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Responsible Gambling DHCM 183
The Official Guide
Boston Business School 520 North Bridge Road #03-01 Wisma Alsagoff Singapore 188742 www.bostonbiz.edu.sg
All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publisher. This guide may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover, other than that in which is published, without the prior consent of the Publisher.
The Guide is a useful resource for those seeking to gain the internationally recognised CTH qualifications. The Guide however must be used together with the recommended textbooks.
.................................................................................................... 83 Dealing with Exclusions.... 93 Exclusion from Remote Gambling ............................... 66 Introduction to the Provision of Information........ 68 Availability of Counselling.......... 81 Introduction to Exclusion Orders ...............................9 Gambling.................................................................. 74 Information on Games ...................................................................... 81 Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 ................... 12 Topic 2 – RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION........................................................ 59 Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) ..................................... 64 Topic 4 – PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS ......................................................................................................................................................................................CONTENTS Introduction ............. Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling ............... 58 Display of Clocks ............................................ 66 Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling ....................... 11 Forms of Gambling............................................................................................... 1 Topic 1 – THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY........................................................................................................... 94 ........................................................................................ 23 Gambling Legislation ................. 23 Responsible Gambling Legislation ......................................................... 60 Creating a Comfortable Environmental ....................................................................................... 5 Profile of the Gambling Industry ..................................................................................................................... 78 Player Rating Systems ................................ 92 Revocation of an Exclusion Order ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 45 Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment ......................................5 Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes ................... 59 Promotional Materials...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Facilities .............. 71 Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability .... 87 Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders............................................................................................................................................................................. 25 Code of Practice .................................................................................................................................. 79 Topic 5 – PROCEDURES FOR SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING – EXCLUSION ORDERS ......................................................................... 30 Topic 3 – GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES.......................................................... 52 Casino Lighting.............. 51 Signage .
...................................124 Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling..135 Topic 8 – PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES .............................................................................................107 Customer Complaints and Disputes .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................145 Appendix One – FORMS ................122 Gambling Addiction .................................130 Gambling Behaviour..140 Introduction to Support Programmes........... 95 The Refusal of Credit........................................................................................................................................................... 95 Underage Gambling ...............................................169 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................109 Topic 7 – PROBLEM GAMBLING ..........................................................................126 Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse .........................................................................................................................140 Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths ..........118 Prevalence of Gambling Problems .................................Topic 6 – GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS ..................159 Source of References ......................................................................................................116 Introduction to Problem Gambling...............................................................143 Counselling and Treatment Providers....................................................116 Levels of Gambling...............................
Describe the procedures for providing responsible gambling services in the casino environment. It will equip students with the skills required to assess and address responsible gaming issues in the Casino Gaming Environment. It provides students with the knowledge to identify problem gambling and to provide information about professional treatment. other games of chance such as lotto National and regional legislation and regulations and industry code of practice Responsible gambling legislation Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 1 . Identify problem gamblers and understand which groups are at particular risk. It will promote a greater understanding of Responsible Gambling in accordance with the legislative requirements and worldwide standards. Syllabus The Gambling Industry Profile of the gambling industry. horseracing and sports betting. Provide information on problem gambling support programmes.Responsible Gambling Introduction Description This module has been designed for front line gaming industry professionals. Understand how the gambling environment influences players’ behaviour. types of gambling offered including casino gaming. Summary of Learning Outcomes On completion of this module students will be able to: • • • • • • • Describe the types of gambling offered. Understand the legislative requirements relating to responsible gaming. Understand the communication and administrative procedures involved in providing responsible gambling services.
The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit and will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions and 5 x 4 mark questions in Section A (40 marks). underage gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 2 . disputes and complaints.Gambling environment features Procedures for service of responsible gambling Gambling information for players Gambling related incidents Problem Gambling and Support Programmes Communication and documentation Casino layout. ATM’s. documentation and administration procedures Assessments This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination set and marked by CTH. signage and information to be displayed. signage. refusal of credit. availability of responsible gaming information Requests for exclusion. promotional materials. facilities. appropriate environmental features Availability of counseling. attempts to breach exclusion. information on games. positioning of machines Provision of information. involvement of family or friends Levels of gambling. Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which students must select and answer three (60 marks). problem gambling support and treatment services. Local centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practise to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not test this local knowledge. external communications including with statutory boards. Any legislation and codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry and will not be country specific. identifying problem gamblers. implementation of exclusion procedures. Internal communication including casino departments and security. chances of winning and probability. lighting. Availability of counseling. CTH is a London based body and the syllabus content will in general reflect this. providing information on support services. high risk groups. availability of natural light.
Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations. ISBN 0139795685 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 3 .(1999). R. Balkin. Visiting speakers would also be beneficial and will help to contextualise the classroom based learning. Manchester University Press.. D. R.& Marshall... ISBN 0471129275 • Kilby. Casino Management: Past Present and Future. J. D.& Cornelius.J. Visits to a range of casinos are essential to allow students to see the application of the theory into practice... Textbooks • Eade. ISBN 0471266329 • Munting. et al. Pearson. Management – People.J.. (1996). University Press of Nevada. Kendall Hurd Publishing. K. L... John Wiley and Sons.. Pearson. Performance. Resources Learners need access to library and research facilities which should include some or all of the following.. ISBN 081840311X • Gomez-Mejia. Citadel Press. ISBN 0942828382 • Friedman. ISBN 013400177X • Eadington. ISBN 0787245186 • International Gaming Institute. ISBN 007111131X • Hashimoto. Casino Management. (1998). W. W. Casino Operations Management. John Wiley and Sons..Further guidance Delivery strategies This module covers the theory of Responsible Gambling but wherever possible this should be related to practical situations to reflect the nature of the commercial world. (1981). B.. (1997). The Gaming Industry. (2004). Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry. McGraw-Hill. (2005).&Fox. Change. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues. & Cardy. (1996). An Economic and Social History of Gambling. Recommended Prior Learning There is no required prior learning however students must have completed formal education to 18 years old or equivalent and an interest in Gambling Operations is essential. ISBN 0131926721 • Rudd.D. (1999).
com www.Magazines. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 4 . CTH will always answer any questions from the centre’s Head of Department either by email or by phone.casinoman.com Notes on recommended texts The module can be taught with the texts we have identified as relevant to the module syllabus. the lecturer’s lesson plans should be based on the module syllabus and supported by relevant texts. In general. Where available and appropriate. It is not essential to use all the recommended texts and lecturers should use their experience to decide which ones are most appropriate for their students. past module examinations are also available to support lecturers. but a number of texts which provide sufficient depth to explore the subject area. supplementary material familiar to the lecturer and the lecturer’s experience. In keeping with a qualification at this level there is no one text which covers the whole syllabus. Journals and Other Publications • Casino Life Magazine • State and Regional Gaming Acts including: • UK Gaming Act 2005 • Nevada Gaming Control Act • Singapore Casino Control Act Websites www.gamingfloor.
lotteries. although relatively new will be strictly regulated. Students will get to appreciate the size of the industry and the prevalence of gambling. with an emphasis on operators meeting the required probity and performance standards and consistency in care for consumers. The Gambling Industry in Singapore The licensed gambling industry in Singapore is diverse.Topic 1 THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY Objective This chapter will introduce the students to the gambling industry and look in more detail at the types of gambling available. The industry is one of high public profile – commercial competitiveness on a global basis sits at one end of the scale. Define gambling and explain the difference between recreational gambling and problem gambling. sports betting and internet gambling. It will also look at the main reasons for developing responsible gaming programmes. Explain the different types of gambling including casinos gaming. developing into a major sector of the world economy. Profile of the Gambling Industry The gambling industry has seen unprecedented growth over recent years. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 5 . at the other is local. Explain the need for responsible gambling programmes. Gambling in Singapore. Currently lotteries as well as other service providers such as horse racing are popular. Singapore will have its first casino operating by 2009. Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter. direct responsibility to all consumers. students should be able to: • • • • Profile the gaming industry.
considerable focus by governments of all persuasions has been given to the adverse affect problem gambling can have on some members of the community or individuals who become affected by gambling to the point of no longer having control or rational judgment. clear requirements understood and consistent standards of business practice prescribed. various ethnic groups and a small geographical area.In Singapore there is a limited target market. Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • • • • • Chinese (62%) Male (60%) Residents aged 40 to 59 years (60% . stated that 54% of Singapore residents aged 18 and above reported that they have participated in at least one form of gambling activity in the last 12 months.999 and below (60% .64%) Residents with primary education and below (61%) Residents with average monthly personal income of $2. respondents who had participated in at least one form of gambling in the last 12 months were classified as gamblers. appropriate infrastructure and high standards of service as enjoyed elsewhere in the world. However. In order to be effective and fair issues of concern have been identified. sometimes leading to problems in other areas of their lives. consumers rightly have expectations that they can have access to competitive gaming products. In recent years. Substantial efforts have been directed to this issue in Singapore and from this background has emerged the production by the industry of a proactive and balanced response to the expectations of Government and consumers – responsible gambling. A recent Singapore report of survey on participation in gambling activities among Singapore residents. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 6 . 2008.66%) For the purpose of the survey.
• Excluding people who had only gambled on the National Lottery Draw in the last year. and on each individual activity. Sweden and Switzerland. or about 23 million. that is about 32 million adults. • People in higher income households were more likely to gamble. Looking at international studies of problem gambling prevalence. had participated in some form of gambling activity within the past year. 48% of the population. the nature of gambling in Britain has changed substantially. and similar to that of Canada. and lower than Australia. • The most popular activity was the National Lottery Draw (57%). Singapore. respondents with higher levels were less likely to gamble. (Comparisons should be treated with caution.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 7 . South Africa. the US. mainly due to changes in legislation. New Zealand. The survey also indicated the following: • 68% of the population. • Respondents who described their ethnic origin as white were more likely to be past year gamblers (70%) than those who classified themselves as Black (39%) or Asian (45%). • Only a small proportion of people (3%) gambled online (like playing poker or casino games etc) or placed bets with a bookmaker using the internet (4%). Macao and Hong Kong. • In terms of education. as different methodologies have been used in different countries). Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • Men were more likely than women to gamble overall (71% compared with 65%). betting on horse races (17%). with the exception of bingo (4% of men compared with 10% of women). had participated in another form of gambling in the past year. 61% of those with a degree compared with 73% who were educated to GCSE/O level equivalent. to 72% for highest income households.The Gambling Industry in the UK The British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007 stated that since the 1999 survey. • 3% used fixed odds betting terminals (FOBTs) and 4% gambled in a casino. and playing slot machines (14%). the rate increased from 61% among those in the lowest income households. the rate in Britain is higher than that found in Norway. followed by scratch cards (20%). and an increase in the number of gambling products available.
377 $50 million to $100 million 35 2.200..170.1% 7.407.1% 0.1% 8.1% 32.1% 10. primarily in the form of lotteries.9% 27. movie tickets.8% 15.488 Total 367 19. until it was completely banned in the 1890’s.0% 31.3% 15.7% 14.144.S.698 $50 million to $100 million 33 2.040.398 Under $3 million 97 90.4% 3. The statistics shown below are the Gaming revenues from the National Indian Gaming commission.911 $100 million to $250 million 40 6.9% 19.459.0% 2.The Gambling Industry in the USA (Tribal Jurisdictions) A look at the history of gambling in the United States shows that it has evolved in waves.5% 25.204 $100 million to $250 million 32 5.6% 37.497 $10 million to $25 million 68 1.3% 11.0% 5. Gambling was largely practiced in the early U.3% 18.9% 9. Las Vegas remained the primary location for legal gambling until the 1970’s.826.1% 32.569 Total 358 16. gambling has now evolved to the point that at least some form of gambling is legal in all but two states and revenues from gambling eclipse the revenues from theme parks.240.381.169 $3 million to $10 million 57 350.5% 8 .510 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2003 $250 million and over 11 5. including riverboat and Indian reservation casinos. with public sentiment shifting back and forth from embracing gambling to prohibiting it.9% 9.711 $10 million to $25 million 69 1. These are the various categories of growth figures from the years 2001 though to 2004. when more forms of casinos began to be legalised.0% 16.122.8% 1.5% 15. and music recordings combined.010 $25 million to $50 million 60 2. gambling started making a comeback in the 1920’s and was fully legalised in Nevada in 1931.698 $25 million to $50 million 57 2.8% 0. providing American gamblers with an outlet through which to place their bets. Gaming Revenue 2001 – 2004 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues Number of Revenues Gaming Revenue Range Operations (in thousands) Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2004 $250 million and over 15 7.126 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 Percentage of Operations Revenues 4.277.6% 12.333.5% 11. In fact. However.554 $3 million to $10 million 57 344. video games.352 Under $3 million 94 77.
5% 13.0% 11.8% 3.9% 6.513 $3 million to $10 million 63 386. The integrated resorts will also experience growth figures such as these.523 $50 million to $100 million 19 1. However. Although this revenue is only from 4% of the casinos.662 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2001 $100 million and over 39 8.Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2002 $250 million and over 10 4.0% 0. gambling is an enjoyable leisure and entertainment activity. Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes For the majority of people.6% 18.0% 17.8% 13.1% 11.606 $25 million to $50 million 55 1.3% 34.1% 28.528.611 $10 million to $25 million 58 997.257 Total 330 12.346 2.415. gambling can have negative impacts.5% 11.9% 15.5% 65.755 $25 million to $50 million 43 1.717.822.8% 18. for some.965 Total 349 14. the Casino Control Boards in different parts of the world have set up laws to control gambling operations.6% 17.398.8% Table 1.4% 7.596 $50 million to $100 million 24 1. The growth of the gambling industry is evident in the gambling prevalence rates and gaming revenue statistics discussed. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 9 . Summary The onset of world gambling trends and the increase and availability of gambling forms have influenced the way society view gambling. As a result.8% 5.5% 11.399 Under $3 million 101 79.1 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues The growth in revenue generation was in the 250M$ and above.640.9% 7.067.654 Under $3 million 114 96.9% 8.978.9% 31. These figures are derived from Casino Resorts such as Mohican Sun.519 $10 million to $25 million 65 1.3% 2. it seems that the old tribal customs are falling away and gaming is becoming a normal point in society.6% 0.5% 33.546 $3 million to $10 million 57 385.064 $100 million and over 31 4.870.694.
The aim of responsible gambling programmes is to minimise the harm to consumers who may be adversely affected by gambling. the level of betting and the amount of leisure time devoted to gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 10 . A major point of emphasis with the Responsible Gambling Course is urging for the consistency in care for customers. It contains comprehensive information on responsible gaming practices that will assist the operator in the successful implementation of the responsible gambling code. Though the practices are intended to apply to all gambling providers and all forms of gambling. aimed at delivering important consumer protection and social welfare objectives. Problem gambling exists when there is a lack of control over gambling. The need for flexibility to accommodate industry development within an evolving gambling industry is also acknowledged. particularly the scope and frequency of gambling. These programmes are adopted by various world gambling providers in the provision of their services.Furthermore. and promoting responsible gambling initiatives. as is the need for whole-of-industry support and implementation. Responsible Gambling Programmes were developed. In recent years there has been growing appreciation of the affect problem gambling has on some members of the community. Responsible Gambling Programmes are considered ‘living documents’ in the sense that it will be continuously edited and amended to take into new operating practices. which sets out responsible gambling practices and policies. new research into problem gambling and changing circumstances. Responsible Gambling Programmes have been developed with the participation of various stakeholders in the world gambling industry. and will change over time as new operating methods emerge. This responsible gambling course will provide descriptions of responsible gambling practices relevant to each sector of the gambling industry. the method of implementation will vary according to the form of gambling. These programmes are an expression of the commitment of the industry to responsible gambling.
Activity 1. which vary in different cultures. from the point of view of the gambler. Playing the lotto. provides some of the following pleasures: • playing games. Gambling behaviour should be viewed as problematic when gamblers: • gamble excessively and thereby cause significant harm to themselves and to others. and • being in a stimulating environment.Summary This section has highlighted the aims of the different government organisations when formulating responsible gambling programmes. casino games and betting on horses and other sporting events are regarded as gambling activities. Responsible gambling practises are the responsibility of all stakeholders in the gambling industry and must be implemented over a range of gambling activities. bingo and charity jackpots in newspapers as well as scratch cards. Gambling Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. • feeling artificially endangered. Recreational gambling. Gambling. and • fail to control this excessive behaviour by themselves and without assistance. Whether gambling is accounted a vice or a form of recreation depends on moral judgments. • fantasising about winning large sums of money.1 Define the term Gambling. at different points in history and among different individuals. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 11 .
The player with maximum points at the end of the set will be the winner. Games can also be played electronically. Blackjack – a card game in which players try to beat the bank by adding the values of the cards as close to 21 without going over. including in holiday parks and resorts. Casino Games Casino games include table. Traditional casino games include roulette. It is also popular in working men’s clubs and British Legion clubs. Casino-type games are also played on gaming machines and on the internet. The wheel is divided into a number of equal segments separated by spokes or pins. multiple lines or complete a card. and the winning segment is indicated by a pointer mounted on a flexible piece of rubber or leather. • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 12 . They involve playing or staking against a bank.Summary Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. which also rubs against the pins to impart friction and slow the wheel down. card and machine games played in a casino. problem gambling can result. Forms of Gambling Bingo Bingo is a game of chance where players receive a set of numbers on a card in return for a stake and they mark them off as a caller announces numbers as they are drawn randomly. Casino games permitted in Britain include: • Big Six Wheel – also known simply as The Big Six. Recreational gamblers gamble for the purpose of pleasure. played using a large vertical wheel that can be spun. Players may win money or prizes when they complete a line. is an unequal game of chance. People mainly play Bingo in Bingo clubs. The wheel is spun by a dealer. Also known as 21. blackjack and poker. When an individual gambles excessively and uncontrollably. Each segment is associated with a number.
Types of poker games include “three-card”. • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 13 . and then spins a ball in the opposite direction around the circumference of the wheel.• Baccarat – A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. a croupier spins a wheel in one direction. There are a number of variations of Baccarat in the United Kingdom. The ball eventually falls onto one of the 37 coloured and numbered pockets on the wheel. Traditionally. the dice were shaken on a small plate covered with a bowl. Roulette . which was then lifted to reveal the roll. The pot is awarded to the player or players with the best combination of cards. A player can make any number of bets on the sic bo table. in Asia. whether it is odd or even or on a grouping of numbers. “casino stud” and “Texas Hold ‘Em”. Seven-card stud has become more common. A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. Fivecard stud first appeared during the American Civil War. and the outcome is keyed into a computer which automatically lights up the winning zones on the table.a game played with three standard dice that are shaken in a basket or plastic cup. Punto Banco . These two games form the basis of most modern stud poker variation.also called Baccarat.In the game. Sic Bo .a casino dice game in which players bet against the casino on the outcome of one roll or a series of rolls of two dice. In modern casinos the dice are shaken mechanically. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. In recent years. Poker – a card game where players with fully or partially concealed cards make bets into a central pot. both in casinos and in home games. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. Craps . and became very popular. Stud Poker – a poker variant in which each player is dealt a mix of face-down and face-up cards in multiple betting rounds. the colour of the number (red or black). Players can place a variety of bets on specific numbers.
Payoff combinations are listed on a roulette-style table top that is often lit from underneath in winning areas of the layout to indicate winning combinations. Fig 1.3 A deck of rare De LaRue Co. doublesided. Each ball is imprinted with a number 1 through 80. the double-sided deck with numbers in opposing corners and double sided face cards came into common use as a result of the rising popularitly of round games (such as poker).2 Playing cards without number Fig 1. Club) were adopted as a standard throughout much of Northern Europe. Card Games 1. without numbers (indices) in the corners. the indices are quite different from those in common use today. The History of Playing Cards Since the late 16th century. England. Heart. standard decks were square-edged. one-sided (the royalty stood one way on the card face) and the numbered cards only showed pips. Around the Turn-of-the-Century (1900). A traditional live casino keno game uses a circular glass enclosure called a "bubble" containing 80 ping pong-like balls which determine the balldraw result.Outcomes are based on the combinations that come up on the three dice. As you can see. The wagers available and their associated odds can differ from place to place. Prior to that (during the Faro heyday). between 1870-1880. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 14 . for that reason standard decks in the 18th and 19th century were commonly referred to as a "standard French deck". • Keno – Keno is a lottery-like or bingo-like gambling game played at modern casinos. These "Dexter" cards are an early version of indexed playing cards (numbers on the corners). European-style royalty have been used on "face cards" and "French Suits" (Spade Diamond. rounded-corner playing cards made in London.
The typical game was 4 to 8 players. Category B machines are divided into four subcategories (not shown here): Category Maximum Stake (£) A Unlimited B Varies. if that went ahead. Three Card Brag A standard 52 card deck is used. pubs. Five Card Brag Five cards are dealt to each player.2. Faro was known as the "King of Gambling Games" and in the late 1860's. 3. pusher and crane grab machines are all gaming machines. Bookmakers also site Fixed Odds Betting Terminals (FOBTs) in their betting shops. depending on the take and the maximum prize they can pay out. The basic game of three card Brag was one of the games described by Hoyle dates from the late eighteenth century or earlier. but includes £1 and £2 C 50p 10p(30p when non-monetary D prize) Maximum Prize (£) Unlimited Varies from £250 to £4000 £25 £5 cash or £8 nonmonetary prize Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 15 . Brag was considered the "Queen of Gambling Games". The player generally wins by matching the symbols on the central line of three reels. fixed odds betting terminals.) 4. and everyone discards two cards to make their best three card brag hand. adult gaming centres. Brag Brag was a very popular pre-poker gambling game. Gaming machines are found in lots of different places like family entertainment centres. Because Three Card Brag is a gambling game the players must agree on the stake and have a common understanding of the rules. (Typical of any game. Category A machines would only be allowed in the new supercasino. Gaming machines have different maximum prize and bet limits. Machine Categories (UK) There are four broad categories of gaming machine. slot machines. Gaming Machines Fruit machines. clubs and bingo halls. 1. The cards in each suit rank in the usual order from high to low: A-K-Q-J-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2.
• Pusher machine A gaming machine with a moving tray carrying various items which can be dislodged into a chute by coins pushed in by the player. use a random number generator to determine whether you have won or lost. the display often shows three identical symbols in a row. The Liberty Bell slot machine had three spinning reels. FOBT users can bet on a variety of ‘events’. The outcome of such games is operated by a random number generator. Charles Fey (1862–1944) of San Francisco. A spin resulting in three Liberty Bells in a row gave the biggest payoff. Types of machine • Fruit machines Fruit machines. a grand total of fifty cents or ten nickels. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 16 . jackpot. If you win. • Fixed Odds Betting Terminal (FOBTs) FOBTs are made available by bookmakers in betting shops. amusement-withprize or all-cash machines.1 The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell • Charles Fey & Liberty Bell The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell. The History of Slot Machines – Liberty Bell Fig 1. They include red and black plaques which can be exchanged for prizes. greyhound racing. The dislodged items are then won by the player. Diamond. spade. such as representations of horseracing. plus the image of a cracked Liberty Bell. 3. football penalty shoot-outs and roulette. also known as gaming. • Crane grab machine A crane grab machine uses a mechanical arm to try to pick up prize such as a soft toy and drop it into the chute.2. invented in 1895 by car mechanic. and heart symbols were painted around each reel.
Fey rented his machines to saloons and bars based on a 50/50 split of the profits. and Three Spinde and the Klondike. Herbert Mills. In 1964. When the reels stopped. The hole in the middle of the trade check allowed a detecting pin to distinguish fake nickels or slugs from real nickels. and poker (Dale Electronics' Poker-Matic was very popular). A lottery is a game which people enter by selecting a set of numbers that may match those drawn later for the chance of winning money or prizes.e. plums. the first allelectronic gambling machine was built by Nevada Electronic called the "21" machine. Nevada. Gambling supply manufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights to the Liberty Bell. which is regulated by the National Lottery Commission. and cherries on machines. In 1975. Fey could not build them fast enough in his small shop. horse racing. the first electronic slot machine was built by the Fortune Coin Company. Each reel had ten symbols painted on it. a Chicago manufacturer of arcade machines. Charles Fey was also the inventor of the trade check separator. roulette. • Demand for Slot Machines Grows The demand for Liberty Bell slot machines was huge. began production of a slot machine. Other types of lotteries include raffles and scratch cards. a jackpot was awarded if three of a one kind of symbol lined up. Other all electronic versions of gambling games followed including ones for dice. The largest game in the UK is the National Lottery. In 1901. As a result in 1907. lemons. The payoff in coinage was then dispensed from the machine. Lotteries Singaporeans know lotteries commonly as 4D. A lever was pulled that spun the reels. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 17 .The original Liberty Bell slot machine can still be seen be at the Liberty Belle Saloon & Restaurant in Reno. Charles Fey refused to sell. however. • Age of Electronics The first popular electric gambling machine was the 1934 animated horserace machine called PACES RACES. a knock-off of Fey's Liberty Bell. Other Charles Fey machines include: the Draw Power. Mills was the first person to place fruit symbols: i. Charles Fey invented the first draw poker machine. called the Operator Bell. • How the Original Slots Worked Inside each cast iron slot machine there were three metal hoops called reels. which was used in the Liberty Bell.
in which numbered tickets are drawn from a container holding all the numbers sold. the more you can win. politics or stock market movements. So for example. Pool betting on horse racing. The lottery proceeds in some parts of the world are used to bail out the struggling sports bodies. the more right you are. With spread betting. These are sold in newsagents and supermarkets. The level of the payout depends on the size of the pool and the number of winning participants. With ordinary betting. greyhound racing and other sports takes place at racecources and tracks. Scratch Cards Scratch cards are tickets you scratch to find out if you have won a prize.Playing the lottery is the easiest form of gambling around as the selling or gaming provider only offers a service to the client. is divided between the winning participants. but the more wrong you are the more you can lose – and your loss is not limited to the amount of your stake. through betting offices and online. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 18 . less what the operator takes out. spread betting profits and losses can be unlimited. Unlike more traditional forms of gambling where you only lose the amount of your bet. there is no civic responsibility. social welfare and charity organisations as well as for public works projects. Spread Betting Spread betting allows people to bet on sporting events. players ‘pool’ their stakes and the combined sum. you are either absolutely right (your horse wins) and you win money depending on the odds quoted. The onus is on the service provider not to accept or payout winnings to the underage public. which is based on the results of football matches. Raffles Raffles is a game often held to raise money for charity. Pools In pools betting. The most common betting pool in Britain is the football pool. you could win £25 if the goal is scored at the 40th minute of play or lose £25 if it is scored at the 30th minute of play. Horse racecourse pool betting is offered exclusively by the Tote. People holding the tickets that match the numbers drawn win prizes. or you are absolutely wrong (you horse doesn’t win) and you lose the amount you have placed on the bet. if you bet £5 that the first goal will be scored on the 35th minute of play in a football match.
Although very well organised the Turf Clubs that promote this sport have only a civic responsibility to their clients. However. and it also offers some of the most interesting proposition bets. and can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Bodog is one of the biggest online gambling operations.bodog.com/sports-betting/celebrity-props. can be located anywhere in the world.jsp. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 19 . The first online casino began operation in 1995 with an offering of eighteen online games.com is an example of an internet gambling site. and since then the industry has boomed at such a rate that an estimated 30 million gamblers visited internet gambling sites in July of 2005 alone. which can be found at http://www. other gambling sites include Nine Sportsbook: www. it has exploded in a way that few industries ever do. Though internet gambling is a relatively recent phenomenon.com and BetCRIS: www. Some of the more exotic gambling options include what are known as proposition bets. where you can wager on everything from the winner of American Idol to the likelihood that Jessica Simpson will adopt a child.9 billion in 2006.com. These sites offer all types of gambling games. Types of Gambling Sites Internet gambling sites. from the horses mouth is a term used by some individuals when placing a bet/wager.nine. the new industry also raises a variety of concerns over how the law ought to properly deal with internet gambling. While data about revenues is varied.betcris.Horse Racing Wagering on horse racing is an extremely popular form of gambling. even conservative estimates have the industry growing from $1 billion in profits in 1997 to a staggering $10. 1. This phenomena has truly revolutionised gambling. from traditional card games to lotteries and sports wagering. allowing gamblers to place wagers on all sorts of games and events from the comfort of their home. www.bodog. it is no surprise that the new wave in gambling is occurring on the World Wide Web. Internet Gambling With the expansive growth of the gambling industry and the evolution of technology. It is probably the one game of chance that has been responsible for patrons wrong investment (bets placed).
2. How Internet Gambling Works Gamblers wishing to bet online are usually required to set up an account with the gambling website and to make a payment into that account before betting. Payments have traditionally been made using major credit or debit cards, private debit cards (debit cards issued by small, private companies), online payment providers (i.e. Paypal), wire transfers, or e-cash (digital money that is purchased from a provider). However, there have been some recent events that have changed the way online gambling is funded. For one, most major American credit companies now prohibit payments to online gambling services. These policies are mostly self-implemented due to the high risk of fraud and bad debt in the online gaming industry. However, the companies have also had some assistance in forming the policies by New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer, who threatened Citibank with criminal prosecution for knowingly assisting in internet gambling that was prohibited by New York law. Though the charges were dropped after Citibank promised to give $400,000 to counselling services for gambling addicts, the threat of prosecution was enough to force these companies’ hands in banning internet gambling credit After credit card companies banned online gambling credit, gamblers began to use online payment providers such as Paypal with increasing frequency. However, Attorney General Spitzer then went after Paypal with a prosecution similar to the one threatened against Citibank. Though Paypal claimed that it already had a policy against allowing payments to online gambling sites the business was still forced to disgorge profits of $200,000 in a settlement with New York. Despite this apparent crackdown by some American financial institutions, gamblers have still found ways to fund their wagers. For one, online gambling sites can mask the code that attaches to credit card payments to make the payment look like it was for something other than gambling, which would allow consumers to continue to use major credit cards regardless of their policies. However, even more legitimate means of payment exist. For example, once Paypal announced that it would prohibit payments to online gambling sites there were plenty of similar online payment providers that began to offer service to gambling sites to pick up Paypal’s slack.
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In addition, gamblers can always set up accounts at foreign banks that do not prohibit transfers to gambling sites or send an international money order to those sites that accept them. One thing is for sure: as long as internet gambling continues to attract more bettors and more money, companies will find ways for bettors to pay for their bets
Activity 1.2 a) Describe in your own words how internet gambling works. b) Explain how internet gambling payments are controlled.
Activity 1.3 Detail how Slot Machines were started.
Activity 1.4 Explain the difference between pool betting and spread betting. Summary Gamblers and gambling operators can choose from a variety of games. The Games of chance that were highlighted in this section were: • • • • • • • • • • • Bingo Big Six Wheel Craps Roulette Craps/Dice Blackjack Punto Banco Lotteries Horse Racing Gambling Machines Internet Gambling
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Chances of winning Lots of people dream of winning the lottery or getting the ‘perfect’ poker hand, but do you know what the real chances are? If you toss a coin 40 times, the chance you will get heads every time is just under 1 in 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion). Keep on reading to see how your odds of winning in games of chance compare to other events. Event Living to be old enough to receive a 100th birthday telegram from the Queen (or King!) 1 Rolling a 2 in a game of craps Roulette wheel landing on one number you select Winning any prize in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ Being dealt a full house in your first five cards in poker The next person you meet being born on the same day and same year as you 20 million tonne asteroid called Apophis hitting Earth on 13 April 2036 2 Being dealt a royal flush in your first five cards in poker Being struck by lightning next year Winning a share of the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot
Average chance 1 in 8 1 in 36 1 in 37 1 in 57 1 in 4,165 1 in 25,000 1 in 45,000 1 in 650,000 1 in 10,000,000 1 in 14,000,000
UK adults in their thirties Probability changes as the potential event gets closer
You can influence the likelihood of some of these things happening. For example, living a healthy lifestyle will increase your chances of living to 100. But all gambling works on randomness. Even skill-based gambling is subject to chance – no amount of expertise or skill can influence the cards you are dealt in a game of poker. It’s important to be realistic and not to overestimate your chances. Your chance of winning a share in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot with one ticket is one in 14 million. If you spend £1 every week on the Lottery, you would expect to wait about 270,000 years before you win a share of the jackpot! Gambling operators are required to provide customers with information such as the rules, house edge, odds, average return to player, maximum bet level and prize limit.
Source: http://www.gambleaware.co.uk/how-gambling-works Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 22
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 23 .Topic 2 RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION Objective This chapter will introduce students to the legislative practises that govern gambling providers. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. students should be able to: • • • Explain the purpose of gambling legislation and the scope of legislations influencing the gambling environment. In the United Kingdom the gambling environment is controlled under the Gambling Act 2005. In the USA gambling providers are regulated under the state authority that they are located in. Learning Outcome After this chapter. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. for example the State of Nevada is controlled by the Nevada Gaming Commission. For example. They are also responsible for advising national and local government on gambling-related issues. Discuss responsible gambling legislation and exclusion orders Discuss Code of Practices followed by gambling providers. which was established in 1959. authorities can levy fines. with other acts in place for other forms of gambling. Most gambling sections throughout the USA have had input from the State of Nevada as this was the forerunner to most of the legislation in that region. It will focus more specifically on industry codes of practise for responsible gambling. In enforcing legislation. under the Nevada Gaming Control Act. Gambling Legislation Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. revoke licences and investigate and prosecute illegal gambling. in Singapore casino operators are regulated under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006.
for the purpose of: • ensuring that the management and operation of a casino is and remains free from criminal influence or exploitation. appeals. to fines that can be incurred. the gambling service providers are covered by the Gambling Act 2005. Other legislations dealing with gambling related issues are the Betting Act and The Common Gaming Houses Act. in Singapore the authority is known as the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore. and fees and duties. from where the casinos can be located. covers all aspects of the Gambling industry. advertising.In different countries the authorities responsible for enforcing legislation are known under different names e. More specific acts are in place dealing with gambling related issues such as advertising. • ensuring that gaming in a casino is conducted honestly. Activity 2. vulnerable persons and society at large. In Singapore the casino gambling environment is governed by the Singapore Casino Control Act. and prizes that can be awarded. In the United Kingdom.g. inspections. the liquor act can specify hours during which alcohol can be provided and whether it could be provided complimentary. supervision and control of casinos. as set out in the Casino Control Act 2006 is to maintain and administer systems for the licensing. in Britain it is called the Gambling Commission and in the USA each state has its own authority. non-related acts such as liquor acts and smoking acts also influences the casino operator. gambling tax. lotteries. For example. Besides the acts governing casinos and gambling. The Objective of the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore. and • containing and controlling the potential of a casino to cause harm to minors.1 What are the objectives of governments for controlling gambling operations? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 24 . The Act.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 25 . (MCYS) in 2005 as part of Singapore’s national framework to address problem gambling. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. Youth and Sports.Summary Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. a separate board. Responsible Gambling Legislation As this course concentrates on responsible gaming. The National Council of Problem Gambling was established with the objective of ‘working with the community to reduce the impact of problem gambling on individuals. Fig 2. the sections of the various gaming acts pertaining responsible gaming will be discussed in more detail. families and society’.1 National Council on Problem Gambling Logo The National Council on Problem Gambling (NCPG) was appointed by the Minister for Community Development. In many countries. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. council. National Council on Problem Gambling Singapore In Singapore the introduction of the Casino Control Act 2006 brought about the introduction of a national council to provide services for problem gambling. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation.
social work. • "Committee" means any Committee of Assessors for the time being constituted under section 157 (1). • To assess and advise the Government on the effectiveness of treatment. • To decide on the applications for exclusion of persons from casinos. counselling and rehabilitative services. • To decide on funding applications for preventive and rehabilitative programmes.NATIONAL COUNCIL ON PROBLEM GAMBLING The following section highlights the responsibility of the National Council on Problem Gambling as stipulated in the Singapore Control Act 2006. The exclusion process is one of the main features of this section of the act. counselling and rehabilitative programmes. psychiatry and psychology. The Council has identified key areas of focus and formed 6 subcommittees: • Sub-committee on Public Communications • Sub-committee on Public Consultation • Sub-committee on Youth • Sub-committee on Responsible Gambling • Sub-committee on Research • Sub-committee on Services MCYS provides secretariat support to the Council and its various sub-committees.The Council is independent and comprises 19 members with expertise and experience in public communications. • "chairman" means the chairman of the Council. The Council’s main roles are: • To provide advice and feedback to the MCYS on public education programmes to promote public awareness on problem gambling. Definitions In this Part. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 26 . Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 PART X . unless the context otherwise requires: • "application" means an application for a family exclusion order.
in relation to a respondent. "Minister" means the Minister for Community Development. (c) a parent of the respondent. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 27 . the family member must seek permission from the Council. guardian or other family may apply on his behalf. "respondent" means a person against whom a family exclusion order or exclusion order is sought or made. means: (a) a spouse of the respondent. Grounds for Making Family Exclusion Order When an application for family exclusion is made to the Committee. (b) a child of the respondent.• • • • • • "exclusion order" means an exclusion order made under section 165. and (d) a sibling of the respondent. Where a person is unable to make an application (whether by reason of physical or mental infirmity or for any other reason). including an adoptive sibling. if the person is at least 16 years of age. including an adoptive parent and a step-parent. "panel" means the panel of assessors appointed under section 157 (2). Where a family member is below 21 years. including an adopted child and a step-child. Alternatively a parent. the Committee may make a family exclusion order against a respondent if: • there is a reasonable apprehension that the respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling. "family exclusion order" means a family exclusion order made under section 162. Youth and Sports. "family member”. a step-sibling and a half-sibling. Application for Family Exclusion Order A written application for a family exclusion order may be submitted to the Council by a family member of the respondent. the application may be made on his behalf by any family member or relative as approved by the Council or by any person appointed by the Minister. • the Committee is satisfied that the making of the order is appropriate in the circumstances.
The Committee may decide that there is a reasonable apprehension that a respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the Committee is satisfied that: • the respondent has caused such harm prior to the complaint. The Council must be informed of whichever decision was reached with a brief state for reasons for approval or dismissal. • require a casino operator to close any deposit account of the respondent with the casino. A respondent is to be regarded as having caused serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the respondent: • has engaged in gambling activities irresponsibly having regard to the needs and welfare of the respondent’s family members. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 28 . and • has done so repeatedly over a period of not less than 3 months or in a particularly irresponsible manner over a lesser period. Applications will then be investigated and the Committee might either confirm the exclusion order or dismiss the application. • bar the respondent from entering or remaining. • require the respondent to close any deposit account in a casino. A family exclusion order may do one or more of the following: • refer the respondent to participate in a program of counselling.• • the respondent has been given an opportunity to object to the application. or taking part in any gaming on any casino premises. • there is reason to believe that the respondent’s irresponsible gambling behaviour will continue or recur. and the Committee is satisfied that it would be in the best interests of the respondent and his family members to make the order. Terms of Family Exclusion Order A family exclusion order must specify the period during which it is in force. The Committee might also take into accounts events that have taken place outside of Singapore. rehabilitation or special education or any combination of these.
or • has a poor credit record. i.Exclusions Orders made by the Committee A Committee may. • the Authority. on its own motion. Variation or revocation of family exclusion order or exclusion order by Council The Council may confirm. and a copy of every variation or revocation of such order must be provided by the Council to: • the applicant. by written order make an exclusion order against a person if it comes to the attention of the Committee that the person: • is on any social assistance programme funded by the Government or any statutory body. and • every casino operator. it is only binding once served to the respondent. The service of family exclusion order or exclusion order A family exclusion order or exclusion order made by a Committee must be served on the respondent and is not binding on the person named in the order until it has been so served. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 29 . An exclusion order made by the committee will bar the person from any casino premises for as long as any of the above mentioned criteria is applicable. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. • has a bankruptcy application filed against him or is an undischarged bankrupt. if any. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied.e. • the Commissioner of Police. The same is applicable when an order is amended or is varied. A copy of every family exclusion order or exclusion order.
c) Explain the term secrecy. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. In the UK. b) Explain the rule governing the upliftment of an exclusion order and the consequences should this not be adhered to. a separate board. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 30 . other than: • the Minister. but does not have the force of law. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. the proceedings of a Committee shall be secret. In Singapore. council. or • any officer of the Authority. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming.Secrecy Except as provided under the above mentioned section. the National Council on Problem Gambling has this responsibility. • any member or officer of the Council. No member of a Committee shall disclose or divulge to any person. In the USA. Code of Practice A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations.2 a) Explain the various forms of exclusion that are covered in the Singapore Casino Control Act. Summary In many countries. any matter which has arisen at any proceedings of the Committee unless he is expressly authorised to do so by the Minister. One of their main responsibilities is to deal with exclusion orders. Activity 2.
including access to an independent element of dispute resolution where necessary. marketing. Have systems in place to manage. Comply with requirements to prevent money laundering. License Conditions and Codes To secure the three licensing objectives. record and report complaints and disputes. Provide problem gambling information in other languages if the operator advertises in them. which include how they contribute to research. 31 • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 .The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) In the UK. Ensure there is sufficient information so players can understand the games and odds they face. The licencing objectives are to: • Keep crime out of gambling. Follow procedures to prevent underage gambling. • Ensure that gambling is conducted in a fair and open way. the Commission has developed licence conditions and codes of practice that govern how gambling facilities are provided and managed. IT. Ensure that key staff. such as the finance. These include requiring licensees (where relevant) to: • Put into effect policies and procedures to promote socially responsible gambling. Have tight controls on incentives for customers to gamble. Make information about responsible gambling and help available to problem gamblers accessible on the licensees’ website home and log-in pages. including arrangements for self-exclusion. Train their staff about problem gambling and about how to interact with customers who may be affected. under the regulatory framework of the Gambling Act 2005. Three licencing objectives were set and the legislation and work of the commission is directed to meet these objectives. the Gambling Commission regulates gambling in the public interest. to education about the risks of gambling and to treatment of problem gamblers. hold personal licences from the Commission. and • Protect children and vulnerable people from being harmed and exploited by gambling. Implement a code of practice on door supervision to keep children out of casinos. compliance and managing directors.
Besides meeting the licencing conditions described above. • Access to gambling by children and young persons All licensees must have and put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. and monitor the effectiveness of these. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 32 . Where a person appears to be underage. a driving licence (including a provisional licence) with photocard. • states the individual’s date of birth. They should check the age of apparently underage customers. They further must demonstrate a commitment to public education of the risk of gambling and how to gamble safely. Code of Practice for Gambling Operators 1. the person should not be allowed access to gambling facilities. Protection of children and other vulnerable persons Licensees must have and put into effect policies intended to promote socially responsible gambling. These policies should include measures for: • Combating problem gambling Licensees’ policies and procedures for socially responsible gambling must include a commitment to contribute to research into the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. but cannot provide identification. Licensees must only accept identification which: • contains a photograph from which the individual can be identified. and the identification and treatment of problem gamblers. and • is legible and has no visible signs of tampering or reproduction. Validate and the Government’s own Connexions card). the different gambling providers are also instructed by law to put into practice protection policies for both Social Responsibility Provisions and Underage Gambling. The Commission considers acceptable forms of identification to include any identification carrying the PASS logo (e. Citizencard.g. and a passport. • is valid.
they have to check the age of apparently underage entrants to the pool and take action when there are unlawful attempts to enter the pool. Where football pool or other pool competition entries or payments are collected door to door by the pool betting licensee or the licensee’s authorised agent. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 33 .Licensees must not deliberately provide facilities for gambling in such a way as to appeal particularly to children or young people. Such procedures must include: • warning potential customers that underage gambling is an offence. The most difficult area to control underage gambling is the remote gambling sector (internet gambling). Remote licensees have to put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. Lottery licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all those engaged in the promotion of lotteries understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. If there is a ‘no under-18s’ premises policy. licensees must pay particular attention to the procedures they use at the entrance to the premises to check customers’ ages. returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. for example by reflecting or being associated with youth culture. This should include appropriate training which must cover the legal requirements on returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. In premises restricted to adults. • regularly reviewing their age verification systems and implementing all reasonable improvements that may be made as technology advances and as information improves. Licensees must not permit children or young people to gamble in the adults-only areas of premises to which they have access. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all staff understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. • requiring customers to affirm that they are of legal age. Lottery licensees have the same responsibilities to prevent underage gambling. service should be refused in any circumstances where any adult is accompanied by a child or young person.
Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that this information is readily accessible including in locations which enable the customer to obtain it discreetly. toilets and near to exit doors). licensees should also take all reasonable steps to verify the customer’s age. The information must be prominent. In particular customer services staff must be appropriately trained in the use of secondary forms of identification when initial verification procedures fail to prove that an individual is of legal age. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 34 . For gambling premises this should include: • information in the gambling area.g. in the case of any UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. • Information on how to gamble responsibly and help for problem gamblers Licensees must make information readily available to their customers on how to gamble responsibly and how to access information about and help in respect of problem gambling. the licensee should carry out their own verification and credit check and not permit the customer to withdraw any winnings from their account until age verification has been satisfactorily completed. and appropriate to the size and layout of the premises. enabling their gambling websites to permit filtering software to be used by adults (such as parents or within schools) in order to restrict access to relevant pages of those sites.• • • • ensuring that relevant staff are properly trained in the use of their age verification procedures. unless the licensee has established that a third party has satisfactorily carried out age verification. in the case of any non-UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. near gaming machines and near to where ATMs are located • posters. in other areas (e. or leaflets that may be collected discreetly and taken away.
The information must cover where relevant: • the availability of measures that are accessible to help an individual monitor or control their gambling, such as to restrict the duration of a gambling session or the amount of money they can spend; • the availability of timers or any other forms of reminders or ‘reality checks’ that may be available; • self-exclusion options; and • information about the availability of further help or advice. The information must be directed to all customers who wish to enjoy gambling as entertainment and not be targeted only at those the operator perceives to be ‘problem gamblers’. Licensees who market their services in foreign languages should make responsible gambling information, player’s guides to any games as well as contractual terms available in those languages. • Customer Interaction Licensees must implement policies and procedures for customer interaction where they have concerns that a customer’s behaviour may indicate problem gambling. The policies must include: • identification of the appropriate level of management who may initiate customer interaction and the procedures for doing so; • the types of behaviour that will be logged/reported to the appropriate level of staff and which may trigger customer interaction at an appropriate moment; • the circumstances in which consideration should be given to refusing service to customers and/or barring them from the operator’s gambling premises; and • training for all staff on their respective responsibilities, in particular so that they know who is designated to deal with problem gambling issues. But such policies and procedures should be consistent with, and implemented with due regard to, licensees’ duties in respect of the health and safety of their staff. • Self-exclusion Licensees must put in place procedures for self-exclusion and take all reasonable steps to refuse service or to otherwise prevent an individual who has entered a self-exclusion agreement from participating in gambling.
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Licensees must take steps to remove the name and details of a selfexcluded individual from any marketing databases used by the company or group (or otherwise flag that person as an individual to whom marketing material must not be sent), within two days of receiving the completed self-exclusion notification. All reasonable steps should be taken to prevent any marketing material being sent to a self-excluded customer as soon as practicable. Licensees must close any customer accounts of an individual who has entered a self exclusion agreement and return any funds held in the customer account. It is not sufficient merely to prevent an individual from withdrawing funds from their customer account whilst still accepting wagers from them. Where the giving of credit is permitted, the licensee may retain details of the amount owed to them by the individual, although the account must not be active. Licensees must implement procedures designed to ensure that an individual who has self-excluded cannot gain access to gambling; and which include: • a register of those excluded with appropriate records (name, address, other details, and any membership or account details that may be held by the operator); • photo identification (where available and in particular where enforcement of the system may depend on photographic ID), and a signature • staff training to ensure that staff are able to enforce the systems; and the removal of those persons found in the gambling area or attempting to gamble from the premises. Self-exclusion procedures should require individuals to take positive action in order to self-exclude. This can be a signature on a selfexclusion form. Wherever practicable, individuals should be able to self-exclude without having to enter gambling premises. Before an individual self-excludes, licensees should provide or make available sufficient information about what the consequences of self-exclusion are.
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Licensees should take all reasonable steps to extend the selfexclusion to premises of the same type owned by the operator in the customer’s local area. In setting the bounds of that area licensees may take into account the customer’s address (if known to them), anything else known to them about the distance the customer ordinarily travels to gamble and any specific request the customer may make. Licensees should encourage the customer to consider extending their self exclusion to other licensees’ gambling premises in the customer’s local area. Customers should be given the opportunity to discuss self-exclusion in private, where possible. Licensees should take all reasonable steps to ensure that: • the self-exclusion period is a minimum of six months and give customers the option of extending this to a total of at least five years; • a customer who has decided to enter a self-exclusion agreement is given the opportunity to so do immediately without any cooling-off period. However, if the customer wishes to consider the self-exclusion further (for example to discuss with problem gambling groups) the customer may return at a later date to enter into self-exclusion; • at the end of the period chosen by the customer (and at least six months later), maintain the self-exclusion in place, unless the customer takes positive action in order to gamble again. No marketing material may be sent to the individual unless the individual has taken positive action in order to gamble again, and has agreed to accept such material; and • where a customer chooses not to renew, and makes a positive request to begin gambling again, give the customer one day to cool off before being allowed access to gambling facilities. The contact must be made via telephone or in person. • Employment of children and young persons Persons under the age of 16 are considered as children while those 16 or 17 years of age are considered as young persons. Licensees who employ children and young persons must be aware that it is an offence to employ children and young persons to provide facilities for gambling. Children and young persons should not be employed in areas where gambling facilities are provided.
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pit bosses and croupiers in order to prevent overcrowding or jostling of players. the requirements in respect of reporting suspicious transactions must be followed. Particular care should be taken to ensure that there are appropriate arrangements in place to cover any cases where it appears that the lending may be commercial in nature or may involve money laundering. Casino licensees must have policies and procedures in place to ensure that proper supervision of gambling at tables is carried out by supervisors. This includes the display of rules about gaming including: • the rules of each type of casino game available to be played. including those who have self-excluded from gambling. • Money lending between customers Licensees should take steps to prevent systematic or organised money lending between customers on their premises. • a player’s guide to the house edge. ‘Fair and Open’ Provisions Licensees must be able to provide evidence to the Commission. Licence conditions related to the layout of the premises should be taken into account. Those involved in organised or systematic money lending should be excluded from the premises.• Provision of credit by licensees and the use of credit cards Licensees who choose to accept credit cards must accept payment by credit card for gambling only where that payment is made to a customer account. showing that their terms are not unfair. funds deposited via credit card only after the card issuer has approved the transaction. In all cases where the operator encounters systematic or organised money lending. and ensure that information about an offer of credit includes a risk warning of what may happen in the event of default. Staff should be trained in procedures should they spot such activity. 2. In the latter case. Licensees must take reasonable steps to ensure that offers of credit are not sent to vulnerable persons. and make available for gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 38 . Credit limits must be set for each customer. a report should be made to the Commission. and • a player’s guide to the rules of any equal chance games which are made available.
Neither the receipt nor the value or amount of benefit should be dependent on the customer gambling for a pre-determined length of time or with a pre-determined frequency. Where disputes are not resolved to the customer’s satisfaction. licensees must make rules. In all cases. Gambling Licensees’ Staff Licensees must put policies and procedures in place to manage relationships between staff and customers. Marketing Reward schemes and incentives under which the customer may receive money. All reasonable steps should be taken to ensure that staff involved in the provision of facilities for gambling are made aware of advice on socially responsible gambling and where to get confidential advice should their gambling become hard to control. 5. Licensees must inform customers of the names and status of the person to contact about their complaint and provide them with a copy of the complaint procedures upon request. or dependent on the amount the customer spends on gambling within a pre-determined length of time If licensees offer customers free or discounted alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises they must not do so as a form of enticement. goods.There are specific conditions applicable to betting intermediaries and other betting licensees. betting information and payout information available. 4. the licensee should refer the customers to an independent third party. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 39 . Complaints and Disputes Licensees must put in place a written procedure for handling customer complaints and disputes. Licensees must keep a record of all complaints that are not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedures. services or other advantages must be operated in such a way that conditions are clearly set out and available to customers. 3. likely to prejudice the licensing objectives in the discharge of their duties. based on the principle that staff should not engage in any conduct which is. or could be. In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities and a ‘dispute’ is a complaint that is not resolved at the first stage of complaints procedures or relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction.
• AGA members will implement communications programs for employees to improve understanding of responsible gaming and related policies and procedures. which are representative as a governing body for the trade (Twenty states that have licensed operations within them have contributed to the formation of this document).Activity 2. Pledge to the employees • AGA members will educate new employees on responsible gaming. from employee assistance and training to alcohol service. the gambling providers have established the American Gaming Association. • AGA casino companies will train gaming floor employees on responsible gaming and provide periodic refresher training. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 40 . 1. This pledge encompasses all aspects of the business.3 What do you understand under customer interaction and why is it important that there are policies in place to facilitate customer interaction? Activity 2. The document covers extensively the various responsible gambling processes within the contributing states. The following Code of Conduct details how they fulfill this pledge. b) Give an example of unfair gambling. This code also covers the commitment the members to continue support for research initiatives and public awareness surrounding responsible gaming and underage gambling. The American Gaming Association Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming In the United States of America. The American Gaming Association (AGA) and its members pledge to their employees and patrons is to make responsible gaming an integral part of the daily operations across the United States. advertising and marketing.4 a) Define the term ‘house edge’.
These will be available and visible in gaming areas and at ATMs. To Prevent Underage Gambling and Unattended Minors in Casinos • AGA casino companies will make diligent efforts to prevent underage individuals from loitering in the gaming area of a casino. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 41 . each AGA casino company shall make reasonable efforts to honor a written request from any person that it not knowingly grant that person access to gaming activities at one or more of its facilities. AGA members will post responsible gaming awareness signage bearing a toll-free help-line number at various locations where employees congregate. • AGA casino companies will communicate the legal age to gamble through appropriate signage and/or brochures. without a request from the patron. • AGA members will make available on their Web sites information describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance.• • AGA members will distribute to new employees brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. • AGA members will make available to patrons and employees information generally explaining the probabilities of winning or losing at the various games offered by the casino. • AGA casino companies reserve the right to exclude a patron from gaming. • AGA members will display in gaming areas and at ATMs signage that can be easily read bearing a toll-free help-line number. Companies will make copies of these brochures available to employees. 2. • Each AGA casino company will provide opportunities for patrons to request in writing that they not be sent promotional mailings and for revocation of their privileges for specific casino services such as: o Casino-issued markers o Player club/card privileges o On-site check-cashing In addition. Pledge to the clientele/patrons To Promote Responsible Gaming • AGA members will make available brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance.
If efforts are unsuccessful.• • Employees working in relevant areas will receive training in appropriate procedures for dealing with unattended children. underage gambling. • AGA casino companies will train appropriate casino employees in the company's responsible alcoholic beverage service policy. and release the unattended child to their care. advertising and marketing include radio and television ads broadcast off the premises. To Advertise Responsibly This code applies to the advertising and marketing of casino gaming by AGA member companies. security or appropriate personnel will be contacted and remain with the child while reasonable steps are taken to locate the parent or responsible adult on property or by telephone. For the purposes of this code. such as the police department or department of youth services. If a child appears to be unsupervised or in violation of local curfews and other laws. print. and will provide periodic refresher training to those employees. security personnel will contact an appropriate third party. To Serve Alcoholic Beverages Responsibly • AGA casino companies will observe a responsible beverage service policy including the following elements: o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a minor. and the purchase and consumption of alcohol and tobacco by minors. restaurants and entertainment that are often associated with or operated or promoted by casinos. billboard and Internet promotions. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 42 . o Casinos will make a diligent effort not to permit gaming by a visibly intoxicated patron. o Reflect generally accepted contemporary standards of good taste. direct mail. o Strictly comply with all state and federal standards to make no false or misleading claims. • Casino advertising and marketing will: o Contain a responsible gaming message and/or a toll-free help-line number where practical. It does not pertain to advertising and marketing that is primarily of hotels. o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a visibly intoxicated patron.
o Be placed in media where most of the audience is reasonably expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity.• Casino advertising and marketing materials will not: Contain cartoon figures. To Provide Oversight and Review • One year following the adoption of this Code of Conduct each AGA member company will implement the code and begin conducting annual reviews of its compliance with this code. celebrity/entertainer endorsements and/or language designed to appeal specifically to children and minors. o Imply or suggest any illegal activity of any kind. comics or other youth features. o 3. o Be placed in media specifically oriented to children and/or minors. o Contain claims or representations that gaming activity will guarantee an individual's social. which is the leading source of science-based research and information on gambling and health. o Be placed at any venue where most of the audience is normally expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. • AGA members will continue to develop a dialogue surrounding scientific research on gambling and health to communicate to and educate patrons. to the extent controlled by the AGA member. o Feature anyone who is or appears to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. employees and policy-makers. o Feature current collegiate athletes. symbols. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 43 . o Appear adjacent to. or in close proximity to. Pledge to the public To Continue Funding Research • AGA members will continue to provide funding for the National Center for Responsible Gaming. • AGA members will use this research to identify the best practices for casinos to follow to promote responsible gaming. financial or personal success.
Providing information on responsible gambling and help for problem gamblers. but does not have the force of law. and Preventing money lending. • The promotion of responsible gaming practices. • Funding for research. and • Reviewing of compliance with the code. In the USA.5 Explain the difference between an Act and a Code of Practice.Activity 2. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. The Codes of Practice covers aspects to protect children and other vulnerable persons by: • • • • • • • Combating problem gambling. The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) set forth specific licencing conditions as well as codes of practice for licensees. Summary A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. marketing ethics. Providing opportunities for self-exclusion Controlling credit given to customers. clientele and the public. • Responsible advertising. The code of conduct further provides guidelines on fair and open gambling. It covers aspects such as: • Education. training and communication for employees. • The prevention of underage gambling and unattended minors in casinos. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 44 . Providing appropriate customer interaction. Not providing access to gambling to children and yong persons. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. dealing with complaints and disputes and staff issues. The AGA’s Code of Conduct is set forth in the form of a pledge to employees. In the UK.
Gambling facilities are often glamorous environments where clients can get transported to fantasy worlds. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 45 . Often. most gambling facilities also rely on an array of comfortable. where today up to 50% of revenue can be generated from non-gambling activities such as food and beverage and entertainment. Learning outcome: After studying this chapter. for example how it entice them to gamble and lose track of time. Previously. casinos are co-located with luxurious hotels. inviting hospitality amenities to attract and retain loyal guests.Topic 3 GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the features found in a casino gambling environment. It will highlight the effect that the environment has on the clients’ behaviour. Although the unique excitement of gambling is often the strongest draw. others have a nightclub-like environment. up to 90% of casino revenue came from gambling activities. Most popular casinos also offer their guests world-class dining facilities. designed to provide constant excitement. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Describe a typical casino layout Describe additional facilities available in the casinos supporting gambling operations Describe the various forms of signage found in casinos Describe typical casino lighting Describe the placement of clocks within the casino Discuss the availability of ATM within the casino complex Discuss the availability of promotional materials within the casino. Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment Casinos are centres of entertainment.
Designers of casinos face similar issues. Shopping malls and individual stores are designed to influence the way people spend their time. in some outlets items might be arranged in a way to maximize customer throughput. Thus. to get customers to come into the casino. intimate settings for their gambling rather than open spacious areas. i. factors making up the casino environment include the layout of the casino. Where the casino attracts different types of clients. The phrase built environment refers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity. light levels. and customers prefer small. to entertain them once they are in. casinos that look empty discourage play. The movement of staff and clients should be considered and separated where necessary. with products placed strategically to entice customers to buy more item. the high rollers will usually be separated from other gamblers.g. e. while another store might be designed to keep customers in the store for as long as possible. there is little mystery to set out and explore it on foot. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 46 . and to keep them there for as long as possible. if a potential customer can see the entire casino from the entrance.e. For example. acoustic properties and supporting facilities. the space or perception of space. Casino Layout Casinos must be planned as functional and attractive spaces.Many studies have been done on the relationship between built environments and behaviour. the customer may never step off the path and engage in the action. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. Furthermore. if a casino has a pathway that runs through it without diverting a customer into the gambling areas. casinos are designed to maximise revenue earning potential. signs. Architects and interior designers of public spaces have to consider the way their designs will influences people.
1 An overhead floor plan of a casino with supporting facilities Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 47 .Fig 3.
In the casinos of the past, table games were king. Not only were table games the most popular, but they were also the most profitable. On the Las Vegas Strip, where table games once ruled, slots now dominate. Nearly 50% of the total casino win comes from slots. State-wide in Nevada, slots generate over 67% of the total casino win. The comparison is even more dramatic if you were to look at the departmental profits. In the early days of gaming, slots were merely a diversion and were usually placed around the perimeter of the casino. These machines were all pretty much the same: three-reel mechanical slots. With the exception of the cabinetry, denomination, and brand name, the workings of the ‘one-armed bandits’ were essentially the same. You inserted a coin, pulled the handle, and awaited the outcome as mechanical reels spun and clicked into position. General placement deals with where the slot banks and coin booths will be placed. Slot banks refer to groupings of slot machines, whereas coin booths and slot carousels are areas on the casino floor where players can purchase coins and tokens for use in the slot machines. In considering general placement, each slot cabinet that will hold a slot machine must be viewed as an empty box. These ‘empty boxes’ can be used to create traffic patterns or, conversely, to impede traffic patterns. The overriding consideration is to place the machines where the maximum number will be viewed by slot players. Enticements such as the showroom, bingo parlour, keno parlour, casino bars, race and sports books, and restaurants create traffic. These enticements (sometimes called anchors) influence slot placement. For example, slot machines should be placed at the entrance and exit of the bingo parlour or showroom in such a manner that customers exiting will be exposed to the maximum number of machines. Generally, slot aisles are between 5½ and 7 feet (1.6 to 2 meter) in width. Aisles that are too narrow cramp the customer and may have a negative impact on profit maximisation. The extent of seating the slot manager decides to make available will determine the aisle width necessary. Seating in the modern casino is crucial to the success of a slot operation. In Atlantic City, regulations require all aisles to be at least 7 feet wide and only fixed seating can be provided. This fixed seating rule results from concerns that movable seats could impair the customer from exiting in the event of a fire.
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Specific placement deals with placement of the specific models and coin denominations. There are several general philosophies that influence specific slot placement: • • Low hold (loose) machines should be placed in busy walkways to create an atmosphere of activity. The most popular machines should be placed near entrances where they can easily be seen by someone trying to decide whether or not to enter the casino. High hit frequency machines located around the casino pit area will create an atmosphere of slot activity. High earners and test machines should be placed in heavy traffic areas. Gimmick machines (machines in which the top award is a prize like a new car or a trip around the world) should be placed near entrances and in high traffic areas. Loose machines placed next doorways or toilets or in close proximity to the street.
• • •
These are only general philosophies governing slot placement. In application, the slot manager will continue to modify the slot floor configuration to best attract and retain customers through the use of available slot performance data. Traffic flow is kept in mind when designing casinos floor layout. Possible anchors are placed in prominent positions around the casino entrances. (Car displays, attraction machines and large jackpot style machines). Visibility and accessibility of the slots floor have been found to improve the overall performance of the casino. There have been many tried and tested variations in the gambling environment that improve the occupancy rates and increase overall capacity.
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Fig 3.2 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA
Although the design depicted in figure 3.2 may appear regimented or rather uninteresting, it is important to note that adaptations such as winding pathways and generous use of pods on the borders of the slot areas are easily accomplished. Adaptations such as these maintain the basic design, while further improving the visibility and accessibility of interior units. A careful review of the environmental psychology literature would yield many beneficial modifications to improve the ambience and functionality of any slot floor.
Fig 3.3 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA
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Facilities Resort style casinos are popular family destinations with facilities to entertain clients for days. Summary The positioning of machines is critical to the gaming operator as he can entice the clientele into the casino area with relative ease. This is contrary to the responsible gambling part of an operator’s portfolio as this also plays an essential role in a client’s spending extra money within the environment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 51 . Even smaller casino properties have a range of supporting facilities to attract clients and to increase revenue. USA Activity 3.Fig 3.1 Explain in your own words what you understand by the term ‘enticement’.4 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park.
At Sun City. and list the various facilities other than gambling facilities offered by the casinos. they use very discreet types of subterfuge or enticement in order to make the client feel at home within the gaming areas.Food and beverage outlets are important features in casinos. the so-called ‘Africa’s Kingdom of Pleasure’ there are various facilities to encompass the guests overall pleasure. These include sports facilities. Numerous entertainment venues can be found in resort style casinos.2 Look at any of the mega casino resorts around the world. games arcades and theme parks. allowing clients to return to gaming activities as soon as possible. Bars can be found on the casino floor as well as in adjacent areas. South Africa. Signage Although the gaming provider has a certain set of instructions. Fast food outlets offer fast service. Pilannesburg. Activity 3. A very important key element to all successful casinos is the clever installation of various forms of signage. This is all offered to the discerning outdoor lover to entice him into spending his weekend away with his family. plus a discount structure offered as a bonus at a hotel at the resort. a manmade ocean. theatres. How do supporting facilities influence gambling patterns? Summary Supporting facilities are provided to attract and entertain clients. These include water sports for the kids including ‘Valley of Waves’. Packages are offered that include access to all of the facilities. Fine dining restaurants are available for those who prefer. attracting guests to stay at the resort for longer. It generates additional income for the property and keeps guests at destinations for longer. shops. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 52 .
Progressive Signage Progressives are machines in which the top jackpot continuously increases until won.5 Overhead Signage of the Adams Family 2. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 53 . Other signs have to be displayed as a commitment to providing responsible gambling service. 1. This has been used to successfully attract many visitors into the casinos around the world. Most forms of signage are used to either lure the client into the facility or attract customers to specific areas of the gaming floor. Although the casino does pay for the right to use this type of display they are trying to promote a brand of game type. People will se an amount of money displayed over a group of slot machines (See Fig 3. The lure of this progressive value to some clients is phenomenal.The origination of signage came from Ray ‘Pappy’ Smith in the early 50’s whereby he had an idea to improve the visibility of the casino industry. Although this show of the value’s of the increment. the general incremental rate is around 1% of the value that is turned over in the machines. these types of signs are used to promote the names or machine reel content that is being used below the sign (See Fig 3. Fig 3.). the term overhead signage is used mainly above a bank of machines. The amount will be displayed in an attractive neon or media display.6.5). in some cases patrons who visit regularly will always stake an amount into the progressive bank of machines. including a progressive amount. Overhead Signage Although as the name implies.
These displays or signs are used on the ends of the table games or live gaming area to show the clientele the last number or current number that has been rolled on roulette. this display is a sign that is made up from three different coloured LED’s and is commonly used to display the amount of an individual machines progressive. TFT Signage TFT stands for thin-film transistor technology.8 TFT Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 54 . Figure 3. In Machine Signage The display in the paytable of the machine is called a ‘Mikohn’ in machine Display. vibrant colour and an improved response time for multimedia applications. Figure 3. It has the ability to attract one’s eye while walking the floor. A TFT monitor delivers crisp text.6 Progressive Signage 3.Fig 3. These types of signs are also used for advertising current attractions around the casino area.7 Mikhon in machine 4. The reason behind this form of signage is that it delivers up to date information to members of the public at live feeds.
Fig 3. Fig 3. Denomination or Bank End Signage These types of either polycarbonate or sphere type signs are strategically placed around the casino floor. running lights or neon for striking effect.10 External Overhead Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 55 . External signs often make use of Tivoli. This is used to enable the customers to identify the amount of money or area of the casino floor that they are playing in. These signs are usually well lit and cover the doorway or entrance portal of the casino. highlighting the denomination of a bank of machines clearly to the public.5. It reflects the class of the establishment. External Signage The use of this signage is the pride of any establishment.9 Bank End Sign (A Topper Sign) 6.
This includes the table limits. These must be displayed prominently at the table.11 Right of Admission Reserved Sign Fig 3. There are many variations of signage around the world covering entrance requirements. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 56 . these rules could be referred to resolve the dispute. In Singapore these will be specific in accordance with the Singapore Control Act 2006. Right of admission reserved The gambling facility has the right (by Law) to certain restrictions for allowing visitors into the casino. Fig 3. the different payouts of the game and rules of the game. Should a dispute arise.12 Games rules and regulations for Bingo 8. the entrance criteria is clear to clients and can be referred to when it is necessary to refuse entrance to clients who do not meet the criteria. minimum stake. Games rules and regulations The gambling provider has a legal obligation to display the rules and regulations governing the games of chance that are on offer in the establishment.7. The casino will have to advise the age restriction as well as any dress code and behaviour patterns required in the facility. By displaying a ‘right of admission reserved sign’.
13 Responsible Gambler awareness sign Summary The different types of signage are very instrumental in enticing the playing customer into the establishment. These signs advice clients on options for help as assistance should they have a gambling problem. Fig 3. around the machines and live gaming area’s as well as the foyer of the casino or slots areas.9. Types of signage used include: • • • • • • • • • Overhead Signage Progressive Signage In Machine Signage TFT media signs Denomination or Bank end signage External Right of Admission reserved Games rules and regulations Responsible Gambling Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 57 . Responsible Gambling Programme Signage Gambling legislations around the world require that the gambling providers place responsible gambling signage in highly visible areas of the gambling facilities and surrounding areas such as in the toilets. This signage must include the possible ills of gambling and advice on the various solutions or the counselling lines that are available.
Casino Lighting Casinos offer dramatic visual environments. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 58 . although this is not proved. Most casinos rely solely on artificial lighting.3 Describe the consequences that providing natural light within the casino would have on the gambling provider. e. The lack of natural daylight in casinos contributes to the fact that gamblers might not be aware of passage of time. Summary Casino environments are often dimly lit with lighting designed to create atmosphere and highlight special features. Quite often gambling areas are dimly lit. The layout of the machines and the lighting used in these areas may make it easy for patrons to lose track of time. Although the most responsible gambling programs would encourage natural lighting in the casino environment. New casinos however. Activity 3. The absence of natural daylight in the casino is drawing much criticism lately. what time of day or night it is. but rather to highlight certain visual elements and to contribute to the atmosphere in the casino. this could be a costly venture for a casino operator who might lose revenue and patronage. are being designed with more features allowing natural light to enter gaming areas. for example skylights and large windows. as natural light makes clients aware of passage of time. This is not necessarily a ploy to get the clientele into the casino.g. Lighting is used to create a mood or enhance a gaming or entertainment activity. with gaming machines packed into every available space.
time is displayed at cashier’s booths and on other electronic signs around the casino. Activity 3. Responsible gambling regulations ask gambling providers to provide an opportunity for reality check for patrons. for the installation of clocks so that every player in a gaming area is able to see the time.4 Explain what the term ‘passage of time’ means to you.Display of Clocks Casinos often do not display clocks in highly visible places. This influence the way clients are made aware of time.e. Summary Clocks are usually not displayed in highly visible places within casinos. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 states that a casino operator shall not provide or allow another person to provide any automatic teller machine within the boundaries of the casino premises and that any casino operator who contravenes this regulation shall be liable to disciplinary action. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 59 . the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. i. For example. Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) Throughout various casino environments around the world. The logic behind this rational is that there should be no concept of time or passage of time for the clientele at all. This can contribute to the might contribute to the fact that gamblers might loss track of time. This is a minimum standard that is required but does not have any forcible effect under the law. However. Casino employees can wear wrist watches to keep track of shifts and break times.
some casinos would have ATM’s placed around the floor area. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. or outside the floor areas within other facilities. e. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor. Furthermore. and gives them a chance to think about whether they should really be drawing more money. room bed and breakfast. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. responsible gambling legislations require responsible gambling signs to be placed at ATM machines as a deterrent to draw more cash. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 60 . or could be for the gambling section only.g.13 Problem Gambling Hotline Activity 3.g. Promotional materials can take the form of a package deal for the hotel or resort.5 What is the rationale of casino legislations for prohibiting the placement of ATM’s within the casino area? Summary Throughout various casino environments around the world. Figure 3. The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. Promotional Materials Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. e. The different package deals are put together by the marketing departments to attract crowds to the venue.However. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor. a ticket to an exclusive show.
Being a Most Valued Guest means more than just recognition and the guarantee of VIP status at Sun International’s casinos and resorts – it also delivers a range of exclusive membership benefits and rewards in exchange for MVG points. 61 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 .e. where available.One of the best ploys used by the gambling provider is the correct use of promotional materials. Many casinos offer reward programmes for regular clients in order for them to return time and time again. off peak periods. Popular promotional materials include gambling vouchers (offer) that one can be redeemed at the casino or slots area. At Sun International we value your loyalty. the more you earn with Sun International. hotels and resorts. drinks and exciting merchandise. For example. Most of these offers would be for downtimes in the hotel industry. Sun International Benefits and Rewards The more you play. The higher your status. Redeem your MVG points for luxurious accommodation. This is to make sure that there is a response from the clients who frequent the establishment. the greater your rewards. and our MVG Programme demonstrates just how much: • • • • • • • • • Recognition as a Most Valued Guest at all Sun International casinos. food. Invitations to special Sun International events such as the Nedbank Golf Challenge Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Platinum and Gold cardholders can enjoy the MVG Lounge and Prive privileges. i. you will be delighted at the benefits you receive. Earn MVG points for play on slots and tables. This would offer the client a hotel discount structure for two people over certain periods of time. one of the most used by Sun International is the Sunscapes voucher. Each Sun International Casino has various benefits and offers exclusive to Most Valued Guests that can be enjoyed during your visits. Exclusive accommodation discounts at Sun International’s luxury hotels and resorts Terrific discounts on green fees at Sun International golf courses. As you progress from Maroon to Silver to Gold and then to the prestigious Platinum.
Call this toll-free number. Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. Platinum 80% midweek 80% weekend Gold 70% midweek 55% weekend Silver 50% midweek 25% weekend Maroon Green Fees discount (for cardholder) Accommodation Discounts (maximum three consecutive nights and subject to availability) Green Fees discount (for cardholder only) Recognition as an MVG in every Sun International Casino Invitations to special Sun International events 80% midweek 80% weekend 50% discount on green fees * 70% midweek 55% weekend 30% discount on green fees * 50% midweek 25% weekend 10% discount on green fees * Green Fees discount (for cardholder) * Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 62 . This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. where availability allows it. sharing. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room.Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. 0800-11-51-50. THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. to secure your accommodation. however should family rooms not be available.
This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations.Platinum Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Earn points for play Free Membership Free entry into all Sun International Casinos MVG Partner Card VIP Parking MVG Lounge and Prive privileges Complimentary beverages whilst playing Sun International’s Prive Magazine mailed to you quarterly Dedicated hotel check-in counter and cash desk facilities – where available. sharing. THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. * * * * * * Gold * * * * * * Silver * * * * * * Maroon * * * * * * * * Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 63 .
The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. tickets to events or restaurant vouchers. environment. The once bland casino floor is now used to take a client into another domain. It might include accommodation offers. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room. The majority of these features are recreated artificially. the gambling providers around the globe are now using appropriate environmental features. such as a monkey call. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount.5 Provide 2 examples of promotional rewards. fauna and flora at his disposal to create an ambience. There are also artificial sounds that are used for advertising purposes. The service provider will then use machinery.Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. By doing so they can transform a ‘dead and bleary’ looking casino floor into a tropical paradise. Activity 3. tumbling through troughs and soothing noises allows one to venture into a dream world not caring about where you are. Call this toll-free number. however should family rooms not be available. Creating a Comfortable Environmental In attempting to transform the original casino environment. The correct use or utilisation of airconditioning above and around the machines can create a feeling of wellness within the service provider’s area. to secure your accommodation. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 64 . where availability allows it. on the inside of the building. to enhance the player’s attention to a promotional machine. The use of water features. Summary Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. 0800-11-51-50.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 65 .6 a) Describe the environment that must be created in the casino to make customers comfortable and stimulate interest. in some instance he has exceeded expectations. room temperature. although not natural light. the using of automatic dimmers can give a relaxed atmosphere. in other world over provided. complimentary drinks at the service provider’s expense. These lighting skills will be used as down lights above the tables.The correct use of either heating. to upward lighting around the slots floor areas. cooling features can assist with retaining the client within the casino area. also instils a sense of well being in the client. but enhancing his overall playing conditions. These temperatures are also used in the improving of bar sales. b) How does this environment contradict responsible gambling? Summary The utilisation of environmental features has become a challenge for the service provider. Although there is no natural light in the casino environment. The use of correct lighting. Activity 3. As an example the utilisation of downdrafts within the environment will force the clients to rethink where he is comfortable while playing. The opposite of this is the use of ambient temperatures while playing in the area (22 degrees).
Learning outcome After studying this chapter. Introduction to the Provision of Information Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. This information will inform clients of the options they have and enable them to make informed and responsible choices.Topic 4 PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS Objective In this chapter the students will be introduced to the provision of information that should be readily available to the clients. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 66 . the student should be able to: • • • • • Describe the range of information that should be displayed as well as available upon request Describe the range of responsible gambling information that should be available Describe the range of information on counselling that should be available Describe the win/loss and probability information that should be available Describe the information on games that should be available. The types of information that should be available will be discussed as well of the ways in which this information is made available. Having information and understanding the games also contributes to the enjoyment of games participated in.
where appropriate. • Identifying problem gambling. or ‘point of sale’ to enable them to make informed decisions about their participation. They may have incorrect and inflated expectations of the rewards to be received from participation in gambling activities.1 Responsible gambling poster printed in 6 languages Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 67 . Information must be made available in languages that will be understood by clients. policies for addressing problem gambling issues relevant to the local community.1) Fig 4. These include: • The gambling provider’s Responsible Gambling Practices documentation including. The provision of information is based on the proposition that consumers must have access to adequate information at the ‘point of gaming’. • The nature of games. • Self-Exclusion provisions. odds or returns to player. In addition to the above mentioned. It might often be necessary to publish posters and brochures in a variety of languages. The regulated gambling providers are expected to offer their patrons accurate and meaningful information that are readily available and in clear language explaining topics such as: • The rules and operations of the games. • Gambling-related complaint resolution mechanisms. game rules.Clients often do not have access to sufficient information on probable outcomes from specific gambling activities. (See Fig 4. • The chances of winning. there are certain information that are available to clients upon request. and • Advice on counseling services.
it is important to remind gamblers of the risks they face. Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling Many gamblers are not aware that they are at risk of developing gambling problems.. whether casinos.Summary Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. lotteries. Information that should be displayed throughout the establishment includes: • The rules and operations of the games. Information must be available in languages understood by clients. and • Advice on counseling services. often choose to ignore the risks. • Identifying problem gambling. Additional information should be available upon request. Fig 4. as appropriate.1 Responsible Gambling notice found on ATM’s Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 68 . Internet or Telephone Sports Bookmakers and Online Gaming Licensees are required to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and. etc. • The chances of winning. where to get help for problem gambling on their websites. This information should be prominently displayed in all gambling areas and near ATM and POS facilities servicing gambling areas. Gamblers who are aware of the risks. For this reason.
inside both the casino and the surrounding areas such as the hotel lobby. for example near the cashier’s booth and standalone change dispensing devices. The advert in the example (fig 4. local community services may have brochures that advertise their services and these can also be appropriately displayed. operators could display the poster and business cards in additional areas of the venue. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 69 . Gambling providers can come out with their own mission statements. service forecourt and children’s play area’s. In addition. Fig 4.There are some additional initiatives that could be implemented by outside investments such as town councils.2) was used in a local boxing gymnasium. One of the well known service providers (Sun International) has the following statement ‘Gamble with your head and not your heart’. Although a catchy style of phrase the irresponsible gambler might not take heed to this advice. It is also included on their website. This logo has been advertised at every gambling facility. For example. Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees have to display their responsible gambling mission statements on their websites. This is interpreted as a logo on an internet page.2 Responsible Gambling advertisement Responsible Gambling Mission Statement Many gambling acts require that a Responsible Gambling Mission Statement is clearly displayed around the gambling provider’s service area.
newspaper advertisements. venue fliers. and as a footnote on letterheads. The ‘playing cards’ below was developed for the National Responsible Gambling Council. • ‘The XYZ Club supports the responsible enjoyment of our facilities. e.4) Fig 4. (See Fig 4. • Tips to gambling within means. mail outs. Gambling provider venues with websites could also incorporate a ‘Responsible Enjoyment’ section including: • Promotion of non-alcohol and low-alcohol drinks.Other Methods of Displaying Information The gambling provider could promote their responsible approach within. a responsible community organisation. for example. • Safe transport options. More interesting and eye catching ways of displaying information can be implemented by engaging professional advertising companies. • Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer contact details.g.4 Playing cards with a responsible gambling message and helpline number Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 70 .: • ‘The XYZ Club. • ‘The XYZ Club – promoting responsible enjoyment.
Availability of Counselling ‘It is the Council’s hope that with greater awareness. Summary Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers.1 Describe what a responsible gambling mission statement and give an example of a statement. etc. The examples listed below are just a few of the lines available.Activity 4. Various countries around the world that have gambling interests have 24 hour counselling hotlines available. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling.’ – NCPG 2008 In accordance with legislative requirements. more individuals will come forth to seek professional help. and there will be less hesitancy among members of the public to refer family members or friends for professional help. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. Information on counselling services available and their contact details must be displayed in full view around the casino. whether casinos. stating the name of the organisations whose statement it is. Most of the hotlines are toll free numbers.. lotteries. and in other gambling facilities such as lottery outlets and gambling websites. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 71 .
Those who want a listening ear. 72 Thye Hua Kwan Moral Society and Care Corner Counselling Centre Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . National Contact Gamblers Anonymous is a Gamblers number: fellowship of men and women Anonymous 02073843040 who have joined together to do (UK) something about their own gambling problem and to help Offering The other compulsive gamblers do Hand Of the same. or who are referred by their friends. and to obtain information and assistance on gambling problems can call the helplines. Moral Society Youth and Sports (MCYS) is Tel: 6337 1201 funding to provide counselling Care Corner and support services to Counselling problem gamblers and their Centre Tel: 6353-1180 families. Friendship To Compulsive Gamblers In Singapore the some examples of the counselling facilities are: 1800-X-Gamble Gamblers and their families (18009426253) often have to struggle with financial and debt management problems as well as guilt. probation. anxiety and even depression.K. Thye Hua Kwan 2 pilot agencies the Ministry of Community Development. social or health workers Helpline: GamCare is the national centre 084 56000 133 for information. advice and practical help in relation to the social impact of gambling in the U.Examples of the United Kingdom responsible gambling counsellors: Contact details: Gordon House Association 01384241292 accepts individuals who refer themselves. family.
Should the client need help in resourcing the counselling services and help lines.g. including substance behavioural addictions (e. seven days a week to answer questions.2 a) b) What is meant by counselling? What is the meaning of a toll free help line? Summary In accordance with legislative requirements. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 73 . and • That counsellors are available to provide information and advice. the casino staff must be able to assist them. Casino and other gambling facilities have training programmes in place for staff the equip them to provide information to clients.Contact Number: 6-RECOVER (6732 6837) Community Addictions Management Programme (CAMP) Its aim is to provide treatment for individuals with various addictions. • That help lines can be called 24 hours a day. sex addiction and internet addiction). compulsive gambling. The various advertisements around the casino or gambling facility must make it clear that: • Help is available. Activity 4. This information should be displayed throughout the gambling facility and staff should provide information to clients upon request. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients.
If the service provider has a computer generated online system. the reports would be manually generated. for example the handle tracked report. Clients are afforded verbal access to these statistics whenever they approach the service provider. as well as the amount of visits per month. and win/loss report. This is the amount that he could loose over a period of time taking into consideration the he would win or loose on different visits at the service provider. a client’s win/loss figures refer to the amount of revenue that the casino has either generated or lost to the client. these reports would be named individually. rewards redeemed report. The gambling provider’s around the globe are required to advise the client as to his win/loss records. the player tracking database could be online. It could also be used to support an exclusion order when a client has spent excessive amounts on gambling. The service provider will use the online play reports for the marketing rewards systems that are in place at the gambling provider’s establishment. or if a regular service provider. could work out his accumulated casino win/loss figure as a percentage.Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability In casino parlance. the client. as it could determine the worth of the client to the casino. This figure is represented in value to both parties. The availability of a client’s win/loss statistics at a casino is made available through the player rewards database. with management’s assistance. and the period of time spent playing. Although the reward system will not have current hold percentages of the different game types that the client are frequenting. The probability of loosing in a game of chance is explained to the client when the service provider explains the individual games of chance to the client. These reports will advise the service provider or the client as to his specific play patterns. The detailed report would be used to determine the client’s play at the casino. These statistics are kept by the service provider in order that the service provider can establish the net worth of the client. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 74 . Depending on the service provider’s status within the industry.
These are in the form of the top glass of the slot machine cabinet. Maintenance of any misleading or deceptive matter on any payoff schedule or award card or failure on the part of a licensee to make payment in strict accordance with posted payoff schedules or award cards may be deemed an unsuitable method of operation. In the case of slot machines. In the case of craps. or (b) The award cards of any game offered for play are displayed at all times when the device is available for play. (See Fig 4.As an example the Las Vegas Gaming requirements are as follows: Nevada Gaming Regulation 5. Payoff schedules or award cards must accurately state actual payoffs or awards applicable to the particular game or device and shall not be worded in such manner as to mislead or deceive the public. The above example is only a minimum requirement but does cover extensive control on the individual gambling property. The gambling property will place in view on the live gaming table. this simply states that these are minimum internal controls standards required by the gambling provider to meet in order to have the gaming facility/ property fully licensed and operational. keno and faro games the foregoing requirement will be satisfied if published payoff schedules are maintained in a location readily accessible to players and notice of the location of such schedule is posted on or adjacent to the table.Publication of Payoffs 1.5) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 75 .012 . 2. a reward card for the game that is represented at the place of stake. payoff schedules or award cards applicable to every licensed game or slot machine shall be displayed at all times either on the table or machine or in a conspicuous place immediately adjacent thereto. the foregoing requirements will be satisfied if: (a) The player is at all times made aware that payoff schedules or award cards applicable to any game offered for play are readily accessible and will be displayed on the video display screen of the device upon the initiation of a command by the player. The same information is done in a slot machine on the awards paytable. Except as specifically provided herein. These are the reward paytables for the staked amount on an individual bet should a winning combination occur.
anything can happen.Although suggestions have been made to the service providers to advertise the average machine hold percentages. This is been used in contradiction to the responsible gambling mission around the globe. For example. That means out of every $100 bet. With table games like roulette.slotmachinest rategy. For example. the house edge is normally expressed as a percentage.org/) Examples of Slot machine game hold percentages that are offered around the world are in line with a denominational trend. for a one dollar (US$) the average hold percentage is 6. blackjack has a house edge of between 0.5 Slot Machine Paytable (Source: http://www. as in the layman’s terms – the house percentage/casino win. or craps. Fig 4. (This is a long term expectation.00.) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 76 . the gambling trends have shown that the service providers in Las Vegas are using the percentages to entice customers into the service provider’s area. the player can expect to lose between $0.50 and $1. which was trying to get the customers to understand the amount that the casino would hold.5%. and in the short term.5% and 1% when played with perfect basic strategy. Slot Machine Payout Percentages Various ways of describing the house edge on gambling games are traditionally used. blackjack.
And the higher denomination games usually have a higher payout percentage than the lower denomination slot machine games. Typical Slot Machine Payouts and Payout Percentages A typical slot machine payout percentage varies according to what area of the country you're in. such as the amount of handle (spins).3% Information on the Odds or Win Rates of Major Prizes The gambling provider must make available easily understood and accurate information on the odds or win rates of major prizes. Slot machine payouts also vary based on what denomination of slot machine you're playing.97. In the short term the hold percentages can vary. this is over the long term.92. The only difference between a slot machine hold percentage and the casino (house) hold is the term used to describe it.5%.But slot machines are normally described according to their payout percentages. For example. So a slot machine with a 96% payout percentage has a 4% hold percentage.3% • Five dollar slots .50 for every $100 wagered. This number is determined by subtracting the payout percentage from 100%. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 77 . The hold percentage on a slot machine is the same thing as the house edge on a table game. in August 2006. Usually. A slot machine with a payout percentage of 99. the higher the slot machine payouts are. would pay out $99. There are some variables that the machine will have. the more active a casino destination is.) Slot Machine Hold Percentages A slot machine's hold percentage is the amount of money the house can expect to win over the long term.6% • Dollar slots .93. the slot machine payouts at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City looked something like this: • Quarter slots . as this will determine the hold percentage in the long term. for example. (Again. in proximity to relevant games and on web sites. The payout percentage is basically what percentage of money will get paid out compared to what is wagered. This information should be displayed in gambling areas.
• Ensure adequate supply of these guides (on desktops or around the live gaming areas within easy reach). This will be available from the marketing department. Summary Casinos should make win/loss and probability information available to clients. • Prominently display the relevant Player Information Guide in accessible areas (hotel lobby). • Alert patrons to the availability of the Guide and promote its use (signage around the gaming area as well as any outside media). The gambling provider could: • Have odds of winning current major prizes readily available at points of sale (POS) and coin exchanges (Slots Booths or Cashiers). the teaching of these games is at best thorough. The odds or win rates of major prizes should also be available to clients. clients can have realistic expectations. Although the information is available to inform the client of the risks involved in a game of chance. Additional Initiatives Operators may choose to display their full complement of documentation in prominent locations such as welcome centres or information centres. Training centres for clients are generally built in the large service provider’s facility and are manned by staff that are trained to deal with all requests from client’s for information on live gaming. Gambling providers operating loyalty programs could also provide player activity records to the relevant patron upon that person’s request. The most popular games that are explained to clients are blackjack and roulette.Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees must make this information available on their websites. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 78 . Information on Games Service providers around the world are recognizing the need to instruct the clients in the art of the games of chance. By having this information.
silver or maroon) based on their level of spent. This enables the casino to obtain the necessary information needed to keep records of the amount and time spend in the casino. the player has to use the card each time he plays. The client can have access to his win/loss ratio. The Most Valued Guest System (MVG) used by Sun International is an example of a player rating system. gold or platinum cards.250 450 50 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 79 . Casinos can use this information for marketing purposes and reward purposes. To obtain silver. gold. Clients who sign up for reward programmes are issued with ‘tracking cards’. the hours of play and the status of play. The reward system will award clients different colour cards (platinum. clients have to accumulate points as follows: Card Tier Platinum Card Gold Card Silver Card Points Required 4. Player Rating Systems The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. These figures are recorded in a computerised system and used to form a database of clients that utilize the facility. The maroon card is an entry level card. the amount he spent.Summary Many of the large casinos offer to train clients on the rules and play of popular casino games. Having a player tracking or rating system in place holds advantages for both the gambling provider as well as the client. To accumulate points. Some large casino groups have group wide ratings systems.
Points from the various casinos within the group can be combined. To earn 1 point on a table game, the client must turnover R2500 and to earn 1 point on slots, the client must turnover R500. This means that for a client to obtain a platinum card, he would have to turnover at least R10, 625 000 on table games or R2, 125 000 on slots. Summary The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. Both the client and the gambling provider can obtain valuable information through player reward systems.
Activity 4.3 Explain what the gambling provider could do to have the odds or win rates available for clients.
Activity 4.4 a) b) What is meant by the term House Edge? Give an example of the House Edge of Blackjack.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183
Topic 5 PROCEDURES FOR SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING – EXCLUSION ORDERS
This chapter will explain the procedures for handling requests for exclusions and the implementation of exclusion orders. Students will get to appreciate the extent of work and control involved managing and enforcing exclusion orders. Exclusion procedures must be handled in accordance with legislations and is a very important aspect of responsible gambling.
After studying this chapter the student should be able to: • • • • • • Define the various types of exclusion orders Discuss the exclusion procedures stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 Explain the procedures for dealing with exclusion requests and implementation of exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with attempts to breach exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with requests to revoke exclusion orders Explain policies that remote gambling operators should have in place with regards exclusion orders.
Introduction to Exclusion Orders
Responsible Gambling legislations in various countries require gambling providers, including casinos, to make available to their clients and gambling public and to administer exclusion programmes. In Singapore the exclusion process is stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 and in the UK, the Gambling Act 2005 provides guidelines.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183
Gambling providers should be able to administer a self-exclusion order upon request from clients. Other exclusion orders that might be handled by responsible gambling commissions or councils include family exclusion orders and automatic exclusion orders or third party exclusion orders. Gambling providers must have policies and procedures in place for handling all types of exclusion orders. Responsible gambling councils will provide registered gambling providers (licensees) with details of excluded persons. The gambling providers are the front line institutions which have to deal with the different types of exclusions. This will incorporate the complete process from interviewing clients requesting for exclusion through to advising the responsible gambling departments of people who has been excluded. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. It also prevents them from loosing any more money on gambling. The exclusion clause was regulated as there would be instances that clients would carry on with gambling if there was no forcible help in the law. For a gambling service provider, dealing with exclusions can be stressful and unpleasant. Extreme caution and care has to be taken when dealing with and enforcing exclusion orders. It might be necessary to exclude regular clients with whom the staff have built a relationship. Management and staff should be able to distance themselves from personal feelings should they know clients on a personal basis. Types of Exclusion Orders • Self Exclusion Casino Self Exclusion refers to an approach to reducing gambling problems whereby an individual voluntarily excludes him or herself from a casino. The individual contracts with the casino that they will not enter the casino, and if they do, they can be removed and charged with trespassing.
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Recipients of Public Assistance or Special Grants as well as undercharged bankrupts will be excluded from casino premises under Third Party Exclusion. Problem Gambling Councils can exclude a person whose gambling behaviour has caused serious harm to his/her family. Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 In topic 2. Exclusion orders can be in the form of self exclusion. upon application by a family member. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. • Third Party Exclusion or Automatic Exclusion Under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 has specific guidelines for casinos to deal with exclusions. In addition to the procedures discussed previously. c) What is meant by an incapacitated applicant? Summary It is a legal requirement for gambling providers to manage and make available exclusion orders. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. including Singapore. we discussed the procedures followed by the National Council on Problem Gambling when dealing with family exclusions.• Family Exclusion In some countries. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 83 .1 a) What is a ‘deed of exclusions’? b) Explain what is meant by the term self exclusion. Activity 5. family exclusion and third party or automatic exclusion.
Exclusion orders by casino operator (1) A casino operator may give a written exclusion order under this section to a person. whether on the voluntary application of the person or otherwise. prohibiting the person from entering or remaining on the casino premises. as the case may be. Section 121 . Section 122 . (3) A person who has been given an exclusion order under this section may appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 84 . The following sections from the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 will be examined as an example. by a written exclusion order given to a person.Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police (1) The Commissioner of Police may. (2) A voluntary application under subsection (1) shall be in writing and signed by the applicant in the presence of a person authorised by the casino operator to witness such an application. (2) As soon as practicable after making an exclusion order.Exclusion orders by Authority (1) The Authority may. the casino operator shall notify the Authority and the Council of that order or the revocation of that order. will have similar guidelines to adhere to. the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of that order. the Authority shall notify each casino operator of that order. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises.Different types of gambling providers in different countries around the world. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises. (2) An oral exclusion order lapses after 14 days. Section 120 . (3) As soon as practicable after the Authority gives an exclusion order under this section. by an exclusion order given to a person orally or in writing. (3) As soon as practicable after a casino operator gives an exclusion order under subsection (1) or revokes the order. regulated under various gambling legislations.
being subject to an exclusion order made under section 121 or 122.Excluded person not to enter casino premises (1) An excluded person shall not enter or remain. Section 127 .Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises (1) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall not. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 85 . (b) an agent of the casino operator. on appeal.Section 123 . (2) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall comply with any order made under section 163 (2) (d) to close any deposit account of a respondent named in that order. from time to time.Duration of exclusion orders (1) An exclusion order made under section 121 or 122 remains in force in respect of a person unless and until it is revoked by the person who gave the order or by the Minister. (3) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Authority or the Minister. without reasonable excuse. (c) a casino employee. (2) Any person. Section 124 . on any casino premises.List of persons excluded by casino operator The Authority may. Section 125 . the Authority shall give notice of the revocation to each casino operator as soon as practicable after it occurs. require a casino operator to furnish a list of persons excluded from the casino premises by the casino operator. permit an excluded person to enter or remain on the casino premises. who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence. or take part in any gaming. Section 126 . (2) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Commissioner of Police or the Minister. the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of the revocation.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises (1) This section applies to the following persons on any casino premises: (a) the person for the time being in charge of the casino.
or (b) guilty of an offence. (2) If a person to whom this section applies enters or remains on any casino premises in contravention of this Act. the casino operator shall pay the value of that prize to the Consolidated Fund. Section 128 . (4) In determining the value of a non-monetary prize for the purposes of subsection (3). in the case of a casino operator or a licensed special employee. and (b) using no more force than is reasonably necessary — (i) prevent the excluded person from entering the casino premises. (3) If winnings referred to in subsection (2) comprise or include a non-monetary prize. (5) The amount of winnings to be forfeited under this section shall be investigated and determined by an authorised person whose decision shall be final.Exclusion orders by casino operator Section 121 . all winnings (including linked jackpots) paid or payable to the person in respect of gaming on gaming machines or playing any game approved under section 100 in the casino are forfeited to the Consolidated Fund. or (b) a minor (as defined in section 130).Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police Section 123 . or (ii) remove such a person from the casino premises or cause such a person to be removed from the casino premises.Duration of exclusion orders Section 124 . Summary The Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 includes the following sections with regards exclusion: Section 120 . in any other case.Exclusion orders by Authority Section 122 .(2) (3) A person to whom this section applies who knows that an excluded person is about to enter or is on the casino premises shall — (a) notify an inspector as soon as practicable.Forfeiture of winnings (1) This section applies to any person who is — (a) an excluded person.List of persons excluded by casino operator Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 86 . any amount of goods and services tax payable in respect of the supply to which the prize relates is to be taken into account. Any person who fails to comply with subsection (2) shall be –– (a) liable to disciplinary action.
In most instances a front line staff member. but refer it to the department or manager dealing with exclusion orders. he/she will follow the policies and procedures set.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises Section 128 . Requests for Exclusion Requests for self-exclusion are primarily dealt with within the service provider’s facility. such as the dealer. Depending on the country or region of the operations or the size and organisation of the gambling establishment. This process must also be dealt with in a professional manner. The frontline staff members are trained in dealing with requests for help and are instrumental in getting the process started. They will not deal with the case at all. cashier or security officer. Large casinos have Responsible Gambling Departments with Responsible Gambling Liaison Officers who will deal with exclusions. Most gambling establishments have an interview room in which they can facilitate the clients in private. These rooms are equipped with both video and voice recording system. various departments might be involved in exclusion procedures.Excluded person not to enter casino premises Section 126 . Once the request for exclusion is received by the senior management or the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer.Section 125 .Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises Section 127 . Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 87 . Security Departments are also extensively involved the implementation and administration of exclusion order.Forfeiture of winnings Dealing with Exclusions Gambling providers will deal with exclusions in accordance with national or regional legislations. from the time of request until the completion of paperwork. In smaller organisations Duty Managers would handle exclusion procedures. will be the first person to hear about a problem. or they might be asked advice with regards exclusions.
he has to obtain the following documentation: • • • Client’s identification document. In many instances the client will avail himself on the premises in question. a photo of the relevant person. Player reward ratings obtained from the database indicating the client’s win/loss data. Details will also be entered in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register. The person administering the exclusion order will then check the completed self-exclusion forms together with. Sample Form Please see Appendix 1 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 88 . These forms will include the stated wish of the patron to be reminded of their desire to be excluded from the specified gambling provider. Duty Manager or Security Officer is tasked to provide assistance with self exclusions. but there are suggestions in the different Responsible Gambling provisions for this event to take place away from the gambling facility. This form can be obtained from reception. the client would be present himself.When a person request for self-exclusion. although there might be provision for a request to be made online. in a quiet area. the process and conditions should be explained to him. It must be clear what type of exclusion is requested for and will be instituted and the implications of an exclusion order. Credit forms and account details from the cashiering department. by phone or by writing in to the establishment. This request might have to be followed up by a personal interview. from the service provider’s website and other areas of the casino. where appropriate. within the gambling areas. Documentation When the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. A self-exclusion form would then be completed by the client. In most cases.
clearly explain the form and detail specific requirements – for example. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will advise the third party that Self-Exclusion procedures and documents are available. All of the aforesaid actions have to be done in the presence of the afflicted patron/client (respondent). the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will complete the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and. urging them to make personal contact with counselling groups or directly with the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Should the patron agree to proceed. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will provide a copy of the Approved Self. Should the patron refuse this. ask the patron to sign it. The Officer will encourage them to discuss the options with the person believed to have a problem with gambling.Processing Exclusion Orders • Self-Exclusion Upon being approached by a patron seeking assistance. 4. 3. If the patron does not wish to proceed. Refer the third party to the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 89 . The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will: • outline the effects and consequences of self-exclusion. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should give a copy of the Approved Self-Exclusion Form to the patron.Exclusion Form and details of local community support to the third party. staff will suggest a meeting with the Manager on duty (if different to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer). if possible. 2. • go through the procedures and guidelines and the need for a signed agreement. close. 2. staff will: 1. personal interest. provision of photo. • Exclusion Requested by Third Party/Family Member If a staff member is approached by a third party requesting exclusion for another person with whose welfare they have a clear. Immediately explain the need to refer the matter to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. 3. the staff member will: 1.
• Review the policy for self-exclusion on a regular basis to see if it is working and what areas may need improvement. Additional Initiatives by the Gaming Provider Throughout all Responsible Gambling Practices documentation. breaches. the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will be identified as the source of information for self exclusion provisions. inquiries. • Have clear reporting procedures (staff to management) of relevant incidents (observations. These exclusion procedure would have been audited by the internal audit function of the relevant service provider to make sure that the process is legal (becomes binding once forms completed). the gambling provider can: • Provide regular staff information and training on self-exclusion. Where a player loyalty scheme is in effect the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer can enable players to access their own detailed playing records to assess pattern of play.Once the self-exclusion form is signed and witnessed it comes into effect three days after signing. Assessment and Review To ensure the effectiveness of self-exclusion procedures. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 90 . The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should record the self-exclusion and all actions undertaken in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and take all reasonable steps to ensure that the management staff. after which time no self-excluded person may gamble with the relevant gambling provider. The Security Official/ Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will maintain confidentiality of information and the Responsible Gambling Incident Register is to be kept in a secure place. Counselling Contact Information Gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self-exclusion and/or express a concern that they have a gambling problem. contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. including the security management. frequency) and actions taken by the venue with regard to patrons seeking self-exclusion. are advised of the self-exclusion.
as an example in the UK they give the exclusion forms to the client to complete or fill in at home. date starting. If the person decides to self exclude permanently from the establishment. This dis-action will last as long as the self exclusion (ban) is in place. He will also inform the client of the effect of when the exclusion will take place. checking all the relevant documentation 3. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 91 . The first step that the officer dealing with this event will do is to try and make the client feel at ease. 2. the consequences surrounding breach. but current legislated exclusion periods are 6 months.2 What details should be recorded on a self-exclusion form? Summary 1. He should not give the client the alternative to be able to back out of the exclusion. The information that they have requested self exclusion (ban) should be highlighted within the client database/player tracking systems in order that the various departments dealing with the database information are made aware of the current status of the client. loyalty programs involving the person are terminated or revoked. 4. and how long the exclusion will be in force. After checking the positive identification he will ask the client to fill in the correct forms. Activity 5. by asking. their details removed from databases and player-tracking systems.Self-Exclusion from Other Gambling Providers Self-exclusion gambling customers are to be given support and encouragement in seeking self-exclusions from other gambling providers. explaining the process with each step 5. and except as required by law. There are suggestions that the exclusion should be one year. Correspondence or Promotional Material All gambling providers are not to send correspondence or promotional material to gambling customers who are excluded from their services or who request that this information not be sent to them. The second step is to get the personal details correct.
9. will inform the relevant departments of the exclusion. In legal terms. A trespass gives the aggrieved party the right to bring a civil lawsuit and collect damages as compensation for the interference and for any harm suffered. The rationale from the service provider’s security departments behind the trespass arrest is that it should be enough of a warning that clients do not attempt to breach the exclusion order. The complete process should be done with as much secrecy – so as not to embarrass the client. security.3 a) What is meant by the term breach of exclusion? b) How would a service provider deal with a client who continually attempts to breach his exclusion order? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 92 . 7. Trespass is an intentional tort and. can be punished as a crime. that should he breach his exclusion order that the service provider can have him arrested for trespass on the service provider’s property. trespass is an unauthorised entry upon land. legal department. 8. credit department. from the start of the process. These actions are done so as should the client visit the establishment. online player reward system of the exclusion that has taken place. this should be done as quietly as possible. After the client has completed the form. in some circumstances. Once the completed forms have been completed the official that is responsible for the process. not the internet provider. marketing. Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders The manager or official who completes the exclusion order will advise the client that the exclusion order stops him/her from utilizing all the facilities at the gaming provider’s establishment. he will if possible take a digital photograph of the client. 10. It is also explained to the client. 11. Activity 5. this is only at gambling providers. resort style.6. he can be asked to leave as he is in breach of his exclusion. Should the customer breach his agreement. By law he has to inform.
The channels are the same for applying for a revocation than for an exclusion order. the NCPG may confirm. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. so does the revocation procedures. this revocation could be done by a General Manger of the service provider. Summary As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. There is often a minimum period of exclusion before it can be revoked. The forms would have to be completed correctly and lodged with the governing body. so does the revocation procedures. The council or department responsible will investigate the request for revocation and make a decision that would be binding. In many cases the client might want his exclusion revoked within a month of the commencement of the exclusion order. The minimum duration of exclusion orders also varies from country to country. Revocation of exclusion orders are handled through similar channels than requests for exclusion. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 93 . The terms and conditions of exclusion orders should be clearly explained to those excluded from the premises. For example. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. Revocation of an Exclusion Order As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. In Singapore.Summary A person who breaches his exclusion order can be arrested for trespassing. in Singapore this process will go before the NCPG. but in South Africa.
In the event that a player excludes him or herself from the site or all sites on three separate occasions. As appropriate. (b) that particular gaming site. Summary Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 94 .Exclusion from Remote Gambling Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. Self Exclusions – Remote Gambling Persons will be allowed to exclude themselves from: (a) a particular type of gaming at that site. Approval may require the presentation of sufficient evidence that the player is not a problem gambler. gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self exclusion contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. Persons can choose to be excluded from one site. The website is to operate such that the submission of a completed self exclusion triggers technical responses that block access by the player to the site. As with casino gambling. Upon exclusion. the exclusion is to be permanent and may only be varied with the approval of the regulator in whose jurisdiction the site from which the exclusion was initiated is located. The option of permanent exclusion must be provided. The example below is of the Australian exclusion process. all accounts should be suspended and deactivated. Where a player chooses to be excluded from all sites all licensed providers must suspend any account and deactivate any registration of the player. Self-exclusion must be for a minimum of seven days. and this action is written to the audit log for the system. from a particular type of site or from all gaming sites. or (c) all Australian gaming sites. different regions and countries will have guidelines as to how this should be handled.
Topic 6 GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS Objective This chapter will familiarise students with procedures for handling gambling related incidents in casinos. Gambling providers are tasked to prevent youths from gambling and keeping them out of gambling environments. In addition. refusal of credit and complaints and disputes. gambling providers and responsible gambling agencies are working together to combat underage gambling. gambling providers should not advertise facilities in such a way that might entice youths to gamble. Gambling legislations stipulate minimum requirements to prevent underage gambling and gambling providers also implement their own policies and procedures to control and prevent underage gambling. It will highlight policies and procedures as well as regulations with regards to underage gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 95 . This might include thorough staff training on properly certifying the age of patrons suspected of being underage. the student should be able to: • • • Explain procedures for preventing and dealing with underage gambling Explain the procedures for refusing credit Discuss the procedures for dealing with customer complaints and disputes. Learning outcome After studying this chapter. As young people of today is easily influenced by culture and advertisements. Underage Gambling The issue of underage gambling is one of the major concerns for the service providers throughout the global casino and gambling industry.
and a dealer who knowingly sells a ticket to a 16 year-old faces loss of his license and a criminal fine. Casino-style games. This list of states. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 96 . the legal consequences when an underage minor is involved in otherwise legal gambling do not vary from one province to another. and some casinos restrict local play to residents over 25.. while in the U. but the minimum is now 18. But. Interestingly. the trend is exactly the opposite. are also the most dangerous forms of gambling. in America.S. Because casino gaming is usually associated with the availability of alcoholic beverages. provinces. in England anyone over 16 may buy a lottery ticket. in other countries. the minimum age is almost always 21. most legal minimum ages are still at 18. in Canada. casinos are open to 18 and 19 year-olds. including slot machines. Portugal has different rules for tourists and locals: Casinos are open to foreigners over 18. until 1987. For example. the drinking age has been raised from 18 to 21. the same minimum age applies to different forms of legal gambling. when parliament lowered it to 18. Countries outside the United States seem to be more internally consistent: They usually have one minimum age that applies throughout that nation. the minimum age for lotteries is never less than 18. In the USA. Similarly. in 1969 the government of the Bahamas set the minimum age for gambling at 21. but citizens of Portugal may not enter Portuguese casinos unless they are over 21. Similarly.Legal Age of Gambling in Various Countries Gambling and the Law identifies the following minimum ages for gambling as regulated in various countries. The legal age requirement to work in a casino is also 21 years old. there has been one significant exception: In every state in America. the minimum age was 21. In Singapore the legal age to enter and gamble in a casino is 21 years old. most states put the minimum age for gambling in a casino at 21. Lawmakers in other nations also have concluded that maturity is reached at a younger age. Twelve of the 16 states (Länder) in Germany have also lowered the age for casino gambling from 21 to 18. and. and countries illustrate the tremendous variations found in the way the law treats issues involving the minimum age to place a legal wager. In France.
The Bahamas: The Lotteries and Gaming Act of 1969 required players to be at least 21. Finland: The minimum age limit is 18 for Finland’s various casinostyle games. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 97 . Persons under the age of 18 are not allowed to work or sell bingo tickets. but the minimum age has been lowered to 18. casino employees must be at least 21 years old. casinos have been open to anyone over 18 years old. Denmark: Casino guest must be at least 18 years old. and low-stakes table games in arcades. Aruba: No one under 18 years old is allowed in casinos. Canada: Casinos. France: Parliament lowered the minimum gaming age for casinos from 21 to 18 in 1987. This age limit remained until the 1980s. slot machines in restaurants and bars. Bingo: minimum age is set by bingo licensee. The legal age to gamble in a casino is 18 years old. British Columbia. Belgium: Casinos are technically ‘private clubs. restricted to cleaning and serving of foods. including true casinos. prohibiting gaming by minors under the age of 21. limited visitors from noncommunist bloc countries.’ limited to ‘members’ at least 21 years old. In fact 12 of 16 states in the united federal republic have lowered the minimum from 21 to 18. Germany: The national government under Hitler passed laws in 1933 and 1938. Today. Since 1990. Great Britain: Casinos are technically membership clubs and noone under 18 may join. and there has been a trend toward lowering the minimum gambling age. Bulgaria: Casinos opened in 1967.Antigua and Barbuda: Minors younger than 18 are not allowed where casino gaming is taking place. state (Länder) governments set their own age limits. 19 years old. To work in a Bingo hall minimum age of 16 to 17 years old.
Nova Scotia. bingo halls. be in other gaming areas. casino employees may be 18. but Portuguese nationals are barred unless they are over 21 and in some casinos over 25. Tasmania. or slot machines parlors. may not legally gamble. Australia: Individuals under 18 years old may not enter casinos. under 18. Canada: No one under 18 years old may enter a casino. Portugal: A unique system: Casinos are open to foreigner over 18 years old.Greece: An unusual age restriction: individuals must be at least 23 years old to enter a casino. Queensland. Canada: No person under the age of 19 years may participate in gaming. It is against the law to sell a lottery ticket to anyone under 18. Australia: Minors. Quebec. However. Australia: A person under the age of 18 years cannot place a bet in any form of gaming and betting. Victoria. and casinos are prohibited from advertising that is specifically directed at encouraging individuals below 19 years of age to play games of chance in a casino. Canada: An individual must be at least 19 to enter or gamble in a casino. Australia: Persons under the age of 18 years are not permitted in the casino. New South Wales. if accompanied by an adult. New Zealand: No one under 20 years old may enter the gaming area of a casino. have imposed a policy of not allowing minors on the main casino areas. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 98 . except in sweepstakes and calcuttas where persons between the ages of 16 and 18 years can participate. on their own. Casinos. Ontario. though they may. Spain: Minors under 18 are not allowed to gamble or enter into casinos.
A study by the Gambling Commission also found that two million under-18s. But it raised concerns about the boom in online betting that allowed youngsters to stake money secretly. The report by the industry regulator the Gambling Commission found that 7 per cent of young people .the rise of the internet has also increased opportunity to bet. Experts warned that vulnerable children were becoming hooked after casinos. bookmakers and betting websites were allowed to advertise on TV. experts warn. The study said teenagers who gamble are more likely to suffer depression.about 975.uk) Last updated at 12:58 AM on 20th October 2008 One million children are addicted to gambling and New Labour's lenient gaming laws are largely to blame. were at risk of developing 'serious' addictions. One million children are addicted to gambling say experts By Ian Drury (www. commercial casino companies have further reason to implement proactive measures that discourage and prevent the behaviour because they are subject to substantial fines if they fail to enforce regulations on underage gambling. Danger: Labour's lenient gambling laws have been blamed for one million children being addicted to gambling . Report author Professor Gill Valentine.9million. smoking and obesity. The report found children were most likely to gamble on slot machines and scratchcards. are at risk of becoming hooked on betting. of the University of Leeds. It said liberal parents must take some of the blame for the crisis. The figures undermine the Government's own statistics on betting addiction which claim that only 250. some as young as ten.While preventing underage gambling is a business imperative on its own. while 14 per cent. But it is the Government's controversial decision to loosen the gambling laws that attracted the fiercest criticism.co. The rise of the internet had also increased youngsters' opportunities to bet.000 . It recommended treating gambling as a 'potential public health issue' alongside drinking. A staggering 91 per cent of under-18s had gambled at least once in their lives. use alcohol and drugs and fall into truancy and crime.000 people .had gambling problems.dailymail.' Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 99 .mainly adults -have problems. said: 'The opportunity provided by the internet to gamble in privacy may exacerbate young people's ability to access gambling opportunities. or 1.
Professor Valentine said: 'There is some indication that traditional authoritarian models are being replaced by a more liberal approach. Sarah Pigott The prevalence of participation in gambling appears to be related to the age of respondents. except the two oldest.' Dr Emanuel Moran.' A spokesman for the Department for Culture. gambling prevalence in the past year was lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups: 58% for those aged 16-24 and 57% for those aged 75 and over. adviser on pathological gambling for the Royal College of Psychiatrists. He said: 'The Government is trying to deal with it with a light touch but I very much fear we are going to see a disaster with a rise in the number of gambling addicts. the proportion of those aged 25-34 who had gambled in the last year decreased from 78% in 1999 to 71% in 2007. Overall. Compared with prevalence rates from 1999. Media and Sport said: 'The Gambling Act 2005 placed the protection of children and vulnerable people at the heart of gambling regulation for the first time.Heather Wardle. Mark Griffiths. It established a robust new regulator and introduced key offences with tough penalties in relation to children. overall participation in gambling in each age group. For example. Jim Orford. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 100 . said he feared gambling problems among under-18s would spiral with the relaxation of the laws. Bob Erens. Kerry Sproston. had decreased.' Gambling Prevalence by Age in the UK (British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007) . Similar patterns by age were observed in 1999. Prevalence was highest among those aged 35-44 (73%).On the role of parents. This may contribute to adults' willingness to introduce children to illegal under-age gambling. Rebecca Constantine.
the opposite pattern was true with prevalence being lowest among those aged 16-24. in the past year. For the National Lottery Draw and other lotteries. primarily betting on private and unlicensed games — especially betting on card games and sports and buying instant lottery tickets. for scratchcards the prevalence fell from 30% of those aged 25-34 to 10% for those aged 75 and over. those aged 16-24 who had gambled in the past year tended to take part in a greater number of activities: 20% took part in four or more activities in the last year. the prevalence fell from 26% for those aged 16-34. prevalence was greatest among the younger age groups and decreased with advancing age.1 Participation in any gambling activity. Similarly. slot machines. where 24% had participated in four or more activities. and then decreased with age. dog races. online gambling. horse races. ‘Youths 16 and 17 years old gamble less than adults and differently from adults. with slot machines. The only age group to have estimates in excess of this were those aged 25-34. For example. Scratchcards. to 2% of those aged 75 and over. table games in a casino and private betting were all most popular among those aged 25-34.Fig 6. and 10% had gambled on six or more different activities. Despite having a large number of non-participants. by age and by year For many activities. other betting with a bookmaker.’ Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 101 .
operators must: • Check the age of the client if the client looks as though the client may be under 18. In Bingo halls. but must not enter adult-only areas. for example a driving licence. The security department will check the age of the client and if they believe that the client is underage take action to prevent access and/or remove the underage person from the premises. This usually entails ‘policing’ the area and denying underage people access to gambling areas. This presumably reflects well on the enforcement efforts (particularly against fake IDs) of casino operators. • Refuse the client entry into adult-only areas if the client cannot provide a suitable form of identification when asked to do so. with barely 1 percent reporting any casino wagers. passport or Connexions card. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 102 . The adolescents (16-17 year olds) were notably absent from casino play. the client can be asked to provide a suitable form of identification.‘Casino gambling (especially slot machines) was the second most common form of adult gambling. under-18s are allowed on the premises. the client will face exclusion or prosecution. ‘Suitable identification’ is identification that is valid and contains both the client’s photo and date of birth. If an adult client knowingly brings children on to the premises. To make sure that underage people do not gain access to adult-only areas. and • Take action if there are unlawful attempts to enter adult-only areas. among other factors. on-course betting and family entertainment centres in the UK. Casino operators are also not allowed to serve an adult who has a child or underage person with him/her. In order to prove age. with one-quarter of all adults participating in the past year.’ Preventing Underage Gambling Casino operators must ensure that they prevent underage gambling in all areas of the casino. In the United Kingdom no under-18s are allowed into any part of the gambling facilities on these premises.
• Celebrity or other testimonials in advertising of gambling should not be used that would primarily appeal to persons under the legal age. be posted at all places where gambling takes place.Remote Gambling The RGA represents the world's largest licensed. clothing or other material. Advertising Guidelines • Person depicted as gamblers in advertising should not be. that are adjacent to schools or youth centres. • Advertisements of gambling should not be advertised or promoted on outdoor displays. at a minimum. The global casino operators must not target under-18s by advertising their products in a way that makes them attractive to this age group. Controlling Underage Gambling . • Advertising of gambling should not contain symbols or language that is intended to appeal to minors or those under the legal age. and key decision makers around the world. • The use of animation should be monitored to ensure that characters are not associated with animated characters on children's programmes. the service provider will ask the client to prove his identity before selling the client a ticket.As far as lotteries are concerned. including technikon or university campuses. • The gambling industry should not be advertised at venues where the audience is reasonably and expected to be below the legal age. • Age restriction should. games. • Industry promotions should not involve utilising children's toys. nor appear to be under the legal age. legislators. if the person selling lottery tickets believes that the client may be under the age of 16. such as billboards. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 103 . • Advertising of gambling should not appear in media directed primarily to those under the legal age. and stock market-listed remote gambling companies and provides the industry with a single voice on all the issues of importance to regulators.
The RGA is working with various other bodies to try and get more reliable date of birth information made available. RGA members’ efforts will concentrate on those payments methods that are readily available to children and indeed are targeted at them by the banks. RGA members are also strongly recommended to: • Make links available to. A clear message to this effect should also appear during the registration process. The primary tool for this is the use of age verification (AV) procedures. or provide adequate information about. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 104 . In some instances this means that gambling operators can do no more than make reasonable endeavors to ensure a new customer’s exact date of birth. and • Include a clear policy for dealing with underage gamblers.Even though it is illegal for anyone under the age of 18 to engage in betting or gaming. it is not always easy to ensure that children are excluded. Operators should adopt reasonable measures to minimise underage gambling. Age verification is. reputable filtering services like the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA )so that parents and others can take any necessary steps to prevent their personal computers being used for inappropriate purposes. an inexact science. but it must be acknowledged that the availability and reliability of electronic evidence varies greatly from country to country. • Make clear through messaging or the display of a ‘no under 18s’ sign on the homepage of the internet site that children are not permitted to gamble. The majority of on-line payment methods are only available to over 18s so offer very limited risk of under age gambling. Children do. Pre-pay cards would also fall into this category. have greater access to some forms of payment that can be used to fund remote gambling. As and when that happens age verification procedures will become more robust. except where the operator is satisfied that adequate age verification checks had already been made by the card issuer and are for this reason referred to as ‘high risk payment types’. and will continue to be. however.
and • Any deposited funds must be available for prompt return if during this period. Whichever they choose it must include an element of objective validation via a verification service. It is up to individual operators to choose a verification system best suited to their particular business model.com. AV must be undertaken for any customer who has not previously been identified as over 18 if they seek to register and gamble with a high risk payment type. or through direct access to reliable documentation.As a minimum. Experian. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 105 . The operator should then make all reasonable efforts to contact the customer to resolve the outstanding account issue. If after the verification period the operator has failed to verify that the customer is an adult then the account should be suspended. it is proved that the customer is underage. This is irrespective of the remote gambling channel they are seeking to use (e. WAP etc). It would also be good practice to perform the same level of checks on all potential customers who provide a date of birth of between 18 and 21 years old because industry experience shows that if someone who is underage seeks to register then they normally give an age which is close to their real age.g. digital TV. If this leads to proof that the customer is an adult then the account can be reactivated. however. they will not be able to withdraw any winnings until it is confirmed that they are adults. or at any later stage. for example a passport or birth certificate. A maximum period of 72 hours will be allowed in which to initiate those checks. phone. All reasonable endeavors should then be made to complete AV checks with the minimum of delay. internet. or 192. such as that provided by companies like GB Group. This will be known as the ‘verification period’. AV checks should be initiated as soon as possible after a customer seeks to deposit money to gamble. During the verification period: • Customers may be able to deposit funds and gamble.
• Refund the value of all deposits net of withdrawals.If at any time an RGA member becomes aware that a customer is underage. Activity 6. Age must be verified before entrance is granted and where a person suspected to be underage is noticed within the gambling are. except where there are grounds to believe that a fraud has been perpetrated: • Suspend the account immediately. There is also merit in providing the underage customer with contact details for Gamcare or a similar organisation.3 Under employment regulations. Consideration should also be given as to whether any other bodies or agencies should be made aware of the child’s interest in gambling. age verification should be done. and • Close the account.2 What are the rules regarding paying out winnings to an underage person? Activity 6. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 106 . they will. • Void all wagers (that the RGA member is a party to) that have taken place.1 How does a staff member ascertain a client’s age? Activity 6. what is the difference between children and youth? Summary Gambling providers have to prevent underage persons form entering casinos and gambling premises. subject to data protection laws.
the client can ask for a credit extension in person. Youths who gamble are especially at risk of developing gambling problems. Gambling providers have to take care not to carry out marketing activities in such ways that would entice youths to gamble. The Refusal of Credit As the global casino industry relies heavily on credit play within their facilities. The Singapore Control Act does not allow for credit at all. lotteries. But once a decision has been made it would be binding. telephonically or by written application. The various Gambling and casino legislations have specific instructions for allowing or not allowing credit. etc. by loosing each time he visits the casino. There are many occasions when clients might request for either credit or extension of credit.The legal age for gambling varies in different countries. In Singapore only those above the age of 21 can gamble and in UK the minimum age to gamble in a casino is 18 years. The casino manager is faced with a decision about extending extra credit as the client may have gotten himself onto a downward spiral. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 107 . Should credit be allowed. the refusal of credit is always a very difficult situation in the casino and gaming environment. The issue of underage gambling also extends to remote gambling. sports betting. The manager would also have to be careful not allowing extra credit whereby the habit of gambling on credit may start or escalate gambling problem. This credit is always applied for when the client has exhausted his facility and needs extra cash to get himself liquid again. All of these applications would be investigated and either approved or disapproved. This could be the manager’s standard reply. The investigation would be done by a credit manager and his credit control team. Many high rollers or serious gamblers have credit lines within the establishments that they frequent.
Staff should know how to respond in these situations. we would be happy to reconsider your application.A written example of refusing credit from the credit department is discussed below: Company Address: 1234. Casino Global Area MA 02123 03/16/05 Recipient Address Goes Here> Hello. Thank you for taking the time to apply for credit with 1234 Casino. In the United States of America. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 108 . they might take it as an insult and respond with verbal abuse or bad behaviour. Your credit application was denied because <reason for denial>. When your situation changes. When a client is refused credit. Credit Manager encl: <List of enclosed items goes here> Fig 6. the credit personnel will deal with this request in total. from the initiation of the process of the application form to the approval or disallowance of the credit. Should the client ask for the credit in person. we welcome the opportunity to do business with you on a cash basis. In the meantime. Regards. This can be used as a referral at a later date. We welcome your business but unfortunately we are unable to extend credit to you at this time. the refusal should still be logged at the cashdesk by the staff member or manager dealing with the request.1 Letter – Refusal of Credit A record of the request will be kept by the cashdesk as proof of the credit application.
external parties or by the guests themselves. the surveillance departments will help with the investigation of a complaint or dispute. Customer Complaints and Disputes It is convenient for customers to be dogmatic about the old ‘customer is always right’ ideal. However. casinos can also institute their own guidelines and refuse credit for various reasons. Under the Code of Practice for Gambling Operators. and have limited or no power to bend these rules. Casinos and gambling providers have to work within rules and regulations set by governments and the organisation. Gambling providers know that it is important to satisfy guests in order for them to return. This is especially the case where customers spend (or loose) a large amount of money.g. some customers take advantage of their power position. even when clients are unsatisfied. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 109 . Managers and staff are also well trained in handling complaints. issued by the Gambling Commission. Licensees must put in place procedures for resolving customer complaints and disputes and the existence and terms of such procedures must be drawn to the attention of all customers. This must always be dealt with tactfully. It is easier to deal with a customer in a large casino environment as there is support services which the management can use too assist them with the complaint or dispute.Summary Clients might request for credit once they have exhausted their cash facilities. Legislations around the world have clear guidelines on whether credit play is allowed. e. Problems escalating to complaints can be caused by the casino. using their eternal status of ‘right’ to take advantage of business owners and service providers. Besides the fact that there might be legislations preventing credit play.
always. • Customers are given a copy of the complaints procedure on request or on making a complaint. always apologize. • Don't come to any quick conclusions. • If you come to an agreement indicating that the customer is wrong. • To prove you were listening closely. • If the confrontation escalates and the customer becomes angry. try to avoid making the situation embarrassing for them. so they feel you've heard them out in full. • Involve management and bring the complaint under the attention of a supervisor or manager as soon as possible. Licensees must ensure that: • Customers are told the name and status of the person to contact about their complaint. If you let the customer drive you to angry statements and outbursts. • Remember that your objective is to show the customer you want to help.In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the Licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities. always. • Above all. paraphrase the customer's statements. even if you know you did nothing wrong. Don't talk. try to concentrate on the customer's message instead of their anger. listen. Interrupting the customer's monologue would be regarded as a lack of interest and respect. Handling Complaints • At the beginning of the interaction. Always do your best to avoid turning a minor disagreement into a major argument. and a ‘dispute’ is any complaint which: • Is not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedure: and • Relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. do what you can to make sure he leaves placated. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 110 . you will create a downward spiral that will never end well. Wait until you have the customer's entire story. If the customer comes in angry. and • All complaints are handled in accordance with the procedure. Becoming angry or argumentative would only prove that your sole concern is yourself and your interests.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 111 . the dispute will be referred to an arbitrator or mediator nominated by the Council (to be appointed). • Both parties will make every effort to resolve the dispute by negotiations. they work on behalf of their members to raise awareness. either party may. BCA is the leading trade association for the casino industry in Great Britain. engage in policy development and promote best practice. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. the complainant shall be asked to set out in writing the nature of the dispute. Formed in 1973. The British Casino Association recommends the following procedures for handling disputes. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. If the parties cannot agree on an independent arbitrator they may refer the matter to the Casino Regulator Code of Practice Complaints Board. In the event that no agreement can be reached on an appropriate arbitrator.Dispute Resolution An unresolved complaint will result in a dispute. If either party nominates arbitration rather than mediation before a mediator is appointed. and provide them with a vital source of information and advice. by notice in writing. They act as a central point for comment and opinion for members. Each member of the Casino Regulator Code of Practice will comply with the following dispute resolution procedures: • When a dispute arises between the Casino and its user. who operate over 90% of Britain’s licensed casinos. the matter shall be arbitrated. Within 21 days of the date of the notice the parties may refer the matter to a mutually agreed arbitrator or mediator (as the case may be).
5 How would a Casino Manager handle a dispute in a casino? Describe the process involved. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. The Code of Practice has specific provisions for handling complaints and disputes. Arbitration of any dispute shall take place in accordance with any rules or directions published by the Council from time to time and the law of the state where the industry member is located.4 What is the difference between a complaint and a dispute? Activity 6. but they have the right to complaint when they are not satisfied with the services received. either party may. Casino staff must be trained and confident in handling problems and complaints. Activity 6. by notice in writing. Nothing contained in this clause will deny a party the right to seek injunctive relief from an appropriate court where failure to obtain such relief would cause irreparable damage to the party concerned. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 112 . Unresolved complaints results and disputes. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute.The arbitrator will have the right to determine procedures and may or may not allow the appearance of lawyers on behalf of the parties and may co-opt other expert assistance. Summary The customers might not always be right.
000 fine the commission imposed on Borgata in February for not stopping a 19-year-old from earning more than $1. 4:34 PM The Casino Control Commission imposed a record $157. In New Jersey.’ ‘That was a lot of time for her to be interacting with casino employees who should have picked up on the fact that she was underaged.the freebies casinos lavish on their best players based on the amount of money they wager and the amount of time they spend gambling. The month before. only after she caught the eye of an investigator for the Division of Gaming Enforcement. The fine surpasses one the $105. Simpson. who was 20 at the time.’ Kassekert said.000 in comps while playing table games. was rated 146 times as a high roller. officials said. 137 times playing at the tables. 2008. while Simpson was rated. which closed in November 2006. But it was not the first time Simpson had been caught gambling. Officials surmised that Simpson likely accumulated points but did not cash them in. she was not given any comps -. New Jersey Casino Control Commission Chairwoman Linda Kassekert said regulators imposed a hefty fine against Bally's because Simpson had faced casino employees while playing at the tables on ‘137 separate incidents over 18 days.500 fine against Bally's casino for allowing an underaged gambler to play 18 times over the course of the month.Bally's hit with record fine for underaged gambling spree by Judy DeHaven/The Star-Ledger Business Desk Wednesday November 12. patrons have to be 21 years of age to gamble at a casino. Simpson was arrested for underaged gambling at the Sands. Candeda Simpson. was busted at Bally's in February 2006. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 113 . who suspected she was underaged. Officials said in this case. In that time. the gambler.
Macau’s Director of Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau (DICJ) Manuel Joaquim das Neves said the mother would be entitled to receive the full winnings from the Sands Macao.000 in winnings from the Sands Macao on Friday. Macau’s Gaming Committee.destinationmacau. which should be responsible for the future direction of the industry as well as policy-making.com/2007/02/16yearold_changes_the_rules. without specifically defining what happens after they have already entered.ht ml When the mother of a 16-year-old girl won the right to keep HK$740.Activity 6. A Macau legislator said new laws should be drafted immediately to define what happens once a minor enters a casino. asking it to pay the amount in full to the mother of the young winner. b) Would the outcome of the incident have been any different should it have taken place in the UK? “16-year-old changes the rules” http://www. the young girl unknowingly turned the tables on Macau’s old gaming laws. On February 23. she would not be allowed to enter any of Macau’s casinos for an unspecified period of time and she was reminded by the bureau that no one under the age of 18 is allowed in gaming areas. Meanwhile. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 114 . is reportedly inactive and has yet to appoint members.6 Case Study – Underage Gambling Look at the following incident that took place in Macau and answer the following questions: a) Explain the consequences of underage gambling for both the licensee as well as the gambler. chaired by Macau Chief Executive Edmund Ho. plays and wins money. However. Current gaming legislation only stipulates that someone under the age of 18 is not permitted inside a casino. The DICJ said the Sands Macao should have conducted a thorough ID-check to ensure that no minors enter the casino and has written to the Sands.
the Sands Macao released an official statement to the press insisting that it is strongly committed to responsible gambling.On Saturday.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 115 .” the statement concluded. “Sands Macao reaffirms its serious ongoing commitment in complying with all Macao laws including the exclusion of underage persons entering in its casino. and after detailed consideration by the regulator of the facts and the Macao laws. Sands Macao has fully complied with that direction. The statement reads: “Sands Macao assisted DICJ in every way. The Sands Macao did not give the winnings to the young girl immediately after she won the jackpot on February 20. arguing that she was too young to be in the casino in the first place. received a direction as to the manner in which the prize should be dealt with.
1999). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 116 . Learning Outcome After studying this chapter. The majority of gambling is social or recreational. Students will get to understand the impacts of problem gambling on the gamblers’ life. It will help students to differentiate between different levels of gambling and signs that might indicate a gambling problem. the spouse and the community. playing a game of chance for a prize).Topic 7 PROBLEM GAMBLING Objective This chapter will introduce students to problem gambling. It usually involves risk taking and in some cases requires particular knowledge or skills. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Define problem gambling Describe the levels of gambling and types of gamblers Discuss the prevalence of gambling based on demographic correlates Describe the stages of gambling addiction Discuss the impacts and costs of problem gambling Describe the various phases of gambling and recovery for both the gambler and the spouse of a compulsive gambler Describe specific gambling behaviour that can contribute to or indicate gambling problems.e. betting and participating in a lottery. although some people do make a living as professional gamblers. The UK Gambling Act 2005 describes it more specifically in terms of gaming (i. Introduction to Problem Gambling Gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance (National Research Council.
A national prevalence study found that 3 million adults are problem gamblers and 2. and personality disorders. mood disorders. including divorce. 65% to 80%) of cases of problem gamblers receiving counseling can be attributed to the availability and popularity of gambling machines outside casinos. The presence of a gambling facility within 50 miles roughly doubles the chance of problem and pathological gambling. the National Gambling Impact Study Commission found in its 1999 study that pathological gambling often occurs in conjunction with other behavioral problems. including substance abuse. Children of compulsive gamblers are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors such as smoking. 1991) In the UK. and using drugs. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’.A minority of people who gamble do so in ways which disrupts their personal or family lives. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. This ‘problem gambling’ can include a complex range of behaviours of varying severity. physical.’ Many families of pathological gamblers suffer from a variety of financial. the more likely he or she is to become a pathological gambler.5% of teens ages 16-17 can be classified as ‘problem or pathological gamblers’ with 2% being classified as ‘at risk. child abuse and neglect.e. (Hardoon and Derevensky 2002: 264. The incidence of problem gambling is highest amongst those that play gambling machines and participate in horse racing and the lowest for those partaking in lotteries. over gambling. a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble. see also Lesieur and Rosenthal. Research suggests that the earlier a person begins to gamble. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 117 . These children are also at risk of developing problem or pathological gambling themselves. and a range or other difficulties stemming from the severe financial hardship that commonly results from problem and pathological gambling. domestic violence.5 million adults are pathological gamblers. The National Adolescent Review found that 1. and emotional problems. drinking. A large percentage (i. with 15 million being at risk.
level 0 . it also describes the widest range and variety of gamblers. over gambling.gambler with no gambling problems. this conceptualisation can be used to better understand prevalence of gambling. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’. level 2 gamblers with some gambling problems. a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble.no gambling. As long as no gambling related problems occur the gamblers are classified as level 1.gamblers with significant gambling problems. Level 0 Gambling This refers to only people who have never gambled. In Countries where gambling is allowed. from those who bet $1 a year to those who visit casinos twice a month. They see the degree of gambling as occurring along a continuum. Level 1 Gambling This refers to social or recreational gambling where wagering has not resulted in any significant problems. Levels of Gambling The National Research Council in the USA has a conceptualisation of the degree to which people gamble in the general population.Summary While gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance. Due to this fact. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. A distinct classification is ‘past year level 0 gamblers’ used to describe who have not gambled in the past year. These levels can be distinguished in simple terms. this level includes a large majority of the population. problem gambling can include a range of behaviours of varying severity. Level 1 . Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 118 . and level 3 .
and in transition gambling. Otherwise there is great diversity within this group of the general population. Gambling has begun to interfere with daily functioning.D. Robert L. identified six types of gamblers: • Professional Gamblers Professional gamblers make their living by gambling and thus consider it a profession. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 119 . They patiently wait for the best bet and then try to win as much as they can. professional gamblers are not addicted to gambling. In the general population approximately 10 percent are Level 0.. From one percent to around 3 percent of the general population have significant gambling problems. Custer. Level two gambling can be referred to as at risk gambling.Level 2 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that some gambling related problems have developed. They are skilled in the games they choose to play and are able to control both the amount of money and time spent gambling. Level three gamblers are often referred to as disordered gamblers and problem gamblers as well as compulsive gamblers. that is non gamblers according to the NRC definition. entire paycheque spent on gambling. Some may have been criticised for how often or how much they gamble. Level 3 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that significant gambling related problems have developed. loss of home or job. Disordered gambling and problem gambling can be used to describe both level two and level three gamblers. M. At this level individuals began to show the signs and symptoms that result in a diagnosis of pathological gambling. Around 79 percent of the general population are level two recreational gamblers with no problems. Around 10 percent of the general population are Level 2 gamblers who have some gambling related problems. some may have begun to develop gambling related debts. The nature. Thus. frequency and degree of gambling problems are what distinguish level 2 from level three. some may have begun to borrow from household funds. What is certain is that individuals in this group never present themselves for treatment. Marriage break up.
Gambling provides an analgesic effect rather than a euphoric response. friends and employers are negatively affected.’ whose source of relaxation comes from playing golf. their families. • Serious Social Gamblers In contrast. They may attempt to use a compulsive gambling diagnosis as a legal defense. serious social gamblers invest more of their time in gambling. depression. sociability and entertainment. In addition. gambling is the most important thing in their lives. For them. They are identical to relief and escape drinkers. • Casual social gamblers Casual social gamblers gamble for recreation. As they continue to gamble. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 120 . compulsive gamblers may engage in activities such as stealing. They use gambling to escape from crisis or difficulties. This type of gambler could be compared to a ‘golf nut. yet these individuals place gambling second in importance to family and vocation. For them. Compulsive gambling is a progressive addiction that harms every aspect of the gambler's life. lying or embezzling which go against their moral standards. • Compulsive Gamblers Compulsive gamblers have lost control over their gambling. gambling may be a distraction or a form of relaxation. Relief and escape gamblers are not compulsive gamblers. Super Bowl bets. • Relief and Escape Gamblers Custer's fifth type. gamble to find relief from feelings of anxiety. Gambling is a major source of relaxation and entertainment. anger. They are likely to be involved in fixing horse or dog races.• Antisocial or Personality Gamblers In contrast to professional gamblers. or playing with loaded dice or marked cards. boredom or loneliness. antisocial or personality gamblers use gambling as a way to get money by illegal means. a yearly trip to Las Vegas and casual involvement in the lottery. Examples of such betting are the occasional poker game. Compulsive gamblers cannot stop gambling. relief and escape gamblers. Serious social gamblers still maintain control over their gambling activities. no matter how much they want to or how hard they try. Gambling does not interfere with family. social or vocational obligations.
the social interaction. From the consumers' perspective. and the thrill of anticipation. six types of gamblers can be identified based on their gambling habits. In addition. while also buying the hope of a win. and level 3 .gamblers with significant gambling problems. level 2 . Gambling therefore attracts individuals who derive pleasure from the venues.2 Explain the difference between a professional gambler and a pathological gambler.no gambling. a major benefit of gambling is recreation.gambler with no gambling problems.Benefits of Gambling From the above.1 How would casino staff be able to distinguish a level 2 gambler from a level 3 gambler? Activity 7. the risk of one's money. Level 1 . These are: • Professional gamblers • Antisocial or personality gamblers. • Casual social gamblers • Serious social gamblers • Relief and escape gamblers • Compulsive gamblers Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 121 . it can be seen that gambling does not affect all individuals negatively.gamblers with some gambling problems. level 0 . Summary the level of gambling individuals engage in can be distinguished in simple terms. Activity 7.
and across households. employment status. age. as well as trends over time. unemployed.S.’ (Petry) • Race Ethnic minorities (non white ethnicity in the U. • Age Age is inversely related to problem gambling in the general population. marketing or opinion research. • Social and Economic Status Lower social economic status is consistently associated with increased rated of disordered gambling. are both of interest. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 122 . home ownership. What is not clear is which influences which. Correlation does not mean cause or the direction of causality. Demographic Correlates of Disordered Gambling The individuals who make up the 11 to 13 percent of the general population who are either Level two or Level three gamblers have disproportionately more young. poorly educated. or the demographic profiles used in such research. divorced or separated. and even location. As with ethnicity there may be other issues that confuse or confound this finding i. disabilities. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government. income.e. Commonly-used demographics include race. less education being consistently associated with lower socioeconomic status. mobility educational attainment. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population. • Marital Status Disordered gamblers are consistently much more likely to be unmarried.Prevalence of Gambling Problems Prevalence of gambling will usually be analysed based on demographic characteristics. The correlation between these variables is clear. ‘Disordered gambling is young adults and adolescents than it is older adults. Divorce and Separation as likely to be results of disordered gambling. Distributions of values within a demographic variable.A or culturally alienated minorities else where) have been shown to be associate with the risk of developing disordered gambling habits.
That is if an opportunity presents itself they are much more likely to gamble. Alcohol) Substance abusers experience gambling problems more frequently than the general population. This likely has some relation to the role that poor impulse plays in addiction and how substance abuse affects impulse control. gaming and casino employees. While the relationship is unclear for university health centres the likely hood of poorly screened employees plus the exposure to gambling likely play a role in the rates among casino workers. • Education There is a general correlation between lower education achievement and problem gambling. This suggests that these individuals are becoming more generalised in their gambling behaviour. • Employees in Special Fields Specific studies revealed gambling problems in a larger number of employees than expected in the general population in institutional settings. • Older Adults Those over the age 61 years begin gambling as recreational and social activity. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 123 . While gambling problems are not generally a problem among older adults there are statistically recognisable increases after retirement. Prevalence Rates in Special Populations Four other special groups have been identified as populations over represented in Level two and there and therefore other members of those groups are more at risk of becoming gambling addicts. academic health centres. Marijuana. This is likely due to increased availability of non productive time. Petry (2005) • Substance Abusers (Cocaine. • Gamblers or People Taking Exit Polls at Casinos Who Also Purchased Lottery Tickets These gamblers are more likely to have gambling problems than the general population.• Gender Male gender is repeatedly and consistently shown to be correlated with problem gambling.
As the gambling progresses. gambling is considered a disorder. and • Unlawful behaviour may occur to support the habit and pay debts. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. poorly educated. Gambling Addiction A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. • Gambling continues. financial ruin and criminal behaviour to support the gambling habit. both personally and financially. the gambler begins to risk more.A? Summary Prevalence of gambling problems are usually analysed based on demographic characteristics. unemployed. • Lack for concern for society’s expectations and law. until all money is lost or the game is terminated. The most common symptoms of problem gambling are: • Occasional gambling becomes habitual. Stages of Gambling Addiction Naken (1988) identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 124 .3 What are the demographic correlates that profile the pathological gambler in the U. Disproportionately more young. When the above mentioned symptoms are present. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population are level 2 and level 3 gamblers. whether winning or losing. • Gambling until large debts are accumulated. This often leads to severe personal problems.Activity 7. A pathological gambler usually progresses from occasional gambling to habitual gambling. • Loss of control over time spent gambling.S.
• The gambler’s most important relationships become severely damaged or destroyed. • The gambler views gambling as harmless entertainment or as a release. • These changes are not yet obvious to others. power and control. Relationships with others are negatively affected (arguing with family and friends. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 125 .Problem gamblers go through the same stages. procrastination). Gambling becomes his or her master. • The gambler becomes more consumed with gambling. • The gambler’s productivity decreases (irresponsibility. The following changes take place at this stage: • The gambler’s whole lifestyle is affected by gambling. Stage Three – Losing Control The gambler loses all control. • The gambler feels a sense of euphoria and exhilaration. Stage Two – Lifestyle Change A gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. • Lies and deception become a regular part of the gambler’s life. • Chaos and complete loss of control characterize the gambler’s life. • Most of the gambler’s awake hours are spent gambling or taking steps to gamble. conflict with coworkers) • The gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. • The gambler has a new sense of competence. The following changes take place at this stage: • The euphoria from gambling is gone but the gambler keeps gambling anyway. The following changes take place at this stage: • Negative changes take place within the gambler. The recovery process will depend on the stage of addiction the person is in when seeking treatment. Stage One – Internal Change The gambler develops a dependence on gambling. • The gambler’s social world consists mostly of other gamblers. • The gambler becomes totally enslaved to gambling. • The gambler begins stealing money and using other dishonest means to gamble. • Gambling addiction dominates every facet of the gambler’s life.
or lack of time with the family. and giving up formerly important social or recreational activities in order to gamble. friends and work colleagues. depression or guilt over gambling.• • • • Legal problems mount (the gambler may be arrested for stealing or embezzling). This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. thinking about gambling for much of the time. but rather in stages. The gambler attempts suicide. The gambler begins contemplating suicide. • Gambling behaviours Chasing losses. thoughts of suicide or attempted suicide. spending more time or money on gambling than intended and making repeated but failed attempts to stop gambling. stress or depression. Summary A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. The gambler files for bankruptcy. anxiety. • Interpersonal problems Gambling-related arguments with family members. although not all of these aspects have to be present in a person who is regarded as being a problem gambler. Addiction does not happen overnight. use of gambling as an escape from boredom. relationship breakdown. The aspects include: • Personal and Psychological Characteristics Difficulties in controlling expenditure. Naken identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling Psychological Issues Associated With Problem Gamblers There are a number of features widely recognised as characteristics of problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 126 .
• Job and study problems Poor work performance. factors which are found to vary enormously across socioeconomic groups. because they are relative to each person’s available leisure time and disposable income.000 will probably not suffer significant adverse consequences. This is unlike alcohol or tobacco. Financial Loss is the main trigger for problem gamblers to give rise to a range of social and personal repercussions. passing bad cheques. where the harms appear to stem mainly from the quantity consumed. The primary. non-problem. • Legal problems Examples are misappropriation of money. In severe cases. • Financial effects Large debts. The financial and social impact of problem gambling is felt in the workplace. a high income gambler who loses $10. theft. unpaid borrowings and financial hardship for the individual or family members (either in the present. source of the problem associated with problem gambling is the financial loss which then has a range of repercussions for the social and personal life of the gambler. though not only. or in the future. in the case of assets that are liquidated to finance gambling). Problem gamblers are also more likely to ask for advances on their pay and to borrow from fellow employees. This compares to frequent. The level of expenditure and time spent on gambling activities does not mean that a person has a problem with gambling. lost time at work or studying and resignation or sacking due to gambling. where absenteeism. gamblers who report no such effects of gambling on their performance at work. in the case of high gambling commitments out of current earnings. these may result in court cases and prison sentences. lower productivity and job loss can be costly to both workers and employers.000 a year out of an income of $200. whereas the same expenditure out of an income of $50. and criminal behaviour due to gambling. Affordability is very important. For example. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 127 .000 will probably entail highly problematic outcomes.
fraud. absenteeism. Prison Bankruptcy Legal Neglect. loan sharks. divorce Community Services – loads on public purse and charities Work and study – poor performance. job loss Impact on the Family For non-problem gamblers. ill health. Fraud. and colleagues). Poor Performance Personal Work & Study Financial Debt. assets losses. Public purse Theft. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 128 . anxiety. suicide Financial – debts.1 Impact of problem gambling on a gambler’s life Research from around the world indicates that for every problem gambler. embezzlement. utilities are cut off and the grocery money dwindles. depression. But for problem gamblers. imprisonment Interpersonal – neglect of family. excessive spending on gambling has serious consequences for the family. up to 12 other people are affected (family. the money spent on gambling does not affect family finances to the extent that it is money put aside for entertainment. friends. The main impacts stem from the following: • • • • • • Personal – stress. Often it means that bills don’t get paid. bankruptcy Legal – theft. Asset Loss Impacts Community Service Interpersonal Charities. Violence Fig 7.Stress Job loss. domestic/other violence.
holidays. together with deception about their gambling and the anxiety. but health and mental distress for the partners. This. a pleasant home. including his family life. may have less control over the situations in which they find themselves. mood swings and stress accompanying their gambling. a serviceable car. Activity 7. Cost of crime. access to help. Problem gambling eats up resources that otherwise would be spent on household members – from family entertainment. Shift in spending away from small business. organised or white collar. and these commitments have severe consequences for the well being of their family. The severe financial impact of gambling will also lead to other problems such as debts. Increased welfare demand. The children of problem gamblers are affected in many ways and. Costs of Problem Gambling Problem gambling does not only have cost implications for the gambler and his/her family. The most immediate concern for children’s welfare in problem gambling households is poverty. maturity. petty. but also for the government and the community.Problem gamblers tend to devote large amounts of money and time on gambling. and even food. Summary Problem gambling impacts all aspects of a gambler’s life. unlawful borrowing of money and even crime and legal problems. The following are examples of the costs of gambling: • • • • • Cost of regulation. lacking the autonomy. Family breakdown. He will also expereince a range of personal and psychological characteristics such as anxiety and depression. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 129 . his work and his social life.4 Explain the psychological issues associated with a problem gambler. and power of adult partners. not only generate relationship frictions.
He will start increasing the amount and number of bets hoping to win the big one. He can’t stop gambling and borrows money legally but delays paying his debts. he starts gambling alone. He might blame others for his demise. only thinks about gambling. Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse The following are the various phases that a compulsive gambler will pass through. excitement prior to him winning – more frequent gambling.Governments and the local community often pay the costs of treating and supporting problem gamblers. occasional gambling – frequent winning. fantasies about winning the ‘Big One’. • Losing Phase Then comes the loosing phase. restless and withdrawn. starts bragging about his wins. • Winning Phase During the winning phase the gambler will experience instances from. His reputation gets affected. He has a marked increase in amount of money and time spent gambling. His home life becomes unhappy. both legal and illegally but are unable to repay his debts. develops unreasonable optimism and has prolonged episodes of loosing. starts losing time off from work and his personality starts to change – he becomes irritable. Panic sets in and he begins committing illegal acts. • Desperation Phase In the phase he starts borrowing heavily. At this stage. the gambling problem leads to the following: • Hopelessness • Suicide Thoughts & attempts • Arrests • Divorce • Alcohol • Emotional Breakdown • Withdrawal Symptoms Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 130 . He starts covering up and lying. He becomes alienated from his friends and family.
1 The phases that the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 131 .Chart 7.
Effects of Compulsive Gambling on the Spouse Compulsive gambling does not only devastate the gambler’s life. starts to question unpaid bills. • Stress Phase In this phase the spouse spends less time with family. attempts to control the gambling. puts more demands on the gambler. his self respect starts to return and his family and friends begin to trust him again. accept the remorse offered by the gambler. has a budget. starts paying the bills. spends more time with his family and his preoccupation with gambling decreases. has a restitution plan and improves his family life. returns to work. starts giving attention to others. • Growth Phase In this phase he starts dealing with problems promptly. examines his spiritual need. she will make excuses for the gambling. She starts isolating herself. starts understanding himself and starts sacrificing for others.• Critical Phase In this phase the gamblers realizes that he must stop gambling and has an honest desire for help. • Rebuilding Phase During this phase he develops new goals and new interests. avoids her family and friends. keep concerns to herself. has an insight into himself. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 132 . The spouse of a compulsive gambler will go through various phases through the onset and intensifying of the gambling problems. The following phases and impacts are identified: • Denial Phase The spouse will deny that any gambling is happening in the family. she will accept the increase in gambling. has less irritating behavior patterns. financial crises starts. He starts thinking responsibly. arguments start easily. but also that of their spouses and family members. provides bailouts. feels rejected. takes stock of his life. He accepts self weakness and strengths. easily reassured. starts worrying. starts taking decisions. Becomes more relaxed. considers the gambling problem as temporary.
She recognizes her self needs and has realistic planning and decision making. Her physical symptoms are filled with rage. She has better self esteem. her thinking becomes impaired. anxiety and panic. • Growing Phase During this phase she starts communicating with everyone.• Exhaustion Phase During this phase the spouse has intense resentment towards the gambler. She accepts her friends again. she becomes more affectionate and trusting.5 What is meant by the term ‘rebuilding phase’? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 133 . She does a personal inventory. starts sacrificing for others and she has a sense of achievement. The first three phases lead to the feelings listed below: • Helplessness • Hopelessness • Mental Breakdown • Substance Abuse • Divorce • Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts • Critical Phase During this phase she becomes hopeful and accepts the problem as an illness. She becomes more relaxed. • Rebuilding Phase In this phase the spouse deals with her resentments and begins problem solving. she gets confused and doubts her sanity. Activity 7. and starts sharing again. her self confidence returns. has a desire for help and her guilt diminishes. she has closeness with her friends and family and starts understanding others. starts helping others. she starts to meet her own needs. She stops giving money (bailouts).
2 The phases that the Spouse of the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 134 .Chart 7.
Some predictors of problem gambling are: • Gambling continuously. it must be brought under the attention of a manager or responsible gambling officer. and • Being nervous and edgy. When they notice clients behaving irrationally. Only two of these indicators need to be displayed for 80% confidence of problem gambling. • Leaving the venue to find money. • Crying after loosing.Summary The compulsive gambler will pass through the following stages through addiction and recovery: • Winning phase • Losing phase • Desperation phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growth phase The spouse of the compulsive gambler will experience a variety of personal and psychological effects that can be described through the following phases: • Denial phase • Stress phase • Exhaustion phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growing phase Gambling Behaviour Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 135 . • Playing very fast. Gambling behaviour displayed by male and female problem gamblers varies slightly.
and • Anti-social behaviour due to excessive loss of money. Intoxicated patrons must not be sold or supplied with liquor and may be removed from the premises. As part of the responsible gaming programme the gambling providers need to be aware of the implications of combining alcohol and gambling. The adoption of best practice principles can lessen gambling and liquor abuses. and improve the impact of problem gambling and alcohol related problems. • Excessive gambling risks. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 136 . The consumption of alcoholic beverages affects a person’s judgment. but also for the community. The consumption of alcohol together with gambling activities may lead to: • Social gamblers wagering more than they normally would. • More distortion about the time spent on gambling.Male problem gamblers can be identified with three of the following cues: • Gambling for more than 3 hours without taking a break • Sweating a lot • Difficulty in stopping at closing time • Displaying anger Female problem gamblers can be identified by two of the following cues: • Kicking machines • Being nervous or edgy • Gambling so intensely so as not to be aware of surroundings • Multiple ATM withdrawals • Being angry if machine or spot is taken Alcohol and Gambling Casinos make alcoholic beverages available to clients as part of the service provided. Alcoholic beverages should not be offered as an enticement to gamble. not only for the venue. or not chasing their losses. Intoxicated patrons must not be provided with gambling services. Gambling providers have to serve and promote alcoholic beverages responsibly. • Impaired judgment on when to stop.
In Singapore it will be possible to track the frequency of visits of local residents to the casino. increases. Frequency of Visit Frequency of visits can be one of the first indications of gambling problems. they could be tracked through the staff members that keep daily records of visitors. Whether or not gambling creates.‘Low Roller’ come into play. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 137 . Amount of Spend One of the biggest problems faced by the casino is the actual amount of money that clients should be allowed to spend. visits not only to casinos but also to any other form of gambling. horse racing.One characteristic of many problem gamblers is the high degree of involvement in other forms of addictive behaviour such as alcohol or drug abuse. Clients who are unable to control the amount they spend in the casino are at high risk of developing gambling problems. lotto as well as sports books.g. When it becomes a responsible gaming issue is unfortunately once the client has spent his life savings or entire salary. there is no way to monitor the amount of money in the client’s bank account. This entrance criteria is strictly been put into place to protect the person who may have the underlying tendencies to become a habitual gambler. but the tracking of a client can only be done if the client is a member of the player tracking system. Alternatively if clients are not part of a player tracking system. or get to know the client’s by name. e. as they would be required to produce identification upon entry and pay an entrance fee. Although it is possible to monitor the amount spent by a client. Casinos can track the frequency of visits through their reward systems. This is where the term ‘High Roller’. internet. The problem becomes twofold as at this stage the client could become a social burden to the country of his residency. When a gambler starts to become an irresponsible gambler. The amount of spend is also how the casino judge the value of their clientele. or contributes to other addictive behaviours is a matter of some debate. The onus has always been on the client to control his spend. as is the question of which addiction comes first.
there are no exit figures required.g. after work and again after evening dinner. as well as length of play that they record in the reward system. But casinos. Responsible gambling ethics suggest that the casino should inform the clients when they are visiting too often or spending too much time in the casino. Gambling providers’ player tracking rewards programs are set to work out the clients’ average spend within the casino or gambling area. before work. Although this might seem extravagant. as businesses. Management has to balance business objectives with responsible gambling ethics.In some instances a client could visit a service area several times a day. e. these visitations would show a trend towards problem gambling. Length of Visit The length of visit is very difficult to ascertain within the casino industry as the only way the casino can gauge the length of visit is by the entrance figures on a daily basis. The onus is on the gambling provider to have the responsibility to check all the facilities for clients/patrons who may be lounging around and not being responsible in the vacating of the premises. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 138 . From the example it shows that the customer could visit the integrated resort or any casino around four times in one day. Another problem is that one casino might not be aware of the number of visits a client makes to another casino. lunchtime. Although the Singapore Control Act requires that there is a record kept of the entrance figures for visitation to the integrated resorts. The second part of the downfall side of the length of visit is that the client could give false information when playing on the live gaming tables. The downfall of the system is that the client could be in the establishment for a longer period of time than what the casino management know or take notice of. are still to meet the revenue budgets set. This figure in the database takes the following into consideration: • Time spent gambling • Average bet • Percentage hold of the game being played • Amount of visits that the client visits.
Behavioural patterns that can be monitored by casinos include the frequency of visits. the length of visits and the amount spent.Summary Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. The consumption of alcohol influences the gambler’s behaviour in various ways and gambling providers has to be ethical with regards the service and promotion of alcoholic beverages. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 139 .
The gambling service providers are positive about there approach to the clients when recommending support for the clients who have a gambling problem. These are recognised internationally and provide a service to the gambling industry as such. students should be able to: • • • Discuss the need and demand for problem gambling treatment programmes.Topic 8 PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the treatment and support programmes available for problem gamblers. Students will get to appreciate the need and demand for such services. Support programmes can be in the form of medical treatment. they all attempt to help the client resolve the issues that he has with gambling. governmental organisations as well as private organisations. Introduction to Support Programmes Throughout the casino environment there coexists various different forms of problem gambling support services. Although these problem gambling support services take different approaches to the gamblers problem. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter. Describe access and referrals to treatment programmes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 140 . support groups such as Gamblers Anonymous. Provide examples of counselling and treatment programmes and discuss the work done by treatment providers.
Nearly 38. Gambling addicts soar by 25% under Labour's lax laws as average debts rises to £17. October 16. 2008.000 in the previous year. have not always been of the highest quality and compliance has often been uneven. Secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry have included the development and implementation of employee training programmes. Some gambling providers however. gambling providers in the UK are not compelled to supply patrons with help and advice about gambling problems. and have been reluctant to engage directly in interventions. Currently. In addition.a By Ian Drury. UNITED KINGDOM -. Although advertising of gambling is very restricted at present. The Demand for Counselling and Treatment From the article below. It supports recent findings that suggest many problem gamblers have transient problems that often selfcorrect. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 141 .000 p. observations from abroad appear to demonstrate that efforts by the gaming industry to address gambling addiction tend to compete with heavily financed gaming industry advertising campaigns that may work directly to counteract their effectiveness (Griffiths. 2005e).The Gaming Industry and Gambling Addiction Services The gaming industry has typically viewed pathological gambling as a rare mental disorder that is predominantly physically and/or psychologically determined. have taken the initiative to address the issue of gambling addiction within their businesses. such as employee training programmes and exclusion programmes. Implementation of secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry. mandatory and voluntary exclusion programmes and gambling venue partnerships with practitioners and government agencies to provide information and improved access to formal treatment services.000 people called a betting addiction hotline last year compared with just over 30.The number of problem gamblers seeking help has rocketed by 25 per cent since Labour controversially relaxed the laws. this is likely to become much more liberal over the next decade. the demand for treatment of gambling related problems in the UK can be seen. Mail on Sunday.
roulette and other card games often played on internet sites. It must also be remembered that not all problem gamblers seeks treatment. The number of counseling sessions offered by Gamcare increased to 9. a small proportion . Around 50 per cent placed their bets in bookmakers' shops while nearly one in seven gambled on the internet. GamCare is just one organisation in the UK offering counselling to problem gamblers. There were also 1. Another fifth played fruit machines. The number of gamblers seeking treatment is much higher as some of them will also get counselling through Gamblers Anonymous and other organisations. Thirty per cent of those seeking help via the website said they had problems with 'table games' . The number of problem gamblers is much higher than the number seeking treatment.And the average amount of debt soared from £13.000 in 12 months. usually found in betting shops.800 to £17. Worryingly. In terms of age.407 requests for help to online advisers.594 last year. Women problem gamblers were more likely to fritter away money on 'games of chance' – table games. those seeking help were aged between 26 and 35. Seven per cent of callers admitted to owing more than £100. The number of women problem gamblers ringing the helpline jumped from 13 to 18 per cent to comprise nearly a fifth of callers.806 calls to its helpline last year was a 25 per cent increase on 2006. or staking money over the counter on horses. Almost 60 per cent of those calling by phone were involved in gambling on fixed odds terminals. Demographics of Gamblers Seeking Treatment Nancy Petry’s research on treatment seeking gamblers is in sharp contrast to the demographic profile of heavy and problem gamblers.000.were under 18. Gamcare's annual report said the record 37. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 142 .between 3 and 4 percent . bingo or scratchcards. Most commonly. up 36 per cent. greyhounds and football. the demographic material suggests that middle aged gamblers are much more likely to seek treatment.500. we can guess (hypothesize) that the middle aged problem gambler has more to lose than the younger gambler. fruit machines. up nearly £4. When we add to this the results for married and employed individuals in the light of the process of addiction we will examine later.poker.
Summary Responsible gambling practices require gambling providers to act responsibly by referring problem gamblers to treatment and counselling programmes. Unlike the profile of the problem gambler where they are over represented there are few young people seeking treatment for gambling problems. Not all problem gamblers will seek treatment.• Age Younger gamblers are underrepresented in the demographic group of gamblers seeking treatment. Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths People suffering from problem gambling can access free or selffunded treatment via a number of routes. There is a serious need for treatment and counselling as the number of problem gamblers are increasing every year. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 143 . • Marital status Married gamblers are more likely to seek treatment than unmarried gamblers. • Socioeconomic status Education: The more educated a level three gambler the more likely they were to seek treatment Income: Higher income level three gamblers appear to be more likely to seek treatment than lower income gamblers. • Ethnicity In American demographic studies it is found that Caucasians are more likely to seek treatment than other ethnicities. this might be against the gambling providers’ business interest and this is one of the reasons why gambling providers do not always live up to the expectations of responsible gambling practices. However. • Gender Men are heavily over represented in treatment seeking population.
will refer the person to the local addiction specialist for an assessment and a treatment plan.1 What is meant by court referrals? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 144 . Activity 8. One of the problems with this particular referral path is that the problem gambler may not have any motivation to stop. Often treatment is provided on a ‘shared-care’ basis. and even if the GP is not able to provide the treatment.Self-referrals Problem gamblers can self-refer by contacting one of the many available community addiction centres and clinics where they can have an individual consultation before commencing a treatment programme. appropriate prescriptions and treatment for addiction-related health problems. prefer to be looked after at a specialist addiction unit because of the anonymity this allows and the fact that everyone is there for the same reason (BBC Health: Help from your GP). This may involve the GP providing certain parts of treatment. and social workers working with them. however. a person is given the choice of where he or she is treated. while the specialist addiction team provides ongoing monitoring and counseling. Where possible. a GP may not necessarily refer someone to another centre. GP referrals Some GPs have undergone additional training in addiction management and run special clinics within their own surgery. Some providers will allow individuals to drop in without an appointment. When this is the case. Court referrals It is also worth mentioning that there are an increasing number of court cases involving problem gambling and that judges often give non-custodial sentences alongside referral for gambling treatment. These support centres can also be reached through the internet and by contacting them on toll-free hotlines. counsellors. arrangements can often be made for the person to be seen by the community specialist addiction nurse or counselor within the general practice. Many GPs. These units have specialist addiction management psychiatrists and nurses. for example. Other people however. It is not unknown for a problem gambler to say they will attend gambling treatment as a way of helping them get a reduced sentence. Some prefer to be looked after in the familiar surroundings of their general practice.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 145 . Gamblers meet on a weekly basis. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) was founded in California in 1957. or ask for help. Studies suggest that only 8 % of GA attendees achieve a year of abstinence. It is one of the most well-known and most frequently used resources for excessive gamblers. which was inspired by Alcoholics Anonymous. This is a self help group that has a set of principles which they are guided by. These include self-referrals. Gamblers Anonymous is the most popular intervention for problem gambling.000 chapters exist in the U. some evidence suggests that GA may not be very effective. Counselling and Treatment Providers Gamblers Anonymous (GA) The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous.S. The contactable references are through either the internet or newspapers (media). Marital and family treatments. Retrospective reports indicate that 70 to 90 % of GA attendees drop out and that less than 10 % become active members. it seems to have beneficial effects for only a minority of participants. even relate to other gamblers who are experiencing or have experienced the same things. GP referrals and court referrals. This organisation. By participating in GA meetings. Combining professional therapy and GA participation may improve retention and abstinence. However. while GA may help some people achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. including participation in Gam-Anon. and about 1. thus decreasing their feelings of isolation.Summary The compulsive gambler or client has at his disposal different ways of which he can access treatment. Moreover. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. Thus. functions according to the same principles. only 8 % of attendees achieve a year or more of abstinence. the spousal component of GA. gamblers can open up. discuss their gambling problems. have not been sufficiently evaluated.
We made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of this Power of our own understanding. 6. We came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to a normal way of thinking and living. quite often. These questions are below: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 146 . We sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him. These questions are provided to help the individual decide if he or she is a compulsive gambler and wants to stop gambling.Gamblers Anonymous is essentially based on the medical model – in other words. success is complete abstinence from gambling for a period of at least two years. promptly admitted it. GA groups are a very important resource for gamblers who. Having made an effort to practice these principles in all our affairs. we tried to carry this message to other compulsive gamblers. 4. We were entirely ready to have these defects of character removed. Gamblers who join undertake a 12step program during which gamblers reflect on their problem and modify their behaviour. 7. 12. 9. These 12 steps are presented below. 10. find comfort and understanding within them. We made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to them all. except when to do so would injure them or others. praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out. 8. 3. We admitted we were powerless over gambling – that our lives had become unmanageable. We make direct amends to such people wherever possible. We humbly asked God (of our understanding) to remove our shortcomings. According to GA. its members see gambling as an irreversible disease and promote total abstinence. 1. We made a searching and fearless moral and financial inventory of ourselves. 5. We continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong. We admitted to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. 2. Gamblers Anonymous offers the following questions to anyone who may have a gambling problem. 11.
has become the leading authority on the provision of counselling.1. information and advice to anyone suffering through a gambling problem. 3. an illegal act to finance gambling? Did gambling cause you to have difficulty in sleeping? Do arguments. 9. 18. boredom or loneliness? Have you ever committed. 15. or considered committing. 13. 5. 20. 16. 10. 11. Did you ever lose time from work or school due to gambling? Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy? Did gambling affect your reputation? Have you ever felt remorse after gambling? Did you ever gamble to get money with which to pay debts or otherwise solve financial difficulties? Did gambling cause a decrease in your ambition or efficiency? After losing did you feel you must return as soon as possible and win back your losses? After a win did you have a strong urge to return and win more? Did you often gamble until your last dollar was gone? Did you ever borrow to finance your gambling? Have you ever sold anything to finance gambling? Were you reluctant to use "gambling money" for normal expenditures? Did gambling make you careless of the welfare of yourself or your family? Did you ever gamble longer than you had planned? Have you ever gambled to escape worry. trouble. 17. 19. GamCare GamCare. 8. 2. 6. advice and practical help in addressing the social impact of gambling in the UK. GamCare provides support. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 147 . disappointments or frustrations create within you an urge to gamble? Did you ever have an urge to celebrate any good fortune by a few hours of gambling? Have you ever considered self destruction or suicide as a result of your gambling? Most compulsive gamblers will answer yes to at least seven of these questions. 14. 4. a registered charity. 7. 12.
they build their own support networks and develop their own personal relapse prevention strategies. therefore new clients will almost certainly have been severely abusing the trust of others to support their habit. with the help of the others in treatment and their therapy sessions. Gordon House Association works only with the most severe gambling addicts. This is not so much due to differences in the various addictions themselves but due to the associated behaviors. Over the time they remain in treatment they are 'weaned' off this high level of support as. that led to their gambling in the past. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 148 . Additionally.GamCare takes a non-judgemental approach to gambling. and situations. Gordon House – United Kingdom Gordon House Association believes that a severe addiction to gambling. Those in residential treatment are provided with 'minders' or support workers who help them budget and avoid those places. Gordon House Association also provides an Outreach Support Service and an Internet Counseling Service. They strive to develop strategies that will: • Improve the understanding of the social impact of gambling • Promote a responsible approach to gambling • Address the needs of those adversely affected by a gambling dependency GamCare operates the national telephone helpline for anyone affected by a gambling problem and operates a network of both face-to-face and online counselling and support services. GamCare works to support the development and implementation of responsible practice by the gambling industry. needs an inherently different approach to treatment. Therefore Gordon House Association provides an extremely high level of support to clients early in recovery. although having some parallels to a substance-based addiction. They do not wish to restrict the choices or opportunities for anyone to operate or engage in gambling opportunities that are available legally and operated responsibly.
Their dedicated and professional team of counsellors is all trained under a special gambling intervention programme run by the Community Addictions Management Programme of Mental Health and MCYS.Singapore Care Corner Counselling Centre is one of the 2 pilot agencies appointed by the Ministry of Community Development. Youth and Sports (MCYS) to provide specialised gambling counselling and support services for gambling addicts as well as their immediate families. The Internet Counseling Service is hosted on the Gordon House Association's Website and provides confidential individual face-to-face counseling for those with access to the necessary computer equipment and voice or text service to those without such access or those requiring total anonymity. ex-residents. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 149 . Their main objectives are.The Outreach Support Service provides an individual face-to-face service in the home of the client and group support sessions at each of the residential centres for those able to travel. support. Care Corner Counselling . and • To introduce an alternative healthy lifestyle to the addicts. There are also 'chat rooms' where trained counselors can answer questions and membership groups. they pride themselves as the first port of call for clients that need help. • To understand the root of the problem and introduce ways to address and cope with the issues. As a leader in the community services. e. This has allowed them to develop treatment interventions that are purely gambling focused and address the extremes of associated behaviours. Gordon House has over 31 years' experience of providing specialised support and treatment to acutely addicted gamblers. unique 'forums' wherein clients can discuss and learn to deal with the reasons why they compulsively gambled and the extremes to which they have gone to support their gambling. where they can seek. without it being 'sensationalised' or misunderstood. Because they specialise in gambling they create therapeutic communities that consist entirely of addicted gamblers.g. • To reduce the frequency of problem gambling. Their gambling addiction solutions include a gambling hotline as well as clinical counselling. and give.
They run two Gambling Helplines and a General Addictions Helpline to provide support. • Individual. offer information. social and psychological. • Assessment of severity of the addiction. professionals. families treatment. can call their help lines for immediate support. • Medically supervised Detoxification Management. If services are required that cannot be provided by CAMP. and advice to callers. eating disorders.The Care Corner Centre provides: • A meeting place of safety and learning for recovering people. Anybody with questions or concerns about gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 150 . the counsellors will refer callers to the relevant agencies where you can get the help they need. alcoholism. and motivational assessment. caring nurturing environment. • A hub for recovery support groups and 12 Step fellowships. drug addiction. Mental Status Exam. The helpline is manned by a team of trained counsellors. CAMP – Community Addictions Management Programmes – Singapore CAMP helps anyone suffering from an addiction related problem. Relapse Prevention Training. • Medical support and medication during treatment to prevent withdrawal and anxiety. The services offered by CAMP include: • Counselling and rehabilitation (with pharmacotherapy when necessary). which includes Medical Assessment. and • An opportunity for the renewal and transformation of family relationships. They also run courses for professionals interested in studying addictions and treatment. • Counselling using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. • A holistic. and Psycho-dynamic Therapy when necessary. All calls will be treated as confidential. information and emotional support. The counsellors will listen attentively and provide advice. or any other addiction. 12-Step Support. student and volunteers. The center addresses all addictions including gambling. when necessary. • A resource centre for recovering people. internet and gaming. Group and Family Therapy.
Training and educational programmes. All therapists follow the six-session treatment programme developed for this programme by the medical director. Preventive education. It comprises a free help-line available 24 hours a day staffed by telephone counsellors specially trained to deal with gambling problems. People who call this Centre are offered a free diagnostic consultation with one of 39 clinical psychologists or psychiatric social workers with specialist training in gambling problems located at one of thirteen centres around the country. If the diagnosis warrants it. In some cases.2 Explain in detail what Gamblers Anonymous is and how it works. Clients are also offered professional assistance with legal and financial management problems where needed. All this is paid for by the RGP (Responsible Gambling Program). Referral Services. Activity 8.3 What is the difference between Gamblers Anonymous and GamAnon? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 151 . Activity 8. understanding the nature of the problem. patients may then join a course of six specially designed individual outpatient sessions which are focused on overcoming denial.• • • • • Peer led support groups. Treatment in Private Clinics Gambling addicts can also seek treatment in private clinics. where the client is adjudged a danger to themselves or to others provision is made for in-patient treatment at one of three designated addiction treatment clinics. Outpatient follow-up. for example the Kenilworth Addiction Treatment Centre in South Africa. repairing relationships with families and accessing self-help groups.
Other programmes available in the UK are GamCare and Gordon House. involving £3. according to sources close to the bank. had fallen into the classic trap which has ensnared so many other gamblers . and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent.4 Case Study – Bank Fraud Excerpts of Problem Gambling from the South African Responsible Gambling News Letter 2008 issue Nine The Ultimate Problem Gambler Is Jerome Kerviel accused of perpetrating the biggest bank fraud in history. In Singapore Care Corner and Camp offer counselling services. As Gordon Rayner and Peter Allen of the Daily Telegraph newspaper reported. Activity 8. Kerviel kept insisting that he had been acting in the best interests of the bank. gamblers meet on a weekly basis. “the fact that he had already lost more than a billion pounds appeared lost on him. the chief executive of corporate and investment banking at Société Générale. and if he was given time it would make a lot of money for the bank.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 152 . 31. Kerviel.7 billion. In this programme.he chased his losses.” They quoted one insider as saying that Kerviel “seems to have been some kind of Walter Mitty character who had managed to convince himself that he had come up with a great new trading strategy. gambling addicts can also receive professional treatment at private clinics worldwide. Besides counselling services.Summary The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous. discuss their gambling problems." But “in fact. betting more and more money in the hope of recovering what he had lost until the losses spiraled out of control. actually just a problem gambler of a different type? When Jean-Pierre Mustier. Mr. put the 31-year-old French junior trader through a six-hour grilling (this was before the full extent of the loss was realised).
which specializes in the futures markets. but as the markets plunged in the early part of this week this trebled before the bank was able to shut down the fake accounts he had created. using up to £60 billion of the bank's money to bet on whether markets would rise or fall. but made little impact and was restricted to the most basic type of trading. they believe that Mr. In 2005 he was promoted to the Delta One trading team. At the time the losses were around £1. Rayner and Allen quoted bank sources as saying that there was no evidence that he was out for personal gain. “instead.Kerviel has come across as something of a mystery man. He was allegedly able to hack into the bank's computers to hide his trading till he made a basic slip-up on Friday. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 153 . Kerviel.2 billion. lists sailing as a hobby in his CV and was so accomplished at judo that he trained children in his spare time.a modest sum for a trader who had been at the bank for eight years – was desperately trying to get noticed. According to colleagues he is a “computer genius” with unspecified “personal problems” who speaks fluent English. None of these facts give a clue. who was earning around £75 000 . when he failed to disable the bank's automatic alert system and his irregular trading suddenly showed up. as to his motivation for embarking on his unauthorised trading spree.” Kerviel graduated from the Université Lumière in Lyon with a master's degree in finance and landed a job in the bank's compliance department in 2000. however. So in December last year he allegedly decided to start trading by himself..
which not only agreed to settle Wessels’s bill but offered him a 12-month complimentary package which would enable him to SMS to his heart’s content — although Virgin Mobile executive head of corporate affairs Nicholas Maweni added that we’ll make sure he can’t use it to enter competitions or partake in any premium offerings. telling me to carry on entering. in the shape of a concession which would allow him to pay off the amount. I got swept up. But he sent off an average of 320 SMSs a day in the last two weeks of 2007. Wessels is willing to enter treatment and told reporter Wendy Knowles that Virgin Mobile’s rescue foray had come as a complete relief. although it tossed him a bone. by SMS-ing "Stop" or "Opt out" to 30800. I really thought I was going to win a car. What Wessels obviously did not know was that the Vodacom website instructs subscribers on how to avoid the temptation that nearly brought him to ruin. In addition. The SMSs kept coming. When a consternated Wessels confessed that he had no way of paying it. 5 Case Study – Text Messages SMS’s and Gambling The law will soon provide protection for people like Hendricus Wessels. the pensioner who ended up owing Vodacom R48 000 because he responded like Pavlov’s legendary dog to SMSs urging him to keep entering and win a BMW car. Virgin Mobile had offered him a session with the Western Cape National Responsible Gambling Programme. Then to his rescue came Virgin Mobile. If Wessels had responded like the dog by salivating when he heard a bell ring no harm would have been done. I have learned a big lesson. His quest for a new set of wheels ground to a halt on New Year’s Eve when Vodacom informed him of the staggering bill he had run up. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 154 . But even this meant financial ruin. An understandably relieved not to mention sadder and wiser.Activity 8. Vodacom promptly suspended his service. Maweni said. so to speak.
Gavin Meiring. according to the station’s managing director. which is updated every month. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 155 .1 MILLION IN RADIO FUNDS Missing former radio station financial manager. who disappeared at the end of February after auditors started investigating the station’s financial affairs. sending a text message. was cited as a respondent. His wife. to 34385.org. Activity 8. Mario Roos. A portion of this money was then paid to internet gambling operators and. You could still get unsolicited SMSs from companies you already do business with. the amount of missing cash might be even higher than stated. Entering your name on this list. according to papers submitted to the Cape High Court. email. Otherwise contact the DMA’s call centre on 0861 362 362 or log on to www. and it will soon be law for any company embarking on a direct marketing campaign . paid for his gambling debts by misusing his firm’s electronic banking and credit-card system to transfer more than R7-million into his own bank account. is as simple as well. The court granted a provisional sequestration order against Roos.to run their "hit list" against the Opt-Out register and ensure that any names on the DMA register are deleted from their database.whether by SMS. Simply send an SMS to the DMA. so you’ll have to send a specific "Stop" SMS to put an end to those.dmasa. till recently an employee of Radio Heart 104.9. such as your bank or cellphone network. 6 Case Study – Embezzlement Gambler allegedly grabbed R7. followed by your ID number. In terms of the order. According to the Burger newspaper Roos dropped out of sight on 29 February after attending a rugby match at Newlands. 35 000 South Africans have registered on the Opt-Out Register of the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) since March last year. telephone or snail mail .According to Nowles. Roos and his wife had to appear in court on 9 May to show cause why it should not be made final. Monique.
it is clear that he was a regular gambler and used (the station’s) credit-card to pay off his gambling debts. Meiring stated that between 2 January and 29 February Meiring made 36 transfers to his bank account.4 billion in a 14-month spree. According to Meiring.A gambling addict is suing Crown Casino for allegedly targeting him when he was banned from every casino in Australia. the Foschini Group. Craigie and chief operating officer John Williams face serious claims of unconscionable conduct.5-million from Radio Igaga’s account. The case is looking to be a landmark case for the Australian gaming industry. The theft was not discovered until Meiring became suspicious from media reports about Roos’s disappearance and reviewed the station’s electronic banking transactions.4 billion AUSTRALIA -.of which R256 213. amounting to R2408 709. Radio Igaga. to make transfers from the accounts of Heart 104. Activity 8. when he was hired. 7 Case Study – Exclusion Man sues Crown Casino after gambling $1.Meiring testified in court papers that he failed to report for work on March 3. It had been established that on 1 March he had transferred another R4. He said the station had been unaware of the fact that Roos was under investigation for the theft of R61 000 from his former employers.54 was used to pay off his gambling debts. known as Cash Focus. leading him to gamble $1. Crown Casino chief executive Rowen Craigie was allegedly part of a plan to entice chronic gambler Harry Kakavas back to the Southbank venue. and it was then established that he had flown to London on a business-class ticket on March 1.95 . Gavin Meiring said Roos had been registered and authorised to use the banking system.9FM and its sister station. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 156 . which will see Crown and senior executives Mr.
allegedly thought up by Crown management after it was discovered he had lost a large amount in Las Vegas casinos. Despite the warning email correspondence from October 2004 reveals a plan to lure Mr.According to amended Supreme Court documents Mr.." In January 2005 Mr. Doggert allegedly told Mr. Kakavas in a separate criminal trial. a Gold Coast property developer. Kakavas. Kakavas. "Williams asked Doggert to contact the plaintiff (Kakavas) because Williams wanted to look clean if the plaintiff's exclusion order could not be lifted. On a number of occasions he talked about committing suicide. In one recorded conversation Crown senior executive Richard Doggert is alleged to have revealed that he had been told to invite Mr. Kakavas in a condition which caused me some concern. who is suing the casino for damages. also reveals that the casino was aware of Mr. Bill Horman. Regards JW (John Williams). Williams. Bill (Horman) and Howard (Aldridge) get a draft copy of the letter in which it would take for Harry to let back (sic) to play at Crown. I will then discuss with Rowen (Craigie). A statement from Crown's general manager of community affairs. wore a hidden recording device that captured Crown's senior managers allegedly trying to lure him back to the casino's baccarat tables. The statement. "Harry Kakavas has apparently just dropped between 3 and 4 million in Las Vegas last week. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 157 ." Mr. A separate recording Mr. warned of several suicide threats from the property developer." according to the amended statement of claim. Kakavas was allegedly contacted by Mr. Kakavas that Crown management was aware of an interstate exclusion order from 2004. Horman said. back to the casino by Mr. Williams. but did not "give a monkey's" about what happened beyond Victorian borders. prepared for Mr. Kakavas's gambling addiction and related mental issues as early as 1998. "Over a period of time I observed Mr. Kakavas back to Melbourne.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 158 . Enjoy the facilities first. Mr. Start slowly and the jet will come later.4 billion. Kakavas is seeking more than $50 million in damages. Kakavas finally returned to Crown he lost $36. We don't want you to start too quickly because you've had a problem in the past." the court documents claim Mr. during which he allegedly turned over $1. 2009. with the case expected to be heard in the middle of next year."We want you to come back. but we want you to start (gambling) slowly.7 million over 14 months. When Mr. Williams said.
Appendix One FORMS Singapore pools application for exclusion form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 159 .
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 160 . printable from the internet for their clients.Suffolk (UK) exclusion forms.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 161 .
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 162 .
Application to be removed from the exclusion program Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 163 .
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 164 .
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 165 .
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 166 .
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 167 .
Remittance of unlawful winnings form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 168 .
R. Old West Gambling & Gaming .& Cornelius. W.html.. et al. (accessed 31/12/08) Friedman. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues.bcvc. B.edu/~cyberlaw/cls01/oliver2. K.. (accessed 31/12/08) International Gaming Institute.howstuffworks. (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 169 .. Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee. W. How Online Gambling Works: Paying to Play.. D. (1996).uk/UploadDocs/publicati ons/Document/LCCP%20June%202007. (accessed 31/12/08) Gomez-Mejia. Balkin.net/faro/gambling.. at http://entertainment.net/faro/gambling.pdf. Management – People. M. Publisher & ISBN Ed Grabianowski. McGraw-Hill. at http://www. & Cardy. ISBN 0471129275 James Oliver. Old West Gambling & Gaming. Internet Gambling.Source of References: • Eade.htm. ISBN 0787245186 Howard. (1997). Performance. ISBN 007111131X Hashimoto. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry. 04 June 2004. Will History Repeat Itself. Pearson ISBN 013400177X Eadington..D.com/onlinegambling3. Casino Management: Past Present and Future. The Gaming Industry.(1999). (1998).gov. from the Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee Web site: http://www. John Wiley and Sons.htm. Kendall Hurd Publishing.uiowa. (2005). Citadel Press. Casino Management.htm.gamblingcommission. (accessed 31/12/08) Howard. (1981).A History of Saloon Gambling in the Old West. http://www.. ISBN 081840311X Gambling Commission UK.bcvc.L. J. Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice June 2007 available online at http://www. Change. (2004). M.
9781591471738 National Qualifications for Improvement of Services.gov. Casino Operations Management.mcys.mcys. Student Notes Report of Survey on Participation in Gambling Activities among Singapore Residents . (accessed 31/12/08) Munting.nv. USA – Provide responsible gambling services (accessed 31/12/08) Nevada Gaming Commission and State Gaming Control Board. (1996). Youth And Sports.pdf.gov.gaming. R. American Psychological Association.• Kilby. John Wiley and Sons. http://www. Responsible Conduct of Gambling Course. (2004). (accessed 31/12/08) NSW Office of Liquor. available online at http://statutes. Youth and Sports – 28 May 2008 Republic Of Singapore Government Gazette Acts Supplement.pdf. Petry (2005).J. (2008). Singapore CASINO CONTROL ACT 2006.2008 – Ministry of Community Development. 2008 available online at http://www. Gaming and Racing. Manchester University Press. Gaming Statutes and Regulations.sg/non_version/cgibin/cgi_legdisp. (accessed 31/12/08) Ministry Of Community Development. (2005). ISBN 1591471737.J. ISBN 0131926721 Nancy M. (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 170 . online at www.sg/MCDSFiles/Resource/Materials/Gambli ngSurveyReport2008.&Fox. An Economic and Social History of Gambling..gov/stats_regs. Report Of Survey On Participation In Gambling Activities Among Singapore Residents.agc.sg/MCDSFiles/Resource/Materials/Gambli ngSurveyReport2008.gov... Economic and Social History of Gambling. ISBN 0471266329 Ministry of Communication Youth and Sports.htm.pl?actno=2006-ACT-10N&doctitle=CASINO%20CONTROL%20ACT%202006%0A&date=l atest&method=part&sl=1. (2008).
indiana. D. Northern Territory – Responsible Gambling Manual. Hammer.newsfactor.pdf. Does Internet Gambling Strengthen the U.. ISBN 0139795685 Ryan D.• Responsible Gambling Advisory Committee. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations.. L. (accessed 31/12/08) Western Cape Gaming and Racing Board – Summary Report on Responsible Gambling in The Western Cape: Main findings & Comparisons -2002 • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 171 .gov. Economy? Don’t Bet on It.pdf. available online at http://nt.xhtml?story_id=1210000309E 8&page=6. http://www.com/story. (1999).S. at http://www.& Marshall. (accessed 31/12/08) Sharing Recovery Through Gamblers Anonymous by Inc Staf Gamblers Anonymous Publis (1984) – ISBN 0-917839-00-5 Sixto Ortiz Jr.law..edu/fclj/pubs/v54/no1/Hammer. (accessed 31/12/08) Rudd..au/justice/licenreg/documents/gaming/NT_Respo nsible_Gambling_Manual_-_V. Pearson. (2006) Viva E-Vegas: The State of Online Gambling.20_-_31Mar03. (2001).
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