute? Activity 6.5 How would a Casino Manager handle a dispute in a casino? Describe the process involved. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. Summary The customers might not always be right. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. Activity 6. either party may.

New Jersey Casino Control Commission Chairwoman Linda Kassekert said regulators imposed a hefty fine against Bally's because Simpson had faced casino employees while playing at the tables on ‘137 separate incidents over 18 days.the freebies casinos lavish on their best players based on the amount of money they wager and the amount of time they spend gambling. Officials surmised that Simpson likely accumulated points but did not cash them in. patrons have to be 21 years of age to gamble at a casino. was rated 146 times as a high roller.000 fine the commission imposed on Borgata in February for not stopping a 19-year-old from earning more than $1. Simpson. But it was not the first time Simpson had been caught gambling.’ Kassekert said. only after she caught the eye of an investigator for the Division of Gaming Enforcement. In that time. 2008. The fine surpasses one the $105.’ ‘That was a lot of time for her to be interacting with casino employees who should have picked up on the fact that she was underaged.Bally's hit with record fine for underaged gambling spree by Judy DeHaven/The Star-Ledger Business Desk Wednesday November 12.000 in comps while playing table games. In New Jersey. Officials said in this case. was busted at Bally's in February 2006. which closed in November 2006. who was 20 at the time. who suspected she was underaged. The month before. 137 times playing at the tables. Simpson was arrested for underaged gambling at the Sands. while Simpson was rated. the gambler. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 113 . Candeda Simpson.500 fine against Bally's casino for allowing an underaged gambler to play 18 times over the course of the month. she was not given any comps -. 4:34 PM The Casino Control Commission imposed a record $157. officials said.

without specifically defining what happens after they have already entered. b) Would the outcome of the incident have been any different should it have taken place in the UK? “16-year-old changes the rules” http://www. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 114 .destinationmacau. Macau’s Gaming Meanwhile. chaired by Macau Chief Executive Edmund Ho. she would not be allowed to enter any of Macau’s casinos for an unspecified period of time and she was reminded by the bureau that no one under the age of 18 is allowed in gaming areas. A Macau legislator said new laws should be drafted immediately to define what happens once a minor enters a casino.000 in winnings from the Sands Macao on Friday. However.6 Case Study – Underage Gambling Look at the following incident that took place in Macau and answer the following questions: a) Explain the consequences of underage gambling for both the licensee as well as the gambler. The DICJ said the Sands Macao should have conducted a thorough ID-check to ensure that no minors enter the casino and has written to the Sands. asking it to pay the amount in full to the mother of the young winner.Activity ml When the mother of a 16-year-old girl won the right to keep HK$740. the young girl unknowingly turned the tables on Macau’s old gaming laws. which should be responsible for the future direction of the industry as well as policy-making. is reportedly inactive and has yet to appoint members. plays and wins money. Macau’s Director of Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau (DICJ) Manuel Joaquim das Neves said the mother would be entitled to receive the full winnings from the Sands Macao. Current gaming legislation only stipulates that someone under the age of 18 is not permitted inside a casino. On February 23.

Sands Macao has fully complied with that direction. and after detailed consideration by the regulator of the facts and the Macao laws.” the statement concluded. the Sands Macao released an official statement to the press insisting that it is strongly committed to responsible gambling. The Sands Macao did not give the winnings to the young girl immediately after she won the jackpot on February 20.On Saturday. The statement reads: “Sands Macao assisted DICJ in every way.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 115 . received a direction as to the manner in which the prize should be dealt with. arguing that she was too young to be in the casino in the first place. “Sands Macao reaffirms its serious ongoing commitment in complying with all Macao laws including the exclusion of underage persons entering in its casino.

Introduction to Problem Gambling Gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance (National Research Council. Students will get to understand the impacts of problem gambling on the gamblers’ life. betting and participating in a lottery. It will help students to differentiate between different levels of gambling and signs that might indicate a gambling problem. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter. the spouse and the community. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Define problem gambling Describe the levels of gambling and types of gamblers Discuss the prevalence of gambling based on demographic correlates Describe the stages of gambling addiction Discuss the impacts and costs of problem gambling Describe the various phases of gambling and recovery for both the gambler and the spouse of a compulsive gambler Describe specific gambling behaviour that can contribute to or indicate gambling problems. playing a game of chance for a prize).e. It usually involves risk taking and in some cases requires particular knowledge or skills. although some people do make a living as professional gamblers.Topic 7 PROBLEM GAMBLING Objective This chapter will introduce students to problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 116 . The majority of gambling is social or recreational. The UK Gambling Act 2005 describes it more specifically in terms of gaming (i. 1999).

65% to 80%) of cases of problem gamblers receiving counseling can be attributed to the availability and popularity of gambling machines outside casinos. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 117 . and using drugs. The National Adolescent Review found that 1. see also Lesieur and Rosenthal. domestic violence. drinking. including divorce. 1991) In the UK. with 15 million being at risk. Research suggests that the earlier a person begins to gamble.5 million adults are pathological gamblers. The incidence of problem gambling is highest amongst those that play gambling machines and participate in horse racing and the lowest for those partaking in lotteries.e. A large percentage (i. child abuse and neglect. mood disorders. physical. a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble. Children of compulsive gamblers are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors such as smoking.A minority of people who gamble do so in ways which disrupts their personal or family lives. including substance abuse. and a range or other difficulties stemming from the severe financial hardship that commonly results from problem and pathological gambling. A national prevalence study found that 3 million adults are problem gamblers and 2. (Hardoon and Derevensky 2002: 264.5% of teens ages 16-17 can be classified as ‘problem or pathological gamblers’ with 2% being classified as ‘at risk. The presence of a gambling facility within 50 miles roughly doubles the chance of problem and pathological gambling. This ‘problem gambling’ can include a complex range of behaviours of varying severity. and emotional problems. the National Gambling Impact Study Commission found in its 1999 study that pathological gambling often occurs in conjunction with other behavioral problems.’ Many families of pathological gamblers suffer from a variety of financial. These children are also at risk of developing problem or pathological gambling themselves. over gambling. the more likely he or she is to become a pathological gambler. and personality disorders. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’.

over gambling. These levels can be distinguished in simple terms. Levels of Gambling The National Research Council in the USA has a conceptualisation of the degree to which people gamble in the general population. A distinct classification is ‘past year level 0 gamblers’ used to describe who have not gambled in the past year. They see the degree of gambling as occurring along a continuum. level 2 gamblers with some gambling problems.gamblers with significant gambling problems. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’. and level 3 . a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble. Level 0 Gambling This refers to only people who have never gambled. it also describes the widest range and variety of gamblers.gambler with no gambling problems. Level 1 Gambling This refers to social or recreational gambling where wagering has not resulted in any significant problems. In Countries where gambling is allowed. this level includes a large majority of the population. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. this conceptualisation can be used to better understand prevalence of gambling. Level 1 .Summary While gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance. Due to this fact. As long as no gambling related problems occur the gamblers are classified as level 1. from those who bet $1 a year to those who visit casinos twice a month. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 118 . problem gambling can include a range of behaviours of varying severity. level 0 .

Disordered gambling and problem gambling can be used to describe both level two and level three gamblers. What is certain is that individuals in this group never present themselves for treatment. frequency and degree of gambling problems are what distinguish level 2 from level three. some may have begun to borrow from household funds. Gambling has begun to interfere with daily functioning. Thus.D.. professional gamblers are not addicted to gambling. some may have begun to develop gambling related debts. Otherwise there is great diversity within this group of the general population. Level three gamblers are often referred to as disordered gamblers and problem gamblers as well as compulsive gamblers. They are skilled in the games they choose to play and are able to control both the amount of money and time spent gambling. and in transition gambling. Around 10 percent of the general population are Level 2 gamblers who have some gambling related problems. loss of home or job.Level 2 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that some gambling related problems have developed. Level two gambling can be referred to as at risk gambling. entire paycheque spent on gambling. In the general population approximately 10 percent are Level 0. From one percent to around 3 percent of the general population have significant gambling problems. They patiently wait for the best bet and then try to win as much as they can. At this level individuals began to show the signs and symptoms that result in a diagnosis of pathological gambling. Marriage break up. M. that is non gamblers according to the NRC definition. Around 79 percent of the general population are level two recreational gamblers with no problems. Custer. identified six types of gamblers: • Professional Gamblers Professional gamblers make their living by gambling and thus consider it a profession. The nature. Robert L. Some may have been criticised for how often or how much they gamble. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 119 . Level 3 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that significant gambling related problems have developed.

Compulsive gamblers cannot stop gambling. serious social gamblers invest more of their time in gambling. In addition. gambling may be a distraction or a form of relaxation. compulsive gamblers may engage in activities such as stealing.• Antisocial or Personality Gamblers In contrast to professional gamblers. Serious social gamblers still maintain control over their gambling activities. • Compulsive Gamblers Compulsive gamblers have lost control over their gambling.’ whose source of relaxation comes from playing golf. their families. They are likely to be involved in fixing horse or dog races. gamble to find relief from feelings of anxiety. boredom or loneliness. Super Bowl bets. no matter how much they want to or how hard they try. sociability and entertainment. antisocial or personality gamblers use gambling as a way to get money by illegal means. a yearly trip to Las Vegas and casual involvement in the lottery. This type of gambler could be compared to a ‘golf nut. or playing with loaded dice or marked cards. Gambling does not interfere with family. For them. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 120 . • Relief and Escape Gamblers Custer's fifth type. Examples of such betting are the occasional poker game. social or vocational obligations. As they continue to gamble. • Serious Social Gamblers In contrast. anger. They are identical to relief and escape drinkers. They use gambling to escape from crisis or difficulties. Relief and escape gamblers are not compulsive gamblers. lying or embezzling which go against their moral standards. depression. relief and escape gamblers. • Casual social gamblers Casual social gamblers gamble for recreation. friends and employers are negatively affected. For them. They may attempt to use a compulsive gambling diagnosis as a legal defense. Compulsive gambling is a progressive addiction that harms every aspect of the gambler's life. yet these individuals place gambling second in importance to family and vocation. Gambling provides an analgesic effect rather than a euphoric response. Gambling is a major source of relaxation and entertainment. gambling is the most important thing in their lives.

gamblers with some gambling problems. while also buying the hope of a win.1 How would casino staff be able to distinguish a level 2 gambler from a level 3 gambler? Activity 7. the social interaction.2 Explain the difference between a professional gambler and a pathological gambler. • Casual social gamblers • Serious social gamblers • Relief and escape gamblers • Compulsive gamblers Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 121 . Activity 7.gambler with no gambling problems. a major benefit of gambling is recreation. Level 1 . These are: • Professional gamblers • Antisocial or personality gamblers. and the thrill of anticipation. Gambling therefore attracts individuals who derive pleasure from the gambling.gamblers with significant gambling problems. it can be seen that gambling does not affect all individuals negatively. Summary the level of gambling individuals engage in can be distinguished in simple terms. From the consumers' perspective.Benefits of Gambling From the above. six types of gamblers can be identified based on their gambling habits. and level 3 . level 0 . In addition. level 2 . the risk of one's money.

divorced or separated. home ownership. are both of interest.’ (Petry) • Race Ethnic minorities (non white ethnicity in the U. unemployed. Correlation does not mean cause or the direction of causality. Demographic Correlates of Disordered Gambling The individuals who make up the 11 to 13 percent of the general population who are either Level two or Level three gamblers have disproportionately more young. • Marital Status Disordered gamblers are consistently much more likely to be unmarried. income.e. less education being consistently associated with lower socioeconomic status. ‘Disordered gambling is young adults and adolescents than it is older adults. age. As with ethnicity there may be other issues that confuse or confound this finding i.Prevalence of Gambling Problems Prevalence of gambling will usually be analysed based on demographic characteristics. as well as trends over time.S. poorly educated. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 122 . and even location. or the demographic profiles used in such research. marketing or opinion research. What is not clear is which influences which. Commonly-used demographics include race. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government. Divorce and Separation as likely to be results of disordered gambling. disabilities. Distributions of values within a demographic variable. employment status. • Social and Economic Status Lower social economic status is consistently associated with increased rated of disordered gambling.A or culturally alienated minorities else where) have been shown to be associate with the risk of developing disordered gambling habits. and across households. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population. The correlation between these variables is clear. • Age Age is inversely related to problem gambling in the general population. mobility educational attainment.

• Older Adults Those over the age 61 years begin gambling as recreational and social activity. Alcohol) Substance abusers experience gambling problems more frequently than the general population. • Education There is a general correlation between lower education achievement and problem gambling. gaming and casino employees.• Gender Male gender is repeatedly and consistently shown to be correlated with problem gambling. While the relationship is unclear for university health centres the likely hood of poorly screened employees plus the exposure to gambling likely play a role in the rates among casino workers. While gambling problems are not generally a problem among older adults there are statistically recognisable increases after retirement. This likely has some relation to the role that poor impulse plays in addiction and how substance abuse affects impulse control. This is likely due to increased availability of non productive time. This suggests that these individuals are becoming more generalised in their gambling behaviour. • Gamblers or People Taking Exit Polls at Casinos Who Also Purchased Lottery Tickets These gamblers are more likely to have gambling problems than the general population. academic health centres. That is if an opportunity presents itself they are much more likely to gamble. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 123 . Petry (2005) • Substance Abusers (Cocaine. • Employees in Special Fields Specific studies revealed gambling problems in a larger number of employees than expected in the general population in institutional settings. Marijuana. Prevalence Rates in Special Populations Four other special groups have been identified as populations over represented in Level two and there and therefore other members of those groups are more at risk of becoming gambling addicts.

When the above mentioned symptoms are present. financial ruin and criminal behaviour to support the gambling habit. gambling is considered a disorder. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. Stages of Gambling Addiction Naken (1988) identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 124 . the gambler begins to risk more.A? Summary Prevalence of gambling problems are usually analysed based on demographic characteristics. The most common symptoms of problem gambling are: • Occasional gambling becomes habitual. Gambling Addiction A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. whether winning or losing. and • Unlawful behaviour may occur to support the habit and pay debts.Activity 7. until all money is lost or the game is terminated. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population are level 2 and level 3 gamblers. A pathological gambler usually progresses from occasional gambling to habitual gambling. both personally and financially. • Loss of control over time spent gambling. Disproportionately more young. As the gambling progresses. This often leads to severe personal problems.S. unemployed. poorly educated. • Gambling until large debts are accumulated. • Lack for concern for society’s expectations and law. • Gambling continues.3 What are the demographic correlates that profile the pathological gambler in the U.

• The gambler views gambling as harmless entertainment or as a release. Stage Two – Lifestyle Change A gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. Stage One – Internal Change The gambler develops a dependence on gambling. The following changes take place at this stage: • The gambler’s whole lifestyle is affected by gambling. • The gambler becomes totally enslaved to gambling. Gambling becomes his or her master. • These changes are not yet obvious to others. The following changes take place at this stage: • The euphoria from gambling is gone but the gambler keeps gambling anyway. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 125 . • Gambling addiction dominates every facet of the gambler’s life. • The gambler has a new sense of competence. The recovery process will depend on the stage of addiction the person is in when seeking treatment. conflict with coworkers) • The gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. procrastination). • Most of the gambler’s awake hours are spent gambling or taking steps to gamble. power and control. • The gambler feels a sense of euphoria and exhilaration. • The gambler becomes more consumed with gambling.Problem gamblers go through the same stages. The following changes take place at this stage: • Negative changes take place within the gambler. Relationships with others are negatively affected (arguing with family and friends. • Chaos and complete loss of control characterize the gambler’s life. • The gambler begins stealing money and using other dishonest means to gamble. Stage Three – Losing Control The gambler loses all control. • The gambler’s productivity decreases (irresponsibility. • The gambler’s social world consists mostly of other gamblers. • Lies and deception become a regular part of the gambler’s life. • The gambler’s most important relationships become severely damaged or destroyed.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 126 . Addiction does not happen overnight. but rather in stages. Naken identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling Psychological Issues Associated With Problem Gamblers There are a number of features widely recognised as characteristics of problem gambling. although not all of these aspects have to be present in a person who is regarded as being a problem gambler. anxiety. friends and work colleagues. thinking about gambling for much of the time. The gambler attempts suicide. or lack of time with the family. • Gambling behaviours Chasing losses. stress or depression. The aspects include: • Personal and Psychological Characteristics Difficulties in controlling expenditure.• • • • Legal problems mount (the gambler may be arrested for stealing or embezzling). depression or guilt over gambling. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. The gambler begins contemplating suicide. Summary A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. use of gambling as an escape from boredom. relationship breakdown. spending more time or money on gambling than intended and making repeated but failed attempts to stop gambling. and giving up formerly important social or recreational activities in order to gamble. • Interpersonal problems Gambling-related arguments with family members. thoughts of suicide or attempted suicide. The gambler files for bankruptcy.

In severe cases. Financial Loss is the main trigger for problem gamblers to give rise to a range of social and personal repercussions. • Financial effects Large debts. these may result in court cases and prison sentences. Affordability is very important. and criminal behaviour due to gambling. where absenteeism. source of the problem associated with problem gambling is the financial loss which then has a range of repercussions for the social and personal life of the gambler. because they are relative to each person’s available leisure time and disposable income. Problem gamblers are also more likely to ask for advances on their pay and to borrow from fellow employees. For example. The primary. where the harms appear to stem mainly from the quantity consumed. factors which are found to vary enormously across socioeconomic groups. in the case of assets that are liquidated to finance gambling). passing bad cheques.000 a year out of an income of $200. or in the future. The level of expenditure and time spent on gambling activities does not mean that a person has a problem with gambling. This compares to frequent. lower productivity and job loss can be costly to both workers and employers. The financial and social impact of problem gambling is felt in the workplace. though not only.000 will probably entail highly problematic outcomes. non-problem. a high income gambler who loses $10. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 127 .000 will probably not suffer significant adverse consequences. in the case of high gambling commitments out of current earnings. whereas the same expenditure out of an income of $50. • Legal problems Examples are misappropriation of money. This is unlike alcohol or tobacco. unpaid borrowings and financial hardship for the individual or family members (either in the present. gamblers who report no such effects of gambling on their performance at work.• Job and study problems Poor work performance. lost time at work or studying and resignation or sacking due to gambling. theft.

Violence Fig 7. anxiety. ill health. Public purse Theft. suicide Financial – debts.1 Impact of problem gambling on a gambler’s life Research from around the world indicates that for every problem gambler. up to 12 other people are affected (family. bankruptcy Legal – theft. Fraud. and colleagues). utilities are cut off and the grocery money dwindles. Often it means that bills don’t get paid. domestic/other violence. The main impacts stem from the following: • • • • • • Personal – stress. job loss Impact on the Family For non-problem gamblers. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 128 . embezzlement. Poor Performance Personal Work & Study Financial Debt. excessive spending on gambling has serious consequences for the family. divorce Community Services – loads on public purse and charities Work and study – poor performance. assets losses. the money spent on gambling does not affect family finances to the extent that it is money put aside for entertainment. But for problem gamblers. Asset Loss Impacts Community Service Interpersonal Charities. friends. fraud.Stress Job loss. Prison Bankruptcy Legal Neglect. depression. imprisonment Interpersonal – neglect of family. loan sharks. absenteeism.

Costs of Problem Gambling Problem gambling does not only have cost implications for the gambler and his/her family. Increased welfare demand. and even food. mood swings and stress accompanying their gambling. his work and his social life. access to help. and power of adult partners. The most immediate concern for children’s welfare in problem gambling households is poverty. a serviceable car. He will also expereince a range of personal and psychological characteristics such as anxiety and depression. The children of problem gamblers are affected in many ways and. Family breakdown. a pleasant home. petty. holidays. This. and these commitments have severe consequences for the well being of their family. Activity 7. The following are examples of the costs of gambling: • • • • • Cost of regulation. Summary Problem gambling impacts all aspects of a gambler’s life.4 Explain the psychological issues associated with a problem gambler. not only generate relationship frictions. may have less control over the situations in which they find themselves. but health and mental distress for the partners. including his family life.Problem gamblers tend to devote large amounts of money and time on gambling. but also for the government and the community. maturity. The severe financial impact of gambling will also lead to other problems such as debts. lacking the autonomy. Problem gambling eats up resources that otherwise would be spent on household members – from family entertainment. unlawful borrowing of money and even crime and legal problems. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 129 . Shift in spending away from small business. together with deception about their gambling and the anxiety. organised or white collar. Cost of crime.

• Winning Phase During the winning phase the gambler will experience instances from. starts losing time off from work and his personality starts to change – he becomes irritable.Governments and the local community often pay the costs of treating and supporting problem gamblers. • Losing Phase Then comes the loosing phase. the gambling problem leads to the following: • Hopelessness • Suicide Thoughts & attempts • Arrests • Divorce • Alcohol • Emotional Breakdown • Withdrawal Symptoms Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 130 . At this stage. Panic sets in and he begins committing illegal acts. Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse The following are the various phases that a compulsive gambler will pass through. occasional gambling – frequent winning. excitement prior to him winning – more frequent gambling. restless and withdrawn. he starts gambling alone. His reputation gets affected. He can’t stop gambling and borrows money legally but delays paying his debts. He starts covering up and lying. • Desperation Phase In the phase he starts borrowing heavily. starts bragging about his wins. He will start increasing the amount and number of bets hoping to win the big one. He has a marked increase in amount of money and time spent gambling. develops unreasonable optimism and has prolonged episodes of loosing. He might blame others for his demise. both legal and illegally but are unable to repay his debts. His home life becomes unhappy. only thinks about gambling. fantasies about winning the ‘Big One’. He becomes alienated from his friends and family.

1 The phases that the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 131 .Chart 7.

• Rebuilding Phase During this phase he develops new goals and new interests. arguments start easily. has a budget. puts more demands on the gambler. He starts thinking responsibly. feels rejected. starts paying the bills. has less irritating behavior patterns. his self respect starts to return and his family and friends begin to trust him again. takes stock of his life. examines his spiritual need.• Critical Phase In this phase the gamblers realizes that he must stop gambling and has an honest desire for help. she will accept the increase in gambling. provides bailouts. she will make excuses for the gambling. keep concerns to herself. starts to question unpaid bills. returns to work. easily reassured. financial crises starts. She starts isolating herself. avoids her family and friends. considers the gambling problem as temporary. starts giving attention to others. • Growth Phase In this phase he starts dealing with problems promptly. starts taking decisions. has an insight into himself. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 132 . He accepts self weakness and strengths. Effects of Compulsive Gambling on the Spouse Compulsive gambling does not only devastate the gambler’s life. starts worrying. attempts to control the gambling. starts understanding himself and starts sacrificing for others. Becomes more relaxed. The following phases and impacts are identified: • Denial Phase The spouse will deny that any gambling is happening in the family. The spouse of a compulsive gambler will go through various phases through the onset and intensifying of the gambling problems. • Stress Phase In this phase the spouse spends less time with family. accept the remorse offered by the gambler. spends more time with his family and his preoccupation with gambling decreases. has a restitution plan and improves his family life. but also that of their spouses and family members.

She does a personal inventory.5 What is meant by the term ‘rebuilding phase’? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 133 . and starts sharing again. • Rebuilding Phase In this phase the spouse deals with her resentments and begins problem solving. The first three phases lead to the feelings listed below: • Helplessness • Hopelessness • Mental Breakdown • Substance Abuse • Divorce • Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts • Critical Phase During this phase she becomes hopeful and accepts the problem as an illness. she has closeness with her friends and family and starts understanding others. She becomes more relaxed.• Exhaustion Phase During this phase the spouse has intense resentment towards the gambler. Her physical symptoms are filled with rage. Activity 7. starts helping others. she starts to meet her own needs. she becomes more affectionate and trusting. anxiety and panic. starts sacrificing for others and she has a sense of achievement. has a desire for help and her guilt diminishes. She stops giving money (bailouts). She accepts her friends again. her self confidence returns. She has better self esteem. her thinking becomes impaired. She recognizes her self needs and has realistic planning and decision making. • Growing Phase During this phase she starts communicating with everyone. she gets confused and doubts her sanity.

2 The phases that the Spouse of the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 134 .Chart 7.

When they notice clients behaving irrationally. Only two of these indicators need to be displayed for 80% confidence of problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 135 . Some predictors of problem gambling are: • Gambling continuously. • Playing very fast. it must be brought under the attention of a manager or responsible gambling officer.Summary The compulsive gambler will pass through the following stages through addiction and recovery: • Winning phase • Losing phase • Desperation phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growth phase The spouse of the compulsive gambler will experience a variety of personal and psychological effects that can be described through the following phases: • Denial phase • Stress phase • Exhaustion phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growing phase Gambling Behaviour Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. and • Being nervous and edgy. • Leaving the venue to find money. • Crying after loosing. Gambling behaviour displayed by male and female problem gamblers varies slightly.

• More distortion about the time spent on gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 136 .Male problem gamblers can be identified with three of the following cues: • Gambling for more than 3 hours without taking a break • Sweating a lot • Difficulty in stopping at closing time • Displaying anger Female problem gamblers can be identified by two of the following cues: • Kicking machines • Being nervous or edgy • Gambling so intensely so as not to be aware of surroundings • Multiple ATM withdrawals • Being angry if machine or spot is taken Alcohol and Gambling Casinos make alcoholic beverages available to clients as part of the service provided. As part of the responsible gaming programme the gambling providers need to be aware of the implications of combining alcohol and gambling. Intoxicated patrons must not be sold or supplied with liquor and may be removed from the premises. The adoption of best practice principles can lessen gambling and liquor abuses. The consumption of alcoholic beverages affects a person’s judgment. • Impaired judgment on when to stop. and • Anti-social behaviour due to excessive loss of money. but also for the community. Gambling providers have to serve and promote alcoholic beverages responsibly. and improve the impact of problem gambling and alcohol related problems. not only for the venue. Intoxicated patrons must not be provided with gambling services. or not chasing their losses. The consumption of alcohol together with gambling activities may lead to: • Social gamblers wagering more than they normally would. • Excessive gambling risks. Alcoholic beverages should not be offered as an enticement to gamble.

there is no way to monitor the amount of money in the client’s bank account. Amount of Spend One of the biggest problems faced by the casino is the actual amount of money that clients should be allowed to spend. visits not only to casinos but also to any other form of gambling. Casinos can track the frequency of visits through their reward systems.One characteristic of many problem gamblers is the high degree of involvement in other forms of addictive behaviour such as alcohol or drug abuse. Clients who are unable to control the amount they spend in the casino are at high risk of developing gambling problems. Whether or not gambling creates. or get to know the client’s by name. increases.‘Low Roller’ come into play. but the tracking of a client can only be done if the client is a member of the player tracking system. This entrance criteria is strictly been put into place to protect the person who may have the underlying tendencies to become a habitual gambler. Although it is possible to monitor the amount spent by a client. or contributes to other addictive behaviours is a matter of some debate. they could be tracked through the staff members that keep daily records of visitors. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 137 . Frequency of Visit Frequency of visits can be one of the first indications of gambling problems. internet. When it becomes a responsible gaming issue is unfortunately once the client has spent his life savings or entire salary.g. The problem becomes twofold as at this stage the client could become a social burden to the country of his residency. When a gambler starts to become an irresponsible gambler. as they would be required to produce identification upon entry and pay an entrance fee. In Singapore it will be possible to track the frequency of visits of local residents to the casino. horse racing. lotto as well as sports books. The amount of spend is also how the casino judge the value of their clientele. This is where the term ‘High Roller’. as is the question of which addiction comes first. Alternatively if clients are not part of a player tracking system. The onus has always been on the client to control his spend. e.

The onus is on the gambling provider to have the responsibility to check all the facilities for clients/patrons who may be lounging around and not being responsible in the vacating of the premises. before work. these visitations would show a trend towards problem gambling. lunchtime. Although this might seem extravagant. as businesses. Gambling providers’ player tracking rewards programs are set to work out the clients’ average spend within the casino or gambling area. e. there are no exit figures required. The downfall of the system is that the client could be in the establishment for a longer period of time than what the casino management know or take notice of. Management has to balance business objectives with responsible gambling ethics. Another problem is that one casino might not be aware of the number of visits a client makes to another casino. This figure in the database takes the following into consideration: • Time spent gambling • Average bet • Percentage hold of the game being played • Amount of visits that the client visits. Although the Singapore Control Act requires that there is a record kept of the entrance figures for visitation to the integrated resorts. The second part of the downfall side of the length of visit is that the client could give false information when playing on the live gaming tables. But casinos. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 138 . as well as length of play that they record in the reward system. Length of Visit The length of visit is very difficult to ascertain within the casino industry as the only way the casino can gauge the length of visit is by the entrance figures on a daily basis.In some instances a client could visit a service area several times a day. Responsible gambling ethics suggest that the casino should inform the clients when they are visiting too often or spending too much time in the casino. after work and again after evening dinner. are still to meet the revenue budgets set. From the example it shows that the customer could visit the integrated resort or any casino around four times in one day.g.

Behavioural patterns that can be monitored by casinos include the frequency of visits. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 139 .Summary Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. The consumption of alcohol influences the gambler’s behaviour in various ways and gambling providers has to be ethical with regards the service and promotion of alcoholic beverages. the length of visits and the amount spent.

Learning Outcome After studying this chapter. These are recognised internationally and provide a service to the gambling industry as such. The gambling service providers are positive about there approach to the clients when recommending support for the clients who have a gambling problem. support groups such as Gamblers Anonymous. governmental organisations as well as private organisations. Support programmes can be in the form of medical treatment. Introduction to Support Programmes Throughout the casino environment there coexists various different forms of problem gambling support services. they all attempt to help the client resolve the issues that he has with gambling. Provide examples of counselling and treatment programmes and discuss the work done by treatment providers. Describe access and referrals to treatment programmes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 140 . Although these problem gambling support services take different approaches to the gamblers problem. Students will get to appreciate the need and demand for such services.Topic 8 PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the treatment and support programmes available for problem gamblers. students should be able to: • • • Discuss the need and demand for problem gambling treatment programmes.

such as employee training programmes and exclusion programmes. have taken the initiative to address the issue of gambling addiction within their businesses. the demand for treatment of gambling related problems in the UK can be seen. and have been reluctant to engage directly in interventions. Some gambling providers however. gambling providers in the UK are not compelled to supply patrons with help and advice about gambling problems.The Gaming Industry and Gambling Addiction Services The gaming industry has typically viewed pathological gambling as a rare mental disorder that is predominantly physically and/or psychologically determined. Secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry have included the development and implementation of employee training programmes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 141 .000 p. 2008. The Demand for Counselling and Treatment From the article below. In addition. observations from abroad appear to demonstrate that efforts by the gaming industry to address gambling addiction tend to compete with heavily financed gaming industry advertising campaigns that may work directly to counteract their effectiveness (Griffiths. UNITED KINGDOM -. Although advertising of gambling is very restricted at present.The number of problem gamblers seeking help has rocketed by 25 per cent since Labour controversially relaxed the laws. October 16.000 in the previous year.a By Ian Drury. Gambling addicts soar by 25% under Labour's lax laws as average debts rises to £17. this is likely to become much more liberal over the next decade.000 people called a betting addiction hotline last year compared with just over 30. Implementation of secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry. Mail on Sunday. 2005e). have not always been of the highest quality and compliance has often been uneven. mandatory and voluntary exclusion programmes and gambling venue partnerships with practitioners and government agencies to provide information and improved access to formal treatment services. It supports recent findings that suggest many problem gamblers have transient problems that often selfcorrect. Nearly 38. Currently.

between 3 and 4 percent . The number of counseling sessions offered by Gamcare increased to 9. Around 50 per cent placed their bets in bookmakers' shops while nearly one in seven gambled on the internet. It must also be remembered that not all problem gamblers seeks treatment. Most commonly.407 requests for help to online advisers. Another fifth played fruit machines.594 last year. bingo or scratchcards. The number of problem gamblers is much higher than the number seeking treatment. When we add to this the results for married and employed individuals in the light of the process of addiction we will examine later. we can guess (hypothesize) that the middle aged problem gambler has more to lose than the younger gambler.were under 18. In terms of age. usually found in betting shops.And the average amount of debt soared from £13. those seeking help were aged between 26 and 35. greyhounds and football. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 142 . Demographics of Gamblers Seeking Treatment Nancy Petry’s research on treatment seeking gamblers is in sharp contrast to the demographic profile of heavy and problem gamblers. The number of women problem gamblers ringing the helpline jumped from 13 to 18 per cent to comprise nearly a fifth of callers. up 36 per cent. Worryingly.000 in 12 months. roulette and other card games often played on internet sites. Seven per cent of callers admitted to owing more than £100. There were also 1. The number of gamblers seeking treatment is much higher as some of them will also get counselling through Gamblers Anonymous and other organisations. a small proportion . up nearly £4. Women problem gamblers were more likely to fritter away money on 'games of chance' – table games. GamCare is just one organisation in the UK offering counselling to problem gamblers.000. Gamcare's annual report said the record 37. Thirty per cent of those seeking help via the website said they had problems with 'table games' .poker. Almost 60 per cent of those calling by phone were involved in gambling on fixed odds terminals. the demographic material suggests that middle aged gamblers are much more likely to seek treatment. or staking money over the counter on horses.500. fruit machines.806 calls to its helpline last year was a 25 per cent increase on 2006.800 to £17.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 143 . this might be against the gambling providers’ business interest and this is one of the reasons why gambling providers do not always live up to the expectations of responsible gambling practices. • Marital status Married gamblers are more likely to seek treatment than unmarried gamblers. Summary Responsible gambling practices require gambling providers to act responsibly by referring problem gamblers to treatment and counselling programmes. Unlike the profile of the problem gambler where they are over represented there are few young people seeking treatment for gambling problems. • Ethnicity In American demographic studies it is found that Caucasians are more likely to seek treatment than other ethnicities. There is a serious need for treatment and counselling as the number of problem gamblers are increasing every year. • Socioeconomic status Education: The more educated a level three gambler the more likely they were to seek treatment Income: Higher income level three gamblers appear to be more likely to seek treatment than lower income gamblers. • Gender Men are heavily over represented in treatment seeking population.• Age Younger gamblers are underrepresented in the demographic group of gamblers seeking treatment. Not all problem gamblers will seek treatment. Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths People suffering from problem gambling can access free or selffunded treatment via a number of routes. However.

One of the problems with this particular referral path is that the problem gambler may not have any motivation to stop. This may involve the GP providing certain parts of treatment. These units have specialist addiction management psychiatrists and nurses. for example. These support centres can also be reached through the internet and by contacting them on toll-free hotlines. Court referrals It is also worth mentioning that there are an increasing number of court cases involving problem gambling and that judges often give non-custodial sentences alongside referral for gambling treatment. It is not unknown for a problem gambler to say they will attend gambling treatment as a way of helping them get a reduced sentence. a person is given the choice of where he or she is treated. Many GPs. and social workers working with them. Where possible. Often treatment is provided on a ‘shared-care’ basis.1 What is meant by court referrals? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 144 . Activity 8. When this is the case. Other people however. and even if the GP is not able to provide the treatment. will refer the person to the local addiction specialist for an assessment and a treatment plan. Some providers will allow individuals to drop in without an appointment. counsellors. arrangements can often be made for the person to be seen by the community specialist addiction nurse or counselor within the general practice.Self-referrals Problem gamblers can self-refer by contacting one of the many available community addiction centres and clinics where they can have an individual consultation before commencing a treatment programme. GP referrals Some GPs have undergone additional training in addiction management and run special clinics within their own surgery. a GP may not necessarily refer someone to another centre. while the specialist addiction team provides ongoing monitoring and counseling. prefer to be looked after at a specialist addiction unit because of the anonymity this allows and the fact that everyone is there for the same reason (BBC Health: Help from your GP). Some prefer to be looked after in the familiar surroundings of their general practice. however. appropriate prescriptions and treatment for addiction-related health problems.

Gamblers meet on a weekly basis. Marital and family treatments.000 chapters exist in the U. Combining professional therapy and GA participation may improve retention and abstinence. thus decreasing their feelings of isolation. It is one of the most well-known and most frequently used resources for excessive gamblers. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) was founded in California in 1957. This is a self help group that has a set of principles which they are guided by. discuss their gambling problems. However. Gamblers Anonymous is the most popular intervention for problem gambling. functions according to the same principles. GP referrals and court referrals. Moreover. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. Counselling and Treatment Providers Gamblers Anonymous (GA) The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous. including participation in Gam-Anon. Retrospective reports indicate that 70 to 90 % of GA attendees drop out and that less than 10 % become active members. even relate to other gamblers who are experiencing or have experienced the same things. have not been sufficiently evaluated. By participating in GA meetings.Summary The compulsive gambler or client has at his disposal different ways of which he can access treatment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 145 . while GA may help some people achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. which was inspired by Alcoholics Anonymous. These include self-referrals. the spousal component of GA. The contactable references are through either the internet or newspapers (media). This organisation. Studies suggest that only 8 % of GA attendees achieve a year of abstinence. and about 1.S. Thus. some evidence suggests that GA may not be very effective. it seems to have beneficial effects for only a minority of participants. gamblers can open up. or ask for help. only 8 % of attendees achieve a year or more of abstinence.

We make direct amends to such people wherever possible. We came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to a normal way of thinking and living. 9. 11. 10. We made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of this Power of our own understanding. 3. Having made an effort to practice these principles in all our affairs. we tried to carry this message to other compulsive gamblers. quite often. promptly admitted it. We continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong. 8. 6. These questions are provided to help the individual decide if he or she is a compulsive gambler and wants to stop gambling. We sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him. GA groups are a very important resource for gamblers who. success is complete abstinence from gambling for a period of at least two years. find comfort and understanding within them. Gamblers Anonymous offers the following questions to anyone who may have a gambling problem. its members see gambling as an irreversible disease and promote total abstinence. 7. Gamblers who join undertake a 12step program during which gamblers reflect on their problem and modify their behaviour. We admitted to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. We made a searching and fearless moral and financial inventory of ourselves. We admitted we were powerless over gambling – that our lives had become unmanageable. 2.Gamblers Anonymous is essentially based on the medical model – in other words. 4. except when to do so would injure them or others. 12. These questions are below: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 146 . We were entirely ready to have these defects of character removed. 1. We made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to them all. According to GA. We humbly asked God (of our understanding) to remove our shortcomings. These 12 steps are presented below. 5. praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 147 . 19. 9. or considered committing. information and advice to anyone suffering through a gambling problem. 16. 11. 14. an illegal act to finance gambling? Did gambling cause you to have difficulty in sleeping? Do arguments.1. has become the leading authority on the provision of counselling. 4. GamCare GamCare. 13. 12. 18. 2. 6. Did you ever lose time from work or school due to gambling? Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy? Did gambling affect your reputation? Have you ever felt remorse after gambling? Did you ever gamble to get money with which to pay debts or otherwise solve financial difficulties? Did gambling cause a decrease in your ambition or efficiency? After losing did you feel you must return as soon as possible and win back your losses? After a win did you have a strong urge to return and win more? Did you often gamble until your last dollar was gone? Did you ever borrow to finance your gambling? Have you ever sold anything to finance gambling? Were you reluctant to use "gambling money" for normal expenditures? Did gambling make you careless of the welfare of yourself or your family? Did you ever gamble longer than you had planned? Have you ever gambled to escape worry. 17. 3. 15. GamCare provides support. 8. 5. a registered charity. trouble. disappointments or frustrations create within you an urge to gamble? Did you ever have an urge to celebrate any good fortune by a few hours of gambling? Have you ever considered self destruction or suicide as a result of your gambling? Most compulsive gamblers will answer yes to at least seven of these questions. 10. 7. boredom or loneliness? Have you ever committed. advice and practical help in addressing the social impact of gambling in the UK. 20.

Those in residential treatment are provided with 'minders' or support workers who help them budget and avoid those places. GamCare works to support the development and implementation of responsible practice by the gambling industry. needs an inherently different approach to treatment. they build their own support networks and develop their own personal relapse prevention strategies. Additionally. Over the time they remain in treatment they are 'weaned' off this high level of support as. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 148 . therefore new clients will almost certainly have been severely abusing the trust of others to support their habit. although having some parallels to a substance-based addiction. and situations. Gordon House Association also provides an Outreach Support Service and an Internet Counseling Service. They strive to develop strategies that will: • Improve the understanding of the social impact of gambling • Promote a responsible approach to gambling • Address the needs of those adversely affected by a gambling dependency GamCare operates the national telephone helpline for anyone affected by a gambling problem and operates a network of both face-to-face and online counselling and support services. Therefore Gordon House Association provides an extremely high level of support to clients early in recovery. Gordon House Association works only with the most severe gambling addicts. with the help of the others in treatment and their therapy sessions. They do not wish to restrict the choices or opportunities for anyone to operate or engage in gambling opportunities that are available legally and operated responsibly. that led to their gambling in the past. Gordon House – United Kingdom Gordon House Association believes that a severe addiction to gambling.GamCare takes a non-judgemental approach to gambling. This is not so much due to differences in the various addictions themselves but due to the associated behaviors.

• To reduce the frequency of problem gambling.The Outreach Support Service provides an individual face-to-face service in the home of the client and group support sessions at each of the residential centres for those able to travel. support. e. • To understand the root of the problem and introduce ways to address and cope with the issues. and give. As a leader in the community services. they pride themselves as the first port of call for clients that need help. where they can seek. unique 'forums' wherein clients can discuss and learn to deal with the reasons why they compulsively gambled and the extremes to which they have gone to support their gambling. Care Corner Counselling . Youth and Sports (MCYS) to provide specialised gambling counselling and support services for gambling addicts as well as their immediate families. ex-residents. without it being 'sensationalised' or misunderstood. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 149 .g. and • To introduce an alternative healthy lifestyle to the addicts. Their dedicated and professional team of counsellors is all trained under a special gambling intervention programme run by the Community Addictions Management Programme of Mental Health and MCYS. Gordon House has over 31 years' experience of providing specialised support and treatment to acutely addicted gamblers.Singapore Care Corner Counselling Centre is one of the 2 pilot agencies appointed by the Ministry of Community Development. This has allowed them to develop treatment interventions that are purely gambling focused and address the extremes of associated behaviours. There are also 'chat rooms' where trained counselors can answer questions and membership groups. Their main objectives are. Their gambling addiction solutions include a gambling hotline as well as clinical counselling. Because they specialise in gambling they create therapeutic communities that consist entirely of addicted gamblers. The Internet Counseling Service is hosted on the Gordon House Association's Website and provides confidential individual face-to-face counseling for those with access to the necessary computer equipment and voice or text service to those without such access or those requiring total anonymity.

or any other addiction. They also run courses for professionals interested in studying addictions and treatment. and motivational assessment. offer information. Group and Family Therapy. families treatment. student and volunteers.The Care Corner Centre provides: • A meeting place of safety and learning for recovering people. The center addresses all addictions including gambling. The services offered by CAMP include: • Counselling and rehabilitation (with pharmacotherapy when necessary). • A resource centre for recovering people. can call their help lines for immediate support. The helpline is manned by a team of trained counsellors. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 150 . Mental Status Exam. Relapse Prevention Training. caring nurturing environment. • A holistic. and advice to callers. 12-Step Support. If services are required that cannot be provided by CAMP. • Medical support and medication during treatment to prevent withdrawal and anxiety. drug addiction. professionals. The counsellors will listen attentively and provide advice. and Psycho-dynamic Therapy when necessary. CAMP – Community Addictions Management Programmes – Singapore CAMP helps anyone suffering from an addiction related problem. • Medically supervised Detoxification Management. alcoholism. social and psychological. • Individual. the counsellors will refer callers to the relevant agencies where you can get the help they need. All calls will be treated as confidential. • Assessment of severity of the addiction. They run two Gambling Helplines and a General Addictions Helpline to provide support. eating disorders. internet and gaming. when necessary. • Counselling using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Anybody with questions or concerns about gambling. and • An opportunity for the renewal and transformation of family relationships. • A hub for recovery support groups and 12 Step fellowships. information and emotional support. which includes Medical Assessment.

People who call this Centre are offered a free diagnostic consultation with one of 39 clinical psychologists or psychiatric social workers with specialist training in gambling problems located at one of thirteen centres around the country. Treatment in Private Clinics Gambling addicts can also seek treatment in private clinics. Preventive education. where the client is adjudged a danger to themselves or to others provision is made for in-patient treatment at one of three designated addiction treatment clinics. All this is paid for by the RGP (Responsible Gambling Program). Activity 8.2 Explain in detail what Gamblers Anonymous is and how it works. for example the Kenilworth Addiction Treatment Centre in South Africa. If the diagnosis warrants it. Referral Services.3 What is the difference between Gamblers Anonymous and GamAnon? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 151 .• • • • • Peer led support groups. Outpatient follow-up. repairing relationships with families and accessing self-help groups. All therapists follow the six-session treatment programme developed for this programme by the medical director. Activity 8. patients may then join a course of six specially designed individual outpatient sessions which are focused on overcoming denial. Clients are also offered professional assistance with legal and financial management problems where needed. Training and educational programmes. understanding the nature of the problem. It comprises a free help-line available 24 hours a day staffed by telephone counsellors specially trained to deal with gambling problems. In some cases.

Kerviel. betting more and more money in the hope of recovering what he had lost until the losses spiraled out of control. gamblers meet on a weekly basis. involving £3. Kerviel kept insisting that he had been acting in the best interests of the bank. Besides counselling services. Other programmes available in the UK are GamCare and Gordon House. gambling addicts can also receive professional treatment at private clinics worldwide.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 152 . In Singapore Care Corner and Camp offer counselling services. As Gordon Rayner and Peter Allen of the Daily Telegraph newspaper reported.he chased his losses. In this programme. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. put the 31-year-old French junior trader through a six-hour grilling (this was before the full extent of the loss was realised)." But “in fact. had fallen into the classic trap which has ensnared so many other gamblers .” They quoted one insider as saying that Kerviel “seems to have been some kind of Walter Mitty character who had managed to convince himself that he had come up with a great new trading strategy. according to sources close to the bank.4 Case Study – Bank Fraud Excerpts of Problem Gambling from the South African Responsible Gambling News Letter 2008 issue Nine The Ultimate Problem Gambler Is Jerome Kerviel accused of perpetrating the biggest bank fraud in history. Mr. and if he was given time it would make a lot of money for the bank.Summary The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous.7 billion. “the fact that he had already lost more than a billion pounds appeared lost on him. the chief executive of corporate and investment banking at Société Générale. discuss their gambling problems. Activity 8. actually just a problem gambler of a different type? When Jean-Pierre Mustier. 31.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 153 . In 2005 he was promoted to the Delta One trading team. who was earning around £75 000 . Kerviel. but as the markets plunged in the early part of this week this trebled before the bank was able to shut down the fake accounts he had created. however.. but made little impact and was restricted to the most basic type of trading. when he failed to disable the bank's automatic alert system and his irregular trading suddenly showed up. At the time the losses were around £1. None of these facts give a clue.Kerviel has come across as something of a mystery man. So in December last year he allegedly decided to start trading by himself.” Kerviel graduated from the Université Lumière in Lyon with a master's degree in finance and landed a job in the bank's compliance department in 2000. He was allegedly able to hack into the bank's computers to hide his trading till he made a basic slip-up on Friday. According to colleagues he is a “computer genius” with unspecified “personal problems” who speaks fluent English. Rayner and Allen quoted bank sources as saying that there was no evidence that he was out for personal gain. “instead. they believe that Mr. lists sailing as a hobby in his CV and was so accomplished at judo that he trained children in his spare time.2 billion.a modest sum for a trader who had been at the bank for eight years – was desperately trying to get noticed. which specializes in the futures markets. using up to £60 billion of the bank's money to bet on whether markets would rise or fall. as to his motivation for embarking on his unauthorised trading spree.

although it tossed him a bone. 5 Case Study – Text Messages SMS’s and Gambling The law will soon provide protection for people like Hendricus Wessels. When a consternated Wessels confessed that he had no way of paying it. I have learned a big lesson. Virgin Mobile had offered him a session with the Western Cape National Responsible Gambling Programme. Vodacom promptly suspended his service. In addition. His quest for a new set of wheels ground to a halt on New Year’s Eve when Vodacom informed him of the staggering bill he had run up. What Wessels obviously did not know was that the Vodacom website instructs subscribers on how to avoid the temptation that nearly brought him to ruin. Then to his rescue came Virgin Mobile. Wessels is willing to enter treatment and told reporter Wendy Knowles that Virgin Mobile’s rescue foray had come as a complete relief. But even this meant financial ruin. Maweni said. in the shape of a concession which would allow him to pay off the amount. by SMS-ing "Stop" or "Opt out" to 30800. If Wessels had responded like the dog by salivating when he heard a bell ring no harm would have been done. I got swept up. which not only agreed to settle Wessels’s bill but offered him a 12-month complimentary package which would enable him to SMS to his heart’s content — although Virgin Mobile executive head of corporate affairs Nicholas Maweni added that we’ll make sure he can’t use it to enter competitions or partake in any premium offerings. An understandably relieved not to mention sadder and wiser. the pensioner who ended up owing Vodacom R48 000 because he responded like Pavlov’s legendary dog to SMSs urging him to keep entering and win a BMW car. so to speak. I really thought I was going to win a car. telling me to carry on entering. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 154 .Activity 8. The SMSs kept coming. But he sent off an average of 320 SMSs a day in the last two weeks of 2007.

Entering your name on this list. Monique. according to papers submitted to the Cape High Court. to 34385. is as simple as well. such as your bank or cellphone network. according to the station’s managing email. Gavin Meiring. 6 Case Study – Embezzlement Gambler allegedly grabbed R7.1 MILLION IN RADIO FUNDS Missing former radio station financial manager. who disappeared at the end of February after auditors started investigating the station’s financial affairs. followed by your ID number. the amount of missing cash might be even higher than run their "hit list" against the Opt-Out register and ensure that any names on the DMA register are deleted from their database. His wife.dmasa. which is updated every month. Simply send an SMS to the DMA. sending a text message. so you’ll have to send a specific "Stop" SMS to put an end to those. The court granted a provisional sequestration order against Roos.whether by SMS. till recently an employee of Radio Heart 104. In terms of the order. Otherwise contact the DMA’s call centre on 0861 362 362 or log on to www. and it will soon be law for any company embarking on a direct marketing campaign . paid for his gambling debts by misusing his firm’s electronic banking and credit-card system to transfer more than R7-million into his own bank account. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 155 . 35 000 South Africans have registered on the Opt-Out Register of the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) since March last year. was cited as a respondent. telephone or snail mail .According to Nowles. Activity 8. A portion of this money was then paid to internet gambling operators and. You could still get unsolicited SMSs from companies you already do business with.9. Mario Roos. Roos and his wife had to appear in court on 9 May to show cause why it should not be made final. According to the Burger newspaper Roos dropped out of sight on 29 February after attending a rugby match at Newlands.

it is clear that he was a regular gambler and used (the station’s) credit-card to pay off his gambling debts. to make transfers from the accounts of Heart 104. He said the station had been unaware of the fact that Roos was under investigation for the theft of R61 000 from his former employers. The case is looking to be a landmark case for the Australian gaming industry. known as Cash Focus. It had been established that on 1 March he had transferred another R4. amounting to R2408 709. Crown Casino chief executive Rowen Craigie was allegedly part of a plan to entice chronic gambler Harry Kakavas back to the Southbank venue. when he was hired. Gavin Meiring said Roos had been registered and authorised to use the banking system. Activity 8. 7 Case Study – Exclusion Man sues Crown Casino after gambling $1.95 . The theft was not discovered until Meiring became suspicious from media reports about Roos’s disappearance and reviewed the station’s electronic banking transactions. According to Meiring.4 billion in a 14-month spree.A gambling addict is suing Crown Casino for allegedly targeting him when he was banned from every casino in Australia. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 156 . the Foschini Group. and it was then established that he had flown to London on a business-class ticket on March 1.9FM and its sister station.Meiring testified in court papers that he failed to report for work on March 3. Radio Igaga. leading him to gamble $1.of which R256 213. Craigie and chief operating officer John Williams face serious claims of unconscionable conduct.5-million from Radio Igaga’s account.4 billion AUSTRALIA -. Meiring stated that between 2 January and 29 February Meiring made 36 transfers to his bank account. which will see Crown and senior executives Mr.54 was used to pay off his gambling debts.

A separate recording Mr. "Harry Kakavas has apparently just dropped between 3 and 4 million in Las Vegas last week. Kakavas's gambling addiction and related mental issues as early as 1998. In one recorded conversation Crown senior executive Richard Doggert is alleged to have revealed that he had been told to invite Mr. "Over a period of time I observed Mr. The statement. who is suing the casino for damages. Kakavas. a Gold Coast property developer. Doggert allegedly told Mr. back to the casino by Mr. wore a hidden recording device that captured Crown's senior managers allegedly trying to lure him back to the casino's baccarat tables. Williams. Kakavas. Kakavas back to Melbourne.. but did not "give a monkey's" about what happened beyond Victorian borders. Bill Horman. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 157 . "Williams asked Doggert to contact the plaintiff (Kakavas) because Williams wanted to look clean if the plaintiff's exclusion order could not be lifted. Williams. Kakavas in a condition which caused me some concern.According to amended Supreme Court documents Mr. Horman said. warned of several suicide threats from the property developer." In January 2005 Mr." Mr. Regards JW (John Williams)." according to the amended statement of claim. Kakavas in a separate criminal trial. Bill (Horman) and Howard (Aldridge) get a draft copy of the letter in which it would take for Harry to let back (sic) to play at Crown. Kakavas that Crown management was aware of an interstate exclusion order from 2004. I will then discuss with Rowen (Craigie). A statement from Crown's general manager of community affairs. On a number of occasions he talked about committing suicide. allegedly thought up by Crown management after it was discovered he had lost a large amount in Las Vegas casinos. Kakavas was allegedly contacted by Mr. also reveals that the casino was aware of Mr. Despite the warning email correspondence from October 2004 reveals a plan to lure Mr. prepared for Mr.

with the case expected to be heard in the middle of next year. Enjoy the facilities first. Kakavas finally returned to Crown he lost $36. When Mr. Start slowly and the jet will come later. Mr." the court documents claim Mr."We want you to come back. We don't want you to start too quickly because you've had a problem in the past.7 million over 14 months. Kakavas is seeking more than $50 million in damages. Williams said. during which he allegedly turned over $1. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 158 . 2009. but we want you to start (gambling) slowly.4 billion.

Appendix One FORMS Singapore pools application for exclusion form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 159 .

Suffolk (UK) exclusion forms. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 160 . printable from the internet for their clients.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 161 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 162 .

Application to be removed from the exclusion program Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 163 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 164 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 165 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 166 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 167 .

Remittance of unlawful winnings form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 168 .

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