Responsible Gambling DHCM 183

The Official Guide

Boston Business School 520 North Bridge Road #03-01 Wisma Alsagoff Singapore 188742

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The Guide is a useful resource for those seeking to gain the internationally recognised CTH qualifications. The Guide however must be used together with the recommended textbooks.

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 Topic 4 – PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS .................. 68 Availability of Counselling................................... 30 Topic 3 – GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES......................................9 Gambling....... 66 Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling ..................... 45 Facilities .... 87 Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders...............................5 Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes ....................................................... 1 Topic 1 – THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY......................... 59 Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) ............................ 94 ................................................................................. 81 Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 ....................................... 25 Code of Practice ................................................... 71 Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability ................................................................... Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling .. 5 Profile of the Gambling Industry ............................................................................................... 81 Introduction to Exclusion Orders ............................................................................................................................................... 58 Display of Clocks ........................................................................................................................................................................ 60 Creating a Comfortable Environmental ............ 51 Signage ................................................ 12 Topic 2 – RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION................................................... 59 Promotional Materials................................... 23 Responsible Gambling Legislation ..................................................................................................CONTENTS Introduction .................................................... 79 Topic 5 – PROCEDURES FOR SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING – EXCLUSION ORDERS ................................................................................................................................. 83 Dealing with Exclusions........................................ 78 Player Rating Systems ................................................................. 66 Introduction to the Provision of Information........................................... 93 Exclusion from Remote Gambling .......... 52 Casino Lighting................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 74 Information on Games ............................... 11 Forms of Gambling.................................................................................. 92 Revocation of an Exclusion Order ......................................................... 23 Gambling Legislation .......................................................................

....................................................................................140 Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths ............107 Customer Complaints and Disputes .....................145 Appendix One – FORMS .........................................................................................................................................................................................159 Source of References .................................130 Gambling Behaviour.................................................143 Counselling and Treatment Providers...................................................................................................................124 Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling.......126 Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse ........................................................................... 95 Underage Gambling .........................................................116 Levels of Gambling...............................................................................................135 Topic 8 – PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES ...........................................122 Gambling Addiction ............................................................. 95 The Refusal of Credit..........................................................................................................................................................................................................140 Introduction to Support Programmes..............Topic 6 – GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS .............................116 Introduction to Problem Gambling...................118 Prevalence of Gambling Problems .................109 Topic 7 – PROBLEM GAMBLING .......................................................................................................................169 ..................................................................................

types of gambling offered including casino gaming. Describe the procedures for providing responsible gambling services in the casino environment. Syllabus The Gambling Industry Profile of the gambling industry. horseracing and sports betting. Understand the legislative requirements relating to responsible gaming. Identify problem gamblers and understand which groups are at particular risk. other games of chance such as lotto National and regional legislation and regulations and industry code of practice Responsible gambling legislation Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 1 . It provides students with the knowledge to identify problem gambling and to provide information about professional treatment. Understand the communication and administrative procedures involved in providing responsible gambling services. Understand how the gambling environment influences players’ behaviour. Provide information on problem gambling support programmes.Responsible Gambling Introduction Description This module has been designed for front line gaming industry professionals. It will equip students with the skills required to assess and address responsible gaming issues in the Casino Gaming Environment. Summary of Learning Outcomes On completion of this module students will be able to: • • • • • • • Describe the types of gambling offered. It will promote a greater understanding of Responsible Gambling in accordance with the legislative requirements and worldwide standards.

availability of responsible gaming information Requests for exclusion. external communications including with statutory boards. providing information on support services. Local centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practise to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not test this local knowledge. signage. lighting. chances of winning and probability. Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which students must select and answer three (60 marks). attempts to breach exclusion. high risk groups. identifying problem gamblers. appropriate environmental features Availability of counseling. information on games. Internal communication including casino departments and security. documentation and administration procedures Assessments This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination set and marked by CTH. Any legislation and codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry and will not be country specific. CTH is a London based body and the syllabus content will in general reflect this. disputes and complaints. availability of natural light. Availability of counseling. facilities. positioning of machines Provision of information. promotional materials.Gambling environment features Procedures for service of responsible gambling Gambling information for players Gambling related incidents Problem Gambling and Support Programmes Communication and documentation Casino layout. ATM’s. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 2 . refusal of credit. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit and will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions and 5 x 4 mark questions in Section A (40 marks). implementation of exclusion procedures. involvement of family or friends Levels of gambling. underage gambling. signage and information to be displayed. problem gambling support and treatment services.

Casino Management: Past Present and Future.&Fox. & Cardy. D. W. Performance.(1999).J. (1996). (1999). University Press of Nevada. ISBN 0787245186 • International Gaming Institute. ISBN 081840311X • Gomez-Mejia. (1998). ISBN 0471129275 • Kilby. The Gaming Industry. McGraw-Hill. Casino Management.. ISBN 007111131X • Hashimoto. John Wiley and Sons. (2005). (1996). L. (1997). Kendall Hurd Publishing. Balkin.. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues. Pearson.. Pearson. R. D. (2004). ISBN 0139795685 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 3 . Citadel Press. B. ISBN 0131926721 • Rudd. Visits to a range of casinos are essential to allow students to see the application of the theory into practice..Further guidance Delivery strategies This module covers the theory of Responsible Gambling but wherever possible this should be related to practical situations to reflect the nature of the commercial world..J.& Cornelius..& Marshall. Resources Learners need access to library and research facilities which should include some or all of the following. et al.. J. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations. Recommended Prior Learning There is no required prior learning however students must have completed formal education to 18 years old or equivalent and an interest in Gambling Operations is essential. John Wiley and Sons. Management – People..D. Textbooks • Eade. ISBN 0942828382 • Friedman.. K. An Economic and Social History of Gambling. W. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry.. R. ISBN 0471266329 • Munting. ISBN 013400177X • Eadington.. Change. (1981). Casino Operations Management. Visiting speakers would also be beneficial and will help to contextualise the classroom based learning.. Manchester University Press.

It is not essential to use all the recommended texts and lecturers should use their experience to decide which ones are most appropriate for their students. past module examinations are also available to support www. In general. the lecturer’s lesson plans should be based on the module syllabus and supported by relevant texts.Magazines. but a number of texts which provide sufficient depth to explore the subject area. CTH will always answer any questions from the centre’s Head of Department either by email or by phone.casinoman.gamingfloor. supplementary material familiar to the lecturer and the lecturer’s experience. Journals and Other Publications • Casino Life Magazine • State and Regional Gaming Acts including: • UK Gaming Act 2005 • Nevada Gaming Control Act • Singapore Casino Control Act Websites Notes on recommended texts The module can be taught with the texts we have identified as relevant to the module syllabus. Where available and appropriate. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 4 . In keeping with a qualification at this level there is no one text which covers the whole syllabus.

developing into a major sector of the world economy. Currently lotteries as well as other service providers such as horse racing are popular. The industry is one of high public profile – commercial competitiveness on a global basis sits at one end of the scale. Explain the need for responsible gambling programmes. Students will get to appreciate the size of the industry and the prevalence of gambling.Topic 1 THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY Objective This chapter will introduce the students to the gambling industry and look in more detail at the types of gambling available. Profile of the Gambling Industry The gambling industry has seen unprecedented growth over recent years. sports betting and internet gambling. Explain the different types of gambling including casinos gaming. The Gambling Industry in Singapore The licensed gambling industry in Singapore is diverse. direct responsibility to all consumers. with an emphasis on operators meeting the required probity and performance standards and consistency in care for consumers. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 5 . students should be able to: • • • • Profile the gaming industry. lotteries. Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter. Singapore will have its first casino operating by 2009. It will also look at the main reasons for developing responsible gaming programmes. at the other is local. Define gambling and explain the difference between recreational gambling and problem gambling. Gambling in Singapore. although relatively new will be strictly regulated.

66%) For the purpose of the survey.64%) Residents with primary education and below (61%) Residents with average monthly personal income of $2. considerable focus by governments of all persuasions has been given to the adverse affect problem gambling can have on some members of the community or individuals who become affected by gambling to the point of no longer having control or rational judgment. In recent years. Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • • • • • Chinese (62%) Male (60%) Residents aged 40 to 59 years (60% . Substantial efforts have been directed to this issue in Singapore and from this background has emerged the production by the industry of a proactive and balanced response to the expectations of Government and consumers – responsible gambling. However. various ethnic groups and a small geographical area.999 and below (60% . clear requirements understood and consistent standards of business practice prescribed. In order to be effective and fair issues of concern have been identified. consumers rightly have expectations that they can have access to competitive gaming products. 2008. stated that 54% of Singapore residents aged 18 and above reported that they have participated in at least one form of gambling activity in the last 12 months. A recent Singapore report of survey on participation in gambling activities among Singapore residents. sometimes leading to problems in other areas of their lives. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 6 . appropriate infrastructure and high standards of service as enjoyed elsewhere in the world. respondents who had participated in at least one form of gambling in the last 12 months were classified as gamblers.In Singapore there is a limited target market.

• The most popular activity was the National Lottery Draw (57%). Looking at international studies of problem gambling prevalence. New Zealand. with the exception of bingo (4% of men compared with 10% of women). (Comparisons should be treated with caution. respondents with higher levels were less likely to gamble. • Respondents who described their ethnic origin as white were more likely to be past year gamblers (70%) than those who classified themselves as Black (39%) or Asian (45%). • 3% used fixed odds betting terminals (FOBTs) and 4% gambled in a casino. Macao and Hong Kong. Sweden and Switzerland. mainly due to changes in legislation. The survey also indicated the following: • 68% of the population. • People in higher income households were more likely to gamble. 61% of those with a degree compared with 73% who were educated to GCSE/O level equivalent. South Africa. and an increase in the number of gambling products available. as different methodologies have been used in different countries). and on each individual activity. • Excluding people who had only gambled on the National Lottery Draw in the last year. 48% of the population. • In terms of education. • Only a small proportion of people (3%) gambled online (like playing poker or casino games etc) or placed bets with a bookmaker using the internet (4%). and playing slot machines (14%). the rate in Britain is higher than that found in Norway. the nature of gambling in Britain has changed substantially. to 72% for highest income households. Singapore. followed by scratch cards (20%). betting on horse races (17%).” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 7 . Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • Men were more likely than women to gamble overall (71% compared with 65%). the rate increased from 61% among those in the lowest income households. the US.The Gambling Industry in the UK The British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007 stated that since the 1999 survey. or about 23 million. had participated in some form of gambling activity within the past year. that is about 32 million adults. and similar to that of Canada. had participated in another form of gambling in the past year. and lower than Australia.

.200.204 $100 million to $250 million 32 5.352 Under $3 million 94 77.1% 10. and music recordings combined.169 $3 million to $10 million 57 350.407.826.8% 0.497 $10 million to $25 million 68 1.459.1% 32.170.5% 15.569 Total 358 16. gambling started making a comeback in the 1920’s and was fully legalised in Nevada in 1931. The statistics shown below are the Gaming revenues from the National Indian Gaming commission.7% 14. when more forms of casinos began to be legalised.9% 32.698 $50 million to $100 million 33 2.1% 0.4% 3.377 $50 million to $100 million 35 2. In fact. until it was completely banned in the 1890’s.0% 5.9% 9.554 $3 million to $10 million 57 344.040. primarily in the form of lotteries. with public sentiment shifting back and forth from embracing gambling to prohibiting it.1% 7. providing American gamblers with an outlet through which to place their bets.911 $100 million to $250 million 40 6.The Gambling Industry in the USA (Tribal Jurisdictions) A look at the history of gambling in the United States shows that it has evolved in waves.398 Under $3 million 97 90.1% 8.8% 1.126 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 Percentage of Operations Revenues 4.5% 8 .9% 19.3% 15.711 $10 million to $25 million 69 1.3% 18.698 $25 million to $50 million 57 2. Las Vegas remained the primary location for legal gambling until the 1970’s.333.5% 11.277.510 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2003 $250 million and over 11 5.0% 16. Gambling was largely practiced in the early U.S.381.8% 15.0% 31. gambling has now evolved to the point that at least some form of gambling is legal in all but two states and revenues from gambling eclipse the revenues from theme parks.6% 12.9% 27.3% 11. movie tickets.5% 25.0% 2.010 $25 million to $50 million 60 2. However. These are the various categories of growth figures from the years 2001 though to 2004. Gaming Revenue 2001 – 2004 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues Number of Revenues Gaming Revenue Range Operations (in thousands) Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2004 $250 million and over 15 7.488 Total 367 19.144.6% 37. video games. including riverboat and Indian reservation casinos.

9% 15.1 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues The growth in revenue generation was in the 250M$ and above.067. Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes For the majority of people. Although this revenue is only from 4% of the casinos.822.3% 34.8% 18.1% 11.9% 8.694.Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2002 $250 million and over 10 4.596 $50 million to $100 million 24 1. The integrated resorts will also experience growth figures such as these.640.611 $10 million to $25 million 58 997.513 $3 million to $10 million 63 386.0% 11.8% 3.415.870.6% 17.064 $100 million and over 31 4.606 $25 million to $50 million 55 1.978.717.755 $25 million to $50 million 43 1.523 $50 million to $100 million 19 1.965 Total 349 14.5% 33.546 $3 million to $10 million 57 385. The growth of the gambling industry is evident in the gambling prevalence rates and gaming revenue statistics discussed.654 Under $3 million 114 96.8% Table 1.519 $10 million to $25 million 65 1. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 9 .3% 2. for some.5% 11.8% 13. gambling can have negative impacts.5% 13.662 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2001 $100 million and over 39 8.5% 11. gambling is an enjoyable leisure and entertainment activity.9% 7.0% 0. Summary The onset of world gambling trends and the increase and availability of gambling forms have influenced the way society view gambling. it seems that the old tribal customs are falling away and gaming is becoming a normal point in society.5% 65. These figures are derived from Casino Resorts such as Mohican Sun.4% 7.0% 17.257 Total 330 12.6% 18.528.6% 0.9% 6.1% 28.346 2.398. the Casino Control Boards in different parts of the world have set up laws to control gambling operations. However. As a result.399 Under $3 million 101 79.9% 31.8% 5.

This responsible gambling course will provide descriptions of responsible gambling practices relevant to each sector of the gambling industry. the method of implementation will vary according to the form of gambling. Though the practices are intended to apply to all gambling providers and all forms of gambling. Responsible Gambling Programmes have been developed with the participation of various stakeholders in the world gambling industry. The aim of responsible gambling programmes is to minimise the harm to consumers who may be adversely affected by gambling. In recent years there has been growing appreciation of the affect problem gambling has on some members of the community. which sets out responsible gambling practices and policies. as is the need for whole-of-industry support and implementation. A major point of emphasis with the Responsible Gambling Course is urging for the consistency in care for customers. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 10 . It contains comprehensive information on responsible gaming practices that will assist the operator in the successful implementation of the responsible gambling code. particularly the scope and frequency of gambling. These programmes are adopted by various world gambling providers in the provision of their services. the level of betting and the amount of leisure time devoted to gambling. new research into problem gambling and changing circumstances. Problem gambling exists when there is a lack of control over gambling. Responsible Gambling Programmes were developed.Furthermore. These programmes are an expression of the commitment of the industry to responsible gambling. The need for flexibility to accommodate industry development within an evolving gambling industry is also acknowledged. Responsible Gambling Programmes are considered ‘living documents’ in the sense that it will be continuously edited and amended to take into new operating practices. and will change over time as new operating methods emerge. aimed at delivering important consumer protection and social welfare objectives. and promoting responsible gambling initiatives.

and • fail to control this excessive behaviour by themselves and without assistance. which vary in different cultures. • fantasising about winning large sums of money. Gambling behaviour should be viewed as problematic when gamblers: • gamble excessively and thereby cause significant harm to themselves and to others. from the point of view of the gambler. provides some of the following pleasures: • playing games. Responsible gambling practises are the responsibility of all stakeholders in the gambling industry and must be implemented over a range of gambling activities. Activity 1. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 11 . Recreational gambling. at different points in history and among different individuals.Summary This section has highlighted the aims of the different government organisations when formulating responsible gambling programmes. Playing the lotto. and • being in a stimulating environment. Gambling Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. casino games and betting on horses and other sporting events are regarded as gambling activities. bingo and charity jackpots in newspapers as well as scratch cards. • feeling artificially endangered. Gambling. Whether gambling is accounted a vice or a form of recreation depends on moral judgments.1 Define the term Gambling.

The player with maximum points at the end of the set will be the winner.Summary Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. Recreational gamblers gamble for the purpose of pleasure. Traditional casino games include roulette. Each segment is associated with a number. blackjack and poker. Games can also be played electronically. People mainly play Bingo in Bingo clubs. Casino games permitted in Britain include: • Big Six Wheel – also known simply as The Big Six. • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 12 . The wheel is divided into a number of equal segments separated by spokes or pins. The wheel is spun by a dealer. card and machine games played in a casino. including in holiday parks and resorts. multiple lines or complete a card. Casino Games Casino games include table. When an individual gambles excessively and uncontrollably. Casino-type games are also played on gaming machines and on the internet. problem gambling can result. It is also popular in working men’s clubs and British Legion clubs. They involve playing or staking against a bank. Also known as 21. is an unequal game of chance. Forms of Gambling Bingo Bingo is a game of chance where players receive a set of numbers on a card in return for a stake and they mark them off as a caller announces numbers as they are drawn randomly. which also rubs against the pins to impart friction and slow the wheel down. played using a large vertical wheel that can be spun. Players may win money or prizes when they complete a line. Blackjack – a card game in which players try to beat the bank by adding the values of the cards as close to 21 without going over. and the winning segment is indicated by a pointer mounted on a flexible piece of rubber or leather.

and the outcome is keyed into a computer which automatically lights up the winning zones on the table. in Asia. These two games form the basis of most modern stud poker variation. A player can make any number of bets on the sic bo table. and then spins a ball in the opposite direction around the circumference of the wheel. In recent years. Punto Banco . the colour of the number (red or black). and became very popular. Sic Bo . Traditionally. Poker – a card game where players with fully or partially concealed cards make bets into a central pot. The ball eventually falls onto one of the 37 coloured and numbered pockets on the wheel.a game played with three standard dice that are shaken in a basket or plastic cup. In modern casinos the dice are shaken mechanically. Players can place a variety of bets on specific numbers. both in casinos and in home games. whether it is odd or even or on a grouping of numbers.• Baccarat – A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. The pot is awarded to the player or players with the best combination of cards. which was then lifted to reveal the roll. Fivecard stud first appeared during the American Civil War. • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 13 . Seven-card stud has become more common.a casino dice game in which players bet against the casino on the outcome of one roll or a series of rolls of two dice.also called Baccarat. A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. a croupier spins a wheel in one direction. “casino stud” and “Texas Hold ‘Em”. Stud Poker – a poker variant in which each player is dealt a mix of face-down and face-up cards in multiple betting rounds. Craps . Types of poker games include “three-card”. There are a number of variations of Baccarat in the United Kingdom. Roulette . The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. the dice were shaken on a small plate covered with a bowl.In the game.

one-sided (the royalty stood one way on the card face) and the numbered cards only showed pips. without numbers (indices) in the corners. The History of Playing Cards Since the late 16th century. England. Payoff combinations are listed on a roulette-style table top that is often lit from underneath in winning areas of the layout to indicate winning combinations. These "Dexter" cards are an early version of indexed playing cards (numbers on the corners). the double-sided deck with numbers in opposing corners and double sided face cards came into common use as a result of the rising popularitly of round games (such as poker).3 A deck of rare De LaRue Co. standard decks were square-edged.Outcomes are based on the combinations that come up on the three dice. The wagers available and their associated odds can differ from place to place. A traditional live casino keno game uses a circular glass enclosure called a "bubble" containing 80 ping pong-like balls which determine the balldraw result. Each ball is imprinted with a number 1 through 80. European-style royalty have been used on "face cards" and "French Suits" (Spade Diamond. for that reason standard decks in the 18th and 19th century were commonly referred to as a "standard French deck". Club) were adopted as a standard throughout much of Northern Europe. the indices are quite different from those in common use today. doublesided. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 14 . As you can see. between 1870-1880. Fig 1.2 Playing cards without number Fig 1. • Keno – Keno is a lottery-like or bingo-like gambling game played at modern casinos. Card Games 1. rounded-corner playing cards made in London. Heart. Prior to that (during the Faro heyday). Around the Turn-of-the-Century (1900).

The basic game of three card Brag was one of the games described by Hoyle dates from the late eighteenth century or earlier. pubs. Gaming Machines Fruit machines. The cards in each suit rank in the usual order from high to low: A-K-Q-J-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2. adult gaming centres. depending on the take and the maximum prize they can pay out. Bookmakers also site Fixed Odds Betting Terminals (FOBTs) in their betting shops. The typical game was 4 to 8 players. Gaming machines are found in lots of different places like family entertainment centres. Three Card Brag A standard 52 card deck is used. The player generally wins by matching the symbols on the central line of three reels. Faro was known as the "King of Gambling Games" and in the late 1860's. clubs and bingo halls. (Typical of any game. Category A machines would only be allowed in the new supercasino. 3. Machine Categories (UK) There are four broad categories of gaming machine. but includes £1 and £2 C 50p 10p(30p when non-monetary D prize) Maximum Prize (£) Unlimited Varies from £250 to £4000 £25 £5 cash or £8 nonmonetary prize Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 15 . Because Three Card Brag is a gambling game the players must agree on the stake and have a common understanding of the rules. slot machines. Five Card Brag Five cards are dealt to each player.) 4.2. fixed odds betting terminals. and everyone discards two cards to make their best three card brag hand. Category B machines are divided into four subcategories (not shown here): Category Maximum Stake (£) A Unlimited B Varies. Brag Brag was a very popular pre-poker gambling game. Gaming machines have different maximum prize and bet limits. pusher and crane grab machines are all gaming machines. if that went ahead. Brag was considered the "Queen of Gambling Games". 1.

1 The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell • Charles Fey & Liberty Bell The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell. jackpot. • Crane grab machine A crane grab machine uses a mechanical arm to try to pick up prize such as a soft toy and drop it into the chute. 3. They include red and black plaques which can be exchanged for prizes. The dislodged items are then won by the player. A spin resulting in three Liberty Bells in a row gave the biggest payoff. Diamond. a grand total of fifty cents or ten nickels. • Pusher machine A gaming machine with a moving tray carrying various items which can be dislodged into a chute by coins pushed in by the player.2. greyhound racing. amusement-withprize or all-cash machines. FOBT users can bet on a variety of ‘events’. the display often shows three identical symbols in a row. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 16 . Types of machine • Fruit machines Fruit machines. The History of Slot Machines – Liberty Bell Fig 1. If you win. and heart symbols were painted around each reel. Charles Fey (1862–1944) of San Francisco. plus the image of a cracked Liberty Bell. use a random number generator to determine whether you have won or lost. also known as gaming. The Liberty Bell slot machine had three spinning reels. such as representations of horseracing. spade. The outcome of such games is operated by a random number generator. • Fixed Odds Betting Terminal (FOBTs) FOBTs are made available by bookmakers in betting shops. football penalty shoot-outs and roulette. invented in 1895 by car mechanic.

As a result in 1907. Lotteries Singaporeans know lotteries commonly as 4D. which was used in the Liberty Bell. Charles Fey invented the first draw poker machine. a jackpot was awarded if three of a one kind of symbol lined up. Gambling supply manufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights to the Liberty Bell. Other types of lotteries include raffles and scratch cards. Fey could not build them fast enough in his small shop. which is regulated by the National Lottery Commission. When the reels stopped. • Demand for Slot Machines Grows The demand for Liberty Bell slot machines was huge. the first electronic slot machine was built by the Fortune Coin Company. Charles Fey was also the inventor of the trade check separator. In 1901. a knock-off of Fey's Liberty Bell. The largest game in the UK is the National Lottery. Charles Fey refused to sell. A lottery is a game which people enter by selecting a set of numbers that may match those drawn later for the chance of winning money or prizes.e. called the Operator Bell. roulette. Herbert Mills. A lever was pulled that spun the reels. Nevada.The original Liberty Bell slot machine can still be seen be at the Liberty Belle Saloon & Restaurant in Reno. The payoff in coinage was then dispensed from the machine. horse racing. Each reel had ten symbols painted on it. and cherries on machines. • Age of Electronics The first popular electric gambling machine was the 1934 animated horserace machine called PACES RACES. and poker (Dale Electronics' Poker-Matic was very popular). Mills was the first person to place fruit symbols: i. lemons. In 1964. the first allelectronic gambling machine was built by Nevada Electronic called the "21" machine. however. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 17 . began production of a slot machine. plums. and Three Spinde and the Klondike. The hole in the middle of the trade check allowed a detecting pin to distinguish fake nickels or slugs from real nickels. • How the Original Slots Worked Inside each cast iron slot machine there were three metal hoops called reels. Other all electronic versions of gambling games followed including ones for dice. a Chicago manufacturer of arcade machines. Other Charles Fey machines include: the Draw Power. Fey rented his machines to saloons and bars based on a 50/50 split of the profits. In 1975.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 18 . Spread Betting Spread betting allows people to bet on sporting events. spread betting profits and losses can be unlimited. or you are absolutely wrong (you horse doesn’t win) and you lose the amount you have placed on the bet. you are either absolutely right (your horse wins) and you win money depending on the odds quoted. players ‘pool’ their stakes and the combined sum. which is based on the results of football matches. in which numbered tickets are drawn from a container holding all the numbers sold. you could win £25 if the goal is scored at the 40th minute of play or lose £25 if it is scored at the 30th minute of play. With ordinary betting. but the more wrong you are the more you can lose – and your loss is not limited to the amount of your stake. if you bet £5 that the first goal will be scored on the 35th minute of play in a football match. Pool betting on horse racing. Horse racecourse pool betting is offered exclusively by the Tote. politics or stock market movements. is divided between the winning participants. The most common betting pool in Britain is the football pool.Playing the lottery is the easiest form of gambling around as the selling or gaming provider only offers a service to the client. through betting offices and online. the more you can win. there is no civic responsibility. With spread betting. Pools In pools betting. less what the operator takes out. These are sold in newsagents and supermarkets. Raffles Raffles is a game often held to raise money for charity. the more right you are. greyhound racing and other sports takes place at racecources and tracks. Scratch Cards Scratch cards are tickets you scratch to find out if you have won a prize. People holding the tickets that match the numbers drawn win prizes. social welfare and charity organisations as well as for public works projects. Unlike more traditional forms of gambling where you only lose the amount of your bet. So for example. The lottery proceeds in some parts of the world are used to bail out the struggling sports bodies. The onus is on the service provider not to accept or payout winnings to the underage public. The level of the payout depends on the size of the pool and the number of winning participants.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 19 .bodog. www. it is no surprise that the new wave in gambling is occurring on the World Wide is an example of an internet gambling site. where you can wager on everything from the winner of American Idol to the likelihood that Jessica Simpson will adopt a and BetCRIS: www. the new industry also raises a variety of concerns over how the law ought to properly deal with internet gambling. from traditional card games to lotteries and sports wagering. from the horses mouth is a term used by some individuals when placing a bet/wager.bodog. even conservative estimates have the industry growing from $1 billion in profits in 1997 to a staggering $10. It is probably the one game of chance that has been responsible for patrons wrong investment (bets placed). Although very well organised the Turf Clubs that promote this sport have only a civic responsibility to their clients. allowing gamblers to place wagers on all sorts of games and events from the comfort of their home. other gambling sites include Nine Sportsbook: www. can be located anywhere in the world. Though internet gambling is a relatively recent phenomenon.Horse Racing Wagering on horse racing is an extremely popular form of gambling. Internet Gambling With the expansive growth of the gambling industry and the evolution of Some of the more exotic gambling options include what are known as proposition bets. Bodog is one of the biggest online gambling operations. and can be accessed from anywhere in the world. These sites offer all types of gambling games.jsp.betcris. 1.nine.9 billion in 2006. which can be found at http://www. The first online casino began operation in 1995 with an offering of eighteen online While data about revenues is varied. However. and since then the industry has boomed at such a rate that an estimated 30 million gamblers visited internet gambling sites in July of 2005 alone. and it also offers some of the most interesting proposition bets. This phenomena has truly revolutionised gambling. it has exploded in a way that few industries ever do. Types of Gambling Sites Internet gambling sites.

2. How Internet Gambling Works Gamblers wishing to bet online are usually required to set up an account with the gambling website and to make a payment into that account before betting. Payments have traditionally been made using major credit or debit cards, private debit cards (debit cards issued by small, private companies), online payment providers (i.e. Paypal), wire transfers, or e-cash (digital money that is purchased from a provider). However, there have been some recent events that have changed the way online gambling is funded. For one, most major American credit companies now prohibit payments to online gambling services. These policies are mostly self-implemented due to the high risk of fraud and bad debt in the online gaming industry. However, the companies have also had some assistance in forming the policies by New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer, who threatened Citibank with criminal prosecution for knowingly assisting in internet gambling that was prohibited by New York law. Though the charges were dropped after Citibank promised to give $400,000 to counselling services for gambling addicts, the threat of prosecution was enough to force these companies’ hands in banning internet gambling credit After credit card companies banned online gambling credit, gamblers began to use online payment providers such as Paypal with increasing frequency. However, Attorney General Spitzer then went after Paypal with a prosecution similar to the one threatened against Citibank. Though Paypal claimed that it already had a policy against allowing payments to online gambling sites the business was still forced to disgorge profits of $200,000 in a settlement with New York. Despite this apparent crackdown by some American financial institutions, gamblers have still found ways to fund their wagers. For one, online gambling sites can mask the code that attaches to credit card payments to make the payment look like it was for something other than gambling, which would allow consumers to continue to use major credit cards regardless of their policies. However, even more legitimate means of payment exist. For example, once Paypal announced that it would prohibit payments to online gambling sites there were plenty of similar online payment providers that began to offer service to gambling sites to pick up Paypal’s slack.

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In addition, gamblers can always set up accounts at foreign banks that do not prohibit transfers to gambling sites or send an international money order to those sites that accept them. One thing is for sure: as long as internet gambling continues to attract more bettors and more money, companies will find ways for bettors to pay for their bets

Activity 1.2 a) Describe in your own words how internet gambling works. b) Explain how internet gambling payments are controlled.

Activity 1.3 Detail how Slot Machines were started.

Activity 1.4 Explain the difference between pool betting and spread betting. Summary Gamblers and gambling operators can choose from a variety of games. The Games of chance that were highlighted in this section were: • • • • • • • • • • • Bingo Big Six Wheel Craps Roulette Craps/Dice Blackjack Punto Banco Lotteries Horse Racing Gambling Machines Internet Gambling

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Chances of winning Lots of people dream of winning the lottery or getting the ‘perfect’ poker hand, but do you know what the real chances are? If you toss a coin 40 times, the chance you will get heads every time is just under 1 in 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion). Keep on reading to see how your odds of winning in games of chance compare to other events. Event Living to be old enough to receive a 100th birthday telegram from the Queen (or King!) 1 Rolling a 2 in a game of craps Roulette wheel landing on one number you select Winning any prize in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ Being dealt a full house in your first five cards in poker The next person you meet being born on the same day and same year as you 20 million tonne asteroid called Apophis hitting Earth on 13 April 2036 2 Being dealt a royal flush in your first five cards in poker Being struck by lightning next year Winning a share of the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot
1 2

Average chance 1 in 8 1 in 36 1 in 37 1 in 57 1 in 4,165 1 in 25,000 1 in 45,000 1 in 650,000 1 in 10,000,000 1 in 14,000,000

UK adults in their thirties Probability changes as the potential event gets closer

You can influence the likelihood of some of these things happening. For example, living a healthy lifestyle will increase your chances of living to 100. But all gambling works on randomness. Even skill-based gambling is subject to chance – no amount of expertise or skill can influence the cards you are dealt in a game of poker. It’s important to be realistic and not to overestimate your chances. Your chance of winning a share in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot with one ticket is one in 14 million. If you spend £1 every week on the Lottery, you would expect to wait about 270,000 years before you win a share of the jackpot! Gambling operators are required to provide customers with information such as the rules, house edge, odds, average return to player, maximum bet level and prize limit.
Source: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 22

in Singapore casino operators are regulated under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. which was established in 1959. authorities can levy fines. For example. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. In the USA gambling providers are regulated under the state authority that they are located in. In enforcing legislation. It will focus more specifically on industry codes of practise for responsible gambling. students should be able to: • • • Explain the purpose of gambling legislation and the scope of legislations influencing the gambling environment. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. Discuss responsible gambling legislation and exclusion orders Discuss Code of Practices followed by gambling providers. revoke licences and investigate and prosecute illegal gambling. for example the State of Nevada is controlled by the Nevada Gaming Commission. Most gambling sections throughout the USA have had input from the State of Nevada as this was the forerunner to most of the legislation in that region. under the Nevada Gaming Control Act. They are also responsible for advising national and local government on gambling-related issues. Learning Outcome After this chapter. with other acts in place for other forms of gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 23 . Gambling Legislation Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. In the United Kingdom the gambling environment is controlled under the Gambling Act 2005.Topic 2 RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION Objective This chapter will introduce students to the legislative practises that govern gambling providers.

and fees and duties. Besides the acts governing casinos and gambling. as set out in the Casino Control Act 2006 is to maintain and administer systems for the licensing. More specific acts are in place dealing with gambling related issues such as advertising. The Objective of the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore. Other legislations dealing with gambling related issues are the Betting Act and The Common Gaming Houses Act. in Singapore the authority is known as the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore.In different countries the authorities responsible for enforcing legislation are known under different names e. from where the casinos can be located. • ensuring that gaming in a casino is conducted honestly. and • containing and controlling the potential of a casino to cause harm to minors. covers all aspects of the Gambling industry. gambling tax. advertising. non-related acts such as liquor acts and smoking acts also influences the casino operator. the liquor act can specify hours during which alcohol can be provided and whether it could be provided complimentary. for the purpose of: • ensuring that the management and operation of a casino is and remains free from criminal influence or exploitation.1 What are the objectives of governments for controlling gambling operations? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 24 . vulnerable persons and society at large. The Act.g. and prizes that can be awarded. the gambling service providers are covered by the Gambling Act 2005. inspections. Activity 2. supervision and control of casinos. In Singapore the casino gambling environment is governed by the Singapore Casino Control Act. appeals. In the United Kingdom. in Britain it is called the Gambling Commission and in the USA each state has its own authority. lotteries. to fines that can be incurred. For example.

Responsible Gambling Legislation As this course concentrates on responsible gaming. The National Council of Problem Gambling was established with the objective of ‘working with the community to reduce the impact of problem gambling on individuals. council. the sections of the various gaming acts pertaining responsible gaming will be discussed in more detail.1 National Council on Problem Gambling Logo The National Council on Problem Gambling (NCPG) was appointed by the Minister for Community Development. In many countries.Summary Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. a separate board. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. (MCYS) in 2005 as part of Singapore’s national framework to address problem gambling. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. National Council on Problem Gambling Singapore In Singapore the introduction of the Casino Control Act 2006 brought about the introduction of a national council to provide services for problem gambling. Fig 2. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 25 . families and society’. Youth and Sports. as implemented by the government of the specific country or state.

The Council’s main roles are: • To provide advice and feedback to the MCYS on public education programmes to promote public awareness on problem gambling. unless the context otherwise requires: • "application" means an application for a family exclusion order.NATIONAL COUNCIL ON PROBLEM GAMBLING The following section highlights the responsibility of the National Council on Problem Gambling as stipulated in the Singapore Control Act 2006. • To decide on the applications for exclusion of persons from casinos. psychiatry and psychology. counselling and rehabilitative services. Definitions In this Part. social work. • "chairman" means the chairman of the Council. • "Committee" means any Committee of Assessors for the time being constituted under section 157 (1).The Council is independent and comprises 19 members with expertise and experience in public communications. • To assess and advise the Government on the effectiveness of treatment. counselling and rehabilitative programmes. The exclusion process is one of the main features of this section of the act. • To decide on funding applications for preventive and rehabilitative programmes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 26 . Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 PART X . The Council has identified key areas of focus and formed 6 subcommittees: • Sub-committee on Public Communications • Sub-committee on Public Consultation • Sub-committee on Youth • Sub-committee on Responsible Gambling • Sub-committee on Research • Sub-committee on Services MCYS provides secretariat support to the Council and its various sub-committees.

guardian or other family may apply on his behalf. (c) a parent of the respondent. "family member”. in relation to a respondent. Application for Family Exclusion Order A written application for a family exclusion order may be submitted to the Council by a family member of the respondent. Grounds for Making Family Exclusion Order When an application for family exclusion is made to the Committee. "panel" means the panel of assessors appointed under section 157 (2). the Committee may make a family exclusion order against a respondent if: • there is a reasonable apprehension that the respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling. and (d) a sibling of the respondent. • the Committee is satisfied that the making of the order is appropriate in the circumstances. including an adoptive sibling. "respondent" means a person against whom a family exclusion order or exclusion order is sought or made. (b) a child of the respondent. including an adopted child and a step-child. "family exclusion order" means a family exclusion order made under section 162. Where a person is unable to make an application (whether by reason of physical or mental infirmity or for any other reason). Youth and Sports. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 27 . if the person is at least 16 years of age. Where a family member is below 21 years. the family member must seek permission from the Council. "Minister" means the Minister for Community Development. including an adoptive parent and a step-parent. the application may be made on his behalf by any family member or relative as approved by the Council or by any person appointed by the Minister. means: (a) a spouse of the respondent. Alternatively a parent. a step-sibling and a half-sibling.• • • • • • "exclusion order" means an exclusion order made under section 165.

A family exclusion order may do one or more of the following: • refer the respondent to participate in a program of counselling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 28 . The Committee may decide that there is a reasonable apprehension that a respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the Committee is satisfied that: • the respondent has caused such harm prior to the complaint. • bar the respondent from entering or remaining. The Committee might also take into accounts events that have taken place outside of Singapore. Terms of Family Exclusion Order A family exclusion order must specify the period during which it is in force. and • has done so repeatedly over a period of not less than 3 months or in a particularly irresponsible manner over a lesser period. • there is reason to believe that the respondent’s irresponsible gambling behaviour will continue or recur. • require a casino operator to close any deposit account of the respondent with the casino. • require the respondent to close any deposit account in a casino. The Council must be informed of whichever decision was reached with a brief state for reasons for approval or dismissal. A respondent is to be regarded as having caused serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the respondent: • has engaged in gambling activities irresponsibly having regard to the needs and welfare of the respondent’s family members. or taking part in any gaming on any casino premises.• • the respondent has been given an opportunity to object to the application. and the Committee is satisfied that it would be in the best interests of the respondent and his family members to make the order. rehabilitation or special education or any combination of these. Applications will then be investigated and the Committee might either confirm the exclusion order or dismiss the application.

on its own motion. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 29 . Variation or revocation of family exclusion order or exclusion order by Council The Council may confirm. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. and • every casino operator. if any. The service of family exclusion order or exclusion order A family exclusion order or exclusion order made by a Committee must be served on the respondent and is not binding on the person named in the order until it has been so served. The same is applicable when an order is amended or is varied. or • has a poor credit record. • the Authority. it is only binding once served to the respondent. by written order make an exclusion order against a person if it comes to the attention of the Committee that the person: • is on any social assistance programme funded by the Government or any statutory body. • the Commissioner of Police. • has a bankruptcy application filed against him or is an undischarged bankrupt. An exclusion order made by the committee will bar the person from any casino premises for as long as any of the above mentioned criteria is applicable. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. and a copy of every variation or revocation of such order must be provided by the Council to: • the applicant. i. A copy of every family exclusion order or exclusion order.e.Exclusions Orders made by the Committee A Committee may.

council. but does not have the force of law. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. No member of a Committee shall disclose or divulge to any person. In Singapore. c) Explain the term secrecy. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. b) Explain the rule governing the upliftment of an exclusion order and the consequences should this not be adhered to. Code of Practice A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. other than: • the Minister. or • any officer of the Authority. any matter which has arisen at any proceedings of the Committee unless he is expressly authorised to do so by the Minister.Secrecy Except as provided under the above mentioned section. a separate board. the proceedings of a Committee shall be secret. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. Summary In many countries. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 30 .2 a) Explain the various forms of exclusion that are covered in the Singapore Casino Control Act. • any member or officer of the Council. the National Council on Problem Gambling has this responsibility. One of their main responsibilities is to deal with exclusion orders. In the UK. Activity 2. In the USA.

Have tight controls on incentives for customers to gamble. and • Protect children and vulnerable people from being harmed and exploited by gambling. Make information about responsible gambling and help available to problem gamblers accessible on the licensees’ website home and log-in pages. The licencing objectives are to: • Keep crime out of gambling. to education about the risks of gambling and to treatment of problem gamblers. Train their staff about problem gambling and about how to interact with customers who may be affected. including access to an independent element of dispute resolution where necessary. the Gambling Commission regulates gambling in the public interest. • Ensure that gambling is conducted in a fair and open way. which include how they contribute to research. Comply with requirements to prevent money laundering. Have systems in place to manage. compliance and managing directors. including arrangements for self-exclusion. record and report complaints and disputes. Implement a code of practice on door supervision to keep children out of casinos. Ensure there is sufficient information so players can understand the games and odds they face. License Conditions and Codes To secure the three licensing objectives. Follow procedures to prevent underage gambling. Provide problem gambling information in other languages if the operator advertises in them. such as the finance. hold personal licences from the Commission. IT. These include requiring licensees (where relevant) to: • Put into effect policies and procedures to promote socially responsible gambling.The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) In the UK. the Commission has developed licence conditions and codes of practice that govern how gambling facilities are provided and managed. Three licencing objectives were set and the legislation and work of the commission is directed to meet these objectives. under the regulatory framework of the Gambling Act 2005. Ensure that key staff. marketing. 31 • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 .

• Access to gambling by children and young persons All licensees must have and put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 32 . Code of Practice for Gambling Operators 1. a driving licence (including a provisional licence) with photocard. These policies should include measures for: • Combating problem gambling Licensees’ policies and procedures for socially responsible gambling must include a commitment to contribute to research into the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. Where a person appears to be underage.g. Citizencard.Besides meeting the licencing conditions described above. and • is legible and has no visible signs of tampering or reproduction. They further must demonstrate a commitment to public education of the risk of gambling and how to gamble safely. They should check the age of apparently underage customers. Protection of children and other vulnerable persons Licensees must have and put into effect policies intended to promote socially responsible gambling. • is valid. but cannot provide identification. and monitor the effectiveness of these. and a passport. Validate and the Government’s own Connexions card). and the identification and treatment of problem gamblers. the different gambling providers are also instructed by law to put into practice protection policies for both Social Responsibility Provisions and Underage Gambling. The Commission considers acceptable forms of identification to include any identification carrying the PASS logo (e. Licensees must only accept identification which: • contains a photograph from which the individual can be identified. the person should not be allowed access to gambling facilities. • states the individual’s date of birth.

If there is a ‘no under-18s’ premises policy. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 33 . Lottery licensees have the same responsibilities to prevent underage gambling. for example by reflecting or being associated with youth culture. service should be refused in any circumstances where any adult is accompanied by a child or young person. The most difficult area to control underage gambling is the remote gambling sector (internet gambling). In premises restricted to adults. Licensees must not permit children or young people to gamble in the adults-only areas of premises to which they have access. returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. licensees must pay particular attention to the procedures they use at the entrance to the premises to check customers’ ages. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all staff understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. Lottery licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all those engaged in the promotion of lotteries understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling.Licensees must not deliberately provide facilities for gambling in such a way as to appeal particularly to children or young people. This should include appropriate training which must cover the legal requirements on returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. Where football pool or other pool competition entries or payments are collected door to door by the pool betting licensee or the licensee’s authorised agent. Remote licensees have to put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. they have to check the age of apparently underage entrants to the pool and take action when there are unlawful attempts to enter the pool. • requiring customers to affirm that they are of legal age. • regularly reviewing their age verification systems and implementing all reasonable improvements that may be made as technology advances and as information improves. Such procedures must include: • warning potential customers that underage gambling is an offence.

or leaflets that may be collected discreetly and taken away. The information must be prominent. near gaming machines and near to where ATMs are located • posters. toilets and near to exit doors). the licensee should carry out their own verification and credit check and not permit the customer to withdraw any winnings from their account until age verification has been satisfactorily completed. enabling their gambling websites to permit filtering software to be used by adults (such as parents or within schools) in order to restrict access to relevant pages of those sites.• • • • ensuring that relevant staff are properly trained in the use of their age verification procedures. • Information on how to gamble responsibly and help for problem gamblers Licensees must make information readily available to their customers on how to gamble responsibly and how to access information about and help in respect of problem gambling. In particular customer services staff must be appropriately trained in the use of secondary forms of identification when initial verification procedures fail to prove that an individual is of legal age. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that this information is readily accessible including in locations which enable the customer to obtain it discreetly. licensees should also take all reasonable steps to verify the customer’s age. and appropriate to the size and layout of the premises. unless the licensee has established that a third party has satisfactorily carried out age verification. in other areas (e. in the case of any UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card.g. in the case of any non-UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 34 . For gambling premises this should include: • information in the gambling area.

The information must cover where relevant: • the availability of measures that are accessible to help an individual monitor or control their gambling, such as to restrict the duration of a gambling session or the amount of money they can spend; • the availability of timers or any other forms of reminders or ‘reality checks’ that may be available; • self-exclusion options; and • information about the availability of further help or advice. The information must be directed to all customers who wish to enjoy gambling as entertainment and not be targeted only at those the operator perceives to be ‘problem gamblers’. Licensees who market their services in foreign languages should make responsible gambling information, player’s guides to any games as well as contractual terms available in those languages. • Customer Interaction Licensees must implement policies and procedures for customer interaction where they have concerns that a customer’s behaviour may indicate problem gambling. The policies must include: • identification of the appropriate level of management who may initiate customer interaction and the procedures for doing so; • the types of behaviour that will be logged/reported to the appropriate level of staff and which may trigger customer interaction at an appropriate moment; • the circumstances in which consideration should be given to refusing service to customers and/or barring them from the operator’s gambling premises; and • training for all staff on their respective responsibilities, in particular so that they know who is designated to deal with problem gambling issues. But such policies and procedures should be consistent with, and implemented with due regard to, licensees’ duties in respect of the health and safety of their staff. • Self-exclusion Licensees must put in place procedures for self-exclusion and take all reasonable steps to refuse service or to otherwise prevent an individual who has entered a self-exclusion agreement from participating in gambling.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 35

Licensees must take steps to remove the name and details of a selfexcluded individual from any marketing databases used by the company or group (or otherwise flag that person as an individual to whom marketing material must not be sent), within two days of receiving the completed self-exclusion notification. All reasonable steps should be taken to prevent any marketing material being sent to a self-excluded customer as soon as practicable. Licensees must close any customer accounts of an individual who has entered a self exclusion agreement and return any funds held in the customer account. It is not sufficient merely to prevent an individual from withdrawing funds from their customer account whilst still accepting wagers from them. Where the giving of credit is permitted, the licensee may retain details of the amount owed to them by the individual, although the account must not be active. Licensees must implement procedures designed to ensure that an individual who has self-excluded cannot gain access to gambling; and which include: • a register of those excluded with appropriate records (name, address, other details, and any membership or account details that may be held by the operator); • photo identification (where available and in particular where enforcement of the system may depend on photographic ID), and a signature • staff training to ensure that staff are able to enforce the systems; and the removal of those persons found in the gambling area or attempting to gamble from the premises. Self-exclusion procedures should require individuals to take positive action in order to self-exclude. This can be a signature on a selfexclusion form. Wherever practicable, individuals should be able to self-exclude without having to enter gambling premises. Before an individual self-excludes, licensees should provide or make available sufficient information about what the consequences of self-exclusion are.

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Licensees should take all reasonable steps to extend the selfexclusion to premises of the same type owned by the operator in the customer’s local area. In setting the bounds of that area licensees may take into account the customer’s address (if known to them), anything else known to them about the distance the customer ordinarily travels to gamble and any specific request the customer may make. Licensees should encourage the customer to consider extending their self exclusion to other licensees’ gambling premises in the customer’s local area. Customers should be given the opportunity to discuss self-exclusion in private, where possible. Licensees should take all reasonable steps to ensure that: • the self-exclusion period is a minimum of six months and give customers the option of extending this to a total of at least five years; • a customer who has decided to enter a self-exclusion agreement is given the opportunity to so do immediately without any cooling-off period. However, if the customer wishes to consider the self-exclusion further (for example to discuss with problem gambling groups) the customer may return at a later date to enter into self-exclusion; • at the end of the period chosen by the customer (and at least six months later), maintain the self-exclusion in place, unless the customer takes positive action in order to gamble again. No marketing material may be sent to the individual unless the individual has taken positive action in order to gamble again, and has agreed to accept such material; and • where a customer chooses not to renew, and makes a positive request to begin gambling again, give the customer one day to cool off before being allowed access to gambling facilities. The contact must be made via telephone or in person. • Employment of children and young persons Persons under the age of 16 are considered as children while those 16 or 17 years of age are considered as young persons. Licensees who employ children and young persons must be aware that it is an offence to employ children and young persons to provide facilities for gambling. Children and young persons should not be employed in areas where gambling facilities are provided.
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pit bosses and croupiers in order to prevent overcrowding or jostling of players. and • a player’s guide to the rules of any equal chance games which are made available. This includes the display of rules about gaming including: • the rules of each type of casino game available to be played. a report should be made to the Commission. Those involved in organised or systematic money lending should be excluded from the premises. ‘Fair and Open’ Provisions Licensees must be able to provide evidence to the Commission. Licence conditions related to the layout of the premises should be taken into account. funds deposited via credit card only after the card issuer has approved the transaction. • a player’s guide to the house edge. including those who have self-excluded from gambling. Credit limits must be set for each customer. and make available for gambling. Staff should be trained in procedures should they spot such activity. Particular care should be taken to ensure that there are appropriate arrangements in place to cover any cases where it appears that the lending may be commercial in nature or may involve money laundering. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 38 . Casino licensees must have policies and procedures in place to ensure that proper supervision of gambling at tables is carried out by supervisors. 2. the requirements in respect of reporting suspicious transactions must be followed. • Money lending between customers Licensees should take steps to prevent systematic or organised money lending between customers on their premises. and ensure that information about an offer of credit includes a risk warning of what may happen in the event of default. Licensees must take reasonable steps to ensure that offers of credit are not sent to vulnerable persons.• Provision of credit by licensees and the use of credit cards Licensees who choose to accept credit cards must accept payment by credit card for gambling only where that payment is made to a customer account. In the latter case. In all cases where the operator encounters systematic or organised money lending. showing that their terms are not unfair.

Licensees must inform customers of the names and status of the person to contact about their complaint and provide them with a copy of the complaint procedures upon request. goods. based on the principle that staff should not engage in any conduct which is. Gambling Licensees’ Staff Licensees must put policies and procedures in place to manage relationships between staff and customers. services or other advantages must be operated in such a way that conditions are clearly set out and available to customers. Neither the receipt nor the value or amount of benefit should be dependent on the customer gambling for a pre-determined length of time or with a pre-determined frequency. the licensee should refer the customers to an independent third party. Where disputes are not resolved to the customer’s satisfaction. or could be. licensees must make rules. In all cases. All reasonable steps should be taken to ensure that staff involved in the provision of facilities for gambling are made aware of advice on socially responsible gambling and where to get confidential advice should their gambling become hard to control. likely to prejudice the licensing objectives in the discharge of their duties. 3. betting information and payout information available. In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities and a ‘dispute’ is a complaint that is not resolved at the first stage of complaints procedures or relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. Complaints and Disputes Licensees must put in place a written procedure for handling customer complaints and disputes.There are specific conditions applicable to betting intermediaries and other betting licensees. or dependent on the amount the customer spends on gambling within a pre-determined length of time If licensees offer customers free or discounted alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises they must not do so as a form of enticement. 4. 5. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 39 . Marketing Reward schemes and incentives under which the customer may receive money. Licensees must keep a record of all complaints that are not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedures.

The following Code of Conduct details how they fulfill this pledge. b) Give an example of unfair gambling. The American Gaming Association Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming In the United States of America. the gambling providers have established the American Gaming Association. which are representative as a governing body for the trade (Twenty states that have licensed operations within them have contributed to the formation of this document). 1. The document covers extensively the various responsible gambling processes within the contributing states. • AGA casino companies will train gaming floor employees on responsible gaming and provide periodic refresher training. The American Gaming Association (AGA) and its members pledge to their employees and patrons is to make responsible gaming an integral part of the daily operations across the United States. from employee assistance and training to alcohol service. This code also covers the commitment the members to continue support for research initiatives and public awareness surrounding responsible gaming and underage gambling. advertising and marketing.Activity 2. Pledge to the employees • AGA members will educate new employees on responsible gaming.4 a) Define the term ‘house edge’. • AGA members will implement communications programs for employees to improve understanding of responsible gaming and related policies and procedures. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 40 .3 What do you understand under customer interaction and why is it important that there are policies in place to facilitate customer interaction? Activity 2. This pledge encompasses all aspects of the business.

These will be available and visible in gaming areas and at ATMs. • AGA casino companies will communicate the legal age to gamble through appropriate signage and/or brochures. To Prevent Underage Gambling and Unattended Minors in Casinos • AGA casino companies will make diligent efforts to prevent underage individuals from loitering in the gaming area of a casino. 2. • Each AGA casino company will provide opportunities for patrons to request in writing that they not be sent promotional mailings and for revocation of their privileges for specific casino services such as: o Casino-issued markers o Player club/card privileges o On-site check-cashing In addition. • AGA members will make available to patrons and employees information generally explaining the probabilities of winning or losing at the various games offered by the casino. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 41 . without a request from the patron. AGA members will post responsible gaming awareness signage bearing a toll-free help-line number at various locations where employees congregate. • AGA casino companies reserve the right to exclude a patron from gaming.• • AGA members will distribute to new employees brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. each AGA casino company shall make reasonable efforts to honor a written request from any person that it not knowingly grant that person access to gaming activities at one or more of its facilities. • AGA members will make available on their Web sites information describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. • AGA members will display in gaming areas and at ATMs signage that can be easily read bearing a toll-free help-line number. Companies will make copies of these brochures available to employees. Pledge to the clientele/patrons To Promote Responsible Gaming • AGA members will make available brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance.

print. It does not pertain to advertising and marketing that is primarily of hotels. such as the police department or department of youth services. To Serve Alcoholic Beverages Responsibly • AGA casino companies will observe a responsible beverage service policy including the following elements: o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a minor.• • Employees working in relevant areas will receive training in appropriate procedures for dealing with unattended children. restaurants and entertainment that are often associated with or operated or promoted by casinos. o Strictly comply with all state and federal standards to make no false or misleading claims. If a child appears to be unsupervised or in violation of local curfews and other laws. o Casinos will make a diligent effort not to permit gaming by a visibly intoxicated patron. If efforts are unsuccessful. • AGA casino companies will train appropriate casino employees in the company's responsible alcoholic beverage service policy. billboard and Internet promotions. For the purposes of this code. To Advertise Responsibly This code applies to the advertising and marketing of casino gaming by AGA member companies. and the purchase and consumption of alcohol and tobacco by minors. security personnel will contact an appropriate third party. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 42 . direct mail. and will provide periodic refresher training to those employees. o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a visibly intoxicated patron. and release the unattended child to their care. o Reflect generally accepted contemporary standards of good taste. underage gambling. advertising and marketing include radio and television ads broadcast off the premises. • Casino advertising and marketing will: o Contain a responsible gaming message and/or a toll-free help-line number where practical. security or appropriate personnel will be contacted and remain with the child while reasonable steps are taken to locate the parent or responsible adult on property or by telephone.

o Be placed in media where most of the audience is reasonably expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. o Contain claims or representations that gaming activity will guarantee an individual's social. celebrity/entertainer endorsements and/or language designed to appeal specifically to children and minors. o Be placed in media specifically oriented to children and/or minors. o Be placed at any venue where most of the audience is normally expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. To Provide Oversight and Review • One year following the adoption of this Code of Conduct each AGA member company will implement the code and begin conducting annual reviews of its compliance with this code. o Imply or suggest any illegal activity of any kind. o Appear adjacent to. • AGA members will use this research to identify the best practices for casinos to follow to promote responsible gaming. symbols. which is the leading source of science-based research and information on gambling and health. comics or other youth features. financial or personal success. employees and policy-makers. • AGA members will continue to develop a dialogue surrounding scientific research on gambling and health to communicate to and educate patrons. or in close proximity to. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 43 .• Casino advertising and marketing materials will not: Contain cartoon figures. o 3. o Feature anyone who is or appears to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. o Feature current collegiate athletes. to the extent controlled by the AGA member. Pledge to the public To Continue Funding Research • AGA members will continue to provide funding for the National Center for Responsible Gaming.

It covers aspects such as: • Education. The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) set forth specific licencing conditions as well as codes of practice for licensees. • The promotion of responsible gaming practices. dealing with complaints and disputes and staff issues. marketing ethics. Not providing access to gambling to children and yong persons. • Funding for research. The code of conduct further provides guidelines on fair and open gambling. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. In the UK. but does not have the force of law. clientele and the public. • The prevention of underage gambling and unattended minors in casinos. training and communication for employees.Activity 2. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 44 . • Responsible advertising. Providing appropriate customer interaction. and Preventing money lending. The AGA’s Code of Conduct is set forth in the form of a pledge to employees. Providing information on responsible gambling and help for problem gamblers. In the USA. The Codes of Practice covers aspects to protect children and other vulnerable persons by: • • • • • • • Combating problem gambling.5 Explain the difference between an Act and a Code of Practice. and • Reviewing of compliance with the code. Providing opportunities for self-exclusion Controlling credit given to customers. Summary A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations.

Although the unique excitement of gambling is often the strongest draw. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Describe a typical casino layout Describe additional facilities available in the casinos supporting gambling operations Describe the various forms of signage found in casinos Describe typical casino lighting Describe the placement of clocks within the casino Discuss the availability of ATM within the casino complex Discuss the availability of promotional materials within the casino.Topic 3 GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the features found in a casino gambling environment. others have a nightclub-like environment. It will highlight the effect that the environment has on the clients’ behaviour. Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment Casinos are centres of entertainment. Often. Learning outcome: After studying this chapter. designed to provide constant excitement. casinos are co-located with luxurious hotels. Gambling facilities are often glamorous environments where clients can get transported to fantasy worlds. Previously. most gambling facilities also rely on an array of comfortable. where today up to 50% of revenue can be generated from non-gambling activities such as food and beverage and entertainment. for example how it entice them to gamble and lose track of time. up to 90% of casino revenue came from gambling activities. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 45 . Most popular casinos also offer their guests world-class dining facilities. inviting hospitality amenities to attract and retain loyal guests.

the space or perception of space. Architects and interior designers of public spaces have to consider the way their designs will influences people. Thus. The movement of staff and clients should be considered and separated where necessary. e. in some outlets items might be arranged in a way to maximize customer throughput. to entertain them once they are in. casinos are designed to maximise revenue earning potential. while another store might be designed to keep customers in the store for as long as possible. and customers prefer small. The phrase built environment refers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity. Designers of casinos face similar issues. intimate settings for their gambling rather than open spacious areas. For example. acoustic properties and supporting facilities.e. the high rollers will usually be separated from other gamblers. Furthermore. if a casino has a pathway that runs through it without diverting a customer into the gambling areas. the customer may never step off the path and engage in the action. if a potential customer can see the entire casino from the entrance. with products placed strategically to entice customers to buy more item. Casino Layout Casinos must be planned as functional and attractive spaces. casinos that look empty discourage play.Many studies have been done on the relationship between built environments and behaviour. there is little mystery to set out and explore it on foot. signs. factors making up the casino environment include the layout of the casino. light levels. to get customers to come into the casino. Shopping malls and individual stores are designed to influence the way people spend their time. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 46 . i.g. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. Where the casino attracts different types of clients. and to keep them there for as long as possible.

1 An overhead floor plan of a casino with supporting facilities Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 47 .Fig 3.

In the casinos of the past, table games were king. Not only were table games the most popular, but they were also the most profitable. On the Las Vegas Strip, where table games once ruled, slots now dominate. Nearly 50% of the total casino win comes from slots. State-wide in Nevada, slots generate over 67% of the total casino win. The comparison is even more dramatic if you were to look at the departmental profits. In the early days of gaming, slots were merely a diversion and were usually placed around the perimeter of the casino. These machines were all pretty much the same: three-reel mechanical slots. With the exception of the cabinetry, denomination, and brand name, the workings of the ‘one-armed bandits’ were essentially the same. You inserted a coin, pulled the handle, and awaited the outcome as mechanical reels spun and clicked into position. General placement deals with where the slot banks and coin booths will be placed. Slot banks refer to groupings of slot machines, whereas coin booths and slot carousels are areas on the casino floor where players can purchase coins and tokens for use in the slot machines. In considering general placement, each slot cabinet that will hold a slot machine must be viewed as an empty box. These ‘empty boxes’ can be used to create traffic patterns or, conversely, to impede traffic patterns. The overriding consideration is to place the machines where the maximum number will be viewed by slot players. Enticements such as the showroom, bingo parlour, keno parlour, casino bars, race and sports books, and restaurants create traffic. These enticements (sometimes called anchors) influence slot placement. For example, slot machines should be placed at the entrance and exit of the bingo parlour or showroom in such a manner that customers exiting will be exposed to the maximum number of machines. Generally, slot aisles are between 5½ and 7 feet (1.6 to 2 meter) in width. Aisles that are too narrow cramp the customer and may have a negative impact on profit maximisation. The extent of seating the slot manager decides to make available will determine the aisle width necessary. Seating in the modern casino is crucial to the success of a slot operation. In Atlantic City, regulations require all aisles to be at least 7 feet wide and only fixed seating can be provided. This fixed seating rule results from concerns that movable seats could impair the customer from exiting in the event of a fire.
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Specific placement deals with placement of the specific models and coin denominations. There are several general philosophies that influence specific slot placement: • • Low hold (loose) machines should be placed in busy walkways to create an atmosphere of activity. The most popular machines should be placed near entrances where they can easily be seen by someone trying to decide whether or not to enter the casino. High hit frequency machines located around the casino pit area will create an atmosphere of slot activity. High earners and test machines should be placed in heavy traffic areas. Gimmick machines (machines in which the top award is a prize like a new car or a trip around the world) should be placed near entrances and in high traffic areas. Loose machines placed next doorways or toilets or in close proximity to the street.

• • •

These are only general philosophies governing slot placement. In application, the slot manager will continue to modify the slot floor configuration to best attract and retain customers through the use of available slot performance data. Traffic flow is kept in mind when designing casinos floor layout. Possible anchors are placed in prominent positions around the casino entrances. (Car displays, attraction machines and large jackpot style machines). Visibility and accessibility of the slots floor have been found to improve the overall performance of the casino. There have been many tried and tested variations in the gambling environment that improve the occupancy rates and increase overall capacity.

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Fig 3.2 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

Although the design depicted in figure 3.2 may appear regimented or rather uninteresting, it is important to note that adaptations such as winding pathways and generous use of pods on the borders of the slot areas are easily accomplished. Adaptations such as these maintain the basic design, while further improving the visibility and accessibility of interior units. A careful review of the environmental psychology literature would yield many beneficial modifications to improve the ambience and functionality of any slot floor.

Fig 3.3 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

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Fig 3. This is contrary to the responsible gambling part of an operator’s portfolio as this also plays an essential role in a client’s spending extra money within the environment. Summary The positioning of machines is critical to the gaming operator as he can entice the clientele into the casino area with relative ease. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 51 . Facilities Resort style casinos are popular family destinations with facilities to entertain clients for days.4 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park. USA Activity 3. Even smaller casino properties have a range of supporting facilities to attract clients and to increase revenue.1 Explain in your own words what you understand by the term ‘enticement’.

Bars can be found on the casino floor as well as in adjacent areas. attracting guests to stay at the resort for longer. This is all offered to the discerning outdoor lover to entice him into spending his weekend away with his family. At Sun City. Signage Although the gaming provider has a certain set of instructions. a manmade ocean. Packages are offered that include access to all of the facilities. Pilannesburg.2 Look at any of the mega casino resorts around the world. the so-called ‘Africa’s Kingdom of Pleasure’ there are various facilities to encompass the guests overall pleasure. These include water sports for the kids including ‘Valley of Waves’. and list the various facilities other than gambling facilities offered by the casinos. How do supporting facilities influence gambling patterns? Summary Supporting facilities are provided to attract and entertain clients. These include sports facilities. A very important key element to all successful casinos is the clever installation of various forms of signage. they use very discreet types of subterfuge or enticement in order to make the client feel at home within the gaming areas. plus a discount structure offered as a bonus at a hotel at the resort. theatres. Fine dining restaurants are available for those who prefer. allowing clients to return to gaming activities as soon as possible. Numerous entertainment venues can be found in resort style casinos. It generates additional income for the property and keeps guests at destinations for longer. shops.Food and beverage outlets are important features in casinos. Activity 3. South Africa. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 52 . Fast food outlets offer fast service. games arcades and theme parks.

Most forms of signage are used to either lure the client into the facility or attract customers to specific areas of the gaming floor. Overhead Signage Although as the name implies. Although the casino does pay for the right to use this type of display they are trying to promote a brand of game type. in some cases patrons who visit regularly will always stake an amount into the progressive bank of machines. The lure of this progressive value to some clients is phenomenal. 1.). Progressive Signage Progressives are machines in which the top jackpot continuously increases until won. Although this show of the value’s of the increment. Other signs have to be displayed as a commitment to providing responsible gambling service. the term overhead signage is used mainly above a bank of machines. the general incremental rate is around 1% of the value that is turned over in the machines. People will se an amount of money displayed over a group of slot machines (See Fig 3.5).5 Overhead Signage of the Adams Family 2. This has been used to successfully attract many visitors into the casinos around the world. The amount will be displayed in an attractive neon or media display. including a progressive amount.6. these types of signs are used to promote the names or machine reel content that is being used below the sign (See Fig 3.The origination of signage came from Ray ‘Pappy’ Smith in the early 50’s whereby he had an idea to improve the visibility of the casino industry. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 53 . Fig 3.

TFT Signage TFT stands for thin-film transistor technology. this display is a sign that is made up from three different coloured LED’s and is commonly used to display the amount of an individual machines progressive. vibrant colour and an improved response time for multimedia applications. Figure 3. In Machine Signage The display in the paytable of the machine is called a ‘Mikohn’ in machine Display. It has the ability to attract one’s eye while walking the floor. These types of signs are also used for advertising current attractions around the casino area.7 Mikhon in machine 4. Figure 3. These displays or signs are used on the ends of the table games or live gaming area to show the clientele the last number or current number that has been rolled on roulette.6 Progressive Signage 3. A TFT monitor delivers crisp text.8 TFT Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 54 .Fig 3. The reason behind this form of signage is that it delivers up to date information to members of the public at live feeds.

Fig 3. highlighting the denomination of a bank of machines clearly to the public. External signs often make use of Tivoli. This is used to enable the customers to identify the amount of money or area of the casino floor that they are playing in. running lights or neon for striking effect. These signs are usually well lit and cover the doorway or entrance portal of the casino. It reflects the class of the establishment. Fig 3.5. External Signage The use of this signage is the pride of any establishment.10 External Overhead Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 55 . Denomination or Bank End Signage These types of either polycarbonate or sphere type signs are strategically placed around the casino floor.9 Bank End Sign (A Topper Sign) 6.

12 Games rules and regulations for Bingo 8. The casino will have to advise the age restriction as well as any dress code and behaviour patterns required in the facility.11 Right of Admission Reserved Sign Fig 3. the entrance criteria is clear to clients and can be referred to when it is necessary to refuse entrance to clients who do not meet the criteria. This includes the table limits. minimum stake. Should a dispute arise. Fig 3. There are many variations of signage around the world covering entrance requirements. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 56 .7. these rules could be referred to resolve the dispute. In Singapore these will be specific in accordance with the Singapore Control Act 2006. Right of admission reserved The gambling facility has the right (by Law) to certain restrictions for allowing visitors into the casino. These must be displayed prominently at the table. the different payouts of the game and rules of the game. By displaying a ‘right of admission reserved sign’. Games rules and regulations The gambling provider has a legal obligation to display the rules and regulations governing the games of chance that are on offer in the establishment.

Types of signage used include: • • • • • • • • • Overhead Signage Progressive Signage In Machine Signage TFT media signs Denomination or Bank end signage External Right of Admission reserved Games rules and regulations Responsible Gambling Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 57 . Fig 3. These signs advice clients on options for help as assistance should they have a gambling problem. around the machines and live gaming area’s as well as the foyer of the casino or slots areas. Responsible Gambling Programme Signage Gambling legislations around the world require that the gambling providers place responsible gambling signage in highly visible areas of the gambling facilities and surrounding areas such as in the toilets.13 Responsible Gambler awareness sign Summary The different types of signage are very instrumental in enticing the playing customer into the establishment.9. This signage must include the possible ills of gambling and advice on the various solutions or the counselling lines that are available.

g. e. are being designed with more features allowing natural light to enter gaming areas. Activity 3. for example skylights and large windows. Although the most responsible gambling programs would encourage natural lighting in the casino environment. although this is not proved. The lack of natural daylight in casinos contributes to the fact that gamblers might not be aware of passage of time. Most casinos rely solely on artificial lighting. with gaming machines packed into every available space. Summary Casino environments are often dimly lit with lighting designed to create atmosphere and highlight special features.3 Describe the consequences that providing natural light within the casino would have on the gambling provider. New casinos however. Lighting is used to create a mood or enhance a gaming or entertainment activity. The absence of natural daylight in the casino is drawing much criticism lately. This is not necessarily a ploy to get the clientele into the casino. Quite often gambling areas are dimly lit. The layout of the machines and the lighting used in these areas may make it easy for patrons to lose track of time.Casino Lighting Casinos offer dramatic visual environments. as natural light makes clients aware of passage of time. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 58 . but rather to highlight certain visual elements and to contribute to the atmosphere in the casino. what time of day or night it is. this could be a costly venture for a casino operator who might lose revenue and patronage.

Responsible gambling regulations ask gambling providers to provide an opportunity for reality check for patrons. This influence the way clients are made aware of time. Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) Throughout various casino environments around the world. The logic behind this rational is that there should be no concept of time or passage of time for the clientele at all. Activity 3. Summary Clocks are usually not displayed in highly visible places within casinos. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 states that a casino operator shall not provide or allow another person to provide any automatic teller machine within the boundaries of the casino premises and that any casino operator who contravenes this regulation shall be liable to disciplinary action. i. This can contribute to the might contribute to the fact that gamblers might loss track of time. Casino employees can wear wrist watches to keep track of shifts and break times. for the installation of clocks so that every player in a gaming area is able to see the time.4 Explain what the term ‘passage of time’ means to you.Display of Clocks Casinos often do not display clocks in highly visible places. For example. However. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 59 .e. time is displayed at cashier’s booths and on other electronic signs around the casino. This is a minimum standard that is required but does not have any forcible effect under the law.

g. Promotional Materials Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. or could be for the gambling section only. The different package deals are put together by the marketing departments to attract crowds to the venue. a ticket to an exclusive show. responsible gambling legislations require responsible gambling signs to be placed at ATM machines as a deterrent to draw more cash. some casinos would have ATM’s placed around the floor area. room bed and breakfast. or outside the floor areas within other facilities. The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor.13 Problem Gambling Hotline Activity 3.5 What is the rationale of casino legislations for prohibiting the placement of ATM’s within the casino area? Summary Throughout various casino environments around the world. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. Figure 3. Furthermore. and gives them a chance to think about whether they should really be drawing more money. e.g. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. e. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 60 . Promotional materials can take the form of a package deal for the hotel or resort. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises.However. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor.

61 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . The higher your status. the more you earn with Sun International. Invitations to special Sun International events such as the Nedbank Golf Challenge Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Platinum and Gold cardholders can enjoy the MVG Lounge and Prive privileges. food. drinks and exciting merchandise. This is to make sure that there is a response from the clients who frequent the establishment. Sun International Benefits and Rewards The more you play. where available. Redeem your MVG points for luxurious accommodation. Many casinos offer reward programmes for regular clients in order for them to return time and time again. i. one of the most used by Sun International is the Sunscapes voucher. Most of these offers would be for downtimes in the hotel industry. This would offer the client a hotel discount structure for two people over certain periods of time. As you progress from Maroon to Silver to Gold and then to the prestigious Platinum. the greater your rewards. At Sun International we value your loyalty.One of the best ploys used by the gambling provider is the correct use of promotional materials. and our MVG Programme demonstrates just how much: • • • • • • • • • Recognition as a Most Valued Guest at all Sun International casinos. For example.e. Being a Most Valued Guest means more than just recognition and the guarantee of VIP status at Sun International’s casinos and resorts – it also delivers a range of exclusive membership benefits and rewards in exchange for MVG points. you will be delighted at the benefits you receive. hotels and resorts. Popular promotional materials include gambling vouchers (offer) that one can be redeemed at the casino or slots area. Exclusive accommodation discounts at Sun International’s luxury hotels and resorts Terrific discounts on green fees at Sun International golf courses. Earn MVG points for play on slots and tables. Each Sun International Casino has various benefits and offers exclusive to Most Valued Guests that can be enjoyed during your visits. off peak periods.

however should family rooms not be available. THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. sharing. Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room. This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. Platinum 80% midweek 80% weekend Gold 70% midweek 55% weekend Silver 50% midweek 25% weekend Maroon Green Fees discount (for cardholder) Accommodation Discounts (maximum three consecutive nights and subject to availability) Green Fees discount (for cardholder only) Recognition as an MVG in every Sun International Casino Invitations to special Sun International events 80% midweek 80% weekend 50% discount on green fees * 70% midweek 55% weekend 30% discount on green fees * 50% midweek 25% weekend 10% discount on green fees * Green Fees discount (for cardholder) * Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 62 . to secure your accommodation.Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. 0800-11-51-50. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. Call this toll-free number. where availability allows it. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations.

THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people.Platinum Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Earn points for play Free Membership Free entry into all Sun International Casinos MVG Partner Card VIP Parking MVG Lounge and Prive privileges Complimentary beverages whilst playing Sun International’s Prive Magazine mailed to you quarterly Dedicated hotel check-in counter and cash desk facilities – where available. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations. * * * * * * Gold * * * * * * Silver * * * * * * Maroon * * * * * * * * Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. sharing. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 63 . This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February.

The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. tumbling through troughs and soothing noises allows one to venture into a dream world not caring about where you are. Activity 3. on the inside of the building. environment. The once bland casino floor is now used to take a client into another domain. The service provider will then use machinery. Summary Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. Creating a Comfortable Environmental In attempting to transform the original casino environment. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room. The correct use or utilisation of airconditioning above and around the machines can create a feeling of wellness within the service provider’s area. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 64 . tickets to events or restaurant vouchers. fauna and flora at his disposal to create an ambience. The use of water features. 0800-11-51-50. however should family rooms not be available. There are also artificial sounds that are used for advertising purposes.Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. where availability allows it.5 Provide 2 examples of promotional rewards. the gambling providers around the globe are now using appropriate environmental features. such as a monkey call. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. to secure your accommodation. By doing so they can transform a ‘dead and bleary’ looking casino floor into a tropical paradise. to enhance the player’s attention to a promotional machine. The majority of these features are recreated artificially. Call this toll-free number. It might include accommodation offers.

although not natural light.The correct use of either heating. in some instance he has exceeded expectations. to upward lighting around the slots floor areas. These temperatures are also used in the improving of bar sales. also instils a sense of well being in the client. Activity 3. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 65 . room temperature. complimentary drinks at the service provider’s expense. Although there is no natural light in the casino environment. cooling features can assist with retaining the client within the casino area. b) How does this environment contradict responsible gambling? Summary The utilisation of environmental features has become a challenge for the service provider. but enhancing his overall playing conditions. The opposite of this is the use of ambient temperatures while playing in the area (22 degrees).6 a) Describe the environment that must be created in the casino to make customers comfortable and stimulate interest. The use of correct lighting. in other world over provided. As an example the utilisation of downdrafts within the environment will force the clients to rethink where he is comfortable while playing. the using of automatic dimmers can give a relaxed atmosphere. These lighting skills will be used as down lights above the tables.

Learning outcome After studying this chapter. Having information and understanding the games also contributes to the enjoyment of games participated in. This information will inform clients of the options they have and enable them to make informed and responsible choices. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 66 . Introduction to the Provision of Information Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. the student should be able to: • • • • • Describe the range of information that should be displayed as well as available upon request Describe the range of responsible gambling information that should be available Describe the range of information on counselling that should be available Describe the win/loss and probability information that should be available Describe the information on games that should be available. The types of information that should be available will be discussed as well of the ways in which this information is made available.Topic 4 PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS Objective In this chapter the students will be introduced to the provision of information that should be readily available to the clients.

odds or returns to player. game rules. and • Advice on counseling services. • Identifying problem gambling.Clients often do not have access to sufficient information on probable outcomes from specific gambling activities. They may have incorrect and inflated expectations of the rewards to be received from participation in gambling activities. • Self-Exclusion provisions. These include: • The gambling provider’s Responsible Gambling Practices documentation including. It might often be necessary to publish posters and brochures in a variety of languages. where appropriate.1) Fig 4. there are certain information that are available to clients upon request. The provision of information is based on the proposition that consumers must have access to adequate information at the ‘point of gaming’. policies for addressing problem gambling issues relevant to the local community. In addition to the above mentioned. or ‘point of sale’ to enable them to make informed decisions about their participation. Information must be made available in languages that will be understood by clients. (See Fig 4. The regulated gambling providers are expected to offer their patrons accurate and meaningful information that are readily available and in clear language explaining topics such as: • The rules and operations of the games. • The nature of games.1 Responsible gambling poster printed in 6 languages Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 67 . • Gambling-related complaint resolution mechanisms. • The chances of winning.

Fig 4.Summary Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. whether casinos. This information should be prominently displayed in all gambling areas and near ATM and POS facilities servicing gambling areas. • Identifying problem gambling. and • Advice on counseling services.. Information that should be displayed throughout the establishment includes: • The rules and operations of the games. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. Additional information should be available upon request. etc. it is important to remind gamblers of the risks they face.1 Responsible Gambling notice found on ATM’s Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 68 . lotteries. Gamblers who are aware of the risks. often choose to ignore the risks. • The chances of winning. Internet or Telephone Sports Bookmakers and Online Gaming Licensees are required to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and. as appropriate. For this reason. where to get help for problem gambling on their websites. Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling Many gamblers are not aware that they are at risk of developing gambling problems. Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. Information must be available in languages understood by clients.

for example near the cashier’s booth and standalone change dispensing devices. This is interpreted as a logo on an internet page. Fig 4. The advert in the example (fig 4. inside both the casino and the surrounding areas such as the hotel lobby.2 Responsible Gambling advertisement Responsible Gambling Mission Statement Many gambling acts require that a Responsible Gambling Mission Statement is clearly displayed around the gambling provider’s service area. Although a catchy style of phrase the irresponsible gambler might not take heed to this advice. One of the well known service providers (Sun International) has the following statement ‘Gamble with your head and not your heart’. It is also included on their website. Gambling providers can come out with their own mission statements. local community services may have brochures that advertise their services and these can also be appropriately displayed. In addition. Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees have to display their responsible gambling mission statements on their websites. This logo has been advertised at every gambling facility.2) was used in a local boxing gymnasium. operators could display the poster and business cards in additional areas of the venue.There are some additional initiatives that could be implemented by outside investments such as town councils. service forecourt and children’s play area’s. For example. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 69 .

• ‘The XYZ Club supports the responsible enjoyment of our facilities.4) Fig 4. More interesting and eye catching ways of displaying information can be implemented by engaging professional advertising companies. (See Fig 4. newspaper advertisements. venue fliers.: • ‘The XYZ Club. • Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer contact details. • Safe transport options.4 Playing cards with a responsible gambling message and helpline number Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 70 .g. mail outs. The ‘playing cards’ below was developed for the National Responsible Gambling Council. a responsible community organisation. • Tips to gambling within means. Gambling provider venues with websites could also incorporate a ‘Responsible Enjoyment’ section including: • Promotion of non-alcohol and low-alcohol drinks. for example. e. and as a footnote on letterheads. • ‘The XYZ Club – promoting responsible enjoyment.Other Methods of Displaying Information The gambling provider could promote their responsible approach within.

Availability of Counselling ‘It is the Council’s hope that with greater awareness. and in other gambling facilities such as lottery outlets and gambling websites. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients.. and there will be less hesitancy among members of the public to refer family members or friends for professional help. stating the name of the organisations whose statement it is.’ – NCPG 2008 In accordance with legislative requirements. lotteries. The examples listed below are just a few of the lines available. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 71 . Most of the hotlines are toll free numbers. Various countries around the world that have gambling interests have 24 hour counselling hotlines available.Activity 4. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. Summary Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. etc. more individuals will come forth to seek professional help.1 Describe what a responsible gambling mission statement and give an example of a statement. Information on counselling services available and their contact details must be displayed in full view around the casino. whether casinos.

Examples of the United Kingdom responsible gambling counsellors: Contact details: Gordon House Association 01384241292 accepts individuals who refer themselves. social or health workers Helpline: GamCare is the national centre 084 56000 133 for information. Friendship To Compulsive Gamblers In Singapore the some examples of the counselling facilities are: 1800-X-Gamble Gamblers and their families (18009426253) often have to struggle with financial and debt management problems as well as guilt. National Contact Gamblers Anonymous is a Gamblers number: fellowship of men and women Anonymous 02073843040 who have joined together to do (UK) something about their own gambling problem and to help Offering The other compulsive gamblers do Hand Of the same. Moral Society Youth and Sports (MCYS) is Tel: 6337 1201 funding to provide counselling Care Corner and support services to Counselling problem gamblers and their Centre Tel: 6353-1180 families. 72 Thye Hua Kwan Moral Society and Care Corner Counselling Centre Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . Those who want a listening ear. anxiety and even depression. advice and practical help in relation to the social impact of gambling in the U. and to obtain information and assistance on gambling problems can call the helplines. or who are referred by their friends.K. family. Thye Hua Kwan 2 pilot agencies the Ministry of Community Development. probation.

the casino staff must be able to assist them. Activity 4. The various advertisements around the casino or gambling facility must make it clear that: • Help is available. including substance behavioural addictions (e. compulsive gambling.g. Casino and other gambling facilities have training programmes in place for staff the equip them to provide information to clients. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 73 . seven days a week to answer questions. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. Should the client need help in resourcing the counselling services and help lines. and • That counsellors are available to provide information and advice. • That help lines can be called 24 hours a day.Contact Number: 6-RECOVER (6732 6837) Community Addictions Management Programme (CAMP) Its aim is to provide treatment for individuals with various addictions.2 a) b) What is meant by counselling? What is the meaning of a toll free help line? Summary In accordance with legislative requirements. This information should be displayed throughout the gambling facility and staff should provide information to clients upon request. sex addiction and internet addiction).

and win/loss report.Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability In casino parlance. a client’s win/loss figures refer to the amount of revenue that the casino has either generated or lost to the client. these reports would be named individually. The gambling provider’s around the globe are required to advise the client as to his win/loss records. could work out his accumulated casino win/loss figure as a percentage. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 74 . Although the reward system will not have current hold percentages of the different game types that the client are frequenting. This figure is represented in value to both parties. Clients are afforded verbal access to these statistics whenever they approach the service provider. and the period of time spent playing. as it could determine the worth of the client to the casino. for example the handle tracked report. with management’s assistance. as well as the amount of visits per month. If the service provider has a computer generated online system. These statistics are kept by the service provider in order that the service provider can establish the net worth of the client. the reports would be manually generated. The probability of loosing in a game of chance is explained to the client when the service provider explains the individual games of chance to the client. The availability of a client’s win/loss statistics at a casino is made available through the player rewards database. The detailed report would be used to determine the client’s play at the casino. This is the amount that he could loose over a period of time taking into consideration the he would win or loose on different visits at the service provider. or if a regular service provider. It could also be used to support an exclusion order when a client has spent excessive amounts on gambling. the client. Depending on the service provider’s status within the industry. These reports will advise the service provider or the client as to his specific play patterns. rewards redeemed report. The service provider will use the online play reports for the marketing rewards systems that are in place at the gambling provider’s establishment. the player tracking database could be online.

The gambling property will place in view on the live gaming table. In the case of slot machines. Except as specifically provided herein. These are the reward paytables for the staked amount on an individual bet should a winning combination occur.5) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 75 . In the case of craps. Payoff schedules or award cards must accurately state actual payoffs or awards applicable to the particular game or device and shall not be worded in such manner as to mislead or deceive the public. The above example is only a minimum requirement but does cover extensive control on the individual gambling property. These are in the form of the top glass of the slot machine cabinet. (See Fig 4. this simply states that these are minimum internal controls standards required by the gambling provider to meet in order to have the gaming facility/ property fully licensed and operational. keno and faro games the foregoing requirement will be satisfied if published payoff schedules are maintained in a location readily accessible to players and notice of the location of such schedule is posted on or adjacent to the table.Publication of Payoffs 1. a reward card for the game that is represented at the place of stake. or (b) The award cards of any game offered for play are displayed at all times when the device is available for play.012 .As an example the Las Vegas Gaming requirements are as follows: Nevada Gaming Regulation 5. 2. payoff schedules or award cards applicable to every licensed game or slot machine shall be displayed at all times either on the table or machine or in a conspicuous place immediately adjacent thereto. Maintenance of any misleading or deceptive matter on any payoff schedule or award card or failure on the part of a licensee to make payment in strict accordance with posted payoff schedules or award cards may be deemed an unsuitable method of operation. The same information is done in a slot machine on the awards paytable. the foregoing requirements will be satisfied if: (a) The player is at all times made aware that payoff schedules or award cards applicable to any game offered for play are readily accessible and will be displayed on the video display screen of the device upon the initiation of a command by the player.

(This is a long term expectation.5 Slot Machine Paytable (Source: http://www.5%. With table games like roulette. For example.slotmachinest rategy. the gambling trends have shown that the service providers in Las Vegas are using the percentages to entice customers into the service provider’s area. anything can happen.00.50 and $1. the player can expect to lose between $0. For example. the house edge is normally expressed as a percentage. and in the short term.5% and 1% when played with perfect basic strategy. This is been used in contradiction to the responsible gambling mission around the globe. for a one dollar (US$) the average hold percentage is 6. blackjack has a house edge of between 0. blackjack. That means out of every $100 bet.Although suggestions have been made to the service providers to advertise the average machine hold percentages. Slot Machine Payout Percentages Various ways of describing the house edge on gambling games are traditionally used. or craps.) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 76 . Fig 4. as in the layman’s terms – the house percentage/casino win. which was trying to get the customers to understand the amount that the casino would Examples of Slot machine game hold percentages that are offered around the world are in line with a denominational trend.

3% Information on the Odds or Win Rates of Major Prizes The gambling provider must make available easily understood and accurate information on the odds or win rates of major prizes. for example. So a slot machine with a 96% payout percentage has a 4% hold percentage. would pay out $99. (Again. This information should be displayed in gambling areas.) Slot Machine Hold Percentages A slot machine's hold percentage is the amount of money the house can expect to win over the long term. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 77 . in proximity to relevant games and on web sites. The payout percentage is basically what percentage of money will get paid out compared to what is wagered. the higher the slot machine payouts are. Usually. the slot machine payouts at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City looked something like this: • Quarter slots . And the higher denomination games usually have a higher payout percentage than the lower denomination slot machine games.But slot machines are normally described according to their payout percentages. The hold percentage on a slot machine is the same thing as the house edge on a table game. such as the amount of handle (spins). in August 2006.6% • Dollar slots . Slot machine payouts also vary based on what denomination of slot machine you're playing. as this will determine the hold percentage in the long term. Typical Slot Machine Payouts and Payout Percentages A typical slot machine payout percentage varies according to what area of the country you're in. A slot machine with a payout percentage of 99.50 for every $100 wagered. this is over the long term. In the short term the hold percentages can vary. For example.5%.3% • Five dollar slots .97.93. There are some variables that the machine will have. the more active a casino destination is. This number is determined by subtracting the payout percentage from 100%. The only difference between a slot machine hold percentage and the casino (house) hold is the term used to describe it.92.

The gambling provider could: • Have odds of winning current major prizes readily available at points of sale (POS) and coin exchanges (Slots Booths or Cashiers). The most popular games that are explained to clients are blackjack and roulette. Information on Games Service providers around the world are recognizing the need to instruct the clients in the art of the games of chance. This will be available from the marketing department. • Alert patrons to the availability of the Guide and promote its use (signage around the gaming area as well as any outside media). By having this information. The odds or win rates of major prizes should also be available to clients. clients can have realistic expectations. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 78 . • Prominently display the relevant Player Information Guide in accessible areas (hotel lobby). the teaching of these games is at best thorough. Training centres for clients are generally built in the large service provider’s facility and are manned by staff that are trained to deal with all requests from client’s for information on live gaming. Additional Initiatives Operators may choose to display their full complement of documentation in prominent locations such as welcome centres or information centres. Gambling providers operating loyalty programs could also provide player activity records to the relevant patron upon that person’s request. • Ensure adequate supply of these guides (on desktops or around the live gaming areas within easy reach). Although the information is available to inform the client of the risks involved in a game of chance.Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees must make this information available on their websites. Summary Casinos should make win/loss and probability information available to clients.

clients have to accumulate points as follows: Card Tier Platinum Card Gold Card Silver Card Points Required 4. The client can have access to his win/loss ratio. Casinos can use this information for marketing purposes and reward purposes. the player has to use the card each time he plays. the hours of play and the status of play. The maroon card is an entry level card. The Most Valued Guest System (MVG) used by Sun International is an example of a player rating system. The reward system will award clients different colour cards (platinum.250 450 50 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 79 . This enables the casino to obtain the necessary information needed to keep records of the amount and time spend in the casino. silver or maroon) based on their level of spent. Player Rating Systems The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. gold.Summary Many of the large casinos offer to train clients on the rules and play of popular casino games. Clients who sign up for reward programmes are issued with ‘tracking cards’. the amount he spent. To accumulate points. Having a player tracking or rating system in place holds advantages for both the gambling provider as well as the client. Some large casino groups have group wide ratings systems. To obtain silver. gold or platinum cards. These figures are recorded in a computerised system and used to form a database of clients that utilize the facility.

Points from the various casinos within the group can be combined. To earn 1 point on a table game, the client must turnover R2500 and to earn 1 point on slots, the client must turnover R500. This means that for a client to obtain a platinum card, he would have to turnover at least R10, 625 000 on table games or R2, 125 000 on slots. Summary The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. Both the client and the gambling provider can obtain valuable information through player reward systems.

Activity 4.3 Explain what the gambling provider could do to have the odds or win rates available for clients.

Activity 4.4 a) b) What is meant by the term House Edge? Give an example of the House Edge of Blackjack.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


This chapter will explain the procedures for handling requests for exclusions and the implementation of exclusion orders. Students will get to appreciate the extent of work and control involved managing and enforcing exclusion orders. Exclusion procedures must be handled in accordance with legislations and is a very important aspect of responsible gambling.

Learning Outcome
After studying this chapter the student should be able to: • • • • • • Define the various types of exclusion orders Discuss the exclusion procedures stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 Explain the procedures for dealing with exclusion requests and implementation of exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with attempts to breach exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with requests to revoke exclusion orders Explain policies that remote gambling operators should have in place with regards exclusion orders.

Introduction to Exclusion Orders
Responsible Gambling legislations in various countries require gambling providers, including casinos, to make available to their clients and gambling public and to administer exclusion programmes. In Singapore the exclusion process is stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 and in the UK, the Gambling Act 2005 provides guidelines.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


Gambling providers should be able to administer a self-exclusion order upon request from clients. Other exclusion orders that might be handled by responsible gambling commissions or councils include family exclusion orders and automatic exclusion orders or third party exclusion orders. Gambling providers must have policies and procedures in place for handling all types of exclusion orders. Responsible gambling councils will provide registered gambling providers (licensees) with details of excluded persons. The gambling providers are the front line institutions which have to deal with the different types of exclusions. This will incorporate the complete process from interviewing clients requesting for exclusion through to advising the responsible gambling departments of people who has been excluded. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. It also prevents them from loosing any more money on gambling. The exclusion clause was regulated as there would be instances that clients would carry on with gambling if there was no forcible help in the law. For a gambling service provider, dealing with exclusions can be stressful and unpleasant. Extreme caution and care has to be taken when dealing with and enforcing exclusion orders. It might be necessary to exclude regular clients with whom the staff have built a relationship. Management and staff should be able to distance themselves from personal feelings should they know clients on a personal basis. Types of Exclusion Orders • Self Exclusion Casino Self Exclusion refers to an approach to reducing gambling problems whereby an individual voluntarily excludes him or herself from a casino. The individual contracts with the casino that they will not enter the casino, and if they do, they can be removed and charged with trespassing.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


including Singapore. Activity 5. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. Problem Gambling Councils can exclude a person whose gambling behaviour has caused serious harm to his/her family. Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 In topic 2. In addition to the procedures discussed previously. family exclusion and third party or automatic exclusion. c) What is meant by an incapacitated applicant? Summary It is a legal requirement for gambling providers to manage and make available exclusion orders. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 83 .• Family Exclusion In some countries. Exclusion orders can be in the form of self exclusion. Recipients of Public Assistance or Special Grants as well as undercharged bankrupts will be excluded from casino premises under Third Party Exclusion. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. • Third Party Exclusion or Automatic Exclusion Under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. upon application by a family member. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 has specific guidelines for casinos to deal with exclusions.1 a) What is a ‘deed of exclusions’? b) Explain what is meant by the term self exclusion. we discussed the procedures followed by the National Council on Problem Gambling when dealing with family exclusions.

the Authority shall notify each casino operator of that order. Section 120 . (2) As soon as practicable after making an exclusion order. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises. Section 122 .Different types of gambling providers in different countries around the world. Section 121 . (3) A person who has been given an exclusion order under this section may appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of that order. as the case may be. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises. the casino operator shall notify the Authority and the Council of that order or the revocation of that order. by a written exclusion order given to a person.Exclusion orders by casino operator (1) A casino operator may give a written exclusion order under this section to a person. regulated under various gambling legislations. (3) As soon as practicable after a casino operator gives an exclusion order under subsection (1) or revokes the order. will have similar guidelines to adhere to. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 84 . by an exclusion order given to a person orally or in writing. (3) As soon as practicable after the Authority gives an exclusion order under this section. (2) An oral exclusion order lapses after 14 days. prohibiting the person from entering or remaining on the casino premises. whether on the voluntary application of the person or otherwise.Exclusion orders by Authority (1) The Authority may. The following sections from the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 will be examined as an example.Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police (1) The Commissioner of Police may. (2) A voluntary application under subsection (1) shall be in writing and signed by the applicant in the presence of a person authorised by the casino operator to witness such an application.

the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of the revocation. without reasonable excuse. permit an excluded person to enter or remain on the casino premises. require a casino operator to furnish a list of persons excluded from the casino premises by the casino operator. Section 126 . or take part in any gaming.Duration of exclusion orders (1) An exclusion order made under section 121 or 122 remains in force in respect of a person unless and until it is revoked by the person who gave the order or by the Minister. (2) Any person.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises (1) This section applies to the following persons on any casino premises: (a) the person for the time being in charge of the casino. (c) a casino employee. on appeal. on any casino premises. (2) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Commissioner of Police or the Minister. (b) an agent of the casino operator. from time to time. who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence. Section 127 .Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises (1) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall not. the Authority shall give notice of the revocation to each casino operator as soon as practicable after it occurs. (3) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Authority or the Minister. (2) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall comply with any order made under section 163 (2) (d) to close any deposit account of a respondent named in that order. Section 125 . Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 85 .Excluded person not to enter casino premises (1) An excluded person shall not enter or remain. being subject to an exclusion order made under section 121 or 122.Section 123 . Section 124 .List of persons excluded by casino operator The Authority may.

(2) (3) A person to whom this section applies who knows that an excluded person is about to enter or is on the casino premises shall — (a) notify an inspector as soon as practicable.Duration of exclusion orders Section 124 . (3) If winnings referred to in subsection (2) comprise or include a non-monetary prize. Section 128 . Summary The Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 includes the following sections with regards exclusion: Section 120 . any amount of goods and services tax payable in respect of the supply to which the prize relates is to be taken into account.Forfeiture of winnings (1) This section applies to any person who is — (a) an excluded person. and (b) using no more force than is reasonably necessary — (i) prevent the excluded person from entering the casino premises. in the case of a casino operator or a licensed special employee. (2) If a person to whom this section applies enters or remains on any casino premises in contravention of this Act. the casino operator shall pay the value of that prize to the Consolidated Fund.Exclusion orders by casino operator Section 121 . or (b) a minor (as defined in section 130).List of persons excluded by casino operator Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 86 . Any person who fails to comply with subsection (2) shall be –– (a) liable to disciplinary action. in any other case. or (ii) remove such a person from the casino premises or cause such a person to be removed from the casino premises. or (b) guilty of an offence. (4) In determining the value of a non-monetary prize for the purposes of subsection (3).Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police Section 123 . all winnings (including linked jackpots) paid or payable to the person in respect of gaming on gaming machines or playing any game approved under section 100 in the casino are forfeited to the Consolidated Fund. (5) The amount of winnings to be forfeited under this section shall be investigated and determined by an authorised person whose decision shall be final.Exclusion orders by Authority Section 122 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 87 . In most instances a front line staff member. but refer it to the department or manager dealing with exclusion orders. Once the request for exclusion is received by the senior management or the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Requests for Exclusion Requests for self-exclusion are primarily dealt with within the service provider’s facility. from the time of request until the completion of paperwork.Section 125 .Excluded person not to enter casino premises Section 126 . In smaller organisations Duty Managers would handle exclusion procedures. Large casinos have Responsible Gambling Departments with Responsible Gambling Liaison Officers who will deal with exclusions. cashier or security officer.Forfeiture of winnings Dealing with Exclusions Gambling providers will deal with exclusions in accordance with national or regional legislations. This process must also be dealt with in a professional manner. Depending on the country or region of the operations or the size and organisation of the gambling establishment. The frontline staff members are trained in dealing with requests for help and are instrumental in getting the process started. various departments might be involved in exclusion procedures. Security Departments are also extensively involved the implementation and administration of exclusion order. or they might be asked advice with regards exclusions.Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises Section 127 . They will not deal with the case at all. such as the dealer. Most gambling establishments have an interview room in which they can facilitate the clients in private.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises Section 128 . These rooms are equipped with both video and voice recording system. he/she will follow the policies and procedures set. will be the first person to hear about a problem.

from the service provider’s website and other areas of the casino. he has to obtain the following documentation: • • • Client’s identification document. A self-exclusion form would then be completed by the client. but there are suggestions in the different Responsible Gambling provisions for this event to take place away from the gambling facility. Sample Form Please see Appendix 1 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 88 . the process and conditions should be explained to him. Duty Manager or Security Officer is tasked to provide assistance with self exclusions. within the gambling areas. a photo of the relevant person. The person administering the exclusion order will then check the completed self-exclusion forms together with. This request might have to be followed up by a personal interview. It must be clear what type of exclusion is requested for and will be instituted and the implications of an exclusion order.When a person request for self-exclusion. This form can be obtained from reception. These forms will include the stated wish of the patron to be reminded of their desire to be excluded from the specified gambling provider. Credit forms and account details from the cashiering department. by phone or by writing in to the establishment. the client would be present himself. although there might be provision for a request to be made online. where appropriate. Details will also be entered in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register. in a quiet area. Player reward ratings obtained from the database indicating the client’s win/loss data. In most cases. In many instances the client will avail himself on the premises in question. Documentation When the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer.

Processing Exclusion Orders • Self-Exclusion Upon being approached by a patron seeking assistance. All of the aforesaid actions have to be done in the presence of the afflicted patron/client (respondent). Should the patron refuse this. provision of photo. staff will: 1. • Exclusion Requested by Third Party/Family Member If a staff member is approached by a third party requesting exclusion for another person with whose welfare they have a clear. If the patron does not wish to proceed. personal interest.Exclusion Form and details of local community support to the third party. Refer the third party to the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will: • outline the effects and consequences of self-exclusion. close. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should give a copy of the Approved Self-Exclusion Form to the patron. Should the patron agree to proceed. 4. 2. 3. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will advise the third party that Self-Exclusion procedures and documents are available. urging them to make personal contact with counselling groups or directly with the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. ask the patron to sign it. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 89 . staff will suggest a meeting with the Manager on duty (if different to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer). if possible. • go through the procedures and guidelines and the need for a signed agreement. Immediately explain the need to refer the matter to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will provide a copy of the Approved Self. the staff member will: 1. clearly explain the form and detail specific requirements – for example. The Officer will encourage them to discuss the options with the person believed to have a problem with gambling. 2. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will complete the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and. 3.

Once the self-exclusion form is signed and witnessed it comes into effect three days after signing. breaches. • Review the policy for self-exclusion on a regular basis to see if it is working and what areas may need improvement. frequency) and actions taken by the venue with regard to patrons seeking self-exclusion. including the security management. These exclusion procedure would have been audited by the internal audit function of the relevant service provider to make sure that the process is legal (becomes binding once forms completed). • Have clear reporting procedures (staff to management) of relevant incidents (observations. Assessment and Review To ensure the effectiveness of self-exclusion procedures. Where a player loyalty scheme is in effect the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer can enable players to access their own detailed playing records to assess pattern of play. Additional Initiatives by the Gaming Provider Throughout all Responsible Gambling Practices documentation. Counselling Contact Information Gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self-exclusion and/or express a concern that they have a gambling problem. inquiries. the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will be identified as the source of information for self exclusion provisions. are advised of the self-exclusion. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 90 . The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should record the self-exclusion and all actions undertaken in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and take all reasonable steps to ensure that the management staff. The Security Official/ Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will maintain confidentiality of information and the Responsible Gambling Incident Register is to be kept in a secure place. contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. after which time no self-excluded person may gamble with the relevant gambling provider. the gambling provider can: • Provide regular staff information and training on self-exclusion.

This dis-action will last as long as the self exclusion (ban) is in place. by asking. loyalty programs involving the person are terminated or revoked.2 What details should be recorded on a self-exclusion form? Summary 1. their details removed from databases and player-tracking systems. explaining the process with each step 5. The information that they have requested self exclusion (ban) should be highlighted within the client database/player tracking systems in order that the various departments dealing with the database information are made aware of the current status of the client. the consequences surrounding breach. If the person decides to self exclude permanently from the establishment.Self-Exclusion from Other Gambling Providers Self-exclusion gambling customers are to be given support and encouragement in seeking self-exclusions from other gambling providers. Activity 5. There are suggestions that the exclusion should be one year. but current legislated exclusion periods are 6 months. checking all the relevant documentation 3. The first step that the officer dealing with this event will do is to try and make the client feel at ease. and how long the exclusion will be in force. The second step is to get the personal details correct. Correspondence or Promotional Material All gambling providers are not to send correspondence or promotional material to gambling customers who are excluded from their services or who request that this information not be sent to them. 4. date starting. as an example in the UK they give the exclusion forms to the client to complete or fill in at home. and except as required by law. He will also inform the client of the effect of when the exclusion will take place. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 91 . After checking the positive identification he will ask the client to fill in the correct forms. He should not give the client the alternative to be able to back out of the exclusion. 2.

can be punished as a crime. this is only at gambling providers. online player reward system of the exclusion that has taken place. trespass is an unauthorised entry upon land. resort style. 10. In legal terms. A trespass gives the aggrieved party the right to bring a civil lawsuit and collect damages as compensation for the interference and for any harm suffered. These actions are done so as should the client visit the establishment. he will if possible take a digital photograph of the client. he can be asked to leave as he is in breach of his exclusion. not the internet provider. Should the customer breach his agreement. credit department.6. The complete process should be done with as much secrecy – so as not to embarrass the client. in some circumstances. Trespass is an intentional tort and.3 a) What is meant by the term breach of exclusion? b) How would a service provider deal with a client who continually attempts to breach his exclusion order? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 92 . 11. 7. Activity 5. marketing. security. 9. The rationale from the service provider’s security departments behind the trespass arrest is that it should be enough of a warning that clients do not attempt to breach the exclusion order. 8. Once the completed forms have been completed the official that is responsible for the process. this should be done as quietly as possible. After the client has completed the form. that should he breach his exclusion order that the service provider can have him arrested for trespass on the service provider’s property. legal department. It is also explained to the client. By law he has to inform. Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders The manager or official who completes the exclusion order will advise the client that the exclusion order stops him/her from utilizing all the facilities at the gaming provider’s establishment. will inform the relevant departments of the exclusion. from the start of the process.

vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. in Singapore this process will go before the NCPG. In Singapore. In many cases the client might want his exclusion revoked within a month of the commencement of the exclusion order.Summary A person who breaches his exclusion order can be arrested for trespassing. this revocation could be done by a General Manger of the service provider. but in South Africa. Summary As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. the NCPG may confirm. so does the revocation procedures. so does the revocation procedures. The channels are the same for applying for a revocation than for an exclusion order. Revocation of an Exclusion Order As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. For example. The minimum duration of exclusion orders also varies from country to country. The council or department responsible will investigate the request for revocation and make a decision that would be binding. The terms and conditions of exclusion orders should be clearly explained to those excluded from the premises. There is often a minimum period of exclusion before it can be revoked. The forms would have to be completed correctly and lodged with the governing body. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 93 . An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. Revocation of exclusion orders are handled through similar channels than requests for exclusion.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 94 . Approval may require the presentation of sufficient evidence that the player is not a problem gambler. gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self exclusion contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. The website is to operate such that the submission of a completed self exclusion triggers technical responses that block access by the player to the site. the exclusion is to be permanent and may only be varied with the approval of the regulator in whose jurisdiction the site from which the exclusion was initiated is located. (b) that particular gaming site. As appropriate. Upon exclusion. Persons can choose to be excluded from one site. from a particular type of site or from all gaming sites. different regions and countries will have guidelines as to how this should be handled. Self-exclusion must be for a minimum of seven days. The example below is of the Australian exclusion process. In the event that a player excludes him or herself from the site or all sites on three separate occasions. Summary Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. Where a player chooses to be excluded from all sites all licensed providers must suspend any account and deactivate any registration of the player. Self Exclusions – Remote Gambling Persons will be allowed to exclude themselves from: (a) a particular type of gaming at that site. As with casino gambling.Exclusion from Remote Gambling Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. and this action is written to the audit log for the system. all accounts should be suspended and deactivated. or (c) all Australian gaming sites. The option of permanent exclusion must be provided.

It will highlight policies and procedures as well as regulations with regards to underage gambling. In addition. This might include thorough staff training on properly certifying the age of patrons suspected of being underage. the student should be able to: • • • Explain procedures for preventing and dealing with underage gambling Explain the procedures for refusing credit Discuss the procedures for dealing with customer complaints and disputes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 95 . gambling providers and responsible gambling agencies are working together to combat underage gambling. As young people of today is easily influenced by culture and advertisements. Gambling legislations stipulate minimum requirements to prevent underage gambling and gambling providers also implement their own policies and procedures to control and prevent underage gambling. gambling providers should not advertise facilities in such a way that might entice youths to gamble. refusal of credit and complaints and disputes.Topic 6 GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS Objective This chapter will familiarise students with procedures for handling gambling related incidents in casinos. Underage Gambling The issue of underage gambling is one of the major concerns for the service providers throughout the global casino and gambling industry. Learning outcome After studying this chapter. Gambling providers are tasked to prevent youths from gambling and keeping them out of gambling environments.

Legal Age of Gambling in Various Countries Gambling and the Law identifies the following minimum ages for gambling as regulated in various countries. the minimum age for lotteries is never less than 18. Countries outside the United States seem to be more internally consistent: They usually have one minimum age that applies throughout that nation. the legal consequences when an underage minor is involved in otherwise legal gambling do not vary from one province to another. Casino-style games. in England anyone over 16 may buy a lottery ticket. and some casinos restrict local play to residents over 25. but the minimum is now 18. In Singapore the legal age to enter and gamble in a casino is 21 years old. the minimum age is almost always 21. Similarly. in Canada. in 1969 the government of the Bahamas set the minimum age for gambling at 21. But. In France. when parliament lowered it to 18. Similarly. and countries illustrate the tremendous variations found in the way the law treats issues involving the minimum age to place a legal wager. the trend is exactly the opposite. and. in other countries. This list of states. the drinking age has been raised from 18 to 21. most states put the minimum age for gambling in a casino at 21. Portugal has different rules for tourists and locals: Casinos are open to foreigners over 18.. the same minimum age applies to different forms of legal gambling. The legal age requirement to work in a casino is also 21 years old. are also the most dangerous forms of gambling. including slot machines. provinces. For example. the minimum age was 21. In the USA.S. Twelve of the 16 states (Länder) in Germany have also lowered the age for casino gambling from 21 to 18. while in the U. but citizens of Portugal may not enter Portuguese casinos unless they are over 21. Lawmakers in other nations also have concluded that maturity is reached at a younger age. in America. most legal minimum ages are still at 18. casinos are open to 18 and 19 year-olds. and a dealer who knowingly sells a ticket to a 16 year-old faces loss of his license and a criminal fine. Interestingly. Because casino gaming is usually associated with the availability of alcoholic beverages. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 96 . there has been one significant exception: In every state in America. until 1987.

Aruba: No one under 18 years old is allowed in casinos. Germany: The national government under Hitler passed laws in 1933 and 1938. This age limit remained until the 1980s. including true casinos. Bingo: minimum age is set by bingo licensee. Finland: The minimum age limit is 18 for Finland’s various casinostyle games. casino employees must be at least 21 years old. restricted to cleaning and serving of foods. limited visitors from noncommunist bloc countries. Canada: Casinos. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 97 . The legal age to gamble in a casino is 18 years old. Since 1990. British Columbia. and there has been a trend toward lowering the minimum gambling age. Belgium: Casinos are technically ‘private clubs. Denmark: Casino guest must be at least 18 years old. and low-stakes table games in arcades. Persons under the age of 18 are not allowed to work or sell bingo tickets. In fact 12 of 16 states in the united federal republic have lowered the minimum from 21 to 18.Antigua and Barbuda: Minors younger than 18 are not allowed where casino gaming is taking place. state (Länder) governments set their own age limits. Bulgaria: Casinos opened in 1967. Great Britain: Casinos are technically membership clubs and noone under 18 may join. To work in a Bingo hall minimum age of 16 to 17 years old. slot machines in restaurants and bars. casinos have been open to anyone over 18 years old. 19 years old. but the minimum age has been lowered to 18. The Bahamas: The Lotteries and Gaming Act of 1969 required players to be at least 21. France: Parliament lowered the minimum gaming age for casinos from 21 to 18 in 1987. prohibiting gaming by minors under the age of 21.’ limited to ‘members’ at least 21 years old. Today.

may not legally gamble. New South Wales. if accompanied by an adult. Casinos. New Zealand: No one under 20 years old may enter the gaming area of a casino. Queensland. Ontario. or slot machines parlors. Australia: Individuals under 18 years old may not enter casinos. but Portuguese nationals are barred unless they are over 21 and in some casinos over 25. though they may. except in sweepstakes and calcuttas where persons between the ages of 16 and 18 years can participate. have imposed a policy of not allowing minors on the main casino areas. be in other gaming areas. Canada: An individual must be at least 19 to enter or gamble in a casino. on their own. Australia: Persons under the age of 18 years are not permitted in the casino. However. under 18. bingo halls. Australia: A person under the age of 18 years cannot place a bet in any form of gaming and betting. Tasmania.Greece: An unusual age restriction: individuals must be at least 23 years old to enter a casino. Victoria. casino employees may be 18. It is against the law to sell a lottery ticket to anyone under 18. Quebec. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 98 . Nova Scotia. Australia: Minors. Portugal: A unique system: Casinos are open to foreigner over 18 years old. and casinos are prohibited from advertising that is specifically directed at encouraging individuals below 19 years of age to play games of chance in a casino. Canada: No person under the age of 19 years may participate in gaming. Canada: No one under 18 years old may enter a casino. Spain: Minors under 18 are not allowed to gamble or enter into casinos.

It recommended treating gambling as a 'potential public health issue' alongside drinking. some as young as ten. A staggering 91 per cent of under-18s had gambled at least once in their lives.9million.000 . But it raised concerns about the boom in online betting that allowed youngsters to stake money secretly. said: 'The opportunity provided by the internet to gamble in privacy may exacerbate young people's ability to access gambling opportunities. were at risk of developing 'serious' addictions. But it is the Government's controversial decision to loosen the gambling laws that attracted the fiercest criticism. Experts warned that vulnerable children were becoming hooked after casinos. It said liberal parents must take some of the blame for the crisis. A study by the Gambling Commission also found that two million under-18s. Report author Professor Gill Valentine.had gambling problems. use alcohol and drugs and fall into truancy and crime. of the University of Leeds. The figures undermine the Government's own statistics on betting addiction which claim that only The study said teenagers who gamble are more likely to suffer depression. The report found children were most likely to gamble on slot machines and scratchcards. smoking and obesity. are at risk of becoming hooked on betting.000 people .' Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 99 .about 975. The report by the industry regulator the Gambling Commission found that 7 per cent of young people .While preventing underage gambling is a business imperative on its own.the rise of the internet has also increased opportunity to bet.dailymail. bookmakers and betting websites were allowed to advertise on TV. commercial casino companies have further reason to implement proactive measures that discourage and prevent the behaviour because they are subject to substantial fines if they fail to enforce regulations on underage Last updated at 12:58 AM on 20th October 2008 One million children are addicted to gambling and New Labour's lenient gaming laws are largely to blame. Danger: Labour's lenient gambling laws have been blamed for one million children being addicted to gambling . or 1.mainly adults -have problems. experts warn. The rise of the internet had also increased youngsters' opportunities to bet. while 14 per cent. One million children are addicted to gambling say experts By Ian Drury (www.

Bob Erens. Jim Orford. Similar patterns by age were observed in 1999. He said: 'The Government is trying to deal with it with a light touch but I very much fear we are going to see a disaster with a rise in the number of gambling addicts. said he feared gambling problems among under-18s would spiral with the relaxation of the laws. Mark Griffiths.Heather Wardle. gambling prevalence in the past year was lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups: 58% for those aged 16-24 and 57% for those aged 75 and over. adviser on pathological gambling for the Royal College of Psychiatrists. had decreased. Rebecca Constantine. Kerry Sproston. Prevalence was highest among those aged 35-44 (73%).' Dr Emanuel Moran. Overall. Professor Valentine said: 'There is some indication that traditional authoritarian models are being replaced by a more liberal approach. Compared with prevalence rates from 1999. For example. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 100 .' A spokesman for the Department for Culture. This may contribute to adults' willingness to introduce children to illegal under-age gambling.' Gambling Prevalence by Age in the UK (British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007) .On the role of parents. Media and Sport said: 'The Gambling Act 2005 placed the protection of children and vulnerable people at the heart of gambling regulation for the first time. overall participation in gambling in each age group. Sarah Pigott The prevalence of participation in gambling appears to be related to the age of respondents. It established a robust new regulator and introduced key offences with tough penalties in relation to children. except the two oldest. the proportion of those aged 25-34 who had gambled in the last year decreased from 78% in 1999 to 71% in 2007.

’ Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 101 . online gambling. The only age group to have estimates in excess of this were those aged 25-34. the opposite pattern was true with prevalence being lowest among those aged 16-24. primarily betting on private and unlicensed games — especially betting on card games and sports and buying instant lottery tickets. other betting with a bookmaker. the prevalence fell from 26% for those aged 16-34. For example. and 10% had gambled on six or more different activities. Despite having a large number of non-participants. in the past year.1 Participation in any gambling activity. and then decreased with age. Similarly. horse races. prevalence was greatest among the younger age groups and decreased with advancing age. with slot machines. for scratchcards the prevalence fell from 30% of those aged 25-34 to 10% for those aged 75 and over. those aged 16-24 who had gambled in the past year tended to take part in a greater number of activities: 20% took part in four or more activities in the last year.Fig 6. ‘Youths 16 and 17 years old gamble less than adults and differently from adults. Scratchcards. slot machines. For the National Lottery Draw and other lotteries. where 24% had participated in four or more activities. to 2% of those aged 75 and over. dog races. by age and by year For many activities. table games in a casino and private betting were all most popular among those aged 25-34.

among other factors. This presumably reflects well on the enforcement efforts (particularly against fake IDs) of casino operators. for example a driving licence. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 102 . In Bingo halls. In the United Kingdom no under-18s are allowed into any part of the gambling facilities on these premises. ‘Suitable identification’ is identification that is valid and contains both the client’s photo and date of birth. If an adult client knowingly brings children on to the premises. Casino operators are also not allowed to serve an adult who has a child or underage person with him/her. The adolescents (16-17 year olds) were notably absent from casino play. The security department will check the age of the client and if they believe that the client is underage take action to prevent access and/or remove the underage person from the premises. with barely 1 percent reporting any casino wagers. on-course betting and family entertainment centres in the UK. This usually entails ‘policing’ the area and denying underage people access to gambling areas. but must not enter adult-only areas. the client can be asked to provide a suitable form of identification. operators must: • Check the age of the client if the client looks as though the client may be under 18. the client will face exclusion or prosecution. with one-quarter of all adults participating in the past year. and • Take action if there are unlawful attempts to enter adult-only areas. • Refuse the client entry into adult-only areas if the client cannot provide a suitable form of identification when asked to do so. passport or Connexions card.‘Casino gambling (especially slot machines) was the second most common form of adult gambling. under-18s are allowed on the premises. To make sure that underage people do not gain access to adult-only areas.’ Preventing Underage Gambling Casino operators must ensure that they prevent underage gambling in all areas of the casino. In order to prove age.

the service provider will ask the client to prove his identity before selling the client a ticket. at a minimum. that are adjacent to schools or youth centres. such as billboards. The global casino operators must not target under-18s by advertising their products in a way that makes them attractive to this age group. • Industry promotions should not involve utilising children's toys. • Advertising of gambling should not contain symbols or language that is intended to appeal to minors or those under the legal age. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 103 . Controlling Underage Gambling . • Celebrity or other testimonials in advertising of gambling should not be used that would primarily appeal to persons under the legal age. and stock market-listed remote gambling companies and provides the industry with a single voice on all the issues of importance to regulators. if the person selling lottery tickets believes that the client may be under the age of 16. nor appear to be under the legal age. • The gambling industry should not be advertised at venues where the audience is reasonably and expected to be below the legal age. • Advertisements of gambling should not be advertised or promoted on outdoor displays. • The use of animation should be monitored to ensure that characters are not associated with animated characters on children's programmes. • Age restriction should.As far as lotteries are concerned. be posted at all places where gambling takes place.Remote Gambling The RGA represents the world's largest licensed. • Advertising of gambling should not appear in media directed primarily to those under the legal age. legislators. Advertising Guidelines • Person depicted as gamblers in advertising should not be. and key decision makers around the world. games. including technikon or university campuses. clothing or other material.

RGA members are also strongly recommended to: • Make links available to. reputable filtering services like the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA )so that parents and others can take any necessary steps to prevent their personal computers being used for inappropriate purposes. The primary tool for this is the use of age verification (AV) procedures.Even though it is illegal for anyone under the age of 18 to engage in betting or gaming. • Make clear through messaging or the display of a ‘no under 18s’ sign on the homepage of the internet site that children are not permitted to gamble. Pre-pay cards would also fall into this category. RGA members’ efforts will concentrate on those payments methods that are readily available to children and indeed are targeted at them by the banks. however. As and when that happens age verification procedures will become more robust. except where the operator is satisfied that adequate age verification checks had already been made by the card issuer and are for this reason referred to as ‘high risk payment types’. and • Include a clear policy for dealing with underage gamblers. Age verification is. but it must be acknowledged that the availability and reliability of electronic evidence varies greatly from country to country. and will continue to be. have greater access to some forms of payment that can be used to fund remote gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 104 . In some instances this means that gambling operators can do no more than make reasonable endeavors to ensure a new customer’s exact date of birth. it is not always easy to ensure that children are excluded. or provide adequate information about. The majority of on-line payment methods are only available to over 18s so offer very limited risk of under age gambling. A clear message to this effect should also appear during the registration process. The RGA is working with various other bodies to try and get more reliable date of birth information made available. Operators should adopt reasonable measures to minimise underage gambling. an inexact science. Children do.

A maximum period of 72 hours will be allowed in which to initiate those phone. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 105 . If this leads to proof that the customer is an adult then the account can be reactivated.As a minimum. If after the verification period the operator has failed to verify that the customer is an adult then the account should be suspended. or through direct access to reliable documentation. and • Any deposited funds must be available for prompt return if during this period. however. or at any later stage. WAP etc). During the verification period: • Customers may be able to deposit funds and gamble. such as that provided by companies like GB Group.g. Whichever they choose it must include an element of objective validation via a verification service. This is irrespective of the remote gambling channel they are seeking to use (e. digital TV. or 192. for example a passport or birth certificate. The operator should then make all reasonable efforts to contact the customer to resolve the outstanding account issue. AV checks should be initiated as soon as possible after a customer seeks to deposit money to gamble. AV must be undertaken for any customer who has not previously been identified as over 18 if they seek to register and gamble with a high risk payment type. It is up to individual operators to choose a verification system best suited to their particular business model. It would also be good practice to perform the same level of checks on all potential customers who provide a date of birth of between 18 and 21 years old because industry experience shows that if someone who is underage seeks to register then they normally give an age which is close to their real age. This will be known as the ‘verification period’. All reasonable endeavors should then be made to complete AV checks with the minimum of delay. Experian. it is proved that the customer is underage. they will not be able to withdraw any winnings until it is confirmed that they are adults. internet.

There is also merit in providing the underage customer with contact details for Gamcare or a similar organisation.If at any time an RGA member becomes aware that a customer is underage. subject to data protection laws. • Refund the value of all deposits net of withdrawals. • Void all wagers (that the RGA member is a party to) that have taken place. and • Close the account. what is the difference between children and youth? Summary Gambling providers have to prevent underage persons form entering casinos and gambling premises.2 What are the rules regarding paying out winnings to an underage person? Activity 6. except where there are grounds to believe that a fraud has been perpetrated: • Suspend the account immediately. age verification should be done. Activity 6. Consideration should also be given as to whether any other bodies or agencies should be made aware of the child’s interest in gambling. they will. Age must be verified before entrance is granted and where a person suspected to be underage is noticed within the gambling are.3 Under employment regulations. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 106 .1 How does a staff member ascertain a client’s age? Activity 6.

by loosing each time he visits the casino. Should credit be allowed. In Singapore only those above the age of 21 can gamble and in UK the minimum age to gamble in a casino is 18 years. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 107 . Youths who gamble are especially at risk of developing gambling problems. The casino manager is faced with a decision about extending extra credit as the client may have gotten himself onto a downward spiral. There are many occasions when clients might request for either credit or extension of credit. telephonically or by written application. the client can ask for a credit extension in person. This credit is always applied for when the client has exhausted his facility and needs extra cash to get himself liquid again. lotteries. sports betting. But once a decision has been made it would be binding. The Refusal of Credit As the global casino industry relies heavily on credit play within their facilities. Gambling providers have to take care not to carry out marketing activities in such ways that would entice youths to gamble. All of these applications would be investigated and either approved or disapproved. The Singapore Control Act does not allow for credit at all. Many high rollers or serious gamblers have credit lines within the establishments that they frequent. The manager would also have to be careful not allowing extra credit whereby the habit of gambling on credit may start or escalate gambling problem. This could be the manager’s standard reply. The investigation would be done by a credit manager and his credit control team. The various Gambling and casino legislations have specific instructions for allowing or not allowing credit. the refusal of credit is always a very difficult situation in the casino and gaming environment.The legal age for gambling varies in different countries. etc. The issue of underage gambling also extends to remote gambling.

Your credit application was denied because <reason for denial>.1 Letter – Refusal of Credit A record of the request will be kept by the cashdesk as proof of the credit application. Casino Global Area MA 02123 03/16/05 Recipient Address Goes Here> Hello. from the initiation of the process of the application form to the approval or disallowance of the credit. Credit Manager encl: <List of enclosed items goes here> Fig 6. When a client is refused credit. they might take it as an insult and respond with verbal abuse or bad behaviour. Thank you for taking the time to apply for credit with 1234 Casino. This can be used as a referral at a later date. In the meantime. the refusal should still be logged at the cashdesk by the staff member or manager dealing with the request. Staff should know how to respond in these situations. We welcome your business but unfortunately we are unable to extend credit to you at this time. Regards. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 108 .A written example of refusing credit from the credit department is discussed below: Company Address: 1234. the credit personnel will deal with this request in total. we welcome the opportunity to do business with you on a cash basis. In the United States of America. Should the client ask for the credit in person. When your situation changes. we would be happy to reconsider your application.

Under the Code of Practice for Gambling Operators. Licensees must put in place procedures for resolving customer complaints and disputes and the existence and terms of such procedures must be drawn to the attention of all customers. Besides the fact that there might be legislations preventing credit play. It is easier to deal with a customer in a large casino environment as there is support services which the management can use too assist them with the complaint or dispute. Customer Complaints and Disputes It is convenient for customers to be dogmatic about the old ‘customer is always right’ ideal. Casinos and gambling providers have to work within rules and regulations set by governments and the organisation. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 109 . Managers and staff are also well trained in handling complaints.Summary Clients might request for credit once they have exhausted their cash facilities. some customers take advantage of their power position. e. using their eternal status of ‘right’ to take advantage of business owners and service providers. the surveillance departments will help with the investigation of a complaint or dispute. However. Problems escalating to complaints can be caused by the casino. even when clients are unsatisfied.g. issued by the Gambling Commission. Gambling providers know that it is important to satisfy guests in order for them to return. Legislations around the world have clear guidelines on whether credit play is allowed. and have limited or no power to bend these rules. This is especially the case where customers spend (or loose) a large amount of money. This must always be dealt with tactfully. external parties or by the guests themselves. casinos can also institute their own guidelines and refuse credit for various reasons.

always.In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the Licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities. Wait until you have the customer's entire story. and a ‘dispute’ is any complaint which: • Is not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedure: and • Relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. try to avoid making the situation embarrassing for them. • Customers are given a copy of the complaints procedure on request or on making a complaint. • Remember that your objective is to show the customer you want to help. Licensees must ensure that: • Customers are told the name and status of the person to contact about their complaint. Always do your best to avoid turning a minor disagreement into a major argument. Don't talk. try to concentrate on the customer's message instead of their anger. • If the confrontation escalates and the customer becomes angry. If the customer comes in angry. paraphrase the customer's statements. Interrupting the customer's monologue would be regarded as a lack of interest and respect. and • All complaints are handled in accordance with the procedure. do what you can to make sure he leaves placated. so they feel you've heard them out in full. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 110 . • Above all. even if you know you did nothing wrong. • Don't come to any quick conclusions. • If you come to an agreement indicating that the customer is wrong. you will create a downward spiral that will never end well. always apologize. • To prove you were listening closely. Handling Complaints • At the beginning of the interaction. Becoming angry or argumentative would only prove that your sole concern is yourself and your interests. always. listen. • Involve management and bring the complaint under the attention of a supervisor or manager as soon as possible. If you let the customer drive you to angry statements and outbursts.

engage in policy development and promote best practice. the complainant shall be asked to set out in writing the nature of the dispute. • Both parties will make every effort to resolve the dispute by negotiations. Formed in 1973. BCA is the leading trade association for the casino industry in Great Britain. either party may. The British Casino Association recommends the following procedures for handling disputes. and provide them with a vital source of information and advice. the matter shall be arbitrated. If the parties cannot agree on an independent arbitrator they may refer the matter to the Casino Regulator Code of Practice Complaints Board. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 111 . they work on behalf of their members to raise awareness. They act as a central point for comment and opinion for members.Dispute Resolution An unresolved complaint will result in a dispute. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. Within 21 days of the date of the notice the parties may refer the matter to a mutually agreed arbitrator or mediator (as the case may be). by notice in writing. In the event that no agreement can be reached on an appropriate arbitrator. the dispute will be referred to an arbitrator or mediator nominated by the Council (to be appointed). If either party nominates arbitration rather than mediation before a mediator is appointed. who operate over 90% of Britain’s licensed casinos. Each member of the Casino Regulator Code of Practice will comply with the following dispute resolution procedures: • When a dispute arises between the Casino and its user. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute.

either party may. Casino staff must be trained and confident in handling problems and complaints. by notice in writing. but they have the right to complaint when they are not satisfied with the services received. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. Unresolved complaints results and disputes.5 How would a Casino Manager handle a dispute in a casino? Describe the process involved. Summary The customers might not always be right. Activity 6.The arbitrator will have the right to determine procedures and may or may not allow the appearance of lawyers on behalf of the parties and may co-opt other expert assistance. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. Nothing contained in this clause will deny a party the right to seek injunctive relief from an appropriate court where failure to obtain such relief would cause irreparable damage to the party concerned. The Code of Practice has specific provisions for handling complaints and disputes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 112 .4 What is the difference between a complaint and a dispute? Activity 6. Arbitration of any dispute shall take place in accordance with any rules or directions published by the Council from time to time and the law of the state where the industry member is located.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 113 .the freebies casinos lavish on their best players based on the amount of money they wager and the amount of time they spend gambling. who suspected she was underaged. which closed in November 2006. the gambler. she was not given any comps -. who was 20 at the time. 137 times playing at the tables. Simpson was arrested for underaged gambling at the Sands. The fine surpasses one the $105. Simpson. The month before. 2008.000 fine the commission imposed on Borgata in February for not stopping a 19-year-old from earning more than $1. while Simpson was rated. Candeda Simpson.Bally's hit with record fine for underaged gambling spree by Judy DeHaven/The Star-Ledger Business Desk Wednesday November 12.500 fine against Bally's casino for allowing an underaged gambler to play 18 times over the course of the month.’ Kassekert said. Officials surmised that Simpson likely accumulated points but did not cash them in. 4:34 PM The Casino Control Commission imposed a record $157. only after she caught the eye of an investigator for the Division of Gaming Enforcement.000 in comps while playing table games. was busted at Bally's in February 2006. But it was not the first time Simpson had been caught gambling. patrons have to be 21 years of age to gamble at a casino. In New Jersey.’ ‘That was a lot of time for her to be interacting with casino employees who should have picked up on the fact that she was underaged. New Jersey Casino Control Commission Chairwoman Linda Kassekert said regulators imposed a hefty fine against Bally's because Simpson had faced casino employees while playing at the tables on ‘137 separate incidents over 18 days. In that time. was rated 146 times as a high roller. Officials said in this case. officials said.

Meanwhile. Current gaming legislation only stipulates that someone under the age of 18 is not permitted inside a casino. she would not be allowed to enter any of Macau’s casinos for an unspecified period of time and she was reminded by the bureau that no one under the age of 18 is allowed in gaming areas. chaired by Macau Chief Executive Edmund Ho. b) Would the outcome of the incident have been any different should it have taken place in the UK? “16-year-old changes the rules” ml When the mother of a 16-year-old girl won the right to keep HK$740. which should be responsible for the future direction of the industry as well as policy-making. However. The DICJ said the Sands Macao should have conducted a thorough ID-check to ensure that no minors enter the casino and has written to the Sands. without specifically defining what happens after they have already entered. the young girl unknowingly turned the tables on Macau’s old gaming laws. Macau’s Director of Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau (DICJ) Manuel Joaquim das Neves said the mother would be entitled to receive the full winnings from the Sands plays and wins money. Macau’s Gaming Committee.6 Case Study – Underage Gambling Look at the following incident that took place in Macau and answer the following questions: a) Explain the consequences of underage gambling for both the licensee as well as the gambler. is reportedly inactive and has yet to appoint members.000 in winnings from the Sands Macao on Friday.destinationmacau. On February 23. asking it to pay the amount in full to the mother of the young winner.Activity 6. A Macau legislator said new laws should be drafted immediately to define what happens once a minor enters a casino. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 114 .

“Sands Macao reaffirms its serious ongoing commitment in complying with all Macao laws including the exclusion of underage persons entering in its casino. The statement reads: “Sands Macao assisted DICJ in every way. and after detailed consideration by the regulator of the facts and the Macao laws.” the statement concluded. Sands Macao has fully complied with that direction. The Sands Macao did not give the winnings to the young girl immediately after she won the jackpot on February 20. received a direction as to the manner in which the prize should be dealt with.On Saturday. arguing that she was too young to be in the casino in the first place. the Sands Macao released an official statement to the press insisting that it is strongly committed to responsible gambling.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 115 .

students should be able to: • • • • • • • Define problem gambling Describe the levels of gambling and types of gamblers Discuss the prevalence of gambling based on demographic correlates Describe the stages of gambling addiction Discuss the impacts and costs of problem gambling Describe the various phases of gambling and recovery for both the gambler and the spouse of a compulsive gambler Describe specific gambling behaviour that can contribute to or indicate gambling problems.e. Students will get to understand the impacts of problem gambling on the gamblers’ life. playing a game of chance for a prize). It usually involves risk taking and in some cases requires particular knowledge or skills. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 116 . It will help students to differentiate between different levels of gambling and signs that might indicate a gambling problem. The UK Gambling Act 2005 describes it more specifically in terms of gaming (i.Topic 7 PROBLEM GAMBLING Objective This chapter will introduce students to problem gambling. the spouse and the community. The majority of gambling is social or recreational. Introduction to Problem Gambling Gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance (National Research Council. 1999). betting and participating in a lottery. although some people do make a living as professional gamblers. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter.

drinking. with 15 million being at risk. and emotional problems. the National Gambling Impact Study Commission found in its 1999 study that pathological gambling often occurs in conjunction with other behavioral problems. mood disorders. physical. the more likely he or she is to become a pathological gambler. This ‘problem gambling’ can include a complex range of behaviours of varying severity. 1991) In the UK.5 million adults are pathological gamblers. domestic violence. The presence of a gambling facility within 50 miles roughly doubles the chance of problem and pathological gambling. and using drugs. A national prevalence study found that 3 million adults are problem gamblers and 2. a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. The National Adolescent Review found that 1. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’. and a range or other difficulties stemming from the severe financial hardship that commonly results from problem and pathological gambling.e.A minority of people who gamble do so in ways which disrupts their personal or family lives. including divorce. see also Lesieur and Rosenthal. Children of compulsive gamblers are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors such as smoking. A large percentage (i. and personality disorders.’ Many families of pathological gamblers suffer from a variety of financial. child abuse and neglect. These children are also at risk of developing problem or pathological gambling themselves. The incidence of problem gambling is highest amongst those that play gambling machines and participate in horse racing and the lowest for those partaking in lotteries. including substance abuse. (Hardoon and Derevensky 2002: 264. 65% to 80%) of cases of problem gamblers receiving counseling can be attributed to the availability and popularity of gambling machines outside casinos.5% of teens ages 16-17 can be classified as ‘problem or pathological gamblers’ with 2% being classified as ‘at risk. over gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 117 . Research suggests that the earlier a person begins to gamble.

gamblers with significant gambling problems. level 0 . it also describes the widest range and variety of gamblers.Summary While gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’. level 2 gamblers with some gambling problems. a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble. from those who bet $1 a year to those who visit casinos twice a month. Due to this fact. In Countries where gambling is allowed. As long as no gambling related problems occur the gamblers are classified as level 1. Levels of Gambling The National Research Council in the USA has a conceptualisation of the degree to which people gamble in the general population. They see the degree of gambling as occurring along a continuum. These levels can be distinguished in simple terms. over gambling. Level 1 . and level 3 .gambler with no gambling problems. Level 1 Gambling This refers to social or recreational gambling where wagering has not resulted in any significant problems. problem gambling can include a range of behaviours of varying severity. this conceptualisation can be used to better understand prevalence of gambling. Level 0 Gambling This refers to only people who have never gambled. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 118 . A distinct classification is ‘past year level 0 gamblers’ used to describe who have not gambled in the past year. this level includes a large majority of the population. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control.

What is certain is that individuals in this group never present themselves for treatment. Level 3 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that significant gambling related problems have developed. Some may have been criticised for how often or how much they gamble.. Gambling has begun to interfere with daily functioning. and in transition gambling. M. They patiently wait for the best bet and then try to win as much as they can. some may have begun to develop gambling related debts. The nature. Marriage break up. From one percent to around 3 percent of the general population have significant gambling problems. some may have begun to borrow from household funds. loss of home or job.D. identified six types of gamblers: • Professional Gamblers Professional gamblers make their living by gambling and thus consider it a profession. Disordered gambling and problem gambling can be used to describe both level two and level three gamblers. that is non gamblers according to the NRC definition. In the general population approximately 10 percent are Level 0. frequency and degree of gambling problems are what distinguish level 2 from level three. Around 10 percent of the general population are Level 2 gamblers who have some gambling related problems. They are skilled in the games they choose to play and are able to control both the amount of money and time spent gambling. Custer. professional gamblers are not addicted to gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 119 . Level two gambling can be referred to as at risk gambling.Level 2 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that some gambling related problems have developed. Otherwise there is great diversity within this group of the general population. Robert L. At this level individuals began to show the signs and symptoms that result in a diagnosis of pathological gambling. Level three gamblers are often referred to as disordered gamblers and problem gamblers as well as compulsive gamblers. entire paycheque spent on gambling. Around 79 percent of the general population are level two recreational gamblers with no problems. Thus.

In addition. Gambling does not interfere with family. anger. depression. a yearly trip to Las Vegas and casual involvement in the lottery. lying or embezzling which go against their moral standards. gambling may be a distraction or a form of relaxation. • Relief and Escape Gamblers Custer's fifth type. They are likely to be involved in fixing horse or dog races. As they continue to gamble. Compulsive gamblers cannot stop gambling. Serious social gamblers still maintain control over their gambling activities. their families. gamble to find relief from feelings of anxiety. • Casual social gamblers Casual social gamblers gamble for recreation. serious social gamblers invest more of their time in gambling. They use gambling to escape from crisis or difficulties. friends and employers are negatively affected. yet these individuals place gambling second in importance to family and vocation. no matter how much they want to or how hard they try. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 120 . antisocial or personality gamblers use gambling as a way to get money by illegal means. compulsive gamblers may engage in activities such as stealing. They are identical to relief and escape drinkers. or playing with loaded dice or marked cards. Gambling is a major source of relaxation and entertainment. relief and escape gamblers.• Antisocial or Personality Gamblers In contrast to professional gamblers. Relief and escape gamblers are not compulsive gamblers. boredom or loneliness. social or vocational obligations. sociability and entertainment. They may attempt to use a compulsive gambling diagnosis as a legal defense. This type of gambler could be compared to a ‘golf nut. • Serious Social Gamblers In contrast.’ whose source of relaxation comes from playing golf. For them. For them. Gambling provides an analgesic effect rather than a euphoric response. Super Bowl bets. gambling is the most important thing in their lives. Examples of such betting are the occasional poker game. Compulsive gambling is a progressive addiction that harms every aspect of the gambler's life. • Compulsive Gamblers Compulsive gamblers have lost control over their gambling.

1 How would casino staff be able to distinguish a level 2 gambler from a level 3 gambler? Activity 7. Summary the level of gambling individuals engage in can be distinguished in simple gambling. while also buying the hope of a win. it can be seen that gambling does not affect all individuals negatively. a major benefit of gambling is recreation. the social interaction. Level 1 . These are: • Professional gamblers • Antisocial or personality gamblers.gamblers with significant gambling problems. level 2 .gamblers with some gambling problems. Gambling therefore attracts individuals who derive pleasure from the venues. Activity 7. • Casual social gamblers • Serious social gamblers • Relief and escape gamblers • Compulsive gamblers Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 121 . and level 3 .gambler with no gambling problems. level 0 . six types of gamblers can be identified based on their gambling habits. and the thrill of anticipation. In addition.2 Explain the difference between a professional gambler and a pathological gambler. the risk of one's money.Benefits of Gambling From the above. From the consumers' perspective.

age. mobility educational attainment.S. unemployed. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 122 . are both of interest. Correlation does not mean cause or the direction of causality. ‘Disordered gambling is young adults and adolescents than it is older adults. less education being consistently associated with lower socioeconomic status. The correlation between these variables is clear. disabilities. Demographic Correlates of Disordered Gambling The individuals who make up the 11 to 13 percent of the general population who are either Level two or Level three gamblers have disproportionately more young. • Age Age is inversely related to problem gambling in the general population.e. employment status. divorced or separated. As with ethnicity there may be other issues that confuse or confound this finding i.Prevalence of Gambling Problems Prevalence of gambling will usually be analysed based on demographic characteristics.A or culturally alienated minorities else where) have been shown to be associate with the risk of developing disordered gambling habits. and across households. Divorce and Separation as likely to be results of disordered gambling. poorly educated. home ownership.’ (Petry) • Race Ethnic minorities (non white ethnicity in the U. Commonly-used demographics include race. • Marital Status Disordered gamblers are consistently much more likely to be unmarried. Distributions of values within a demographic variable. as well as trends over time. • Social and Economic Status Lower social economic status is consistently associated with increased rated of disordered gambling. or the demographic profiles used in such research. What is not clear is which influences which. and even location. marketing or opinion research. income. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government.

Prevalence Rates in Special Populations Four other special groups have been identified as populations over represented in Level two and there and therefore other members of those groups are more at risk of becoming gambling addicts. Alcohol) Substance abusers experience gambling problems more frequently than the general population.• Gender Male gender is repeatedly and consistently shown to be correlated with problem gambling. academic health centres. This likely has some relation to the role that poor impulse plays in addiction and how substance abuse affects impulse control. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 123 . This suggests that these individuals are becoming more generalised in their gambling behaviour. While gambling problems are not generally a problem among older adults there are statistically recognisable increases after retirement. This is likely due to increased availability of non productive time. • Gamblers or People Taking Exit Polls at Casinos Who Also Purchased Lottery Tickets These gamblers are more likely to have gambling problems than the general population. Petry (2005) • Substance Abusers (Cocaine. While the relationship is unclear for university health centres the likely hood of poorly screened employees plus the exposure to gambling likely play a role in the rates among casino workers. Marijuana. • Employees in Special Fields Specific studies revealed gambling problems in a larger number of employees than expected in the general population in institutional settings. • Education There is a general correlation between lower education achievement and problem gambling. gaming and casino employees. • Older Adults Those over the age 61 years begin gambling as recreational and social activity. That is if an opportunity presents itself they are much more likely to gamble.

A? Summary Prevalence of gambling problems are usually analysed based on demographic characteristics. Stages of Gambling Addiction Naken (1988) identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 124 . • Lack for concern for society’s expectations and law.3 What are the demographic correlates that profile the pathological gambler in the U. financial ruin and criminal behaviour to support the gambling habit. gambling is considered a disorder.Activity 7. A pathological gambler usually progresses from occasional gambling to habitual gambling. Gambling Addiction A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. When the above mentioned symptoms are present. the gambler begins to risk more. • Gambling continues. poorly educated. whether winning or losing. until all money is lost or the game is terminated.S. • Loss of control over time spent gambling. Disproportionately more young. unemployed. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. • Gambling until large debts are accumulated. both personally and financially. This often leads to severe personal problems. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population are level 2 and level 3 gamblers. As the gambling progresses. and • Unlawful behaviour may occur to support the habit and pay debts. The most common symptoms of problem gambling are: • Occasional gambling becomes habitual.

• The gambler has a new sense of competence. The following changes take place at this stage: • The euphoria from gambling is gone but the gambler keeps gambling anyway. • The gambler’s productivity decreases (irresponsibility. • Most of the gambler’s awake hours are spent gambling or taking steps to gamble. Gambling becomes his or her master. Stage Two – Lifestyle Change A gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. Stage One – Internal Change The gambler develops a dependence on gambling. power and control. • The gambler views gambling as harmless entertainment or as a release. • The gambler becomes more consumed with gambling. • These changes are not yet obvious to others. procrastination). The following changes take place at this stage: • Negative changes take place within the gambler. Relationships with others are negatively affected (arguing with family and friends. • Lies and deception become a regular part of the gambler’s life. • The gambler becomes totally enslaved to gambling. Stage Three – Losing Control The gambler loses all control. • The gambler’s most important relationships become severely damaged or destroyed. conflict with coworkers) • The gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. The following changes take place at this stage: • The gambler’s whole lifestyle is affected by gambling. • Chaos and complete loss of control characterize the gambler’s life. • Gambling addiction dominates every facet of the gambler’s life. • The gambler’s social world consists mostly of other gamblers. • The gambler feels a sense of euphoria and exhilaration. • The gambler begins stealing money and using other dishonest means to gamble.Problem gamblers go through the same stages. The recovery process will depend on the stage of addiction the person is in when seeking treatment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 125 .

Addiction does not happen overnight. The gambler begins contemplating suicide.• • • • Legal problems mount (the gambler may be arrested for stealing or embezzling). or lack of time with the family. thinking about gambling for much of the time. friends and work colleagues. Naken identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling Psychological Issues Associated With Problem Gamblers There are a number of features widely recognised as characteristics of problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 126 . but rather in stages. and giving up formerly important social or recreational activities in order to gamble. • Gambling behaviours Chasing losses. depression or guilt over gambling. use of gambling as an escape from boredom. spending more time or money on gambling than intended and making repeated but failed attempts to stop gambling. The gambler files for bankruptcy. The aspects include: • Personal and Psychological Characteristics Difficulties in controlling expenditure. relationship breakdown. The gambler attempts suicide. anxiety. although not all of these aspects have to be present in a person who is regarded as being a problem gambler. stress or depression. thoughts of suicide or attempted suicide. • Interpersonal problems Gambling-related arguments with family members. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. Summary A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble.

non-problem. or in the future. The primary. Problem gamblers are also more likely to ask for advances on their pay and to borrow from fellow employees. because they are relative to each person’s available leisure time and disposable income. where the harms appear to stem mainly from the quantity consumed. Financial Loss is the main trigger for problem gamblers to give rise to a range of social and personal repercussions. source of the problem associated with problem gambling is the financial loss which then has a range of repercussions for the social and personal life of the gambler. This compares to frequent. Affordability is very important.000 a year out of an income of $200. theft. The financial and social impact of problem gambling is felt in the workplace. passing bad cheques. For example. though not only. and criminal behaviour due to gambling. a high income gambler who loses $10. lost time at work or studying and resignation or sacking due to gambling.• Job and study problems Poor work performance. in the case of assets that are liquidated to finance gambling). This is unlike alcohol or tobacco. lower productivity and job loss can be costly to both workers and employers. in the case of high gambling commitments out of current earnings. • Financial effects Large debts. factors which are found to vary enormously across socioeconomic groups. The level of expenditure and time spent on gambling activities does not mean that a person has a problem with gambling. gamblers who report no such effects of gambling on their performance at work.000 will probably entail highly problematic outcomes. In severe cases. where absenteeism. unpaid borrowings and financial hardship for the individual or family members (either in the present. whereas the same expenditure out of an income of $50. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 127 . these may result in court cases and prison sentences.000 will probably not suffer significant adverse consequences. • Legal problems Examples are misappropriation of money.

friends. Public purse Theft. Often it means that bills don’t get paid. fraud. job loss Impact on the Family For non-problem gamblers. embezzlement. the money spent on gambling does not affect family finances to the extent that it is money put aside for entertainment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 128 . The main impacts stem from the following: • • • • • • Personal – stress. suicide Financial – debts. domestic/other violence. ill health. bankruptcy Legal – theft. loan sharks. Asset Loss Impacts Community Service Interpersonal Charities. imprisonment Interpersonal – neglect of family.1 Impact of problem gambling on a gambler’s life Research from around the world indicates that for every problem gambler. assets losses. excessive spending on gambling has serious consequences for the family. anxiety. Fraud. Prison Bankruptcy Legal Neglect. depression. utilities are cut off and the grocery money dwindles. and colleagues). divorce Community Services – loads on public purse and charities Work and study – poor performance. But for problem gamblers.Stress Job loss. absenteeism. Poor Performance Personal Work & Study Financial Debt. Violence Fig 7. up to 12 other people are affected (family.

Cost of crime. may have less control over the situations in which they find themselves. a pleasant home. The following are examples of the costs of gambling: • • • • • Cost of regulation. but health and mental distress for the partners. but also for the government and the community. and even food. lacking the autonomy. Summary Problem gambling impacts all aspects of a gambler’s life. and power of adult partners. his work and his social life. Family breakdown. Problem gambling eats up resources that otherwise would be spent on household members – from family entertainment. Shift in spending away from small business.4 Explain the psychological issues associated with a problem gambler. unlawful borrowing of money and even crime and legal problems. together with deception about their gambling and the anxiety. Activity 7. a serviceable car. and these commitments have severe consequences for the well being of their family. petty. organised or white collar. The most immediate concern for children’s welfare in problem gambling households is poverty. mood swings and stress accompanying their gambling. This. He will also expereince a range of personal and psychological characteristics such as anxiety and depression. access to help. maturity. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 129 . The children of problem gamblers are affected in many ways and. The severe financial impact of gambling will also lead to other problems such as debts. not only generate relationship frictions. Costs of Problem Gambling Problem gambling does not only have cost implications for the gambler and his/her family. including his family life.Problem gamblers tend to devote large amounts of money and time on gambling. holidays. Increased welfare demand.

starts losing time off from work and his personality starts to change – he becomes irritable. the gambling problem leads to the following: • Hopelessness • Suicide Thoughts & attempts • Arrests • Divorce • Alcohol • Emotional Breakdown • Withdrawal Symptoms Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 130 . Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse The following are the various phases that a compulsive gambler will pass through. develops unreasonable optimism and has prolonged episodes of loosing. restless and withdrawn. He can’t stop gambling and borrows money legally but delays paying his debts. He might blame others for his demise. only thinks about gambling. His home life becomes unhappy.Governments and the local community often pay the costs of treating and supporting problem gamblers. occasional gambling – frequent winning. excitement prior to him winning – more frequent gambling. He will start increasing the amount and number of bets hoping to win the big one. • Desperation Phase In the phase he starts borrowing heavily. He has a marked increase in amount of money and time spent gambling. both legal and illegally but are unable to repay his debts. he starts gambling alone. • Winning Phase During the winning phase the gambler will experience instances from. His reputation gets affected. Panic sets in and he begins committing illegal acts. At this stage. He starts covering up and lying. • Losing Phase Then comes the loosing phase. He becomes alienated from his friends and family. starts bragging about his wins. fantasies about winning the ‘Big One’.

1 The phases that the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 131 .Chart 7.

The spouse of a compulsive gambler will go through various phases through the onset and intensifying of the gambling problems. attempts to control the gambling. provides bailouts. arguments start easily. has less irritating behavior patterns. takes stock of his life. returns to work. accept the remorse offered by the gambler. feels rejected.• Critical Phase In this phase the gamblers realizes that he must stop gambling and has an honest desire for help. keep concerns to herself. but also that of their spouses and family members. He accepts self weakness and strengths. spends more time with his family and his preoccupation with gambling decreases. easily reassured. has an insight into himself. financial crises starts. starts worrying. starts taking decisions. his self respect starts to return and his family and friends begin to trust him again. starts to question unpaid bills. • Stress Phase In this phase the spouse spends less time with family. puts more demands on the gambler. starts understanding himself and starts sacrificing for others. Effects of Compulsive Gambling on the Spouse Compulsive gambling does not only devastate the gambler’s life. Becomes more relaxed. • Rebuilding Phase During this phase he develops new goals and new interests. has a budget. She starts isolating herself. avoids her family and friends. starts paying the bills. examines his spiritual need. The following phases and impacts are identified: • Denial Phase The spouse will deny that any gambling is happening in the family. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 132 . He starts thinking responsibly. she will make excuses for the gambling. starts giving attention to others. considers the gambling problem as temporary. • Growth Phase In this phase he starts dealing with problems promptly. has a restitution plan and improves his family life. she will accept the increase in gambling.

starts sacrificing for others and she has a sense of achievement. She becomes more relaxed. The first three phases lead to the feelings listed below: • Helplessness • Hopelessness • Mental Breakdown • Substance Abuse • Divorce • Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts • Critical Phase During this phase she becomes hopeful and accepts the problem as an illness. Her physical symptoms are filled with rage. she becomes more affectionate and trusting. anxiety and panic. starts helping others. her self confidence returns. she starts to meet her own needs. she gets confused and doubts her sanity. her thinking becomes impaired. She has better self esteem.5 What is meant by the term ‘rebuilding phase’? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 133 .• Exhaustion Phase During this phase the spouse has intense resentment towards the gambler. and starts sharing again. Activity 7. She accepts her friends again. She recognizes her self needs and has realistic planning and decision making. She stops giving money (bailouts). She does a personal inventory. has a desire for help and her guilt diminishes. • Growing Phase During this phase she starts communicating with everyone. • Rebuilding Phase In this phase the spouse deals with her resentments and begins problem solving. she has closeness with her friends and family and starts understanding others.

Chart 7.2 The phases that the Spouse of the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 134 .

Only two of these indicators need to be displayed for 80% confidence of problem gambling. Gambling behaviour displayed by male and female problem gamblers varies slightly. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 135 . • Playing very fast. • Crying after loosing. When they notice clients behaving irrationally. and • Being nervous and edgy.Summary The compulsive gambler will pass through the following stages through addiction and recovery: • Winning phase • Losing phase • Desperation phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growth phase The spouse of the compulsive gambler will experience a variety of personal and psychological effects that can be described through the following phases: • Denial phase • Stress phase • Exhaustion phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growing phase Gambling Behaviour Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. it must be brought under the attention of a manager or responsible gambling officer. • Leaving the venue to find money. Some predictors of problem gambling are: • Gambling continuously.

not only for the venue.Male problem gamblers can be identified with three of the following cues: • Gambling for more than 3 hours without taking a break • Sweating a lot • Difficulty in stopping at closing time • Displaying anger Female problem gamblers can be identified by two of the following cues: • Kicking machines • Being nervous or edgy • Gambling so intensely so as not to be aware of surroundings • Multiple ATM withdrawals • Being angry if machine or spot is taken Alcohol and Gambling Casinos make alcoholic beverages available to clients as part of the service provided. but also for the community. Alcoholic beverages should not be offered as an enticement to gamble. The consumption of alcoholic beverages affects a person’s judgment. The adoption of best practice principles can lessen gambling and liquor abuses. • Impaired judgment on when to stop. Intoxicated patrons must not be provided with gambling services. • More distortion about the time spent on gambling. • Excessive gambling risks. or not chasing their losses. and • Anti-social behaviour due to excessive loss of money. The consumption of alcohol together with gambling activities may lead to: • Social gamblers wagering more than they normally would. and improve the impact of problem gambling and alcohol related problems. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 136 . As part of the responsible gaming programme the gambling providers need to be aware of the implications of combining alcohol and gambling. Intoxicated patrons must not be sold or supplied with liquor and may be removed from the premises. Gambling providers have to serve and promote alcoholic beverages responsibly.

Alternatively if clients are not part of a player tracking system. visits not only to casinos but also to any other form of gambling. horse racing. When a gambler starts to become an irresponsible gambler. Frequency of Visit Frequency of visits can be one of the first indications of gambling problems. there is no way to monitor the amount of money in the client’s bank account. The onus has always been on the client to control his spend. or get to know the client’s by name. Although it is possible to monitor the amount spent by a client.‘Low Roller’ come into play.g. as is the question of which addiction comes first. Casinos can track the frequency of visits through their reward systems. increases. When it becomes a responsible gaming issue is unfortunately once the client has spent his life savings or entire salary. Amount of Spend One of the biggest problems faced by the casino is the actual amount of money that clients should be allowed to spend. This entrance criteria is strictly been put into place to protect the person who may have the underlying tendencies to become a habitual gambler. or contributes to other addictive behaviours is a matter of some debate. In Singapore it will be possible to track the frequency of visits of local residents to the casino. but the tracking of a client can only be done if the client is a member of the player tracking system. lotto as well as sports books. This is where the term ‘High Roller’. internet. e. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 137 . as they would be required to produce identification upon entry and pay an entrance fee. The amount of spend is also how the casino judge the value of their clientele. Whether or not gambling creates. The problem becomes twofold as at this stage the client could become a social burden to the country of his residency.One characteristic of many problem gamblers is the high degree of involvement in other forms of addictive behaviour such as alcohol or drug abuse. Clients who are unable to control the amount they spend in the casino are at high risk of developing gambling problems. they could be tracked through the staff members that keep daily records of visitors.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 138 . Length of Visit The length of visit is very difficult to ascertain within the casino industry as the only way the casino can gauge the length of visit is by the entrance figures on a daily basis. This figure in the database takes the following into consideration: • Time spent gambling • Average bet • Percentage hold of the game being played • Amount of visits that the client visits. The onus is on the gambling provider to have the responsibility to check all the facilities for clients/patrons who may be lounging around and not being responsible in the vacating of the premises. Although the Singapore Control Act requires that there is a record kept of the entrance figures for visitation to the integrated resorts.g. Although this might seem extravagant. before work. lunchtime. there are no exit figures required. as well as length of play that they record in the reward system. after work and again after evening dinner. are still to meet the revenue budgets set. as businesses. Responsible gambling ethics suggest that the casino should inform the clients when they are visiting too often or spending too much time in the casino. The downfall of the system is that the client could be in the establishment for a longer period of time than what the casino management know or take notice of. The second part of the downfall side of the length of visit is that the client could give false information when playing on the live gaming tables.In some instances a client could visit a service area several times a day. From the example it shows that the customer could visit the integrated resort or any casino around four times in one day. But casinos. Management has to balance business objectives with responsible gambling ethics. e. Another problem is that one casino might not be aware of the number of visits a client makes to another casino. Gambling providers’ player tracking rewards programs are set to work out the clients’ average spend within the casino or gambling area. these visitations would show a trend towards problem gambling.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 139 . Behavioural patterns that can be monitored by casinos include the frequency of visits. the length of visits and the amount spent.Summary Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. The consumption of alcohol influences the gambler’s behaviour in various ways and gambling providers has to be ethical with regards the service and promotion of alcoholic beverages.

they all attempt to help the client resolve the issues that he has with gambling. These are recognised internationally and provide a service to the gambling industry as such. students should be able to: • • • Discuss the need and demand for problem gambling treatment programmes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 140 . Support programmes can be in the form of medical treatment. Describe access and referrals to treatment programmes. Although these problem gambling support services take different approaches to the gamblers problem. support groups such as Gamblers Anonymous. The gambling service providers are positive about there approach to the clients when recommending support for the clients who have a gambling problem. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter. Introduction to Support Programmes Throughout the casino environment there coexists various different forms of problem gambling support services.Topic 8 PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the treatment and support programmes available for problem gamblers. Provide examples of counselling and treatment programmes and discuss the work done by treatment providers. governmental organisations as well as private organisations. Students will get to appreciate the need and demand for such services.

have taken the initiative to address the issue of gambling addiction within their businesses.000 p. and have been reluctant to engage directly in interventions. mandatory and voluntary exclusion programmes and gambling venue partnerships with practitioners and government agencies to provide information and improved access to formal treatment services.000 in the previous year. The Demand for Counselling and Treatment From the article below.000 people called a betting addiction hotline last year compared with just over 30. Implementation of secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry. such as employee training programmes and exclusion programmes. It supports recent findings that suggest many problem gamblers have transient problems that often selfcorrect. gambling providers in the UK are not compelled to supply patrons with help and advice about gambling problems. Secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry have included the development and implementation of employee training programmes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 141 . 2005e). Gambling addicts soar by 25% under Labour's lax laws as average debts rises to £17.The Gaming Industry and Gambling Addiction Services The gaming industry has typically viewed pathological gambling as a rare mental disorder that is predominantly physically and/or psychologically determined. 2008. Some gambling providers however. UNITED KINGDOM -. Mail on Sunday.The number of problem gamblers seeking help has rocketed by 25 per cent since Labour controversially relaxed the laws. the demand for treatment of gambling related problems in the UK can be seen.a By Ian Drury. October 16. Currently. In addition. Although advertising of gambling is very restricted at present. Nearly 38. have not always been of the highest quality and compliance has often been uneven. this is likely to become much more liberal over the next decade. observations from abroad appear to demonstrate that efforts by the gaming industry to address gambling addiction tend to compete with heavily financed gaming industry advertising campaigns that may work directly to counteract their effectiveness (Griffiths.

Most commonly.between 3 and 4 percent .were under 18. Women problem gamblers were more likely to fritter away money on 'games of chance' – table games. Almost 60 per cent of those calling by phone were involved in gambling on fixed odds terminals. Seven per cent of callers admitted to owing more than £100. usually found in betting shops. The number of gamblers seeking treatment is much higher as some of them will also get counselling through Gamblers Anonymous and other organisations. When we add to this the results for married and employed individuals in the light of the process of addiction we will examine later. Around 50 per cent placed their bets in bookmakers' shops while nearly one in seven gambled on the internet.800 to £17. Another fifth played fruit machines. The number of counseling sessions offered by Gamcare increased to 9.000 in 12 months. Gamcare's annual report said the record 37.000. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 142 . up nearly £4. In terms of age. greyhounds and football. GamCare is just one organisation in the UK offering counselling to problem gamblers. a small proportion .poker. The number of problem gamblers is much higher than the number seeking treatment. up 36 per cent.500. It must also be remembered that not all problem gamblers seeks treatment. The number of women problem gamblers ringing the helpline jumped from 13 to 18 per cent to comprise nearly a fifth of callers. we can guess (hypothesize) that the middle aged problem gambler has more to lose than the younger gambler. fruit machines. bingo or scratchcards.594 last year.And the average amount of debt soared from £13. There were also 1. those seeking help were aged between 26 and 35. Thirty per cent of those seeking help via the website said they had problems with 'table games' .407 requests for help to online advisers. the demographic material suggests that middle aged gamblers are much more likely to seek treatment. or staking money over the counter on horses. Worryingly. roulette and other card games often played on internet sites. Demographics of Gamblers Seeking Treatment Nancy Petry’s research on treatment seeking gamblers is in sharp contrast to the demographic profile of heavy and problem gamblers.806 calls to its helpline last year was a 25 per cent increase on 2006.

• Ethnicity In American demographic studies it is found that Caucasians are more likely to seek treatment than other ethnicities. this might be against the gambling providers’ business interest and this is one of the reasons why gambling providers do not always live up to the expectations of responsible gambling practices. • Gender Men are heavily over represented in treatment seeking population. However.• Age Younger gamblers are underrepresented in the demographic group of gamblers seeking treatment. Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths People suffering from problem gambling can access free or selffunded treatment via a number of routes. Not all problem gamblers will seek treatment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 143 . • Marital status Married gamblers are more likely to seek treatment than unmarried gamblers. Unlike the profile of the problem gambler where they are over represented there are few young people seeking treatment for gambling problems. Summary Responsible gambling practices require gambling providers to act responsibly by referring problem gamblers to treatment and counselling programmes. There is a serious need for treatment and counselling as the number of problem gamblers are increasing every year. • Socioeconomic status Education: The more educated a level three gambler the more likely they were to seek treatment Income: Higher income level three gamblers appear to be more likely to seek treatment than lower income gamblers.

Where possible. This may involve the GP providing certain parts of treatment.Self-referrals Problem gamblers can self-refer by contacting one of the many available community addiction centres and clinics where they can have an individual consultation before commencing a treatment programme. When this is the case. These units have specialist addiction management psychiatrists and nurses. prefer to be looked after at a specialist addiction unit because of the anonymity this allows and the fact that everyone is there for the same reason (BBC Health: Help from your GP). Court referrals It is also worth mentioning that there are an increasing number of court cases involving problem gambling and that judges often give non-custodial sentences alongside referral for gambling treatment.1 What is meant by court referrals? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 144 . Other people however. arrangements can often be made for the person to be seen by the community specialist addiction nurse or counselor within the general practice. while the specialist addiction team provides ongoing monitoring and counseling. Some prefer to be looked after in the familiar surroundings of their general practice. appropriate prescriptions and treatment for addiction-related health problems. however. a person is given the choice of where he or she is treated. counsellors. Many GPs. and even if the GP is not able to provide the treatment. and social workers working with them. Some providers will allow individuals to drop in without an appointment. for example. Activity 8. It is not unknown for a problem gambler to say they will attend gambling treatment as a way of helping them get a reduced sentence. Often treatment is provided on a ‘shared-care’ basis. will refer the person to the local addiction specialist for an assessment and a treatment plan. One of the problems with this particular referral path is that the problem gambler may not have any motivation to stop. a GP may not necessarily refer someone to another centre. GP referrals Some GPs have undergone additional training in addiction management and run special clinics within their own surgery. These support centres can also be reached through the internet and by contacting them on toll-free hotlines.

only 8 % of attendees achieve a year or more of abstinence. have not been sufficiently evaluated. Gamblers meet on a weekly basis.S. thus decreasing their feelings of isolation. the spousal component of GA. gamblers can open up. The contactable references are through either the internet or newspapers (media). This organisation. Studies suggest that only 8 % of GA attendees achieve a year of abstinence. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 145 .000 chapters exist in the U. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. it seems to have beneficial effects for only a minority of participants. These include self-referrals. some evidence suggests that GA may not be very effective. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) was founded in California in 1957. It is one of the most well-known and most frequently used resources for excessive gamblers. even relate to other gamblers who are experiencing or have experienced the same things. and about 1. Gamblers Anonymous is the most popular intervention for problem gambling. functions according to the same principles. while GA may help some people achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. which was inspired by Alcoholics Anonymous. However. Moreover. Retrospective reports indicate that 70 to 90 % of GA attendees drop out and that less than 10 % become active members. GP referrals and court referrals.Summary The compulsive gambler or client has at his disposal different ways of which he can access treatment. or ask for help. Counselling and Treatment Providers Gamblers Anonymous (GA) The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous. discuss their gambling problems. By participating in GA meetings. including participation in Gam-Anon. Marital and family treatments. Thus. This is a self help group that has a set of principles which they are guided by. Combining professional therapy and GA participation may improve retention and abstinence.

We sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him. promptly admitted it. We were entirely ready to have these defects of character removed. We admitted we were powerless over gambling – that our lives had become unmanageable. quite often. These questions are below: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 146 . Gamblers who join undertake a 12step program during which gamblers reflect on their problem and modify their behaviour. We made a searching and fearless moral and financial inventory of ourselves. We came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to a normal way of thinking and living. These questions are provided to help the individual decide if he or she is a compulsive gambler and wants to stop gambling. we tried to carry this message to other compulsive gamblers. We humbly asked God (of our understanding) to remove our shortcomings. We admitted to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. 5.Gamblers Anonymous is essentially based on the medical model – in other words. We made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of this Power of our own understanding. GA groups are a very important resource for gamblers who. Gamblers Anonymous offers the following questions to anyone who may have a gambling problem. 11. find comfort and understanding within them. Having made an effort to practice these principles in all our affairs. 12. 3. 1. 7. its members see gambling as an irreversible disease and promote total abstinence. 6. According to GA. We continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong. except when to do so would injure them or others. These 12 steps are presented below. We made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to them all. 9. 8. 4. 2. 10. success is complete abstinence from gambling for a period of at least two years. We make direct amends to such people wherever possible. praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out.

18. 12. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 147 . information and advice to anyone suffering through a gambling problem. GamCare provides support. 15. boredom or loneliness? Have you ever committed. 6. 11. 14. GamCare GamCare. an illegal act to finance gambling? Did gambling cause you to have difficulty in sleeping? Do arguments. 13. disappointments or frustrations create within you an urge to gamble? Did you ever have an urge to celebrate any good fortune by a few hours of gambling? Have you ever considered self destruction or suicide as a result of your gambling? Most compulsive gamblers will answer yes to at least seven of these questions. Did you ever lose time from work or school due to gambling? Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy? Did gambling affect your reputation? Have you ever felt remorse after gambling? Did you ever gamble to get money with which to pay debts or otherwise solve financial difficulties? Did gambling cause a decrease in your ambition or efficiency? After losing did you feel you must return as soon as possible and win back your losses? After a win did you have a strong urge to return and win more? Did you often gamble until your last dollar was gone? Did you ever borrow to finance your gambling? Have you ever sold anything to finance gambling? Were you reluctant to use "gambling money" for normal expenditures? Did gambling make you careless of the welfare of yourself or your family? Did you ever gamble longer than you had planned? Have you ever gambled to escape worry. 10. trouble. 8. 20. has become the leading authority on the provision of counselling. 17.1. 2. 4. 19. 5. 9. 3. 7. a registered charity. or considered committing. advice and practical help in addressing the social impact of gambling in the UK. 16.

Therefore Gordon House Association provides an extremely high level of support to clients early in recovery. This is not so much due to differences in the various addictions themselves but due to the associated behaviors. with the help of the others in treatment and their therapy sessions. and situations. therefore new clients will almost certainly have been severely abusing the trust of others to support their habit. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 148 . Additionally.GamCare takes a non-judgemental approach to gambling. They strive to develop strategies that will: • Improve the understanding of the social impact of gambling • Promote a responsible approach to gambling • Address the needs of those adversely affected by a gambling dependency GamCare operates the national telephone helpline for anyone affected by a gambling problem and operates a network of both face-to-face and online counselling and support services. they build their own support networks and develop their own personal relapse prevention strategies. Gordon House Association also provides an Outreach Support Service and an Internet Counseling Service. although having some parallels to a substance-based addiction. GamCare works to support the development and implementation of responsible practice by the gambling industry. They do not wish to restrict the choices or opportunities for anyone to operate or engage in gambling opportunities that are available legally and operated responsibly. needs an inherently different approach to treatment. that led to their gambling in the past. Over the time they remain in treatment they are 'weaned' off this high level of support as. Gordon House – United Kingdom Gordon House Association believes that a severe addiction to gambling. Gordon House Association works only with the most severe gambling addicts. Those in residential treatment are provided with 'minders' or support workers who help them budget and avoid those places.

Their main objectives are.g. unique 'forums' wherein clients can discuss and learn to deal with the reasons why they compulsively gambled and the extremes to which they have gone to support their gambling. There are also 'chat rooms' where trained counselors can answer questions and membership groups. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 149 . As a leader in the community services. • To understand the root of the problem and introduce ways to address and cope with the issues. where they can seek. and • To introduce an alternative healthy lifestyle to the addicts. Youth and Sports (MCYS) to provide specialised gambling counselling and support services for gambling addicts as well as their immediate families. Because they specialise in gambling they create therapeutic communities that consist entirely of addicted gamblers. Their gambling addiction solutions include a gambling hotline as well as clinical counselling. e. Care Corner Counselling . • To reduce the frequency of problem gambling. they pride themselves as the first port of call for clients that need help. support. without it being 'sensationalised' or misunderstood. This has allowed them to develop treatment interventions that are purely gambling focused and address the extremes of associated behaviours. Gordon House has over 31 years' experience of providing specialised support and treatment to acutely addicted gamblers.The Outreach Support Service provides an individual face-to-face service in the home of the client and group support sessions at each of the residential centres for those able to travel. Their dedicated and professional team of counsellors is all trained under a special gambling intervention programme run by the Community Addictions Management Programme of Mental Health and MCYS. and give. The Internet Counseling Service is hosted on the Gordon House Association's Website and provides confidential individual face-to-face counseling for those with access to the necessary computer equipment and voice or text service to those without such access or those requiring total anonymity.Singapore Care Corner Counselling Centre is one of the 2 pilot agencies appointed by the Ministry of Community Development. ex-residents.

and motivational assessment. social and psychological. The services offered by CAMP include: • Counselling and rehabilitation (with pharmacotherapy when necessary). offer information. professionals. the counsellors will refer callers to the relevant agencies where you can get the help they need. • Medical support and medication during treatment to prevent withdrawal and anxiety. caring nurturing environment. eating disorders. and • An opportunity for the renewal and transformation of family relationships. • Assessment of severity of the addiction. If services are required that cannot be provided by CAMP. can call their help lines for immediate support. Anybody with questions or concerns about gambling. families treatment. information and emotional support. when necessary. which includes Medical Assessment. • Counselling using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Relapse Prevention Training. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 150 . The counsellors will listen attentively and provide advice. • A holistic. internet and gaming. CAMP – Community Addictions Management Programmes – Singapore CAMP helps anyone suffering from an addiction related problem. drug addiction. • A hub for recovery support groups and 12 Step fellowships. • Individual. or any other addiction. They also run courses for professionals interested in studying addictions and treatment. 12-Step Support. The helpline is manned by a team of trained counsellors. Mental Status Exam. • A resource centre for recovering people. and advice to callers. alcoholism. All calls will be treated as confidential. They run two Gambling Helplines and a General Addictions Helpline to provide support. Group and Family Therapy. • Medically supervised Detoxification Management. The center addresses all addictions including gambling.The Care Corner Centre provides: • A meeting place of safety and learning for recovering people. and Psycho-dynamic Therapy when necessary. student and volunteers.

patients may then join a course of six specially designed individual outpatient sessions which are focused on overcoming denial. Training and educational programmes. It comprises a free help-line available 24 hours a day staffed by telephone counsellors specially trained to deal with gambling problems. understanding the nature of the problem. for example the Kenilworth Addiction Treatment Centre in South Africa. Activity 8. Preventive education. Referral Services. Treatment in Private Clinics Gambling addicts can also seek treatment in private clinics. All therapists follow the six-session treatment programme developed for this programme by the medical director. Activity 8. All this is paid for by the RGP (Responsible Gambling Program). where the client is adjudged a danger to themselves or to others provision is made for in-patient treatment at one of three designated addiction treatment clinics. Clients are also offered professional assistance with legal and financial management problems where needed. If the diagnosis warrants it.• • • • • Peer led support groups. People who call this Centre are offered a free diagnostic consultation with one of 39 clinical psychologists or psychiatric social workers with specialist training in gambling problems located at one of thirteen centres around the country.3 What is the difference between Gamblers Anonymous and GamAnon? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 151 . repairing relationships with families and accessing self-help groups. In some cases. Outpatient follow-up.2 Explain in detail what Gamblers Anonymous is and how it works.

In Singapore Care Corner and Camp offer counselling services. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. Mr. Kerviel." But “in fact.” They quoted one insider as saying that Kerviel “seems to have been some kind of Walter Mitty character who had managed to convince himself that he had come up with a great new trading strategy.7 billion. gambling addicts can also receive professional treatment at private clinics worldwide.4 Case Study – Bank Fraud Excerpts of Problem Gambling from the South African Responsible Gambling News Letter 2008 issue Nine The Ultimate Problem Gambler Is Jerome Kerviel accused of perpetrating the biggest bank fraud in history. discuss their gambling problems. gamblers meet on a weekly basis. the chief executive of corporate and investment banking at Société Générale. As Gordon Rayner and Peter Allen of the Daily Telegraph newspaper reported. involving £3. Besides counselling services.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 152 . and if he was given time it would make a lot of money for the bank. according to sources close to the bank. Activity 8. had fallen into the classic trap which has ensnared so many other gamblers . Other programmes available in the UK are GamCare and Gordon House.Summary The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous. 31. actually just a problem gambler of a different type? When Jean-Pierre Mustier. Kerviel kept insisting that he had been acting in the best interests of the bank. put the 31-year-old French junior trader through a six-hour grilling (this was before the full extent of the loss was realised). betting more and more money in the hope of recovering what he had lost until the losses spiraled out of control. “the fact that he had already lost more than a billion pounds appeared lost on him. In this programme.he chased his losses.

however. but made little impact and was restricted to the most basic type of trading. Kerviel. which specializes in the futures markets. lists sailing as a hobby in his CV and was so accomplished at judo that he trained children in his spare time. who was earning around £75 000 . He was allegedly able to hack into the bank's computers to hide his trading till he made a basic slip-up on Friday. In 2005 he was promoted to the Delta One trading team. they believe that Mr. “instead.” Kerviel graduated from the Université Lumière in Lyon with a master's degree in finance and landed a job in the bank's compliance department in 2000. At the time the losses were around £1. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 153 . None of these facts give a clue. but as the markets plunged in the early part of this week this trebled before the bank was able to shut down the fake accounts he had created. Rayner and Allen quoted bank sources as saying that there was no evidence that he was out for personal gain.a modest sum for a trader who had been at the bank for eight years – was desperately trying to get noticed.Kerviel has come across as something of a mystery man. when he failed to disable the bank's automatic alert system and his irregular trading suddenly showed up.2 billion. as to his motivation for embarking on his unauthorised trading spree. According to colleagues he is a “computer genius” with unspecified “personal problems” who speaks fluent English.. So in December last year he allegedly decided to start trading by himself. using up to £60 billion of the bank's money to bet on whether markets would rise or fall.

In addition. which not only agreed to settle Wessels’s bill but offered him a 12-month complimentary package which would enable him to SMS to his heart’s content — although Virgin Mobile executive head of corporate affairs Nicholas Maweni added that we’ll make sure he can’t use it to enter competitions or partake in any premium offerings. The SMSs kept coming. When a consternated Wessels confessed that he had no way of paying it. I got swept up.Activity 8. telling me to carry on entering. although it tossed him a bone. the pensioner who ended up owing Vodacom R48 000 because he responded like Pavlov’s legendary dog to SMSs urging him to keep entering and win a BMW car. so to speak. What Wessels obviously did not know was that the Vodacom website instructs subscribers on how to avoid the temptation that nearly brought him to ruin. But he sent off an average of 320 SMSs a day in the last two weeks of 2007. His quest for a new set of wheels ground to a halt on New Year’s Eve when Vodacom informed him of the staggering bill he had run up. in the shape of a concession which would allow him to pay off the amount. I really thought I was going to win a car. Wessels is willing to enter treatment and told reporter Wendy Knowles that Virgin Mobile’s rescue foray had come as a complete relief. Maweni said. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 154 . An understandably relieved not to mention sadder and wiser. But even this meant financial ruin. 5 Case Study – Text Messages SMS’s and Gambling The law will soon provide protection for people like Hendricus Wessels. Virgin Mobile had offered him a session with the Western Cape National Responsible Gambling Programme. by SMS-ing "Stop" or "Opt out" to 30800. If Wessels had responded like the dog by salivating when he heard a bell ring no harm would have been done. I have learned a big lesson. Then to his rescue came Virgin Mobile. Vodacom promptly suspended his service.

was cited as a respondent. Monique. His wife. 6 Case Study – Embezzlement Gambler allegedly grabbed R7. Simply send an SMS to the DMA. Otherwise contact the DMA’s call centre on 0861 362 362 or log on to www. so you’ll have to send a specific "Stop" SMS to put an end to those.1 MILLION IN RADIO FUNDS Missing former radio station financial manager. which is updated every month. and it will soon be law for any company embarking on a direct marketing campaign .whether by SMS.According to Nowles. According to the Burger newspaper Roos dropped out of sight on 29 February after attending a rugby match at Newlands.dmasa. telephone or snail mail . to 34385. email. Mario Roos. Activity 8.9. You could still get unsolicited SMSs from companies you already do business with. In terms of the order. such as your bank or cellphone network. Roos and his wife had to appear in court on 9 May to show cause why it should not be made final. is as simple as well. till recently an employee of Radio Heart according to papers submitted to the Cape High run their "hit list" against the Opt-Out register and ensure that any names on the DMA register are deleted from their database. followed by your ID number. sending a text message. Entering your name on this list. according to the station’s managing director. the amount of missing cash might be even higher than stated. Gavin Meiring. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 155 . 35 000 South Africans have registered on the Opt-Out Register of the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) since March last year. A portion of this money was then paid to internet gambling operators and. paid for his gambling debts by misusing his firm’s electronic banking and credit-card system to transfer more than R7-million into his own bank account. who disappeared at the end of February after auditors started investigating the station’s financial affairs. The court granted a provisional sequestration order against Roos.

the Foschini Group.4 billion AUSTRALIA -. Activity 8.95 . Crown Casino chief executive Rowen Craigie was allegedly part of a plan to entice chronic gambler Harry Kakavas back to the Southbank venue. which will see Crown and senior executives Mr. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 156 .5-million from Radio Igaga’s account. Radio Igaga. known as Cash Focus. it is clear that he was a regular gambler and used (the station’s) credit-card to pay off his gambling debts.of which R256 213.A gambling addict is suing Crown Casino for allegedly targeting him when he was banned from every casino in Australia. 7 Case Study – Exclusion Man sues Crown Casino after gambling $1. amounting to R2408 709. to make transfers from the accounts of Heart 104. and it was then established that he had flown to London on a business-class ticket on March 1. The case is looking to be a landmark case for the Australian gaming industry. Meiring stated that between 2 January and 29 February Meiring made 36 transfers to his bank account.9FM and its sister station.Meiring testified in court papers that he failed to report for work on March 3.4 billion in a 14-month spree. Craigie and chief operating officer John Williams face serious claims of unconscionable conduct. leading him to gamble $1. It had been established that on 1 March he had transferred another R4. when he was hired.54 was used to pay off his gambling debts. He said the station had been unaware of the fact that Roos was under investigation for the theft of R61 000 from his former employers. According to Meiring. Gavin Meiring said Roos had been registered and authorised to use the banking system. The theft was not discovered until Meiring became suspicious from media reports about Roos’s disappearance and reviewed the station’s electronic banking transactions.

Kakavas. back to the casino by Mr. allegedly thought up by Crown management after it was discovered he had lost a large amount in Las Vegas casinos. Kakavas. A separate recording Mr. wore a hidden recording device that captured Crown's senior managers allegedly trying to lure him back to the casino's baccarat tables. On a number of occasions he talked about committing suicide. Bill (Horman) and Howard (Aldridge) get a draft copy of the letter in which it would take for Harry to let back (sic) to play at Crown. Bill Horman. "Williams asked Doggert to contact the plaintiff (Kakavas) because Williams wanted to look clean if the plaintiff's exclusion order could not be lifted. Despite the warning email correspondence from October 2004 reveals a plan to lure Mr. "Over a period of time I observed Mr. A statement from Crown's general manager of community affairs. The statement. also reveals that the casino was aware of Mr. a Gold Coast property developer." according to the amended statement of claim. Doggert allegedly told Mr. In one recorded conversation Crown senior executive Richard Doggert is alleged to have revealed that he had been told to invite Mr.. Williams. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 157 . Kakavas that Crown management was aware of an interstate exclusion order from 2004. but did not "give a monkey's" about what happened beyond Victorian borders. who is suing the casino for damages. warned of several suicide threats from the property developer. Horman said. Regards JW (John Williams). Kakavas in a separate criminal trial. I will then discuss with Rowen (Craigie).According to amended Supreme Court documents Mr. Williams." Mr. prepared for Mr. Kakavas was allegedly contacted by Mr. Kakavas back to Melbourne. Kakavas's gambling addiction and related mental issues as early as 1998." In January 2005 Mr. "Harry Kakavas has apparently just dropped between 3 and 4 million in Las Vegas last week. Kakavas in a condition which caused me some concern.

2009. Enjoy the facilities first. Williams said. during which he allegedly turned over $1."We want you to come back. We don't want you to start too quickly because you've had a problem in the past. Kakavas is seeking more than $50 million in damages. When Mr.4 billion. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 158 . Kakavas finally returned to Crown he lost $36. with the case expected to be heard in the middle of next year. Start slowly and the jet will come later. Mr.7 million over 14 months." the court documents claim Mr. but we want you to start (gambling) slowly.

Appendix One FORMS Singapore pools application for exclusion form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 159 .

Suffolk (UK) exclusion forms. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 160 . printable from the internet for their clients.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 161 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 162 .

Application to be removed from the exclusion program Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 163 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 164 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 165 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 166 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 167 .

Remittance of unlawful winnings form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 168 .

Internet Gambling. (1996). Citadel Press. Cornelius.(1999). Management – ons/Document/LCCP%20June%202007. R.html. at http://www. Kendall Hurd Publishing. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues.. ISBN 007111131X Hashimoto. Pearson ISBN 013400177X Eadington. ISBN 0787245186 ISBN 0471129275 James Oliver. Change. at http://entertainment. D. Old West Gambling & Gaming..htm. from the Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee Web site: http://www. (accessed 31/12/08) Friedman. Casino Management.uiowa.bcvc. K. W. (2004). (2005).gamblingcommission. Performance. (accessed 31/12/08) (1997). How Online Gambling Works: Paying to Play..A History of Saloon Gambling in the Old West. et al. & Cardy.howstuffworks. Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice June 2007 available online at http://www. (accessed 31/12/08) International Gaming Institute. (1998). 04 June 2004. John Wiley and Sons. Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee.Source of References: • Eade. ISBN 081840311X Gambling Commission UK. J. (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 169 . Will History Repeat Itself. Old West Gambling & Gaming . M.L.htm. M. B. (1981)..htm. The Gaming Industry. Casino Management: Past Present and Future.D. Publisher & ISBN Ed Grabianowski.bcvc. (accessed 31/12/08) Howard.. W. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry..

(2008). Youth and Sports – 28 May 2008 Republic Of Singapore Government Gazette Acts http://www. online at www. John Wiley and R.mcys..pdf. American Psychological Association.2008 – Ministry of Community Development. ISBN 1591471737. Casino Operations 2008 available online at http://www. available online at (2005). (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 170 . ISBN 0131926721 Nancy M. Youth And Sports. Manchester University Press. (accessed 31/12/08) Munting. (2008).gaming. 9781591471738 National Qualifications for Improvement of Services.agc. (accessed 31/12/08) Ministry Of Community Development. An Economic and Social History of Gambling. (2004). Economic and Social History of Gaming and ngSurveyReport2008. ISBN 0471266329 Ministry of Communication Youth and Sports.J. Singapore CASINO CONTROL ACT 2006. Responsible Conduct of Gambling Course. (1996). Gaming Statutes and Regulations. Report Of Survey On Participation In Gambling Activities Among Singapore atest&method=part&sl=1. (accessed 31/12/08) NSW Office of Liquor. Student Notes Report of Survey on Participation in Gambling Activities among Singapore Residents .htm.• Kilby.&Fox.pdf. Petry (2005).J. USA – Provide responsible gambling services (accessed 31/12/08) Nevada Gaming Commission and State Gaming Control Board.

.indiana.& Marshall.• Responsible Gambling Advisory Committee. D. Northern Territory – Responsible Gambling Manual. (accessed 31/12/08) Rudd.pdf. L.. at (accessed 31/12/08) Western Cape Gaming and Racing Board – Summary Report on Responsible Gambling in The Western Cape: Main findings & Comparisons -2002 • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 171 .xhtml?story_id=1210000309E 8&page=6. (2006) Viva E-Vegas: The State of Online Economy? Don’t Bet on It. Hammer. available online at http://nt.S...pdf. (accessed 31/12/08) Sharing Recovery Through Gamblers Anonymous by Inc Staf Gamblers Anonymous Publis (1984) – ISBN 0-917839-00-5 Sixto Ortiz Jr. ISBN 0139795685 Ryan nsible_Gambling_Manual_-_V. (2001). (1999). Pearson. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations. Does Internet Gambling Strengthen the U.