Responsible Gambling DHCM 183

The Official Guide

Boston Business School 520 North Bridge Road #03-01 Wisma Alsagoff Singapore 188742

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The Guide is a useful resource for those seeking to gain the internationally recognised CTH qualifications. The Guide however must be used together with the recommended textbooks.

............................................................................................................ 25 Code of Practice .............................................................................................................................. 94 ...................................................................................................................... 66 Introduction to the Provision of Information..................... 51 Signage ............. 60 Creating a Comfortable Environmental ........... 1 Topic 1 – THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY.......... 30 Topic 3 – GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES.....................................................CONTENTS Introduction ................. 81 Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 .................................................... 81 Introduction to Exclusion Orders ........................................................................................................9 Gambling................................................................................................................................. 45 Facilities .................................................... 45 Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment ...................................................................... 11 Forms of Gambling..... 78 Player Rating Systems ....... 79 Topic 5 – PROCEDURES FOR SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING – EXCLUSION ORDERS ........................ 59 Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Profile of the Gambling Industry ................................... 93 Exclusion from Remote Gambling .....................5 Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes .................................................................................................................................................. 83 Dealing with Exclusions...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71 Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 Promotional Materials................................................................................... 58 Display of Clocks .................................... 74 Information on Games ............................................................................................. 92 Revocation of an Exclusion Order ...................................................................... 66 Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling .............................................................................................................. 64 Topic 4 – PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS ....... 23 Responsible Gambling Legislation ......................................... 87 Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders.......................................................................................................................... 68 Availability of Counselling.......................................................................................................... Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling ......................................................................................................................... 23 Gambling Legislation ...... 12 Topic 2 – RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION...... 52 Casino Lighting...................................................

............................................................................................................107 Customer Complaints and Disputes ...............................................................116 Levels of Gambling...........................................................140 Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths .......................124 Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling............................................................................118 Prevalence of Gambling Problems ...................................................................................................Topic 6 – GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS ..................122 Gambling Addiction ....................................135 Topic 8 – PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES .................................................109 Topic 7 – PROBLEM GAMBLING ............................................................................................................................................................................ 95 The Refusal of Credit..........................................140 Introduction to Support Programmes.................................................................145 Appendix One – FORMS ........126 Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse .......................................................130 Gambling Behaviour...................................................................... 95 Underage Gambling ....................................159 Source of References ...............143 Counselling and Treatment Providers.........................................................................................................................116 Introduction to Problem Gambling.............169 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

Provide information on problem gambling support programmes. Understand how the gambling environment influences players’ behaviour. horseracing and sports betting. Identify problem gamblers and understand which groups are at particular risk. It provides students with the knowledge to identify problem gambling and to provide information about professional treatment. Summary of Learning Outcomes On completion of this module students will be able to: • • • • • • • Describe the types of gambling offered.Responsible Gambling Introduction Description This module has been designed for front line gaming industry professionals. Syllabus The Gambling Industry Profile of the gambling industry. other games of chance such as lotto National and regional legislation and regulations and industry code of practice Responsible gambling legislation Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 1 . Describe the procedures for providing responsible gambling services in the casino environment. It will promote a greater understanding of Responsible Gambling in accordance with the legislative requirements and worldwide standards. Understand the communication and administrative procedures involved in providing responsible gambling services. It will equip students with the skills required to assess and address responsible gaming issues in the Casino Gaming Environment. types of gambling offered including casino gaming. Understand the legislative requirements relating to responsible gaming.

ATM’s. signage and information to be displayed. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit and will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions and 5 x 4 mark questions in Section A (40 marks). CTH is a London based body and the syllabus content will in general reflect this. availability of responsible gaming information Requests for exclusion. underage gambling. disputes and complaints. appropriate environmental features Availability of counseling. refusal of credit. external communications including with statutory boards. promotional materials. Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which students must select and answer three (60 marks). implementation of exclusion procedures. Availability of counseling. high risk groups. availability of natural light. Internal communication including casino departments and security. Any legislation and codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry and will not be country specific. problem gambling support and treatment services. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 2 . positioning of machines Provision of information. signage. information on games. providing information on support services. facilities.Gambling environment features Procedures for service of responsible gambling Gambling information for players Gambling related incidents Problem Gambling and Support Programmes Communication and documentation Casino layout. identifying problem gamblers. involvement of family or friends Levels of gambling. documentation and administration procedures Assessments This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination set and marked by CTH. lighting. Local centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practise to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not test this local knowledge. attempts to breach exclusion. chances of winning and probability.

Pearson... Citadel Press. Casino Management. University Press of Nevada. W. (1997). B.J. (1999). (1996). John Wiley and Sons. (1998).(1999).. Performance..& Marshall. ISBN 081840311X • Gomez-Mejia. Resources Learners need access to library and research facilities which should include some or all of the following.& Cornelius. Casino Operations Management. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry. The Gaming Industry. Textbooks • Eade. ISBN 0471129275 • Kilby. McGraw-Hill. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues. ISBN 0787245186 • International Gaming Institute.. Change.J.. W. K. Visiting speakers would also be beneficial and will help to contextualise the classroom based learning. & Cardy. ISBN 0131926721 • Rudd. ISBN 0139795685 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 3 . et al. (2005).&Fox. An Economic and Social History of Gambling. Pearson... ISBN 007111131X • Hashimoto. Casino Management: Past Present and Future.. Management – People. J.. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations. Recommended Prior Learning There is no required prior learning however students must have completed formal education to 18 years old or equivalent and an interest in Gambling Operations is essential. D. R. ISBN 0942828382 • Friedman. R.D. Manchester University Press. (1981). L. Kendall Hurd Publishing. ISBN 0471266329 • Munting. Visits to a range of casinos are essential to allow students to see the application of the theory into practice. ISBN 013400177X • Eadington. D. (2004).. Balkin. (1996). John Wiley and Sons..Further guidance Delivery strategies This module covers the theory of Responsible Gambling but wherever possible this should be related to practical situations to reflect the nature of the commercial world.

CTH will always answer any questions from the centre’s Head of Department either by email or by phone. supplementary material familiar to the lecturer and the lecturer’s experience. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 4 . but a number of texts which provide sufficient depth to explore the subject area. Where available and appropriate. Journals and Other Publications • Casino Life Magazine • State and Regional Gaming Acts including: • UK Gaming Act 2005 • Nevada Gaming Control Act • Singapore Casino Control Act Websites www. In keeping with a qualification at this level there is no one text which covers the whole syllabus.gamingfloor. the lecturer’s lesson plans should be based on the module syllabus and supported by relevant texts. In general.Magazines. It is not essential to use all the recommended texts and lecturers should use their experience to decide which ones are most appropriate for their students.casinoman. past module examinations are also available to support Notes on recommended texts The module can be taught with the texts we have identified as relevant to the module syllabus.

at the other is local. direct responsibility to all consumers. Students will get to appreciate the size of the industry and the prevalence of gambling. Explain the different types of gambling including casinos gaming. with an emphasis on operators meeting the required probity and performance standards and consistency in care for consumers. lotteries.Topic 1 THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY Objective This chapter will introduce the students to the gambling industry and look in more detail at the types of gambling available. developing into a major sector of the world economy. sports betting and internet gambling. Profile of the Gambling Industry The gambling industry has seen unprecedented growth over recent years. Explain the need for responsible gambling programmes. The industry is one of high public profile – commercial competitiveness on a global basis sits at one end of the scale. Gambling in Singapore. Singapore will have its first casino operating by 2009. The Gambling Industry in Singapore The licensed gambling industry in Singapore is diverse. Currently lotteries as well as other service providers such as horse racing are popular. Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter. students should be able to: • • • • Profile the gaming industry. Define gambling and explain the difference between recreational gambling and problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 5 . although relatively new will be strictly regulated. It will also look at the main reasons for developing responsible gaming programmes.

In order to be effective and fair issues of concern have been identified. 2008. A recent Singapore report of survey on participation in gambling activities among Singapore residents. Substantial efforts have been directed to this issue in Singapore and from this background has emerged the production by the industry of a proactive and balanced response to the expectations of Government and consumers – responsible gambling. clear requirements understood and consistent standards of business practice prescribed. In recent years. consumers rightly have expectations that they can have access to competitive gaming products. various ethnic groups and a small geographical area. Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • • • • • Chinese (62%) Male (60%) Residents aged 40 to 59 years (60% . Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 6 .In Singapore there is a limited target market. However.66%) For the purpose of the survey.64%) Residents with primary education and below (61%) Residents with average monthly personal income of $2. appropriate infrastructure and high standards of service as enjoyed elsewhere in the world. stated that 54% of Singapore residents aged 18 and above reported that they have participated in at least one form of gambling activity in the last 12 months.999 and below (60% . considerable focus by governments of all persuasions has been given to the adverse affect problem gambling can have on some members of the community or individuals who become affected by gambling to the point of no longer having control or rational judgment. sometimes leading to problems in other areas of their lives. respondents who had participated in at least one form of gambling in the last 12 months were classified as gamblers.

• In terms of education. had participated in another form of gambling in the past year. 61% of those with a degree compared with 73% who were educated to GCSE/O level equivalent. Macao and Hong Kong. and playing slot machines (14%). respondents with higher levels were less likely to gamble. that is about 32 million adults.The Gambling Industry in the UK The British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007 stated that since the 1999 survey. the rate in Britain is higher than that found in Norway. and an increase in the number of gambling products available. as different methodologies have been used in different countries). Sweden and Switzerland. • Only a small proportion of people (3%) gambled online (like playing poker or casino games etc) or placed bets with a bookmaker using the internet (4%). • Respondents who described their ethnic origin as white were more likely to be past year gamblers (70%) than those who classified themselves as Black (39%) or Asian (45%). 48% of the population. • People in higher income households were more likely to gamble. • 3% used fixed odds betting terminals (FOBTs) and 4% gambled in a casino. with the exception of bingo (4% of men compared with 10% of women). mainly due to changes in legislation. Relatively higher gambling participation is found among the following groups: • Men were more likely than women to gamble overall (71% compared with 65%). and on each individual activity. the nature of gambling in Britain has changed substantially. betting on horse races (17%). followed by scratch cards (20%). • Excluding people who had only gambled on the National Lottery Draw in the last year.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 7 . and lower than Australia. the rate increased from 61% among those in the lowest income households. had participated in some form of gambling activity within the past year. The survey also indicated the following: • 68% of the population. • The most popular activity was the National Lottery Draw (57%). to 72% for highest income households. Looking at international studies of problem gambling prevalence. New Zealand. Singapore. the US. and similar to that of Canada. or about 23 million. South Africa. (Comparisons should be treated with caution.

8% 15. Gambling was largely practiced in the early U.698 $25 million to $50 million 57 2.0% 31.6% 37.8% 0.0% 5.5% 25.5% 11.711 $10 million to $25 million 69 1. gambling has now evolved to the point that at least some form of gambling is legal in all but two states and revenues from gambling eclipse the revenues from theme parks.3% 18.170.1% 0.9% 27.5% 8 . However.3% 11.459.277.240. including riverboat and Indian reservation casinos.144.The Gambling Industry in the USA (Tribal Jurisdictions) A look at the history of gambling in the United States shows that it has evolved in waves. until it was completely banned in the 1890’s.9% 19.407.8% 1.6% 12. with public sentiment shifting back and forth from embracing gambling to prohibiting it.0% 2. video games.569 Total 358 16.204 $100 million to $250 million 32 5. providing American gamblers with an outlet through which to place their bets.0% 16.1% 7.3% 15. movie tickets.911 $100 million to $250 million 40 6.554 $3 million to $10 million 57 344.333.9% 9.352 Under $3 million 94 77.381.200. Gaming Revenue 2001 – 2004 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues Number of Revenues Gaming Revenue Range Operations (in thousands) Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2004 $250 million and over 15 7.. These are the various categories of growth figures from the years 2001 though to 2004.7% 14.698 $50 million to $100 million 33 2.169 $3 million to $10 million 57 350.9% 9.1% 10.377 $50 million to $100 million 35 2.5% 15. The statistics shown below are the Gaming revenues from the National Indian Gaming commission.4% 3. In fact. when more forms of casinos began to be legalised.510 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2003 $250 million and over 11 5. primarily in the form of lotteries.S. and music recordings combined.826.398 Under $3 million 97 90. gambling started making a comeback in the 1920’s and was fully legalised in Nevada in 1931. Las Vegas remained the primary location for legal gambling until the 1970’s.122.126 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 Percentage of Operations Revenues 4.1% 32.1% 8.497 $10 million to $25 million 68 1.040.010 $25 million to $50 million 60 2.1% 32.488 Total 367 19.

4% 7.5% 13.640.0% 17.965 Total 349 14. gambling can have negative impacts.5% 11.346 2. gambling is an enjoyable leisure and entertainment activity. Although this revenue is only from 4% of the casinos.546 $3 million to $10 million 57 385.6% 18.717.654 Under $3 million 114 96. Development of Responsible Gambling Programmes For the majority of people.9% 15.596 $50 million to $100 million 24 1.064 $100 million and over 31 4.662 Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2001 $100 million and over 39 8.8% Table 1.5% 65.755 $25 million to $50 million 43 1.513 $3 million to $10 million 63 386. the Casino Control Boards in different parts of the world have set up laws to control gambling operations. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 9 .3% 34.Gaming operations with fiscal years ending in 2002 $250 million and over 10 4. These figures are derived from Casino Resorts such as Mohican Sun.9% 7.6% 0.694.519 $10 million to $25 million 65 1.0% 11.5% 33. As a result.978.1% 28.0% 0.6% 17.9% 31.399 Under $3 million 101 79.8% 3.398.870.8% 18.8% 13. The integrated resorts will also experience growth figures such as these. Summary The onset of world gambling trends and the increase and availability of gambling forms have influenced the way society view gambling. The growth of the gambling industry is evident in the gambling prevalence rates and gaming revenue statistics discussed.5% 11.523 $50 million to $100 million 19 1.528.8% 5.3% 2.415.1% 11.9% 6.257 Total 330 12. for some.067.606 $25 million to $50 million 55 1.611 $10 million to $25 million 58 997. However. it seems that the old tribal customs are falling away and gaming is becoming a normal point in society.822.1 National Indian Gaming Commission Tribal Gaming Revenues The growth in revenue generation was in the 250M$ and above.9% 8.

The aim of responsible gambling programmes is to minimise the harm to consumers who may be adversely affected by gambling. Though the practices are intended to apply to all gambling providers and all forms of gambling. new research into problem gambling and changing circumstances. and will change over time as new operating methods emerge. which sets out responsible gambling practices and policies. This responsible gambling course will provide descriptions of responsible gambling practices relevant to each sector of the gambling industry. and promoting responsible gambling initiatives. In recent years there has been growing appreciation of the affect problem gambling has on some members of the community. the method of implementation will vary according to the form of gambling. Responsible Gambling Programmes have been developed with the participation of various stakeholders in the world gambling industry. These programmes are adopted by various world gambling providers in the provision of their services. aimed at delivering important consumer protection and social welfare objectives. particularly the scope and frequency of gambling. These programmes are an expression of the commitment of the industry to responsible gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 10 . It contains comprehensive information on responsible gaming practices that will assist the operator in the successful implementation of the responsible gambling code. Responsible Gambling Programmes are considered ‘living documents’ in the sense that it will be continuously edited and amended to take into new operating practices. Responsible Gambling Programmes were developed.Furthermore. A major point of emphasis with the Responsible Gambling Course is urging for the consistency in care for customers. Problem gambling exists when there is a lack of control over gambling. The need for flexibility to accommodate industry development within an evolving gambling industry is also acknowledged. the level of betting and the amount of leisure time devoted to gambling. as is the need for whole-of-industry support and implementation.

provides some of the following pleasures: • playing games. Recreational gambling. from the point of view of the gambler. Gambling behaviour should be viewed as problematic when gamblers: • gamble excessively and thereby cause significant harm to themselves and to others. • feeling artificially endangered. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 11 . bingo and charity jackpots in newspapers as well as scratch cards. casino games and betting on horses and other sporting events are regarded as gambling activities. • fantasising about winning large sums of money. Whether gambling is accounted a vice or a form of recreation depends on moral judgments. at different points in history and among different individuals. and • fail to control this excessive behaviour by themselves and without assistance. Gambling Recreational Gambling and Problem Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. Responsible gambling practises are the responsibility of all stakeholders in the gambling industry and must be implemented over a range of gambling activities. Activity 1.Summary This section has highlighted the aims of the different government organisations when formulating responsible gambling programmes. and • being in a stimulating environment. Gambling. Playing the lotto.1 Define the term Gambling. which vary in different cultures.

Recreational gamblers gamble for the purpose of pleasure. blackjack and poker. They involve playing or staking against a bank.Summary Gambling is defined as the staking of something valuable in the hope of winning a prize where the outcome is unknown to the participants. The wheel is spun by a dealer. problem gambling can result. Casino-type games are also played on gaming machines and on the internet. multiple lines or complete a card. which also rubs against the pins to impart friction and slow the wheel down. and the winning segment is indicated by a pointer mounted on a flexible piece of rubber or leather. People mainly play Bingo in Bingo clubs. Players may win money or prizes when they complete a line. Casino games permitted in Britain include: • Big Six Wheel – also known simply as The Big Six. The wheel is divided into a number of equal segments separated by spokes or pins. When an individual gambles excessively and uncontrollably. Games can also be played electronically. including in holiday parks and resorts. Blackjack – a card game in which players try to beat the bank by adding the values of the cards as close to 21 without going over. is an unequal game of chance. card and machine games played in a casino. Each segment is associated with a number. • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 12 . Traditional casino games include roulette. Forms of Gambling Bingo Bingo is a game of chance where players receive a set of numbers on a card in return for a stake and they mark them off as a caller announces numbers as they are drawn randomly. Also known as 21. played using a large vertical wheel that can be spun. Casino Games Casino games include table. The player with maximum points at the end of the set will be the winner. It is also popular in working men’s clubs and British Legion clubs.

and then spins a ball in the opposite direction around the circumference of the wheel. Types of poker games include “three-card”. A player can make any number of bets on the sic bo table. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. and became very popular. The winner is the player who holds two or three cards that total closest to nine. in Asia. Sic Bo . The ball eventually falls onto one of the 37 coloured and numbered pockets on the wheel.In the game.a game played with three standard dice that are shaken in a basket or plastic cup. which was then lifted to reveal the roll. Traditionally. Seven-card stud has become more common. Roulette . These two games form the basis of most modern stud poker variation. In recent years. A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. whether it is odd or even or on a grouping of numbers. a croupier spins a wheel in one direction. Punto Banco . “casino stud” and “Texas Hold ‘Em”. the dice were shaken on a small plate covered with a bowl. • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 13 . In modern casinos the dice are shaken mechanically.also called Baccarat.a casino dice game in which players bet against the casino on the outcome of one roll or a series of rolls of two dice. Stud Poker – a poker variant in which each player is dealt a mix of face-down and face-up cards in multiple betting rounds. Fivecard stud first appeared during the American Civil War.• Baccarat – A card game in which two or more players gamble against the banker. The pot is awarded to the player or players with the best combination of cards. Poker – a card game where players with fully or partially concealed cards make bets into a central pot. both in casinos and in home games. Craps . There are a number of variations of Baccarat in the United Kingdom. the colour of the number (red or black). Players can place a variety of bets on specific numbers. and the outcome is keyed into a computer which automatically lights up the winning zones on the table.

Payoff combinations are listed on a roulette-style table top that is often lit from underneath in winning areas of the layout to indicate winning combinations. European-style royalty have been used on "face cards" and "French Suits" (Spade Diamond. Heart. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 14 . A traditional live casino keno game uses a circular glass enclosure called a "bubble" containing 80 ping pong-like balls which determine the balldraw result. between 1870-1880. Around the Turn-of-the-Century (1900). These "Dexter" cards are an early version of indexed playing cards (numbers on the corners). rounded-corner playing cards made in London. Club) were adopted as a standard throughout much of Northern Europe.3 A deck of rare De LaRue Co. without numbers (indices) in the corners. one-sided (the royalty stood one way on the card face) and the numbered cards only showed pips. doublesided. The wagers available and their associated odds can differ from place to place.Outcomes are based on the combinations that come up on the three dice.2 Playing cards without number Fig 1. • Keno – Keno is a lottery-like or bingo-like gambling game played at modern casinos. Card Games 1. Fig 1. England. the indices are quite different from those in common use today. Each ball is imprinted with a number 1 through 80. the double-sided deck with numbers in opposing corners and double sided face cards came into common use as a result of the rising popularitly of round games (such as poker). standard decks were square-edged. As you can see. Prior to that (during the Faro heyday). for that reason standard decks in the 18th and 19th century were commonly referred to as a "standard French deck". The History of Playing Cards Since the late 16th century.

if that went ahead. Machine Categories (UK) There are four broad categories of gaming machine.2. pusher and crane grab machines are all gaming machines. Gaming machines are found in lots of different places like family entertainment centres. Because Three Card Brag is a gambling game the players must agree on the stake and have a common understanding of the rules. Category A machines would only be allowed in the new supercasino. 1. The basic game of three card Brag was one of the games described by Hoyle dates from the late eighteenth century or earlier. Gaming Machines Fruit machines. Bookmakers also site Fixed Odds Betting Terminals (FOBTs) in their betting shops. 3. Brag was considered the "Queen of Gambling Games". The player generally wins by matching the symbols on the central line of three reels. Brag Brag was a very popular pre-poker gambling game. Gaming machines have different maximum prize and bet limits. but includes £1 and £2 C 50p 10p(30p when non-monetary D prize) Maximum Prize (£) Unlimited Varies from £250 to £4000 £25 £5 cash or £8 nonmonetary prize Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 15 . depending on the take and the maximum prize they can pay out. fixed odds betting terminals. Category B machines are divided into four subcategories (not shown here): Category Maximum Stake (£) A Unlimited B Varies. The cards in each suit rank in the usual order from high to low: A-K-Q-J-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2. adult gaming centres. Five Card Brag Five cards are dealt to each player. (Typical of any game. The typical game was 4 to 8 players. Three Card Brag A standard 52 card deck is used. Faro was known as the "King of Gambling Games" and in the late 1860's. slot machines. pubs.) 4. and everyone discards two cards to make their best three card brag hand. clubs and bingo halls.

also known as gaming. a grand total of fifty cents or ten nickels. The Liberty Bell slot machine had three spinning reels. the display often shows three identical symbols in a row. invented in 1895 by car mechanic. The dislodged items are then won by the player. Charles Fey (1862–1944) of San Francisco. Diamond. amusement-withprize or all-cash machines. If you win. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 16 . such as representations of horseracing. spade. • Pusher machine A gaming machine with a moving tray carrying various items which can be dislodged into a chute by coins pushed in by the player. jackpot.1 The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell • Charles Fey & Liberty Bell The first mechanical slot machine was the Liberty Bell. Types of machine • Fruit machines Fruit machines. • Fixed Odds Betting Terminal (FOBTs) FOBTs are made available by bookmakers in betting shops. FOBT users can bet on a variety of ‘events’. 3. football penalty shoot-outs and roulette. The outcome of such games is operated by a random number generator. use a random number generator to determine whether you have won or lost. They include red and black plaques which can be exchanged for prizes. and heart symbols were painted around each reel. The History of Slot Machines – Liberty Bell Fig 1.2. greyhound racing. A spin resulting in three Liberty Bells in a row gave the biggest payoff. plus the image of a cracked Liberty Bell. • Crane grab machine A crane grab machine uses a mechanical arm to try to pick up prize such as a soft toy and drop it into the chute.

the first electronic slot machine was built by the Fortune Coin Company. however. and Three Spinde and the Klondike. the first allelectronic gambling machine was built by Nevada Electronic called the "21" machine. called the Operator Bell. Nevada. Herbert Mills. • Age of Electronics The first popular electric gambling machine was the 1934 animated horserace machine called PACES RACES. Gambling supply manufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights to the Liberty Bell. In 1975. a knock-off of Fey's Liberty Bell. In 1964. roulette. and poker (Dale Electronics' Poker-Matic was very popular). Fey rented his machines to saloons and bars based on a 50/50 split of the profits. plums. Charles Fey invented the first draw poker machine. The largest game in the UK is the National Lottery. Charles Fey refused to sell. Each reel had ten symbols painted on it. Other Charles Fey machines include: the Draw Power. • How the Original Slots Worked Inside each cast iron slot machine there were three metal hoops called reels. lemons. Lotteries Singaporeans know lotteries commonly as 4D. Mills was the first person to place fruit symbols: i. and cherries on machines. A lottery is a game which people enter by selecting a set of numbers that may match those drawn later for the chance of winning money or prizes. A lever was pulled that spun the reels. The payoff in coinage was then dispensed from the machine. horse racing. As a result in 1907. Charles Fey was also the inventor of the trade check separator.The original Liberty Bell slot machine can still be seen be at the Liberty Belle Saloon & Restaurant in Reno. In 1901. began production of a slot machine. The hole in the middle of the trade check allowed a detecting pin to distinguish fake nickels or slugs from real nickels.e. Other types of lotteries include raffles and scratch cards. a Chicago manufacturer of arcade machines. When the reels stopped. • Demand for Slot Machines Grows The demand for Liberty Bell slot machines was huge. Fey could not build them fast enough in his small shop. which was used in the Liberty Bell. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 17 . a jackpot was awarded if three of a one kind of symbol lined up. which is regulated by the National Lottery Commission. Other all electronic versions of gambling games followed including ones for dice.

So for example. spread betting profits and losses can be unlimited. The level of the payout depends on the size of the pool and the number of winning participants. or you are absolutely wrong (you horse doesn’t win) and you lose the amount you have placed on the bet. People holding the tickets that match the numbers drawn win prizes. Horse racecourse pool betting is offered exclusively by the Tote. These are sold in newsagents and supermarkets. Raffles Raffles is a game often held to raise money for charity. Scratch Cards Scratch cards are tickets you scratch to find out if you have won a prize. but the more wrong you are the more you can lose – and your loss is not limited to the amount of your stake. you are either absolutely right (your horse wins) and you win money depending on the odds quoted. politics or stock market movements. players ‘pool’ their stakes and the combined sum. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 18 . Pool betting on horse racing. you could win £25 if the goal is scored at the 40th minute of play or lose £25 if it is scored at the 30th minute of play. social welfare and charity organisations as well as for public works projects. the more you can win. less what the operator takes out. Spread Betting Spread betting allows people to bet on sporting events. in which numbered tickets are drawn from a container holding all the numbers sold. With spread betting. if you bet £5 that the first goal will be scored on the 35th minute of play in a football match. which is based on the results of football matches. Unlike more traditional forms of gambling where you only lose the amount of your bet. With ordinary betting. through betting offices and online.Playing the lottery is the easiest form of gambling around as the selling or gaming provider only offers a service to the client. the more right you are. is divided between the winning participants. The most common betting pool in Britain is the football pool. greyhound racing and other sports takes place at racecources and tracks. The lottery proceeds in some parts of the world are used to bail out the struggling sports bodies. The onus is on the service provider not to accept or payout winnings to the underage public. there is no civic responsibility. Pools In pools betting.

can be located anywhere in the world. www. While data about revenues is varied.Horse Racing Wagering on horse racing is an extremely popular form of Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 19 .com. Some of the more exotic gambling options include what are known as proposition bets. Bodog is one of the biggest online gambling operations. However. Types of Gambling Sites Internet gambling sites.betcris. other gambling sites include Nine Sportsbook: www. Although very well organised the Turf Clubs that promote this sport have only a civic responsibility to their clients. 1. allowing gamblers to place wagers on all sorts of games and events from the comfort of their home. and it also offers some of the most interesting proposition bets. it has exploded in a way that few industries ever do. and since then the industry has boomed at such a rate that an estimated 30 million gamblers visited internet gambling sites in July of 2005 alone. from the horses mouth is a term used by some individuals when placing a bet/wager.9 billion in 2006. even conservative estimates have the industry growing from $1 billion in profits in 1997 to a staggering $10. These sites offer all types of gambling games. and can be accessed from anywhere in the world. from traditional card games to lotteries and sports wagering. This phenomena has truly revolutionised and BetCRIS: www. it is no surprise that the new wave in gambling is occurring on the World Wide Web.bodog. Though internet gambling is a relatively recent phenomenon. It is probably the one game of chance that has been responsible for patrons wrong investment (bets placed). which can be found at http://www. the new industry also raises a variety of concerns over how the law ought to properly deal with internet is an example of an internet gambling site. The first online casino began operation in 1995 with an offering of eighteen online games. where you can wager on everything from the winner of American Idol to the likelihood that Jessica Simpson will adopt a child.bodog. Internet Gambling With the expansive growth of the gambling industry and the evolution of technology.

2. How Internet Gambling Works Gamblers wishing to bet online are usually required to set up an account with the gambling website and to make a payment into that account before betting. Payments have traditionally been made using major credit or debit cards, private debit cards (debit cards issued by small, private companies), online payment providers (i.e. Paypal), wire transfers, or e-cash (digital money that is purchased from a provider). However, there have been some recent events that have changed the way online gambling is funded. For one, most major American credit companies now prohibit payments to online gambling services. These policies are mostly self-implemented due to the high risk of fraud and bad debt in the online gaming industry. However, the companies have also had some assistance in forming the policies by New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer, who threatened Citibank with criminal prosecution for knowingly assisting in internet gambling that was prohibited by New York law. Though the charges were dropped after Citibank promised to give $400,000 to counselling services for gambling addicts, the threat of prosecution was enough to force these companies’ hands in banning internet gambling credit After credit card companies banned online gambling credit, gamblers began to use online payment providers such as Paypal with increasing frequency. However, Attorney General Spitzer then went after Paypal with a prosecution similar to the one threatened against Citibank. Though Paypal claimed that it already had a policy against allowing payments to online gambling sites the business was still forced to disgorge profits of $200,000 in a settlement with New York. Despite this apparent crackdown by some American financial institutions, gamblers have still found ways to fund their wagers. For one, online gambling sites can mask the code that attaches to credit card payments to make the payment look like it was for something other than gambling, which would allow consumers to continue to use major credit cards regardless of their policies. However, even more legitimate means of payment exist. For example, once Paypal announced that it would prohibit payments to online gambling sites there were plenty of similar online payment providers that began to offer service to gambling sites to pick up Paypal’s slack.

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In addition, gamblers can always set up accounts at foreign banks that do not prohibit transfers to gambling sites or send an international money order to those sites that accept them. One thing is for sure: as long as internet gambling continues to attract more bettors and more money, companies will find ways for bettors to pay for their bets

Activity 1.2 a) Describe in your own words how internet gambling works. b) Explain how internet gambling payments are controlled.

Activity 1.3 Detail how Slot Machines were started.

Activity 1.4 Explain the difference between pool betting and spread betting. Summary Gamblers and gambling operators can choose from a variety of games. The Games of chance that were highlighted in this section were: • • • • • • • • • • • Bingo Big Six Wheel Craps Roulette Craps/Dice Blackjack Punto Banco Lotteries Horse Racing Gambling Machines Internet Gambling

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Chances of winning Lots of people dream of winning the lottery or getting the ‘perfect’ poker hand, but do you know what the real chances are? If you toss a coin 40 times, the chance you will get heads every time is just under 1 in 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion). Keep on reading to see how your odds of winning in games of chance compare to other events. Event Living to be old enough to receive a 100th birthday telegram from the Queen (or King!) 1 Rolling a 2 in a game of craps Roulette wheel landing on one number you select Winning any prize in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ Being dealt a full house in your first five cards in poker The next person you meet being born on the same day and same year as you 20 million tonne asteroid called Apophis hitting Earth on 13 April 2036 2 Being dealt a royal flush in your first five cards in poker Being struck by lightning next year Winning a share of the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot
1 2

Average chance 1 in 8 1 in 36 1 in 37 1 in 57 1 in 4,165 1 in 25,000 1 in 45,000 1 in 650,000 1 in 10,000,000 1 in 14,000,000

UK adults in their thirties Probability changes as the potential event gets closer

You can influence the likelihood of some of these things happening. For example, living a healthy lifestyle will increase your chances of living to 100. But all gambling works on randomness. Even skill-based gambling is subject to chance – no amount of expertise or skill can influence the cards you are dealt in a game of poker. It’s important to be realistic and not to overestimate your chances. Your chance of winning a share in the National Lottery ‘Lotto’ jackpot with one ticket is one in 14 million. If you spend £1 every week on the Lottery, you would expect to wait about 270,000 years before you win a share of the jackpot! Gambling operators are required to provide customers with information such as the rules, house edge, odds, average return to player, maximum bet level and prize limit.
Source: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 22

authorities can levy fines. students should be able to: • • • Explain the purpose of gambling legislation and the scope of legislations influencing the gambling environment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 23 . as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. for example the State of Nevada is controlled by the Nevada Gaming Commission. Most gambling sections throughout the USA have had input from the State of Nevada as this was the forerunner to most of the legislation in that region. It will focus more specifically on industry codes of practise for responsible gambling. with other acts in place for other forms of gambling. in Singapore casino operators are regulated under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. In the USA gambling providers are regulated under the state authority that they are located in. under the Nevada Gaming Control Act. In enforcing legislation. For example. Learning Outcome After this chapter. which was established in 1959. In the United Kingdom the gambling environment is controlled under the Gambling Act 2005. revoke licences and investigate and prosecute illegal gambling.Topic 2 RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING LEGISLATION Objective This chapter will introduce students to the legislative practises that govern gambling providers. They are also responsible for advising national and local government on gambling-related issues. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. Discuss responsible gambling legislation and exclusion orders Discuss Code of Practices followed by gambling providers. Gambling Legislation Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts.

from where the casinos can be located. to fines that can be incurred. and • containing and controlling the potential of a casino to cause harm to minors. The Act. for the purpose of: • ensuring that the management and operation of a casino is and remains free from criminal influence or exploitation. as set out in the Casino Control Act 2006 is to maintain and administer systems for the licensing. Besides the acts governing casinos and gambling. advertising. Other legislations dealing with gambling related issues are the Betting Act and The Common Gaming Houses Act.g. More specific acts are in place dealing with gambling related issues such as advertising. • ensuring that gaming in a casino is conducted honestly. and fees and duties. In the United Kingdom. gambling tax.In different countries the authorities responsible for enforcing legislation are known under different names e. appeals. the liquor act can specify hours during which alcohol can be provided and whether it could be provided complimentary. non-related acts such as liquor acts and smoking acts also influences the casino operator.1 What are the objectives of governments for controlling gambling operations? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 24 . the gambling service providers are covered by the Gambling Act 2005. covers all aspects of the Gambling industry. and prizes that can be awarded. supervision and control of casinos. vulnerable persons and society at large. inspections. In Singapore the casino gambling environment is governed by the Singapore Casino Control Act. For example. lotteries. Activity 2. in Singapore the authority is known as the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore. in Britain it is called the Gambling Commission and in the USA each state has its own authority. The Objective of the Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore.

a separate board. Responsible Gambling Legislation As this course concentrates on responsible gaming. The National Council of Problem Gambling was established with the objective of ‘working with the community to reduce the impact of problem gambling on individuals. (MCYS) in 2005 as part of Singapore’s national framework to address problem gambling. the sections of the various gaming acts pertaining responsible gaming will be discussed in more detail. In many countries.1 National Council on Problem Gambling Logo The National Council on Problem Gambling (NCPG) was appointed by the Minister for Community Development.Summary Gambling providers in different parts of the world are regulated under a number of laws or acts. Youth and Sports. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 25 . as implemented by the government of the specific country or state. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. Fig 2. National Council on Problem Gambling Singapore In Singapore the introduction of the Casino Control Act 2006 brought about the introduction of a national council to provide services for problem gambling. Authorities are established to issue licences to gambling operators and to enforce gambling legislation. families and society’. council.

• To decide on funding applications for preventive and rehabilitative programmes. social work. The exclusion process is one of the main features of this section of the act. psychiatry and psychology. Definitions In this Part. The Council’s main roles are: • To provide advice and feedback to the MCYS on public education programmes to promote public awareness on problem gambling. counselling and rehabilitative programmes. • To decide on the applications for exclusion of persons from casinos. unless the context otherwise requires: • "application" means an application for a family exclusion order. Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 PART X . The Council has identified key areas of focus and formed 6 subcommittees: • Sub-committee on Public Communications • Sub-committee on Public Consultation • Sub-committee on Youth • Sub-committee on Responsible Gambling • Sub-committee on Research • Sub-committee on Services MCYS provides secretariat support to the Council and its various sub-committees. • "chairman" means the chairman of the Council.The Council is independent and comprises 19 members with expertise and experience in public communications. • To assess and advise the Government on the effectiveness of treatment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 26 . counselling and rehabilitative services.NATIONAL COUNCIL ON PROBLEM GAMBLING The following section highlights the responsibility of the National Council on Problem Gambling as stipulated in the Singapore Control Act 2006. • "Committee" means any Committee of Assessors for the time being constituted under section 157 (1).

Where a family member is below 21 years. "family exclusion order" means a family exclusion order made under section 162. including an adoptive parent and a step-parent. • the Committee is satisfied that the making of the order is appropriate in the circumstances. "respondent" means a person against whom a family exclusion order or exclusion order is sought or made. Grounds for Making Family Exclusion Order When an application for family exclusion is made to the Committee. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 27 . Application for Family Exclusion Order A written application for a family exclusion order may be submitted to the Council by a family member of the respondent. the Committee may make a family exclusion order against a respondent if: • there is a reasonable apprehension that the respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling. means: (a) a spouse of the respondent. if the person is at least 16 years of age. "panel" means the panel of assessors appointed under section 157 (2). including an adopted child and a step-child. "Minister" means the Minister for Community Development. Youth and Sports. the family member must seek permission from the Council. the application may be made on his behalf by any family member or relative as approved by the Council or by any person appointed by the Minister. guardian or other family may apply on his behalf. and (d) a sibling of the respondent. (c) a parent of the respondent. "family member”. (b) a child of the respondent. in relation to a respondent. including an adoptive sibling.• • • • • • "exclusion order" means an exclusion order made under section 165. Alternatively a parent. Where a person is unable to make an application (whether by reason of physical or mental infirmity or for any other reason). a step-sibling and a half-sibling.

• there is reason to believe that the respondent’s irresponsible gambling behaviour will continue or recur. Terms of Family Exclusion Order A family exclusion order must specify the period during which it is in force. Applications will then be investigated and the Committee might either confirm the exclusion order or dismiss the application. • bar the respondent from entering or remaining. The Committee might also take into accounts events that have taken place outside of Singapore. rehabilitation or special education or any combination of these. and the Committee is satisfied that it would be in the best interests of the respondent and his family members to make the order. • require a casino operator to close any deposit account of the respondent with the casino. The Council must be informed of whichever decision was reached with a brief state for reasons for approval or dismissal.• • the respondent has been given an opportunity to object to the application. or taking part in any gaming on any casino premises. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 28 . A family exclusion order may do one or more of the following: • refer the respondent to participate in a program of counselling. and • has done so repeatedly over a period of not less than 3 months or in a particularly irresponsible manner over a lesser period. A respondent is to be regarded as having caused serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the respondent: • has engaged in gambling activities irresponsibly having regard to the needs and welfare of the respondent’s family members. The Committee may decide that there is a reasonable apprehension that a respondent may cause serious harm to family members because of his gambling if the Committee is satisfied that: • the respondent has caused such harm prior to the complaint. • require the respondent to close any deposit account in a casino.

The same is applicable when an order is amended or is varied. and a copy of every variation or revocation of such order must be provided by the Council to: • the applicant. or • has a poor credit record. and • every casino operator. The service of family exclusion order or exclusion order A family exclusion order or exclusion order made by a Committee must be served on the respondent and is not binding on the person named in the order until it has been so served. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. • the Commissioner of Police. • has a bankruptcy application filed against him or is an undischarged bankrupt. on its own motion. Variation or revocation of family exclusion order or exclusion order by Council The Council may confirm. if any. • the Authority. An exclusion order made by the committee will bar the person from any casino premises for as long as any of the above mentioned criteria is applicable.Exclusions Orders made by the Committee A Committee may. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied.e. by written order make an exclusion order against a person if it comes to the attention of the Committee that the person: • is on any social assistance programme funded by the Government or any statutory body. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 29 . i. it is only binding once served to the respondent. A copy of every family exclusion order or exclusion order.

the proceedings of a Committee shall be secret. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 30 . or • any officer of the Authority. Activity 2. a separate board. In the UK. In the USA. Code of Practice A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. • any member or officer of the Council. the National Council on Problem Gambling has this responsibility. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. Summary In many countries. One of their main responsibilities is to deal with exclusion orders. b) Explain the rule governing the upliftment of an exclusion order and the consequences should this not be adhered to. In Singapore. committee or commission is established to be a watchdog over responsible gambling and problem gambling issues. other than: • the Minister.Secrecy Except as provided under the above mentioned section. No member of a Committee shall disclose or divulge to any person. c) Explain the term secrecy. council. but does not have the force of law.2 a) Explain the various forms of exclusion that are covered in the Singapore Casino Control Act. any matter which has arisen at any proceedings of the Committee unless he is expressly authorised to do so by the Minister.

compliance and managing directors. to education about the risks of gambling and to treatment of problem gamblers. Ensure there is sufficient information so players can understand the games and odds they face. • Ensure that gambling is conducted in a fair and open way. which include how they contribute to research. such as the finance. Ensure that key staff. Make information about responsible gambling and help available to problem gamblers accessible on the licensees’ website home and log-in pages. under the regulatory framework of the Gambling Act 2005. and • Protect children and vulnerable people from being harmed and exploited by gambling. the Gambling Commission regulates gambling in the public interest. Train their staff about problem gambling and about how to interact with customers who may be affected. The licencing objectives are to: • Keep crime out of gambling. These include requiring licensees (where relevant) to: • Put into effect policies and procedures to promote socially responsible gambling. including access to an independent element of dispute resolution where necessary. IT. Have tight controls on incentives for customers to gamble. Three licencing objectives were set and the legislation and work of the commission is directed to meet these objectives. hold personal licences from the Commission. Comply with requirements to prevent money laundering. record and report complaints and disputes. 31 • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . marketing. License Conditions and Codes To secure the three licensing objectives. including arrangements for self-exclusion. the Commission has developed licence conditions and codes of practice that govern how gambling facilities are provided and managed. Have systems in place to manage. Implement a code of practice on door supervision to keep children out of casinos.The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) In the UK. Provide problem gambling information in other languages if the operator advertises in them. Follow procedures to prevent underage gambling.

• states the individual’s date of birth. and monitor the effectiveness of these. Code of Practice for Gambling Operators 1. a driving licence (including a provisional licence) with photocard. These policies should include measures for: • Combating problem gambling Licensees’ policies and procedures for socially responsible gambling must include a commitment to contribute to research into the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. Citizencard. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 32 . the different gambling providers are also instructed by law to put into practice protection policies for both Social Responsibility Provisions and Underage Gambling. the person should not be allowed access to gambling facilities.Besides meeting the licencing conditions described above. Licensees must only accept identification which: • contains a photograph from which the individual can be identified. but cannot provide identification. The Commission considers acceptable forms of identification to include any identification carrying the PASS logo (e. They further must demonstrate a commitment to public education of the risk of gambling and how to gamble safely. Validate and the Government’s own Connexions card). • Access to gambling by children and young persons All licensees must have and put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. Protection of children and other vulnerable persons Licensees must have and put into effect policies intended to promote socially responsible gambling. They should check the age of apparently underage customers. and • is legible and has no visible signs of tampering or reproduction. and the identification and treatment of problem gamblers.g. Where a person appears to be underage. and a passport. • is valid.

service should be refused in any circumstances where any adult is accompanied by a child or young person. This should include appropriate training which must cover the legal requirements on returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers. Lottery licensees have the same responsibilities to prevent underage gambling. Licensees must not permit children or young people to gamble in the adults-only areas of premises to which they have access. In premises restricted to adults. Such procedures must include: • warning potential customers that underage gambling is an offence. • requiring customers to affirm that they are of legal age. Lottery licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all those engaged in the promotion of lotteries understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. licensees must pay particular attention to the procedures they use at the entrance to the premises to check customers’ ages.Licensees must not deliberately provide facilities for gambling in such a way as to appeal particularly to children or young people. • regularly reviewing their age verification systems and implementing all reasonable improvements that may be made as technology advances and as information improves. for example by reflecting or being associated with youth culture. Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all staff understand their responsibilities for preventing underage gambling. they have to check the age of apparently underage entrants to the pool and take action when there are unlawful attempts to enter the pool. If there is a ‘no under-18s’ premises policy. Where football pool or other pool competition entries or payments are collected door to door by the pool betting licensee or the licensee’s authorised agent. Remote licensees have to put into effect policies and procedures designed to prevent underage gambling. The most difficult area to control underage gambling is the remote gambling sector (internet gambling). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 33 . returning stakes and not paying prizes to underage customers.

The information must be prominent. and appropriate to the size and layout of the premises.g. toilets and near to exit doors). in the case of any non-UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. • Information on how to gamble responsibly and help for problem gamblers Licensees must make information readily available to their customers on how to gamble responsibly and how to access information about and help in respect of problem gambling. or leaflets that may be collected discreetly and taken away. in the case of any UK resident customer who registers to gamble and deposits money using a debit card or any other type of electronic payment method other than a credit card. In particular customer services staff must be appropriately trained in the use of secondary forms of identification when initial verification procedures fail to prove that an individual is of legal age. in other areas (e. unless the licensee has established that a third party has satisfactorily carried out age verification. enabling their gambling websites to permit filtering software to be used by adults (such as parents or within schools) in order to restrict access to relevant pages of those sites. the licensee should carry out their own verification and credit check and not permit the customer to withdraw any winnings from their account until age verification has been satisfactorily completed. licensees should also take all reasonable steps to verify the customer’s age. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 34 . Licensees must take all reasonable steps to ensure that this information is readily accessible including in locations which enable the customer to obtain it discreetly. For gambling premises this should include: • information in the gambling area.• • • • ensuring that relevant staff are properly trained in the use of their age verification procedures. near gaming machines and near to where ATMs are located • posters.

The information must cover where relevant: • the availability of measures that are accessible to help an individual monitor or control their gambling, such as to restrict the duration of a gambling session or the amount of money they can spend; • the availability of timers or any other forms of reminders or ‘reality checks’ that may be available; • self-exclusion options; and • information about the availability of further help or advice. The information must be directed to all customers who wish to enjoy gambling as entertainment and not be targeted only at those the operator perceives to be ‘problem gamblers’. Licensees who market their services in foreign languages should make responsible gambling information, player’s guides to any games as well as contractual terms available in those languages. • Customer Interaction Licensees must implement policies and procedures for customer interaction where they have concerns that a customer’s behaviour may indicate problem gambling. The policies must include: • identification of the appropriate level of management who may initiate customer interaction and the procedures for doing so; • the types of behaviour that will be logged/reported to the appropriate level of staff and which may trigger customer interaction at an appropriate moment; • the circumstances in which consideration should be given to refusing service to customers and/or barring them from the operator’s gambling premises; and • training for all staff on their respective responsibilities, in particular so that they know who is designated to deal with problem gambling issues. But such policies and procedures should be consistent with, and implemented with due regard to, licensees’ duties in respect of the health and safety of their staff. • Self-exclusion Licensees must put in place procedures for self-exclusion and take all reasonable steps to refuse service or to otherwise prevent an individual who has entered a self-exclusion agreement from participating in gambling.
Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 35

Licensees must take steps to remove the name and details of a selfexcluded individual from any marketing databases used by the company or group (or otherwise flag that person as an individual to whom marketing material must not be sent), within two days of receiving the completed self-exclusion notification. All reasonable steps should be taken to prevent any marketing material being sent to a self-excluded customer as soon as practicable. Licensees must close any customer accounts of an individual who has entered a self exclusion agreement and return any funds held in the customer account. It is not sufficient merely to prevent an individual from withdrawing funds from their customer account whilst still accepting wagers from them. Where the giving of credit is permitted, the licensee may retain details of the amount owed to them by the individual, although the account must not be active. Licensees must implement procedures designed to ensure that an individual who has self-excluded cannot gain access to gambling; and which include: • a register of those excluded with appropriate records (name, address, other details, and any membership or account details that may be held by the operator); • photo identification (where available and in particular where enforcement of the system may depend on photographic ID), and a signature • staff training to ensure that staff are able to enforce the systems; and the removal of those persons found in the gambling area or attempting to gamble from the premises. Self-exclusion procedures should require individuals to take positive action in order to self-exclude. This can be a signature on a selfexclusion form. Wherever practicable, individuals should be able to self-exclude without having to enter gambling premises. Before an individual self-excludes, licensees should provide or make available sufficient information about what the consequences of self-exclusion are.

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Licensees should take all reasonable steps to extend the selfexclusion to premises of the same type owned by the operator in the customer’s local area. In setting the bounds of that area licensees may take into account the customer’s address (if known to them), anything else known to them about the distance the customer ordinarily travels to gamble and any specific request the customer may make. Licensees should encourage the customer to consider extending their self exclusion to other licensees’ gambling premises in the customer’s local area. Customers should be given the opportunity to discuss self-exclusion in private, where possible. Licensees should take all reasonable steps to ensure that: • the self-exclusion period is a minimum of six months and give customers the option of extending this to a total of at least five years; • a customer who has decided to enter a self-exclusion agreement is given the opportunity to so do immediately without any cooling-off period. However, if the customer wishes to consider the self-exclusion further (for example to discuss with problem gambling groups) the customer may return at a later date to enter into self-exclusion; • at the end of the period chosen by the customer (and at least six months later), maintain the self-exclusion in place, unless the customer takes positive action in order to gamble again. No marketing material may be sent to the individual unless the individual has taken positive action in order to gamble again, and has agreed to accept such material; and • where a customer chooses not to renew, and makes a positive request to begin gambling again, give the customer one day to cool off before being allowed access to gambling facilities. The contact must be made via telephone or in person. • Employment of children and young persons Persons under the age of 16 are considered as children while those 16 or 17 years of age are considered as young persons. Licensees who employ children and young persons must be aware that it is an offence to employ children and young persons to provide facilities for gambling. Children and young persons should not be employed in areas where gambling facilities are provided.
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and make available for gambling. • Money lending between customers Licensees should take steps to prevent systematic or organised money lending between customers on their premises. Particular care should be taken to ensure that there are appropriate arrangements in place to cover any cases where it appears that the lending may be commercial in nature or may involve money laundering. Credit limits must be set for each customer. and ensure that information about an offer of credit includes a risk warning of what may happen in the event of default. pit bosses and croupiers in order to prevent overcrowding or jostling of players. and • a player’s guide to the rules of any equal chance games which are made available. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 38 . In all cases where the operator encounters systematic or organised money lending. This includes the display of rules about gaming including: • the rules of each type of casino game available to be played. • a player’s guide to the house edge. the requirements in respect of reporting suspicious transactions must be followed.• Provision of credit by licensees and the use of credit cards Licensees who choose to accept credit cards must accept payment by credit card for gambling only where that payment is made to a customer account. Licensees must take reasonable steps to ensure that offers of credit are not sent to vulnerable persons. ‘Fair and Open’ Provisions Licensees must be able to provide evidence to the Commission. In the latter case. Casino licensees must have policies and procedures in place to ensure that proper supervision of gambling at tables is carried out by supervisors. including those who have self-excluded from gambling. Staff should be trained in procedures should they spot such activity. Licence conditions related to the layout of the premises should be taken into account. a report should be made to the Commission. 2. funds deposited via credit card only after the card issuer has approved the transaction. Those involved in organised or systematic money lending should be excluded from the premises. showing that their terms are not unfair.

Complaints and Disputes Licensees must put in place a written procedure for handling customer complaints and disputes. 3. Where disputes are not resolved to the customer’s satisfaction. All reasonable steps should be taken to ensure that staff involved in the provision of facilities for gambling are made aware of advice on socially responsible gambling and where to get confidential advice should their gambling become hard to control. 4. the licensee should refer the customers to an independent third party.There are specific conditions applicable to betting intermediaries and other betting licensees. or could be. services or other advantages must be operated in such a way that conditions are clearly set out and available to customers. Licensees must inform customers of the names and status of the person to contact about their complaint and provide them with a copy of the complaint procedures upon request. betting information and payout information available. Gambling Licensees’ Staff Licensees must put policies and procedures in place to manage relationships between staff and customers. based on the principle that staff should not engage in any conduct which is. or dependent on the amount the customer spends on gambling within a pre-determined length of time If licensees offer customers free or discounted alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises they must not do so as a form of enticement. goods. Marketing Reward schemes and incentives under which the customer may receive money. In all cases. Neither the receipt nor the value or amount of benefit should be dependent on the customer gambling for a pre-determined length of time or with a pre-determined frequency. Licensees must keep a record of all complaints that are not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedures. licensees must make rules. 5. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 39 . In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities and a ‘dispute’ is a complaint that is not resolved at the first stage of complaints procedures or relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. likely to prejudice the licensing objectives in the discharge of their duties.

Activity 2. Pledge to the employees • AGA members will educate new employees on responsible gaming.4 a) Define the term ‘house edge’. the gambling providers have established the American Gaming Association. This code also covers the commitment the members to continue support for research initiatives and public awareness surrounding responsible gaming and underage gambling.3 What do you understand under customer interaction and why is it important that there are policies in place to facilitate customer interaction? Activity 2. • AGA members will implement communications programs for employees to improve understanding of responsible gaming and related policies and procedures. The document covers extensively the various responsible gambling processes within the contributing states. b) Give an example of unfair gambling. The American Gaming Association Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming In the United States of America. The following Code of Conduct details how they fulfill this pledge. The American Gaming Association (AGA) and its members pledge to their employees and patrons is to make responsible gaming an integral part of the daily operations across the United States. from employee assistance and training to alcohol service. • AGA casino companies will train gaming floor employees on responsible gaming and provide periodic refresher training. 1. advertising and marketing. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 40 . This pledge encompasses all aspects of the business. which are representative as a governing body for the trade (Twenty states that have licensed operations within them have contributed to the formation of this document).

• AGA members will display in gaming areas and at ATMs signage that can be easily read bearing a toll-free help-line number. To Prevent Underage Gambling and Unattended Minors in Casinos • AGA casino companies will make diligent efforts to prevent underage individuals from loitering in the gaming area of a casino. Companies will make copies of these brochures available to employees. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 41 . 2. Pledge to the clientele/patrons To Promote Responsible Gaming • AGA members will make available brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. • AGA members will make available on their Web sites information describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. each AGA casino company shall make reasonable efforts to honor a written request from any person that it not knowingly grant that person access to gaming activities at one or more of its facilities. These will be available and visible in gaming areas and at ATMs. without a request from the patron. AGA members will post responsible gaming awareness signage bearing a toll-free help-line number at various locations where employees congregate.• • AGA members will distribute to new employees brochures describing responsible gaming and where to find assistance. • AGA casino companies will communicate the legal age to gamble through appropriate signage and/or brochures. • AGA members will make available to patrons and employees information generally explaining the probabilities of winning or losing at the various games offered by the casino. • Each AGA casino company will provide opportunities for patrons to request in writing that they not be sent promotional mailings and for revocation of their privileges for specific casino services such as: o Casino-issued markers o Player club/card privileges o On-site check-cashing In addition. • AGA casino companies reserve the right to exclude a patron from gaming.

For the purposes of this code. billboard and Internet promotions. If a child appears to be unsupervised or in violation of local curfews and other laws. o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a visibly intoxicated patron. security personnel will contact an appropriate third party. o Strictly comply with all state and federal standards to make no false or misleading claims. o Reflect generally accepted contemporary standards of good taste. and the purchase and consumption of alcohol and tobacco by minors. print. advertising and marketing include radio and television ads broadcast off the premises. such as the police department or department of youth services. If efforts are unsuccessful. and will provide periodic refresher training to those employees. direct mail. To Serve Alcoholic Beverages Responsibly • AGA casino companies will observe a responsible beverage service policy including the following elements: o Casinos will not knowingly serve alcoholic beverages to a minor. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 42 . and release the unattended child to their care. o Casinos will make a diligent effort not to permit gaming by a visibly intoxicated patron. • Casino advertising and marketing will: o Contain a responsible gaming message and/or a toll-free help-line number where practical. security or appropriate personnel will be contacted and remain with the child while reasonable steps are taken to locate the parent or responsible adult on property or by telephone. • AGA casino companies will train appropriate casino employees in the company's responsible alcoholic beverage service policy.• • Employees working in relevant areas will receive training in appropriate procedures for dealing with unattended children. To Advertise Responsibly This code applies to the advertising and marketing of casino gaming by AGA member companies. It does not pertain to advertising and marketing that is primarily of hotels. underage gambling. restaurants and entertainment that are often associated with or operated or promoted by casinos.

• Casino advertising and marketing materials will not: Contain cartoon figures. • AGA members will use this research to identify the best practices for casinos to follow to promote responsible gaming. employees and policy-makers. To Provide Oversight and Review • One year following the adoption of this Code of Conduct each AGA member company will implement the code and begin conducting annual reviews of its compliance with this code. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 43 . or in close proximity to. o Feature current collegiate athletes. o 3. comics or other youth features. which is the leading source of science-based research and information on gambling and health. o Imply or suggest any illegal activity of any kind. to the extent controlled by the AGA member. celebrity/entertainer endorsements and/or language designed to appeal specifically to children and minors. Pledge to the public To Continue Funding Research • AGA members will continue to provide funding for the National Center for Responsible Gaming. o Be placed in media where most of the audience is reasonably expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. o Be placed in media specifically oriented to children and/or minors. o Contain claims or representations that gaming activity will guarantee an individual's social. o Feature anyone who is or appears to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity. financial or personal success. symbols. • AGA members will continue to develop a dialogue surrounding scientific research on gambling and health to communicate to and educate patrons. o Appear adjacent to. o Be placed at any venue where most of the audience is normally expected to be below the legal age to participate in gaming activity.

and Preventing money lending. • The prevention of underage gambling and unattended minors in casinos. The code of conduct further provides guidelines on fair and open gambling. dealing with complaints and disputes and staff issues. Providing information on responsible gambling and help for problem gamblers.5 Explain the difference between an Act and a Code of Practice. and • Reviewing of compliance with the code. Providing opportunities for self-exclusion Controlling credit given to customers. Summary A Code of Practice is a technical document setting forth standards of operations. marketing ethics. The Codes of Practice covers aspects to protect children and other vulnerable persons by: • • • • • • • Combating problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 44 . The AGA’s Code of Conduct is set forth in the form of a pledge to employees. Providing appropriate customer interaction.Activity 2. but does not have the force of law. • The promotion of responsible gaming practices. training and communication for employees. • Responsible advertising. It covers aspects such as: • Education. the American Gaming Association set forth Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming. In the UK. In the USA. Not providing access to gambling to children and yong persons. clientele and the public. • Funding for research. the Gambling Commission has set a Code of Practice for gambling operators with guidelines to operate according to the law and with social responsibility. The British Gambling Commission Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) set forth specific licencing conditions as well as codes of practice for licensees.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 45 . where today up to 50% of revenue can be generated from non-gambling activities such as food and beverage and entertainment. Often. others have a nightclub-like environment. Most popular casinos also offer their guests world-class dining facilities. designed to provide constant excitement. Gambling facilities are often glamorous environments where clients can get transported to fantasy worlds. It will highlight the effect that the environment has on the clients’ behaviour. most gambling facilities also rely on an array of comfortable. Although the unique excitement of gambling is often the strongest draw.Topic 3 GAMBLING ENVIRONMENT FEATURES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the features found in a casino gambling environment. casinos are co-located with luxurious hotels. inviting hospitality amenities to attract and retain loyal guests. Previously. Learning outcome: After studying this chapter. Introduction to the Casino Gambling Environment Casinos are centres of entertainment. up to 90% of casino revenue came from gambling activities. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Describe a typical casino layout Describe additional facilities available in the casinos supporting gambling operations Describe the various forms of signage found in casinos Describe typical casino lighting Describe the placement of clocks within the casino Discuss the availability of ATM within the casino complex Discuss the availability of promotional materials within the casino. for example how it entice them to gamble and lose track of time.

if a casino has a pathway that runs through it without diverting a customer into the gambling areas.Many studies have been done on the relationship between built environments and behaviour. Where the casino attracts different types of clients. The movement of staff and clients should be considered and separated where necessary. acoustic properties and supporting facilities. while another store might be designed to keep customers in the store for as long as possible. Shopping malls and individual stores are designed to influence the way people spend their time. For example. to get customers to come into the casino. and to keep them there for as long as possible. to entertain them once they are in. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. intimate settings for their gambling rather than open spacious areas. Thus.e. e. Designers of casinos face similar issues. light levels. the space or perception of space. the customer may never step off the path and engage in the action. casinos that look empty discourage play. with products placed strategically to entice customers to buy more item. The phrase built environment refers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity. and customers prefer small. if a potential customer can see the entire casino from the entrance. Casino Layout Casinos must be planned as functional and attractive spaces. i. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 46 . signs.g. there is little mystery to set out and explore it on foot. casinos are designed to maximise revenue earning potential. factors making up the casino environment include the layout of the casino. the high rollers will usually be separated from other gamblers. in some outlets items might be arranged in a way to maximize customer throughput. Furthermore. Architects and interior designers of public spaces have to consider the way their designs will influences people.

1 An overhead floor plan of a casino with supporting facilities Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 47 .Fig 3.

In the casinos of the past, table games were king. Not only were table games the most popular, but they were also the most profitable. On the Las Vegas Strip, where table games once ruled, slots now dominate. Nearly 50% of the total casino win comes from slots. State-wide in Nevada, slots generate over 67% of the total casino win. The comparison is even more dramatic if you were to look at the departmental profits. In the early days of gaming, slots were merely a diversion and were usually placed around the perimeter of the casino. These machines were all pretty much the same: three-reel mechanical slots. With the exception of the cabinetry, denomination, and brand name, the workings of the ‘one-armed bandits’ were essentially the same. You inserted a coin, pulled the handle, and awaited the outcome as mechanical reels spun and clicked into position. General placement deals with where the slot banks and coin booths will be placed. Slot banks refer to groupings of slot machines, whereas coin booths and slot carousels are areas on the casino floor where players can purchase coins and tokens for use in the slot machines. In considering general placement, each slot cabinet that will hold a slot machine must be viewed as an empty box. These ‘empty boxes’ can be used to create traffic patterns or, conversely, to impede traffic patterns. The overriding consideration is to place the machines where the maximum number will be viewed by slot players. Enticements such as the showroom, bingo parlour, keno parlour, casino bars, race and sports books, and restaurants create traffic. These enticements (sometimes called anchors) influence slot placement. For example, slot machines should be placed at the entrance and exit of the bingo parlour or showroom in such a manner that customers exiting will be exposed to the maximum number of machines. Generally, slot aisles are between 5½ and 7 feet (1.6 to 2 meter) in width. Aisles that are too narrow cramp the customer and may have a negative impact on profit maximisation. The extent of seating the slot manager decides to make available will determine the aisle width necessary. Seating in the modern casino is crucial to the success of a slot operation. In Atlantic City, regulations require all aisles to be at least 7 feet wide and only fixed seating can be provided. This fixed seating rule results from concerns that movable seats could impair the customer from exiting in the event of a fire.
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Specific placement deals with placement of the specific models and coin denominations. There are several general philosophies that influence specific slot placement: • • Low hold (loose) machines should be placed in busy walkways to create an atmosphere of activity. The most popular machines should be placed near entrances where they can easily be seen by someone trying to decide whether or not to enter the casino. High hit frequency machines located around the casino pit area will create an atmosphere of slot activity. High earners and test machines should be placed in heavy traffic areas. Gimmick machines (machines in which the top award is a prize like a new car or a trip around the world) should be placed near entrances and in high traffic areas. Loose machines placed next doorways or toilets or in close proximity to the street.

• • •

These are only general philosophies governing slot placement. In application, the slot manager will continue to modify the slot floor configuration to best attract and retain customers through the use of available slot performance data. Traffic flow is kept in mind when designing casinos floor layout. Possible anchors are placed in prominent positions around the casino entrances. (Car displays, attraction machines and large jackpot style machines). Visibility and accessibility of the slots floor have been found to improve the overall performance of the casino. There have been many tried and tested variations in the gambling environment that improve the occupancy rates and increase overall capacity.

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Fig 3.2 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

Although the design depicted in figure 3.2 may appear regimented or rather uninteresting, it is important to note that adaptations such as winding pathways and generous use of pods on the borders of the slot areas are easily accomplished. Adaptations such as these maintain the basic design, while further improving the visibility and accessibility of interior units. A careful review of the environmental psychology literature would yield many beneficial modifications to improve the ambience and functionality of any slot floor.

Fig 3.3 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park, USA

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This is contrary to the responsible gambling part of an operator’s portfolio as this also plays an essential role in a client’s spending extra money within the environment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 51 . Summary The positioning of machines is critical to the gaming operator as he can entice the clientele into the casino area with relative ease. Even smaller casino properties have a range of supporting facilities to attract clients and to increase revenue.4 Picture from the Interior of the Casino at Pompano Park. Facilities Resort style casinos are popular family destinations with facilities to entertain clients for days.Fig 3.1 Explain in your own words what you understand by the term ‘enticement’. USA Activity 3.

theatres. A very important key element to all successful casinos is the clever installation of various forms of signage. Activity 3. Pilannesburg. Packages are offered that include access to all of the facilities. allowing clients to return to gaming activities as soon as possible. a manmade ocean. Bars can be found on the casino floor as well as in adjacent areas. At Sun City. This is all offered to the discerning outdoor lover to entice him into spending his weekend away with his family.2 Look at any of the mega casino resorts around the world. It generates additional income for the property and keeps guests at destinations for longer. These include water sports for the kids including ‘Valley of Waves’. Signage Although the gaming provider has a certain set of instructions. games arcades and theme parks. South Africa. Fast food outlets offer fast service. Fine dining restaurants are available for those who prefer. These include sports facilities. attracting guests to stay at the resort for longer. they use very discreet types of subterfuge or enticement in order to make the client feel at home within the gaming areas. How do supporting facilities influence gambling patterns? Summary Supporting facilities are provided to attract and entertain clients. plus a discount structure offered as a bonus at a hotel at the resort. the so-called ‘Africa’s Kingdom of Pleasure’ there are various facilities to encompass the guests overall pleasure. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 52 . shops. Numerous entertainment venues can be found in resort style casinos. and list the various facilities other than gambling facilities offered by the casinos.Food and beverage outlets are important features in casinos.

these types of signs are used to promote the names or machine reel content that is being used below the sign (See Fig 3. Although this show of the value’s of the increment. the term overhead signage is used mainly above a bank of machines. Progressive Signage Progressives are machines in which the top jackpot continuously increases until won. Most forms of signage are used to either lure the client into the facility or attract customers to specific areas of the gaming floor. in some cases patrons who visit regularly will always stake an amount into the progressive bank of machines. The amount will be displayed in an attractive neon or media display. This has been used to successfully attract many visitors into the casinos around the world.The origination of signage came from Ray ‘Pappy’ Smith in the early 50’s whereby he had an idea to improve the visibility of the casino industry. Fig 3. 1. Overhead Signage Although as the name implies. Although the casino does pay for the right to use this type of display they are trying to promote a brand of game type. Other signs have to be displayed as a commitment to providing responsible gambling service. including a progressive amount. the general incremental rate is around 1% of the value that is turned over in the machines.5). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 53 .6.5 Overhead Signage of the Adams Family 2.). The lure of this progressive value to some clients is phenomenal. People will se an amount of money displayed over a group of slot machines (See Fig 3.

7 Mikhon in machine 4. this display is a sign that is made up from three different coloured LED’s and is commonly used to display the amount of an individual machines progressive.8 TFT Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 54 . In Machine Signage The display in the paytable of the machine is called a ‘Mikohn’ in machine Display. vibrant colour and an improved response time for multimedia applications.Fig 3. The reason behind this form of signage is that it delivers up to date information to members of the public at live feeds. These types of signs are also used for advertising current attractions around the casino area. These displays or signs are used on the ends of the table games or live gaming area to show the clientele the last number or current number that has been rolled on roulette. Figure 3.6 Progressive Signage 3. It has the ability to attract one’s eye while walking the floor. TFT Signage TFT stands for thin-film transistor technology. Figure 3. A TFT monitor delivers crisp text.

External Signage The use of this signage is the pride of any establishment.10 External Overhead Sign Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 55 . This is used to enable the customers to identify the amount of money or area of the casino floor that they are playing in.5. running lights or neon for striking effect. Denomination or Bank End Signage These types of either polycarbonate or sphere type signs are strategically placed around the casino floor.9 Bank End Sign (A Topper Sign) 6. highlighting the denomination of a bank of machines clearly to the public. Fig 3. These signs are usually well lit and cover the doorway or entrance portal of the casino. Fig 3. It reflects the class of the establishment. External signs often make use of Tivoli.

Should a dispute arise. the different payouts of the game and rules of the game. Right of admission reserved The gambling facility has the right (by Law) to certain restrictions for allowing visitors into the casino. By displaying a ‘right of admission reserved sign’. these rules could be referred to resolve the dispute. This includes the table limits.11 Right of Admission Reserved Sign Fig 3. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 56 . minimum stake. These must be displayed prominently at the table. The casino will have to advise the age restriction as well as any dress code and behaviour patterns required in the facility. Games rules and regulations The gambling provider has a legal obligation to display the rules and regulations governing the games of chance that are on offer in the establishment. In Singapore these will be specific in accordance with the Singapore Control Act 2006. Fig 3. the entrance criteria is clear to clients and can be referred to when it is necessary to refuse entrance to clients who do not meet the criteria. There are many variations of signage around the world covering entrance requirements.7.12 Games rules and regulations for Bingo 8.

around the machines and live gaming area’s as well as the foyer of the casino or slots areas. Responsible Gambling Programme Signage Gambling legislations around the world require that the gambling providers place responsible gambling signage in highly visible areas of the gambling facilities and surrounding areas such as in the toilets. These signs advice clients on options for help as assistance should they have a gambling problem. Fig 3.13 Responsible Gambler awareness sign Summary The different types of signage are very instrumental in enticing the playing customer into the establishment. This signage must include the possible ills of gambling and advice on the various solutions or the counselling lines that are available.9. Types of signage used include: • • • • • • • • • Overhead Signage Progressive Signage In Machine Signage TFT media signs Denomination or Bank end signage External Right of Admission reserved Games rules and regulations Responsible Gambling Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 57 .

Quite often gambling areas are dimly lit. this could be a costly venture for a casino operator who might lose revenue and patronage. Summary Casino environments are often dimly lit with lighting designed to create atmosphere and highlight special features. what time of day or night it is. The lack of natural daylight in casinos contributes to the fact that gamblers might not be aware of passage of time.g. as natural light makes clients aware of passage of time.Casino Lighting Casinos offer dramatic visual environments. Although the most responsible gambling programs would encourage natural lighting in the casino environment. but rather to highlight certain visual elements and to contribute to the atmosphere in the casino. e. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 58 .3 Describe the consequences that providing natural light within the casino would have on the gambling provider. This is not necessarily a ploy to get the clientele into the casino. are being designed with more features allowing natural light to enter gaming areas. New casinos however. Lighting is used to create a mood or enhance a gaming or entertainment activity. Most casinos rely solely on artificial lighting. for example skylights and large windows. although this is not proved. The absence of natural daylight in the casino is drawing much criticism lately. Activity 3. with gaming machines packed into every available space. The layout of the machines and the lighting used in these areas may make it easy for patrons to lose track of time.

Responsible gambling regulations ask gambling providers to provide an opportunity for reality check for patrons.Display of Clocks Casinos often do not display clocks in highly visible places. Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) Throughout various casino environments around the world. Casino employees can wear wrist watches to keep track of shifts and break times. For example. i. This influence the way clients are made aware of time. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 states that a casino operator shall not provide or allow another person to provide any automatic teller machine within the boundaries of the casino premises and that any casino operator who contravenes this regulation shall be liable to disciplinary action. This can contribute to the might contribute to the fact that gamblers might loss track of time.e. This is a minimum standard that is required but does not have any forcible effect under the law. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. for the installation of clocks so that every player in a gaming area is able to see the time. The logic behind this rational is that there should be no concept of time or passage of time for the clientele at all.4 Explain what the term ‘passage of time’ means to you. Summary Clocks are usually not displayed in highly visible places within casinos. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 59 . time is displayed at cashier’s booths and on other electronic signs around the casino. However. Activity 3.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 60 . Furthermore. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. and gives them a chance to think about whether they should really be drawing more money. e. Promotional materials can take the form of a package deal for the hotel or resort.13 Problem Gambling Hotline Activity 3. responsible gambling legislations require responsible gambling signs to be placed at ATM machines as a deterrent to draw more cash. Figure 3. the control authorities have placed rules inhibiting the placement of ATM machines on the casino premises. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor. Where ATM’s are placed outside of the gaming area. the client will have an opportunity for a reality check when leaving the floor.However. or outside the floor areas within other facilities. e.g. The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. room bed and breakfast. some casinos would have ATM’s placed around the floor area.5 What is the rationale of casino legislations for prohibiting the placement of ATM’s within the casino area? Summary Throughout various casino environments around the world.g. a ticket to an exclusive show. The different package deals are put together by the marketing departments to attract crowds to the venue. Promotional Materials Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. or could be for the gambling section only.

one of the most used by Sun International is the Sunscapes voucher. i. For example. Each Sun International Casino has various benefits and offers exclusive to Most Valued Guests that can be enjoyed during your visits. 61 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . Invitations to special Sun International events such as the Nedbank Golf Challenge Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Platinum and Gold cardholders can enjoy the MVG Lounge and Prive privileges. you will be delighted at the benefits you receive. This would offer the client a hotel discount structure for two people over certain periods of time. Most of these offers would be for downtimes in the hotel industry.e. drinks and exciting merchandise. Sun International Benefits and Rewards The more you play. Exclusive accommodation discounts at Sun International’s luxury hotels and resorts Terrific discounts on green fees at Sun International golf courses. off peak periods. Being a Most Valued Guest means more than just recognition and the guarantee of VIP status at Sun International’s casinos and resorts – it also delivers a range of exclusive membership benefits and rewards in exchange for MVG points. Redeem your MVG points for luxurious accommodation. hotels and resorts. where available. Popular promotional materials include gambling vouchers (offer) that one can be redeemed at the casino or slots area. The higher your status. Many casinos offer reward programmes for regular clients in order for them to return time and time again. the more you earn with Sun International. This is to make sure that there is a response from the clients who frequent the establishment.One of the best ploys used by the gambling provider is the correct use of promotional materials. Earn MVG points for play on slots and tables. As you progress from Maroon to Silver to Gold and then to the prestigious Platinum. food. and our MVG Programme demonstrates just how much: • • • • • • • • • Recognition as a Most Valued Guest at all Sun International casinos. the greater your rewards. At Sun International we value your loyalty.

where availability allows it. Platinum 80% midweek 80% weekend Gold 70% midweek 55% weekend Silver 50% midweek 25% weekend Maroon Green Fees discount (for cardholder) Accommodation Discounts (maximum three consecutive nights and subject to availability) Green Fees discount (for cardholder only) Recognition as an MVG in every Sun International Casino Invitations to special Sun International events 80% midweek 80% weekend 50% discount on green fees * 70% midweek 55% weekend 30% discount on green fees * 50% midweek 25% weekend 10% discount on green fees * Green Fees discount (for cardholder) * Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 62 . Call this toll-free number. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. however should family rooms not be available. 0800-11-51-50. sharing.Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room. to secure your accommodation. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations.

THREE FREE nights at Sun City (at a hotel of your choice) FIVE FREE nights at the Royal Swazi Spa FIVE FREE nights at the Wild Coast Sun All Dream Holidays are inclusive of breakfast for 2 people. sharing. one of the most prestigious benefits offered to Platinum Most Valued Guests and it entitles Platinum MVG’s to 3 FREE Holidays at 3 of our exclusive Resort Destinations.Platinum Exciting offers and discounts in your mailbox Earn points for play Free Membership Free entry into all Sun International Casinos MVG Partner Card VIP Parking MVG Lounge and Prive privileges Complimentary beverages whilst playing Sun International’s Prive Magazine mailed to you quarterly Dedicated hotel check-in counter and cash desk facilities – where available. * * * * * * Gold * * * * * * Silver * * * * * * Maroon * * * * * * * * Platinum Dream Holidays The ‘Dream Holiday’ offer. And as long as you hold a valid platinum card this wonderful offer is yours for the taking. This benefit is renewed on an annual basis and is available from 1st March – 28th February. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 63 .

we will accommodate you and your children (under the age of 18) in a family room.5 Provide 2 examples of promotional rewards. The promotion or reward will depend on the value of the clients’ spend over a period of time. however should family rooms not be available. The correct use or utilisation of airconditioning above and around the machines can create a feeling of wellness within the service provider’s area. By doing so they can transform a ‘dead and bleary’ looking casino floor into a tropical paradise. the gambling providers around the globe are now using appropriate environmental features. There are also artificial sounds that are used for advertising purposes. environment. to secure your accommodation. The once bland casino floor is now used to take a client into another domain. where availability allows it.Should you wish to enjoy these benefits with your family. to enhance the player’s attention to a promotional machine. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 64 . fauna and flora at his disposal to create an ambience. Call this toll-free number. Activity 3. tickets to events or restaurant vouchers. Summary Promotional materials are used by the gambling provider to bring clients back to the establishment on a return visit. a second room will be made available at an 80% discount. The service provider will then use machinery. such as a monkey call. on the inside of the building. Creating a Comfortable Environmental In attempting to transform the original casino environment. The use of water features. tumbling through troughs and soothing noises allows one to venture into a dream world not caring about where you are. 0800-11-51-50. The majority of these features are recreated artificially. It might include accommodation offers.

complimentary drinks at the service provider’s expense. but enhancing his overall playing conditions.6 a) Describe the environment that must be created in the casino to make customers comfortable and stimulate interest. in other world over provided. These lighting skills will be used as down lights above the tables. the using of automatic dimmers can give a relaxed atmosphere. although not natural light. b) How does this environment contradict responsible gambling? Summary The utilisation of environmental features has become a challenge for the service provider. Although there is no natural light in the casino environment. The opposite of this is the use of ambient temperatures while playing in the area (22 degrees). These temperatures are also used in the improving of bar sales. cooling features can assist with retaining the client within the casino area. As an example the utilisation of downdrafts within the environment will force the clients to rethink where he is comfortable while playing. The use of correct lighting. in some instance he has exceeded expectations.The correct use of either heating. Activity 3. also instils a sense of well being in the client. room temperature. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 65 . to upward lighting around the slots floor areas.

The types of information that should be available will be discussed as well of the ways in which this information is made available. Introduction to the Provision of Information Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. Having information and understanding the games also contributes to the enjoyment of games participated in.Topic 4 PROCEDURES FOR THE SERVICE OF RESPONSIBLE GAMING – GAMING INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS Objective In this chapter the students will be introduced to the provision of information that should be readily available to the clients. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 66 . Learning outcome After studying this chapter. the student should be able to: • • • • • Describe the range of information that should be displayed as well as available upon request Describe the range of responsible gambling information that should be available Describe the range of information on counselling that should be available Describe the win/loss and probability information that should be available Describe the information on games that should be available. This information will inform clients of the options they have and enable them to make informed and responsible choices.

game rules. It might often be necessary to publish posters and brochures in a variety of languages. odds or returns to player. policies for addressing problem gambling issues relevant to the local community. (See Fig 4. • Self-Exclusion provisions. where appropriate. • The chances of winning. Information must be made available in languages that will be understood by clients. In addition to the above mentioned. The provision of information is based on the proposition that consumers must have access to adequate information at the ‘point of gaming’. and • Advice on counseling services.1) Fig 4. or ‘point of sale’ to enable them to make informed decisions about their participation. there are certain information that are available to clients upon request. These include: • The gambling provider’s Responsible Gambling Practices documentation including. • Identifying problem gambling.Clients often do not have access to sufficient information on probable outcomes from specific gambling activities. • The nature of games.1 Responsible gambling poster printed in 6 languages Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 67 . The regulated gambling providers are expected to offer their patrons accurate and meaningful information that are readily available and in clear language explaining topics such as: • The rules and operations of the games. They may have incorrect and inflated expectations of the rewards to be received from participation in gambling activities. • Gambling-related complaint resolution mechanisms.

as appropriate. Information that should be displayed throughout the establishment includes: • The rules and operations of the games.Summary Gambling legislations throughout the world requires that gambling operators provide clients with sufficient and accurate information. Additional information should be available upon request. • Identifying problem gambling. Gamblers who are aware of the risks. and • Advice on counseling services. Information must be available in languages understood by clients.. Fig 4. This information should be prominently displayed in all gambling areas and near ATM and POS facilities servicing gambling areas. Information about the Potential Risks of Problem Gambling Many gamblers are not aware that they are at risk of developing gambling problems. often choose to ignore the risks. lotteries. Internet or Telephone Sports Bookmakers and Online Gaming Licensees are required to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and. etc. it is important to remind gamblers of the risks they face.1 Responsible Gambling notice found on ATM’s Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 68 . • The chances of winning. Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. whether casinos. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. For this reason. where to get help for problem gambling on their websites.

2 Responsible Gambling advertisement Responsible Gambling Mission Statement Many gambling acts require that a Responsible Gambling Mission Statement is clearly displayed around the gambling provider’s service area. This logo has been advertised at every gambling facility. operators could display the poster and business cards in additional areas of the venue. Although a catchy style of phrase the irresponsible gambler might not take heed to this advice. For example. service forecourt and children’s play area’s. It is also included on their website. One of the well known service providers (Sun International) has the following statement ‘Gamble with your head and not your heart’. Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees have to display their responsible gambling mission statements on their websites. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 69 . local community services may have brochures that advertise their services and these can also be appropriately displayed. Fig 4. for example near the cashier’s booth and standalone change dispensing devices. This is interpreted as a logo on an internet page. In addition. inside both the casino and the surrounding areas such as the hotel lobby. Gambling providers can come out with their own mission statements. The advert in the example (fig 4.There are some additional initiatives that could be implemented by outside investments such as town councils.2) was used in a local boxing gymnasium.

• Tips to gambling within means. a responsible community organisation. venue fliers.: • ‘The XYZ Club. for example. (See Fig 4.Other Methods of Displaying Information The gambling provider could promote their responsible approach within. More interesting and eye catching ways of displaying information can be implemented by engaging professional advertising companies.4 Playing cards with a responsible gambling message and helpline number Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 70 . and as a footnote on letterheads. • Safe transport options. newspaper advertisements. • Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer contact details. The ‘playing cards’ below was developed for the National Responsible Gambling Council.4) Fig 4. e. Gambling provider venues with websites could also incorporate a ‘Responsible Enjoyment’ section including: • Promotion of non-alcohol and low-alcohol drinks. • ‘The XYZ Club – promoting responsible enjoyment. mail outs. • ‘The XYZ Club supports the responsible enjoyment of our facilities.g.

. more individuals will come forth to seek professional help. Information on counselling services available and their contact details must be displayed in full view around the casino. Availability of Counselling ‘It is the Council’s hope that with greater awareness. whether casinos. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 71 . lotteries. Various countries around the world that have gambling interests have 24 hour counselling hotlines available.Activity 4. The examples listed below are just a few of the lines available. to display information about the potential risks associated with gambling and where to get help for problem gambling. etc. and in other gambling facilities such as lottery outlets and gambling websites.1 Describe what a responsible gambling mission statement and give an example of a statement. Summary Gambling legislations around the world requires gambling providers. Most of the hotlines are toll free numbers. and there will be less hesitancy among members of the public to refer family members or friends for professional help.’ – NCPG 2008 In accordance with legislative requirements. stating the name of the organisations whose statement it is.

K. family. advice and practical help in relation to the social impact of gambling in the U. Friendship To Compulsive Gamblers In Singapore the some examples of the counselling facilities are: 1800-X-Gamble Gamblers and their families (18009426253) often have to struggle with financial and debt management problems as well as guilt. 72 Thye Hua Kwan Moral Society and Care Corner Counselling Centre Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 . Thye Hua Kwan 2 pilot agencies the Ministry of Community Development.Examples of the United Kingdom responsible gambling counsellors: Contact details: Gordon House Association 01384241292 accepts individuals who refer themselves. or who are referred by their friends. and to obtain information and assistance on gambling problems can call the helplines. probation. Those who want a listening ear. anxiety and even depression. National Contact Gamblers Anonymous is a Gamblers number: fellowship of men and women Anonymous 02073843040 who have joined together to do (UK) something about their own gambling problem and to help Offering The other compulsive gamblers do Hand Of the same. social or health workers Helpline: GamCare is the national centre 084 56000 133 for information. Moral Society Youth and Sports (MCYS) is Tel: 6337 1201 funding to provide counselling Care Corner and support services to Counselling problem gamblers and their Centre Tel: 6353-1180 families.

• That help lines can be called 24 hours a day. compulsive gambling.g. and • That counsellors are available to provide information and advice. gambling providers must make information on counselling services available to their clients. Casino and other gambling facilities have training programmes in place for staff the equip them to provide information to clients. The various advertisements around the casino or gambling facility must make it clear that: • Help is available. including substance behavioural addictions (e.Contact Number: 6-RECOVER (6732 6837) Community Addictions Management Programme (CAMP) Its aim is to provide treatment for individuals with various addictions. seven days a week to answer questions. sex addiction and internet addiction). Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 73 . Should the client need help in resourcing the counselling services and help lines. This information should be displayed throughout the gambling facility and staff should provide information to clients upon request. the casino staff must be able to assist them. Activity 4.2 a) b) What is meant by counselling? What is the meaning of a toll free help line? Summary In accordance with legislative requirements.

these reports would be named individually. These statistics are kept by the service provider in order that the service provider can establish the net worth of the client. and win/loss report. The availability of a client’s win/loss statistics at a casino is made available through the player rewards database. It could also be used to support an exclusion order when a client has spent excessive amounts on gambling. Clients are afforded verbal access to these statistics whenever they approach the service provider. The probability of loosing in a game of chance is explained to the client when the service provider explains the individual games of chance to the client. the player tracking database could be online. could work out his accumulated casino win/loss figure as a percentage. for example the handle tracked report. The service provider will use the online play reports for the marketing rewards systems that are in place at the gambling provider’s establishment. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 74 . This figure is represented in value to both parties. Depending on the service provider’s status within the industry. the reports would be manually generated. as it could determine the worth of the client to the casino. The gambling provider’s around the globe are required to advise the client as to his win/loss records. If the service provider has a computer generated online system. as well as the amount of visits per month. Although the reward system will not have current hold percentages of the different game types that the client are frequenting. the client. with management’s assistance. rewards redeemed report.Chances of Win/ Loss and Probability In casino parlance. This is the amount that he could loose over a period of time taking into consideration the he would win or loose on different visits at the service provider. The detailed report would be used to determine the client’s play at the casino. These reports will advise the service provider or the client as to his specific play patterns. and the period of time spent playing. a client’s win/loss figures refer to the amount of revenue that the casino has either generated or lost to the client. or if a regular service provider.

Maintenance of any misleading or deceptive matter on any payoff schedule or award card or failure on the part of a licensee to make payment in strict accordance with posted payoff schedules or award cards may be deemed an unsuitable method of operation.5) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 75 . 2. Payoff schedules or award cards must accurately state actual payoffs or awards applicable to the particular game or device and shall not be worded in such manner as to mislead or deceive the public. (See Fig 4.As an example the Las Vegas Gaming requirements are as follows: Nevada Gaming Regulation 5.Publication of Payoffs 1. These are the reward paytables for the staked amount on an individual bet should a winning combination occur. The above example is only a minimum requirement but does cover extensive control on the individual gambling property. Except as specifically provided herein. this simply states that these are minimum internal controls standards required by the gambling provider to meet in order to have the gaming facility/ property fully licensed and operational. These are in the form of the top glass of the slot machine cabinet. a reward card for the game that is represented at the place of stake.012 . In the case of craps. In the case of slot machines. payoff schedules or award cards applicable to every licensed game or slot machine shall be displayed at all times either on the table or machine or in a conspicuous place immediately adjacent thereto. the foregoing requirements will be satisfied if: (a) The player is at all times made aware that payoff schedules or award cards applicable to any game offered for play are readily accessible and will be displayed on the video display screen of the device upon the initiation of a command by the player. The same information is done in a slot machine on the awards paytable. keno and faro games the foregoing requirement will be satisfied if published payoff schedules are maintained in a location readily accessible to players and notice of the location of such schedule is posted on or adjacent to the table. The gambling property will place in view on the live gaming table. or (b) The award cards of any game offered for play are displayed at all times when the device is available for play.

For example. as in the layman’s terms – the house percentage/casino win.5% and 1% when played with perfect basic strategy.50 and $1. blackjack has a house edge of between 0. and in the short term. (This is a long term expectation.00. Fig 4.5 Slot Machine Paytable (Source: http://www. For example. blackjack. anything can happen.slotmachinest rategy. for a one dollar (US$) the average hold percentage is 6.5%. the player can expect to lose between $0.Although suggestions have been made to the service providers to advertise the average machine hold percentages. the gambling trends have shown that the service providers in Las Vegas are using the percentages to entice customers into the service provider’s area.) Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 76 . the house edge is normally expressed as a percentage. This is been used in contradiction to the responsible gambling mission around the globe. With table games like roulette. or Examples of Slot machine game hold percentages that are offered around the world are in line with a denominational trend. which was trying to get the customers to understand the amount that the casino would hold. That means out of every $100 bet. Slot Machine Payout Percentages Various ways of describing the house edge on gambling games are traditionally used.

So a slot machine with a 96% payout percentage has a 4% hold percentage. The payout percentage is basically what percentage of money will get paid out compared to what is wagered. Typical Slot Machine Payouts and Payout Percentages A typical slot machine payout percentage varies according to what area of the country you're in. For example. the slot machine payouts at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City looked something like this: • Quarter slots . in August 2006. This information should be displayed in gambling areas. (Again.97. There are some variables that the machine will have. This number is determined by subtracting the payout percentage from 100%. for example. in proximity to relevant games and on web sites. this is over the long term. as this will determine the hold percentage in the long term. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 77 . A slot machine with a payout percentage of 99. The hold percentage on a slot machine is the same thing as the house edge on a table game. would pay out $99. Slot machine payouts also vary based on what denomination of slot machine you're playing. The only difference between a slot machine hold percentage and the casino (house) hold is the term used to describe it.6% • Dollar slots . the more active a casino destination is.50 for every $100 wagered. such as the amount of handle (spins).But slot machines are normally described according to their payout percentages. Usually.3% • Five dollar slots .5%. the higher the slot machine payouts are.93. In the short term the hold percentages can vary.) Slot Machine Hold Percentages A slot machine's hold percentage is the amount of money the house can expect to win over the long term. And the higher denomination games usually have a higher payout percentage than the lower denomination slot machine games.3% Information on the Odds or Win Rates of Major Prizes The gambling provider must make available easily understood and accurate information on the odds or win rates of major prizes.92.

The most popular games that are explained to clients are blackjack and roulette. the teaching of these games is at best thorough. Although the information is available to inform the client of the risks involved in a game of chance. Summary Casinos should make win/loss and probability information available to clients. clients can have realistic expectations. The odds or win rates of major prizes should also be available to clients. Training centres for clients are generally built in the large service provider’s facility and are manned by staff that are trained to deal with all requests from client’s for information on live gaming. The gambling provider could: • Have odds of winning current major prizes readily available at points of sale (POS) and coin exchanges (Slots Booths or Cashiers). Additional Initiatives Operators may choose to display their full complement of documentation in prominent locations such as welcome centres or information centres. • Alert patrons to the availability of the Guide and promote its use (signage around the gaming area as well as any outside media). • Prominently display the relevant Player Information Guide in accessible areas (hotel lobby). Gambling providers operating loyalty programs could also provide player activity records to the relevant patron upon that person’s request. This will be available from the marketing department. By having this information. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 78 .Internet or telephone sports bookmakers and online gaming licensees must make this information available on their websites. Information on Games Service providers around the world are recognizing the need to instruct the clients in the art of the games of chance. • Ensure adequate supply of these guides (on desktops or around the live gaming areas within easy reach).

To obtain silver. This enables the casino to obtain the necessary information needed to keep records of the amount and time spend in the casino. Clients who sign up for reward programmes are issued with ‘tracking cards’. These figures are recorded in a computerised system and used to form a database of clients that utilize the facility. Casinos can use this information for marketing purposes and reward purposes. silver or maroon) based on their level of spent. gold. The Most Valued Guest System (MVG) used by Sun International is an example of a player rating system. Some large casino groups have group wide ratings systems. The client can have access to his win/loss ratio. Having a player tracking or rating system in place holds advantages for both the gambling provider as well as the client.Summary Many of the large casinos offer to train clients on the rules and play of popular casino games. The maroon card is an entry level card. Player Rating Systems The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. the player has to use the card each time he plays. To accumulate points. the amount he spent. the hours of play and the status of play. The reward system will award clients different colour cards (platinum.250 450 50 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 79 . gold or platinum cards. clients have to accumulate points as follows: Card Tier Platinum Card Gold Card Silver Card Points Required 4.

Points from the various casinos within the group can be combined. To earn 1 point on a table game, the client must turnover R2500 and to earn 1 point on slots, the client must turnover R500. This means that for a client to obtain a platinum card, he would have to turnover at least R10, 625 000 on table games or R2, 125 000 on slots. Summary The major casino operations around the world have participative reward systems in place. Both the client and the gambling provider can obtain valuable information through player reward systems.

Activity 4.3 Explain what the gambling provider could do to have the odds or win rates available for clients.

Activity 4.4 a) b) What is meant by the term House Edge? Give an example of the House Edge of Blackjack.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


This chapter will explain the procedures for handling requests for exclusions and the implementation of exclusion orders. Students will get to appreciate the extent of work and control involved managing and enforcing exclusion orders. Exclusion procedures must be handled in accordance with legislations and is a very important aspect of responsible gambling.

Learning Outcome
After studying this chapter the student should be able to: • • • • • • Define the various types of exclusion orders Discuss the exclusion procedures stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 Explain the procedures for dealing with exclusion requests and implementation of exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with attempts to breach exclusion orders Discuss the procedures for dealing with requests to revoke exclusion orders Explain policies that remote gambling operators should have in place with regards exclusion orders.

Introduction to Exclusion Orders
Responsible Gambling legislations in various countries require gambling providers, including casinos, to make available to their clients and gambling public and to administer exclusion programmes. In Singapore the exclusion process is stipulated in the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 and in the UK, the Gambling Act 2005 provides guidelines.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


Gambling providers should be able to administer a self-exclusion order upon request from clients. Other exclusion orders that might be handled by responsible gambling commissions or councils include family exclusion orders and automatic exclusion orders or third party exclusion orders. Gambling providers must have policies and procedures in place for handling all types of exclusion orders. Responsible gambling councils will provide registered gambling providers (licensees) with details of excluded persons. The gambling providers are the front line institutions which have to deal with the different types of exclusions. This will incorporate the complete process from interviewing clients requesting for exclusion through to advising the responsible gambling departments of people who has been excluded. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. It also prevents them from loosing any more money on gambling. The exclusion clause was regulated as there would be instances that clients would carry on with gambling if there was no forcible help in the law. For a gambling service provider, dealing with exclusions can be stressful and unpleasant. Extreme caution and care has to be taken when dealing with and enforcing exclusion orders. It might be necessary to exclude regular clients with whom the staff have built a relationship. Management and staff should be able to distance themselves from personal feelings should they know clients on a personal basis. Types of Exclusion Orders • Self Exclusion Casino Self Exclusion refers to an approach to reducing gambling problems whereby an individual voluntarily excludes him or herself from a casino. The individual contracts with the casino that they will not enter the casino, and if they do, they can be removed and charged with trespassing.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183


Exclusion orders can be in the form of self exclusion. The objective of ‘exclusion’ is to minimise the harm caused by gamblers to themselves and their families. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 83 . Problem Gambling Councils can exclude a person whose gambling behaviour has caused serious harm to his/her family. upon application by a family member. family exclusion and third party or automatic exclusion. we discussed the procedures followed by the National Council on Problem Gambling when dealing with family exclusions. Recipients of Public Assistance or Special Grants as well as undercharged bankrupts will be excluded from casino premises under Third Party Exclusion. Exclusion Procedures According to the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 In topic 2.1 a) What is a ‘deed of exclusions’? b) Explain what is meant by the term self exclusion. In addition to the procedures discussed previously. Activity 5. Exclusion orders can either assist or force gamblers to rethink their gambling habits. including Singapore. • Third Party Exclusion or Automatic Exclusion Under the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006. c) What is meant by an incapacitated applicant? Summary It is a legal requirement for gambling providers to manage and make available exclusion orders. the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 has specific guidelines for casinos to deal with exclusions.• Family Exclusion In some countries.

whether on the voluntary application of the person or otherwise. as the case may be. Section 122 . (2) An oral exclusion order lapses after 14 days. Section 121 .Different types of gambling providers in different countries around the world. prohibiting the person from entering or remaining on the casino premises. Section 120 . the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of that order. by an exclusion order given to a person orally or in writing. will have similar guidelines to adhere to. regulated under various gambling legislations. (3) A person who has been given an exclusion order under this section may appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. (2) As soon as practicable after making an exclusion order.Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police (1) The Commissioner of Police may. the Authority shall notify each casino operator of that order. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises.Exclusion orders by casino operator (1) A casino operator may give a written exclusion order under this section to a person. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 84 . the casino operator shall notify the Authority and the Council of that order or the revocation of that order. The following sections from the Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 will be examined as an example. by a written exclusion order given to a person. (2) A voluntary application under subsection (1) shall be in writing and signed by the applicant in the presence of a person authorised by the casino operator to witness such an application. prohibit the person from entering or remaining on any casino premises. (3) As soon as practicable after a casino operator gives an exclusion order under subsection (1) or revokes the order.Exclusion orders by Authority (1) The Authority may. (3) As soon as practicable after the Authority gives an exclusion order under this section.

(2) Any person. (3) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Authority or the Minister. Section 126 . or take part in any gaming. require a casino operator to furnish a list of persons excluded from the casino premises by the casino operator. from time to time.Excluded person not to enter casino premises (1) An excluded person shall not enter or remain.Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises (1) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall not. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 85 . the Commissioner of Police shall notify each casino operator and the Authority of the revocation. Section 127 .Duration of exclusion orders (1) An exclusion order made under section 121 or 122 remains in force in respect of a person unless and until it is revoked by the person who gave the order or by the Minister. on any casino premises.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises (1) This section applies to the following persons on any casino premises: (a) the person for the time being in charge of the casino. Section 125 . on appeal. (2) It is a condition of a casino licence that a casino operator shall comply with any order made under section 163 (2) (d) to close any deposit account of a respondent named in that order. Section 124 .List of persons excluded by casino operator The Authority may. (2) When an exclusion order is revoked by the Commissioner of Police or the Minister. without reasonable excuse.Section 123 . being subject to an exclusion order made under section 121 or 122. the Authority shall give notice of the revocation to each casino operator as soon as practicable after it occurs. permit an excluded person to enter or remain on the casino premises. who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence. (b) an agent of the casino operator. (c) a casino employee.

Exclusion orders by casino operator Section 121 . (4) In determining the value of a non-monetary prize for the purposes of subsection (3).List of persons excluded by casino operator Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 86 .Exclusion orders by Commissioner of Police Section 123 . Any person who fails to comply with subsection (2) shall be –– (a) liable to disciplinary action. or (b) guilty of an offence. Section 128 .Duration of exclusion orders Section 124 . in any other case. or (b) a minor (as defined in section 130). all winnings (including linked jackpots) paid or payable to the person in respect of gaming on gaming machines or playing any game approved under section 100 in the casino are forfeited to the Consolidated Fund. or (ii) remove such a person from the casino premises or cause such a person to be removed from the casino premises.Forfeiture of winnings (1) This section applies to any person who is — (a) an excluded person.Exclusion orders by Authority Section 122 . and (b) using no more force than is reasonably necessary — (i) prevent the excluded person from entering the casino premises. (2) If a person to whom this section applies enters or remains on any casino premises in contravention of this Act. in the case of a casino operator or a licensed special employee. (3) If winnings referred to in subsection (2) comprise or include a non-monetary prize.(2) (3) A person to whom this section applies who knows that an excluded person is about to enter or is on the casino premises shall — (a) notify an inspector as soon as practicable. the casino operator shall pay the value of that prize to the Consolidated Fund. (5) The amount of winnings to be forfeited under this section shall be investigated and determined by an authorised person whose decision shall be final. any amount of goods and services tax payable in respect of the supply to which the prize relates is to be taken into account. Summary The Singapore Casino Control Act 2006 includes the following sections with regards exclusion: Section 120 .

or they might be asked advice with regards exclusions. Most gambling establishments have an interview room in which they can facilitate the clients in private. Security Departments are also extensively involved the implementation and administration of exclusion order. This process must also be dealt with in a professional manner. but refer it to the department or manager dealing with exclusion orders. various departments might be involved in exclusion procedures. such as the dealer. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 87 .Forfeiture of winnings Dealing with Exclusions Gambling providers will deal with exclusions in accordance with national or regional legislations. Once the request for exclusion is received by the senior management or the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Depending on the country or region of the operations or the size and organisation of the gambling establishment.Excluded person not to enter casino premises Section 126 . Large casinos have Responsible Gambling Departments with Responsible Gambling Liaison Officers who will deal with exclusions. In smaller organisations Duty Managers would handle exclusion procedures. They will not deal with the case at all. These rooms are equipped with both video and voice recording system. cashier or security officer.Section 125 . from the time of request until the completion of paperwork. In most instances a front line staff member.Removal of excluded persons from casino premises Section 128 . Requests for Exclusion Requests for self-exclusion are primarily dealt with within the service provider’s facility. will be the first person to hear about a problem.Casino operator to bar excluded persons from casino premises Section 127 . The frontline staff members are trained in dealing with requests for help and are instrumental in getting the process started. he/she will follow the policies and procedures set.

a photo of the relevant person. A self-exclusion form would then be completed by the client. Details will also be entered in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register. This request might have to be followed up by a personal interview. but there are suggestions in the different Responsible Gambling provisions for this event to take place away from the gambling facility. It must be clear what type of exclusion is requested for and will be instituted and the implications of an exclusion order. in a quiet area. Player reward ratings obtained from the database indicating the client’s win/loss data.When a person request for self-exclusion. the process and conditions should be explained to him. These forms will include the stated wish of the patron to be reminded of their desire to be excluded from the specified gambling provider. Duty Manager or Security Officer is tasked to provide assistance with self exclusions. Sample Form Please see Appendix 1 Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 88 . within the gambling areas. In many instances the client will avail himself on the premises in question. he has to obtain the following documentation: • • • Client’s identification document. Credit forms and account details from the cashiering department. although there might be provision for a request to be made online. Documentation When the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. by phone or by writing in to the establishment. the client would be present himself. where appropriate. from the service provider’s website and other areas of the casino. The person administering the exclusion order will then check the completed self-exclusion forms together with. In most cases. This form can be obtained from reception.

Should the patron refuse this.Exclusion Form and details of local community support to the third party. 2. urging them to make personal contact with counselling groups or directly with the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. personal interest. All of the aforesaid actions have to be done in the presence of the afflicted patron/client (respondent). • Exclusion Requested by Third Party/Family Member If a staff member is approached by a third party requesting exclusion for another person with whose welfare they have a clear. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will advise the third party that Self-Exclusion procedures and documents are available. Refer the third party to the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. Should the patron agree to proceed. provision of photo. staff will: 1. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 89 . Immediately explain the need to refer the matter to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer. close. the staff member will: 1. 3. clearly explain the form and detail specific requirements – for example. 4. If the patron does not wish to proceed. The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will: • outline the effects and consequences of self-exclusion. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will complete the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and. 2.Processing Exclusion Orders • Self-Exclusion Upon being approached by a patron seeking assistance. the Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should give a copy of the Approved Self-Exclusion Form to the patron. if possible. The Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will provide a copy of the Approved Self. staff will suggest a meeting with the Manager on duty (if different to the Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer). • go through the procedures and guidelines and the need for a signed agreement. 3. ask the patron to sign it. The Officer will encourage them to discuss the options with the person believed to have a problem with gambling.

Counselling Contact Information Gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self-exclusion and/or express a concern that they have a gambling problem. • Have clear reporting procedures (staff to management) of relevant incidents (observations. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 90 . after which time no self-excluded person may gamble with the relevant gambling provider. breaches. inquiries. Additional Initiatives by the Gaming Provider Throughout all Responsible Gambling Practices documentation. are advised of the self-exclusion.Once the self-exclusion form is signed and witnessed it comes into effect three days after signing. Where a player loyalty scheme is in effect the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer can enable players to access their own detailed playing records to assess pattern of play. The Security Official/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer should record the self-exclusion and all actions undertaken in the Responsible Gambling Incident Register and take all reasonable steps to ensure that the management staff. These exclusion procedure would have been audited by the internal audit function of the relevant service provider to make sure that the process is legal (becomes binding once forms completed). frequency) and actions taken by the venue with regard to patrons seeking self-exclusion. contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. the Security Officer/Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will be identified as the source of information for self exclusion provisions. The Security Official/ Responsible Gambling Liaison Officer will maintain confidentiality of information and the Responsible Gambling Incident Register is to be kept in a secure place. • Review the policy for self-exclusion on a regular basis to see if it is working and what areas may need improvement. Assessment and Review To ensure the effectiveness of self-exclusion procedures. including the security management. the gambling provider can: • Provide regular staff information and training on self-exclusion.

He should not give the client the alternative to be able to back out of the exclusion. There are suggestions that the exclusion should be one year. If the person decides to self exclude permanently from the establishment. He will also inform the client of the effect of when the exclusion will take place. and how long the exclusion will be in force. Activity 5. and except as required by law. the consequences surrounding breach.Self-Exclusion from Other Gambling Providers Self-exclusion gambling customers are to be given support and encouragement in seeking self-exclusions from other gambling providers. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 91 . date starting. by asking. 4. 2. This dis-action will last as long as the self exclusion (ban) is in place.2 What details should be recorded on a self-exclusion form? Summary 1. their details removed from databases and player-tracking systems. loyalty programs involving the person are terminated or revoked. The information that they have requested self exclusion (ban) should be highlighted within the client database/player tracking systems in order that the various departments dealing with the database information are made aware of the current status of the client. explaining the process with each step 5. The second step is to get the personal details correct. Correspondence or Promotional Material All gambling providers are not to send correspondence or promotional material to gambling customers who are excluded from their services or who request that this information not be sent to them. but current legislated exclusion periods are 6 months. checking all the relevant documentation 3. as an example in the UK they give the exclusion forms to the client to complete or fill in at home. After checking the positive identification he will ask the client to fill in the correct forms. The first step that the officer dealing with this event will do is to try and make the client feel at ease.

resort style. not the internet provider. Should the customer breach his agreement. 8. can be punished as a crime. he can be asked to leave as he is in breach of his exclusion. Once the completed forms have been completed the official that is responsible for the process. will inform the relevant departments of the exclusion. he will if possible take a digital photograph of the client. 7. in some circumstances. legal department. security. In legal terms. credit department. It is also explained to the client. A trespass gives the aggrieved party the right to bring a civil lawsuit and collect damages as compensation for the interference and for any harm suffered. this is only at gambling providers. The complete process should be done with as much secrecy – so as not to embarrass the client. this should be done as quietly as possible. Trespass is an intentional tort and. These actions are done so as should the client visit the establishment. trespass is an unauthorised entry upon land.3 a) What is meant by the term breach of exclusion? b) How would a service provider deal with a client who continually attempts to breach his exclusion order? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 92 . from the start of the process. 10.6. online player reward system of the exclusion that has taken place. Activity 5. By law he has to inform. that should he breach his exclusion order that the service provider can have him arrested for trespass on the service provider’s property. After the client has completed the form. marketing. 11. 9. The rationale from the service provider’s security departments behind the trespass arrest is that it should be enough of a warning that clients do not attempt to breach the exclusion order. Attempts to Breach Exclusion Orders The manager or official who completes the exclusion order will advise the client that the exclusion order stops him/her from utilizing all the facilities at the gaming provider’s establishment.

The channels are the same for applying for a revocation than for an exclusion order. In many cases the client might want his exclusion revoked within a month of the commencement of the exclusion order. but in South Africa. The terms and conditions of exclusion orders should be clearly explained to those excluded from the premises. so does the revocation procedures. vary or revoke a family exclusion order or an exclusion order on application by family members of respondents. the NCPG may confirm. Summary As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions. in Singapore this process will go before the NCPG. Revocation of an Exclusion Order As the implementation procedures of exclusion orders varies in different countries and regions.Summary A person who breaches his exclusion order can be arrested for trespassing. Revocation of exclusion orders are handled through similar channels than requests for exclusion. The forms would have to be completed correctly and lodged with the governing body. The council or department responsible will investigate the request for revocation and make a decision that would be binding. For example. so does the revocation procedures. An application for variation or revocation of an order may be made by the respondent only with the permission of the Council and permission is only to be granted if the Council is satisfied that there has been a substantial change in the relevant circumstances since the order was made or last varied. There is often a minimum period of exclusion before it can be revoked. In Singapore. The minimum duration of exclusion orders also varies from country to country. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 93 . this revocation could be done by a General Manger of the service provider.

Self-exclusion must be for a minimum of seven days. from a particular type of site or from all gaming sites. and this action is written to the audit log for the system. (b) that particular gaming site. or (c) all Australian gaming sites. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 94 . The website is to operate such that the submission of a completed self exclusion triggers technical responses that block access by the player to the site. different regions and countries will have guidelines as to how this should be handled. As with casino gambling. Self Exclusions – Remote Gambling Persons will be allowed to exclude themselves from: (a) a particular type of gaming at that site. The example below is of the Australian exclusion process. all accounts should be suspended and deactivated. In the event that a player excludes him or herself from the site or all sites on three separate occasions.Exclusion from Remote Gambling Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. Persons can choose to be excluded from one site. Summary Internet gambling providers have to provide a facility for selfexclusion. Where a player chooses to be excluded from all sites all licensed providers must suspend any account and deactivate any registration of the player. gambling providers are to offer customers who seek self exclusion contact information for appropriate counselling agencies. Upon exclusion. As appropriate. The option of permanent exclusion must be provided. the exclusion is to be permanent and may only be varied with the approval of the regulator in whose jurisdiction the site from which the exclusion was initiated is located. Approval may require the presentation of sufficient evidence that the player is not a problem gambler.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 95 . Learning outcome After studying this chapter. It will highlight policies and procedures as well as regulations with regards to underage gambling. refusal of credit and complaints and disputes. gambling providers should not advertise facilities in such a way that might entice youths to gamble. Gambling legislations stipulate minimum requirements to prevent underage gambling and gambling providers also implement their own policies and procedures to control and prevent underage gambling. Gambling providers are tasked to prevent youths from gambling and keeping them out of gambling environments. Underage Gambling The issue of underage gambling is one of the major concerns for the service providers throughout the global casino and gambling industry. In addition. gambling providers and responsible gambling agencies are working together to combat underage gambling. the student should be able to: • • • Explain procedures for preventing and dealing with underage gambling Explain the procedures for refusing credit Discuss the procedures for dealing with customer complaints and disputes.Topic 6 GAMBLING RELATED INCIDENTS Objective This chapter will familiarise students with procedures for handling gambling related incidents in casinos. This might include thorough staff training on properly certifying the age of patrons suspected of being underage. As young people of today is easily influenced by culture and advertisements.

in England anyone over 16 may buy a lottery ticket. Portugal has different rules for tourists and locals: Casinos are open to foreigners over 18. and. the minimum age is almost always 21. and some casinos restrict local play to residents over 25. are also the most dangerous forms of gambling. the legal consequences when an underage minor is involved in otherwise legal gambling do not vary from one province to another. In France. in Canada. in other countries. Similarly. when parliament lowered it to 18. the drinking age has been raised from 18 to 21. casinos are open to 18 and 19 year-olds. Interestingly. while in the U. there has been one significant exception: In every state in America.. The legal age requirement to work in a casino is also 21 years old. and countries illustrate the tremendous variations found in the way the law treats issues involving the minimum age to place a legal wager. most states put the minimum age for gambling in a casino at 21. But. most legal minimum ages are still at 18. including slot machines. Lawmakers in other nations also have concluded that maturity is reached at a younger age. in America. until 1987. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 96 . For example. This list of states. but citizens of Portugal may not enter Portuguese casinos unless they are over 21. Twelve of the 16 states (Länder) in Germany have also lowered the age for casino gambling from 21 to 18. provinces. the minimum age was 21. In the USA. In Singapore the legal age to enter and gamble in a casino is 21 years old. in 1969 the government of the Bahamas set the minimum age for gambling at 21. Countries outside the United States seem to be more internally consistent: They usually have one minimum age that applies throughout that nation.Legal Age of Gambling in Various Countries Gambling and the Law identifies the following minimum ages for gambling as regulated in various countries. the same minimum age applies to different forms of legal gambling. and a dealer who knowingly sells a ticket to a 16 year-old faces loss of his license and a criminal fine. the trend is exactly the opposite. Similarly. Because casino gaming is usually associated with the availability of alcoholic beverages. the minimum age for lotteries is never less than 18. but the minimum is now 18.S. Casino-style games.

The legal age to gamble in a casino is 18 years old.’ limited to ‘members’ at least 21 years old. The Bahamas: The Lotteries and Gaming Act of 1969 required players to be at least 21. British Columbia. Aruba: No one under 18 years old is allowed in casinos. and low-stakes table games in arcades. Canada: Casinos. 19 years old. state (Länder) governments set their own age limits. casinos have been open to anyone over 18 years old. Denmark: Casino guest must be at least 18 years old. Great Britain: Casinos are technically membership clubs and noone under 18 may join. Bingo: minimum age is set by bingo licensee. Belgium: Casinos are technically ‘private clubs. Today. In fact 12 of 16 states in the united federal republic have lowered the minimum from 21 to 18. Persons under the age of 18 are not allowed to work or sell bingo tickets. prohibiting gaming by minors under the age of 21. Since 1990. Germany: The national government under Hitler passed laws in 1933 and 1938. Bulgaria: Casinos opened in 1967. slot machines in restaurants and bars. limited visitors from noncommunist bloc countries. To work in a Bingo hall minimum age of 16 to 17 years old. restricted to cleaning and serving of foods. Finland: The minimum age limit is 18 for Finland’s various casinostyle games. and there has been a trend toward lowering the minimum gambling age. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 97 . including true casinos.Antigua and Barbuda: Minors younger than 18 are not allowed where casino gaming is taking place. France: Parliament lowered the minimum gaming age for casinos from 21 to 18 in 1987. This age limit remained until the 1980s. casino employees must be at least 21 years old. but the minimum age has been lowered to 18.

Spain: Minors under 18 are not allowed to gamble or enter into casinos. or slot machines parlors. It is against the law to sell a lottery ticket to anyone under 18. under 18. However. Portugal: A unique system: Casinos are open to foreigner over 18 years old. on their own. Canada: No person under the age of 19 years may participate in gaming. Canada: No one under 18 years old may enter a casino. casino employees may be 18. Australia: Persons under the age of 18 years are not permitted in the casino. Canada: An individual must be at least 19 to enter or gamble in a casino. and casinos are prohibited from advertising that is specifically directed at encouraging individuals below 19 years of age to play games of chance in a casino. Nova Scotia. Victoria. New Zealand: No one under 20 years old may enter the gaming area of a casino. be in other gaming areas. Australia: A person under the age of 18 years cannot place a bet in any form of gaming and betting. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 98 . may not legally gamble. Ontario. Australia: Minors. New South Wales. Quebec. Queensland. except in sweepstakes and calcuttas where persons between the ages of 16 and 18 years can participate. if accompanied by an adult. but Portuguese nationals are barred unless they are over 21 and in some casinos over 25. bingo halls.Greece: An unusual age restriction: individuals must be at least 23 years old to enter a casino. Australia: Individuals under 18 years old may not enter casinos. have imposed a policy of not allowing minors on the main casino areas. Casinos. Tasmania. though they may.

Experts warned that vulnerable children were becoming hooked after casinos. bookmakers and betting websites were allowed to advertise on TV.the rise of the internet has also increased opportunity to bet. It said liberal parents must take some of the blame for the crisis. of the University of But it raised concerns about the boom in online betting that allowed youngsters to stake money secretly.had gambling problems. The rise of the internet had also increased youngsters' opportunities to bet. It recommended treating gambling as a 'potential public health issue' alongside drinking.While preventing underage gambling is a business imperative on its own. The figures undermine the Government's own statistics on betting addiction which claim that only 250. experts warn. A staggering 91 per cent of under-18s had gambled at least once in their lives. But it is the Government's controversial decision to loosen the gambling laws that attracted the fiercest criticism. are at risk of becoming hooked on betting. Report author Professor Gill Valentine. Danger: Labour's lenient gambling laws have been blamed for one million children being addicted to gambling .uk) Last updated at 12:58 AM on 20th October 2008 One million children are addicted to gambling and New Labour's lenient gaming laws are largely to blame.000 people . use alcohol and drugs and fall into truancy and crime. The study said teenagers who gamble are more likely to suffer depression.dailymail. were at risk of developing 'serious' addictions. some as young as ten. said: 'The opportunity provided by the internet to gamble in privacy may exacerbate young people's ability to access gambling opportunities. The report by the industry regulator the Gambling Commission found that 7 per cent of young people . A study by the Gambling Commission also found that two million under-18s. The report found children were most likely to gamble on slot machines and scratchcards. One million children are addicted to gambling say experts By Ian Drury (www. while 14 per cent.000 . or 1. smoking and obesity.about 975. commercial casino companies have further reason to implement proactive measures that discourage and prevent the behaviour because they are subject to substantial fines if they fail to enforce regulations on underage gambling.mainly adults -have problems.9million.' Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 99 .

This may contribute to adults' willingness to introduce children to illegal under-age gambling. said he feared gambling problems among under-18s would spiral with the relaxation of the laws. had decreased. gambling prevalence in the past year was lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups: 58% for those aged 16-24 and 57% for those aged 75 and over.' Dr Emanuel Moran. adviser on pathological gambling for the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Sarah Pigott The prevalence of participation in gambling appears to be related to the age of respondents. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 100 . Jim Orford. Overall.' A spokesman for the Department for Culture. Professor Valentine said: 'There is some indication that traditional authoritarian models are being replaced by a more liberal approach.On the role of parents. Compared with prevalence rates from 1999. For example. the proportion of those aged 25-34 who had gambled in the last year decreased from 78% in 1999 to 71% in 2007. Similar patterns by age were observed in 1999. He said: 'The Government is trying to deal with it with a light touch but I very much fear we are going to see a disaster with a rise in the number of gambling addicts. Mark Griffiths.Heather Wardle. Rebecca Constantine. Media and Sport said: 'The Gambling Act 2005 placed the protection of children and vulnerable people at the heart of gambling regulation for the first time. Bob Erens. except the two oldest. overall participation in gambling in each age group. Prevalence was highest among those aged 35-44 (73%).' Gambling Prevalence by Age in the UK (British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007) . It established a robust new regulator and introduced key offences with tough penalties in relation to children. Kerry Sproston.

For the National Lottery Draw and other lotteries. Similarly. and then decreased with age. For example. to 2% of those aged 75 and over. with slot machines. online gambling. where 24% had participated in four or more activities. ‘Youths 16 and 17 years old gamble less than adults and differently from adults. table games in a casino and private betting were all most popular among those aged 25-34.1 Participation in any gambling activity.Fig 6. in the past year. Scratchcards. slot machines. horse races. the opposite pattern was true with prevalence being lowest among those aged 16-24. primarily betting on private and unlicensed games — especially betting on card games and sports and buying instant lottery tickets. by age and by year For many activities. for scratchcards the prevalence fell from 30% of those aged 25-34 to 10% for those aged 75 and over. The only age group to have estimates in excess of this were those aged 25-34. those aged 16-24 who had gambled in the past year tended to take part in a greater number of activities: 20% took part in four or more activities in the last year. prevalence was greatest among the younger age groups and decreased with advancing age. Despite having a large number of non-participants. and 10% had gambled on six or more different activities. the prevalence fell from 26% for those aged 16-34. other betting with a bookmaker.’ Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 101 . dog races.

with barely 1 percent reporting any casino wagers. This presumably reflects well on the enforcement efforts (particularly against fake IDs) of casino operators. and • Take action if there are unlawful attempts to enter adult-only areas. Casino operators are also not allowed to serve an adult who has a child or underage person with him/her. the client can be asked to provide a suitable form of identification. The adolescents (16-17 year olds) were notably absent from casino play. The security department will check the age of the client and if they believe that the client is underage take action to prevent access and/or remove the underage person from the premises. under-18s are allowed on the premises. If an adult client knowingly brings children on to the premises. In order to prove age. on-course betting and family entertainment centres in the UK. for example a driving licence. passport or Connexions card. In the United Kingdom no under-18s are allowed into any part of the gambling facilities on these premises. • Refuse the client entry into adult-only areas if the client cannot provide a suitable form of identification when asked to do so. with one-quarter of all adults participating in the past year. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 102 . the client will face exclusion or prosecution. ‘Suitable identification’ is identification that is valid and contains both the client’s photo and date of birth. but must not enter adult-only areas. To make sure that underage people do not gain access to adult-only areas.‘Casino gambling (especially slot machines) was the second most common form of adult gambling. In Bingo halls.’ Preventing Underage Gambling Casino operators must ensure that they prevent underage gambling in all areas of the casino. among other factors. operators must: • Check the age of the client if the client looks as though the client may be under 18. This usually entails ‘policing’ the area and denying underage people access to gambling areas.

• Industry promotions should not involve utilising children's toys.As far as lotteries are concerned. at a minimum. games. • Age restriction should. that are adjacent to schools or youth centres. • Advertisements of gambling should not be advertised or promoted on outdoor displays. and key decision makers around the world. and stock market-listed remote gambling companies and provides the industry with a single voice on all the issues of importance to regulators. including technikon or university campuses. if the person selling lottery tickets believes that the client may be under the age of 16.Remote Gambling The RGA represents the world's largest licensed. • Celebrity or other testimonials in advertising of gambling should not be used that would primarily appeal to persons under the legal age. • The gambling industry should not be advertised at venues where the audience is reasonably and expected to be below the legal age. clothing or other material. the service provider will ask the client to prove his identity before selling the client a ticket. The global casino operators must not target under-18s by advertising their products in a way that makes them attractive to this age group. Controlling Underage Gambling . • The use of animation should be monitored to ensure that characters are not associated with animated characters on children's programmes. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 103 . legislators. be posted at all places where gambling takes place. • Advertising of gambling should not contain symbols or language that is intended to appeal to minors or those under the legal age. • Advertising of gambling should not appear in media directed primarily to those under the legal age. such as billboards. Advertising Guidelines • Person depicted as gamblers in advertising should not be. nor appear to be under the legal age.

RGA members are also strongly recommended to: • Make links available to. however. Age verification is. The RGA is working with various other bodies to try and get more reliable date of birth information made available. Children do. A clear message to this effect should also appear during the registration process. The primary tool for this is the use of age verification (AV) procedures. As and when that happens age verification procedures will become more robust. In some instances this means that gambling operators can do no more than make reasonable endeavors to ensure a new customer’s exact date of birth. and • Include a clear policy for dealing with underage gamblers.Even though it is illegal for anyone under the age of 18 to engage in betting or gaming. but it must be acknowledged that the availability and reliability of electronic evidence varies greatly from country to country. reputable filtering services like the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA )so that parents and others can take any necessary steps to prevent their personal computers being used for inappropriate purposes. • Make clear through messaging or the display of a ‘no under 18s’ sign on the homepage of the internet site that children are not permitted to gamble. it is not always easy to ensure that children are excluded. Pre-pay cards would also fall into this category. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 104 . except where the operator is satisfied that adequate age verification checks had already been made by the card issuer and are for this reason referred to as ‘high risk payment types’. an inexact science. The majority of on-line payment methods are only available to over 18s so offer very limited risk of under age gambling. RGA members’ efforts will concentrate on those payments methods that are readily available to children and indeed are targeted at them by the banks. or provide adequate information about. have greater access to some forms of payment that can be used to fund remote gambling. and will continue to be. Operators should adopt reasonable measures to minimise underage gambling.

If after the verification period the operator has failed to verify that the customer is an adult then the account should be suspended. During the verification period: • Customers may be able to deposit funds and gamble. It would also be good practice to perform the same level of checks on all potential customers who provide a date of birth of between 18 and 21 years old because industry experience shows that if someone who is underage seeks to register then they normally give an age which is close to their real age. or 192. such as that provided by companies like GB Group. AV must be undertaken for any customer who has not previously been identified as over 18 if they seek to register and gamble with a high risk payment type. they will not be able to withdraw any winnings until it is confirmed that they are adults. or through direct access to reliable documentation. however. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 105 . it is proved that the customer is underage.g. It is up to individual operators to choose a verification system best suited to their particular business model. This is irrespective of the remote gambling channel they are seeking to use (e. Whichever they choose it must include an element of objective validation via a verification service. digital TV. phone. and • Any deposited funds must be available for prompt return if during this period. AV checks should be initiated as soon as possible after a customer seeks to deposit money to gamble. All reasonable endeavors should then be made to complete AV checks with the minimum of delay. for example a passport or birth certificate. A maximum period of 72 hours will be allowed in which to initiate those checks. Experian. This will be known as the ‘verification period’. internet.As a minimum. If this leads to proof that the customer is an adult then the account can be The operator should then make all reasonable efforts to contact the customer to resolve the outstanding account issue. WAP etc). or at any later stage.

Age must be verified before entrance is granted and where a person suspected to be underage is noticed within the gambling are. Consideration should also be given as to whether any other bodies or agencies should be made aware of the child’s interest in gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 106 . age verification should be done.If at any time an RGA member becomes aware that a customer is underage. • Refund the value of all deposits net of withdrawals. they will.1 How does a staff member ascertain a client’s age? Activity 6. what is the difference between children and youth? Summary Gambling providers have to prevent underage persons form entering casinos and gambling premises. subject to data protection laws. except where there are grounds to believe that a fraud has been perpetrated: • Suspend the account immediately.2 What are the rules regarding paying out winnings to an underage person? Activity 6. and • Close the account. Activity 6. There is also merit in providing the underage customer with contact details for Gamcare or a similar organisation. • Void all wagers (that the RGA member is a party to) that have taken place.3 Under employment regulations.

telephonically or by written application. But once a decision has been made it would be binding.The legal age for gambling varies in different countries. The Singapore Control Act does not allow for credit at all. The casino manager is faced with a decision about extending extra credit as the client may have gotten himself onto a downward spiral. Should credit be allowed. The issue of underage gambling also extends to remote gambling. The manager would also have to be careful not allowing extra credit whereby the habit of gambling on credit may start or escalate gambling problem. This could be the manager’s standard reply. etc. The Refusal of Credit As the global casino industry relies heavily on credit play within their facilities. Gambling providers have to take care not to carry out marketing activities in such ways that would entice youths to gamble. the refusal of credit is always a very difficult situation in the casino and gaming environment. the client can ask for a credit extension in person. In Singapore only those above the age of 21 can gamble and in UK the minimum age to gamble in a casino is 18 years. Youths who gamble are especially at risk of developing gambling problems. There are many occasions when clients might request for either credit or extension of credit. by loosing each time he visits the casino. sports betting. The various Gambling and casino legislations have specific instructions for allowing or not allowing credit. The investigation would be done by a credit manager and his credit control team. Many high rollers or serious gamblers have credit lines within the establishments that they frequent. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 107 . This credit is always applied for when the client has exhausted his facility and needs extra cash to get himself liquid again. lotteries. All of these applications would be investigated and either approved or disapproved.

When your situation changes. This can be used as a referral at a later date. Staff should know how to respond in these situations. We welcome your business but unfortunately we are unable to extend credit to you at this time. the credit personnel will deal with this request in total.1 Letter – Refusal of Credit A record of the request will be kept by the cashdesk as proof of the credit application. the refusal should still be logged at the cashdesk by the staff member or manager dealing with the request. Credit Manager encl: <List of enclosed items goes here> Fig 6. they might take it as an insult and respond with verbal abuse or bad behaviour. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 108 . Your credit application was denied because <reason for denial>. Thank you for taking the time to apply for credit with 1234 Casino. In the meantime. Regards. we welcome the opportunity to do business with you on a cash basis. In the United States of America.A written example of refusing credit from the credit department is discussed below: Company Address: 1234. Should the client ask for the credit in person. we would be happy to reconsider your application. from the initiation of the process of the application form to the approval or disallowance of the credit. When a client is refused credit. Casino Global Area MA 02123 03/16/05 Recipient Address Goes Here> Hello.

casinos can also institute their own guidelines and refuse credit for various reasons. Gambling providers know that it is important to satisfy guests in order for them to return. This must always be dealt with tactfully. Customer Complaints and Disputes It is convenient for customers to be dogmatic about the old ‘customer is always right’ ideal. This is especially the case where customers spend (or loose) a large amount of money. Legislations around the world have clear guidelines on whether credit play is allowed. It is easier to deal with a customer in a large casino environment as there is support services which the management can use too assist them with the complaint or dispute. some customers take advantage of their power position. e. However. external parties or by the guests themselves. Casinos and gambling providers have to work within rules and regulations set by governments and the organisation. Under the Code of Practice for Gambling Operators. Licensees must put in place procedures for resolving customer complaints and disputes and the existence and terms of such procedures must be drawn to the attention of all customers. and have limited or no power to bend these rules. Besides the fact that there might be legislations preventing credit play.Summary Clients might request for credit once they have exhausted their cash facilities. the surveillance departments will help with the investigation of a complaint or dispute. Problems escalating to complaints can be caused by the casino. issued by the Gambling Commission. using their eternal status of ‘right’ to take advantage of business owners and service providers.g. even when clients are unsatisfied. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 109 . Managers and staff are also well trained in handling complaints.

do what you can to make sure he leaves placated. Becoming angry or argumentative would only prove that your sole concern is yourself and your interests. • Above all. • If you come to an agreement indicating that the customer is wrong. paraphrase the customer's statements. Wait until you have the customer's entire story. try to avoid making the situation embarrassing for them. If the customer comes in angry. Don't talk. • Customers are given a copy of the complaints procedure on request or on making a complaint. try to concentrate on the customer's message instead of their anger. so they feel you've heard them out in full. • Involve management and bring the complaint under the attention of a supervisor or manager as soon as possible.In this code a ‘complaint’ means a complaint about any aspect of the Licensee’s conduct of the licensed activities. • Remember that your objective is to show the customer you want to help. Handling Complaints • At the beginning of the interaction. Interrupting the customer's monologue would be regarded as a lack of interest and respect. always. always. • Don't come to any quick conclusions. If you let the customer drive you to angry statements and outbursts. Licensees must ensure that: • Customers are told the name and status of the person to contact about their complaint. • If the confrontation escalates and the customer becomes angry. always apologize. and • All complaints are handled in accordance with the procedure. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 110 . and a ‘dispute’ is any complaint which: • Is not resolved at the first stage of the complaints procedure: and • Relates to the outcome of the complainant’s gambling transaction. Always do your best to avoid turning a minor disagreement into a major argument. even if you know you did nothing wrong. • To prove you were listening closely. listen. you will create a downward spiral that will never end well.

If the parties cannot agree on an independent arbitrator they may refer the matter to the Casino Regulator Code of Practice Complaints Board. • Both parties will make every effort to resolve the dispute by negotiations. by notice in writing. they work on behalf of their members to raise awareness. who operate over 90% of Britain’s licensed casinos. The British Casino Association recommends the following procedures for handling disputes. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. and provide them with a vital source of information and advice. engage in policy development and promote best practice. They act as a central point for comment and opinion for members. the matter shall be arbitrated. either party may. If either party nominates arbitration rather than mediation before a mediator is appointed. Each member of the Casino Regulator Code of Practice will comply with the following dispute resolution procedures: • When a dispute arises between the Casino and its user. the complainant shall be asked to set out in writing the nature of the dispute. BCA is the leading trade association for the casino industry in Great Britain. the dispute will be referred to an arbitrator or mediator nominated by the Council (to be appointed). In the event that no agreement can be reached on an appropriate arbitrator. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 111 .Dispute Resolution An unresolved complaint will result in a dispute. Within 21 days of the date of the notice the parties may refer the matter to a mutually agreed arbitrator or mediator (as the case may be). Formed in 1973.

Unresolved complaints results and disputes. but they have the right to complaint when they are not satisfied with the services received. advise the other party that it seeks to have the dispute resolved by mediation or arbitration. Nothing contained in this clause will deny a party the right to seek injunctive relief from an appropriate court where failure to obtain such relief would cause irreparable damage to the party concerned.The arbitrator will have the right to determine procedures and may or may not allow the appearance of lawyers on behalf of the parties and may co-opt other expert assistance. either party may. Casino staff must be trained and confident in handling problems and complaints. by notice in writing. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 112 . The Code of Practice has specific provisions for handling complaints and disputes. Summary The customers might not always be right. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution of the dispute. Arbitration of any dispute shall take place in accordance with any rules or directions published by the Council from time to time and the law of the state where the industry member is located.5 How would a Casino Manager handle a dispute in a casino? Describe the process involved.4 What is the difference between a complaint and a dispute? Activity 6. Activity 6.

the freebies casinos lavish on their best players based on the amount of money they wager and the amount of time they spend gambling. was rated 146 times as a high roller. 4:34 PM The Casino Control Commission imposed a record $157. patrons have to be 21 years of age to gamble at a casino. In that time. Officials surmised that Simpson likely accumulated points but did not cash them in. which closed in November 2006.Bally's hit with record fine for underaged gambling spree by Judy DeHaven/The Star-Ledger Business Desk Wednesday November 12. The month before. New Jersey Casino Control Commission Chairwoman Linda Kassekert said regulators imposed a hefty fine against Bally's because Simpson had faced casino employees while playing at the tables on ‘137 separate incidents over 18 days.000 in comps while playing table games. Candeda Simpson. 2008. Officials said in this case. she was not given any comps -. while Simpson was rated. who was 20 at the time. the gambler. The fine surpasses one the $105. only after she caught the eye of an investigator for the Division of Gaming Enforcement. who suspected she was underaged.’ ‘That was a lot of time for her to be interacting with casino employees who should have picked up on the fact that she was underaged. But it was not the first time Simpson had been caught gambling. Simpson was arrested for underaged gambling at the Sands.500 fine against Bally's casino for allowing an underaged gambler to play 18 times over the course of the month. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 113 .000 fine the commission imposed on Borgata in February for not stopping a 19-year-old from earning more than $1. In New Jersey. 137 times playing at the tables. officials said.’ Kassekert said. Simpson. was busted at Bally's in February 2006.

A Macau legislator said new laws should be drafted immediately to define what happens once a minor enters a which should be responsible for the future direction of the industry as well as policy-making. the young girl unknowingly turned the tables on Macau’s old gaming laws. b) Would the outcome of the incident have been any different should it have taken place in the UK? “16-year-old changes the rules” http://www.000 in winnings from the Sands Macao on Friday. plays and wins money. without specifically defining what happens after they have already ml When the mother of a 16-year-old girl won the right to keep HK$740. Current gaming legislation only stipulates that someone under the age of 18 is not permitted inside a casino.Activity 6. Macau’s Director of Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau (DICJ) Manuel Joaquim das Neves said the mother would be entitled to receive the full winnings from the Sands Macao. Meanwhile. is reportedly inactive and has yet to appoint members. Macau’s Gaming Committee. However. asking it to pay the amount in full to the mother of the young winner.6 Case Study – Underage Gambling Look at the following incident that took place in Macau and answer the following questions: a) Explain the consequences of underage gambling for both the licensee as well as the gambler. chaired by Macau Chief Executive Edmund Ho. The DICJ said the Sands Macao should have conducted a thorough ID-check to ensure that no minors enter the casino and has written to the Sands. On February 23. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 114 .destinationmacau. she would not be allowed to enter any of Macau’s casinos for an unspecified period of time and she was reminded by the bureau that no one under the age of 18 is allowed in gaming areas.

received a direction as to the manner in which the prize should be dealt with. and after detailed consideration by the regulator of the facts and the Macao laws.On Saturday. “Sands Macao reaffirms its serious ongoing commitment in complying with all Macao laws including the exclusion of underage persons entering in its casino. The statement reads: “Sands Macao assisted DICJ in every way.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 115 . arguing that she was too young to be in the casino in the first place. the Sands Macao released an official statement to the press insisting that it is strongly committed to responsible gambling.” the statement concluded. The Sands Macao did not give the winnings to the young girl immediately after she won the jackpot on February 20. Sands Macao has fully complied with that direction.

e. It usually involves risk taking and in some cases requires particular knowledge or skills. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 116 . the spouse and the community. although some people do make a living as professional gamblers. The UK Gambling Act 2005 describes it more specifically in terms of gaming (i. Introduction to Problem Gambling Gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance (National Research Council. students should be able to: • • • • • • • Define problem gambling Describe the levels of gambling and types of gamblers Discuss the prevalence of gambling based on demographic correlates Describe the stages of gambling addiction Discuss the impacts and costs of problem gambling Describe the various phases of gambling and recovery for both the gambler and the spouse of a compulsive gambler Describe specific gambling behaviour that can contribute to or indicate gambling problems. It will help students to differentiate between different levels of gambling and signs that might indicate a gambling problem. 1999). Students will get to understand the impacts of problem gambling on the gamblers’ life. The majority of gambling is social or recreational. playing a game of chance for a prize).Topic 7 PROBLEM GAMBLING Objective This chapter will introduce students to problem gambling. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter. betting and participating in a lottery.

a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control. This ‘problem gambling’ can include a complex range of behaviours of varying severity. physical. and using drugs. over gambling. These children are also at risk of developing problem or pathological gambling themselves. Research suggests that the earlier a person begins to gamble. (Hardoon and Derevensky 2002: 264. the more likely he or she is to become a pathological gambler. child abuse and neglect.A minority of people who gamble do so in ways which disrupts their personal or family lives. Children of compulsive gamblers are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors such as smoking. and a range or other difficulties stemming from the severe financial hardship that commonly results from problem and pathological gambling.5 million adults are pathological gamblers.’ Many families of pathological gamblers suffer from a variety of financial. 1991) In the UK. A national prevalence study found that 3 million adults are problem gamblers and 2. The National Adolescent Review found that 1. including substance abuse.5% of teens ages 16-17 can be classified as ‘problem or pathological gamblers’ with 2% being classified as ‘at risk. and personality disorders. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 117 . The incidence of problem gambling is highest amongst those that play gambling machines and participate in horse racing and the lowest for those partaking in lotteries. The presence of a gambling facility within 50 miles roughly doubles the chance of problem and pathological gambling. domestic violence. see also Lesieur and Rosenthal. 65% to 80%) of cases of problem gamblers receiving counseling can be attributed to the availability and popularity of gambling machines outside casinos. A large percentage (i. the National Gambling Impact Study Commission found in its 1999 study that pathological gambling often occurs in conjunction with other behavioral problems.e. drinking. mood disorders. with 15 million being at risk. and emotional problems. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’. including divorce.

a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gambling. problem gambling can include a range of behaviours of varying severity. level 2 gamblers with some gambling problems.Summary While gambling can be broadly defined as betting money on games of chance. Level 0 Gambling This refers to only people who have never gambled. over gambling. this conceptualisation can be used to better understand prevalence of gambling. In Countries where gambling is allowed. and level 3 . They see the degree of gambling as occurring along a continuum. ‘Pathological gambling’ has been defined as gambling which is ‘characterised by a continuous or periodic loss of control.gamblers with significant gambling problems.gambler with no gambling problems. These levels can be distinguished in simple terms. this level includes a large majority of the population. A distinct classification is ‘past year level 0 gamblers’ used to describe who have not gambled in the past year. from those who bet $1 a year to those who visit casinos twice a month. level 0 . Level 1 Gambling This refers to social or recreational gambling where wagering has not resulted in any significant problems. it also describes the widest range and variety of gamblers. Levels of Gambling The National Research Council in the USA has a conceptualisation of the degree to which people gamble in the general population. Level 1 . As long as no gambling related problems occur the gamblers are classified as level 1. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 118 . Due to this fact. irrational thinking and a continuation of behaviour despite adverse consequences’.

Around 10 percent of the general population are Level 2 gamblers who have some gambling related problems. identified six types of gamblers: • Professional Gamblers Professional gamblers make their living by gambling and thus consider it a profession. Some may have been criticised for how often or how much they gamble. Disordered gambling and problem gambling can be used to describe both level two and level three gamblers. Otherwise there is great diversity within this group of the general population. The nature. M.Level 2 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that some gambling related problems have developed. From one percent to around 3 percent of the general population have significant gambling problems. Robert L. What is certain is that individuals in this group never present themselves for treatment.. Level two gambling can be referred to as at risk gambling. At this level individuals began to show the signs and symptoms that result in a diagnosis of pathological gambling. Around 79 percent of the general population are level two recreational gamblers with no problems. that is non gamblers according to the NRC definition. some may have begun to borrow from household funds. some may have begun to develop gambling related debts. In the general population approximately 10 percent are Level 0. Gambling has begun to interfere with daily functioning. entire paycheque spent on gambling. frequency and degree of gambling problems are what distinguish level 2 from level three. Thus. Marriage break up. They patiently wait for the best bet and then try to win as much as they can. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 119 . loss of home or job. professional gamblers are not addicted to gambling.D. Level three gamblers are often referred to as disordered gamblers and problem gamblers as well as compulsive gamblers. Custer. and in transition gambling. They are skilled in the games they choose to play and are able to control both the amount of money and time spent gambling. Level 3 Gambling This refers to wagering to the extent that significant gambling related problems have developed.

depression. • Serious Social Gamblers In contrast. sociability and entertainment. gambling is the most important thing in their lives. no matter how much they want to or how hard they try. Gambling provides an analgesic effect rather than a euphoric response. compulsive gamblers may engage in activities such as stealing. • Casual social gamblers Casual social gamblers gamble for recreation. In addition. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 120 . Compulsive gambling is a progressive addiction that harms every aspect of the gambler's life. Serious social gamblers still maintain control over their gambling activities. Examples of such betting are the occasional poker game. boredom or loneliness. antisocial or personality gamblers use gambling as a way to get money by illegal means. They are likely to be involved in fixing horse or dog races. They use gambling to escape from crisis or difficulties.’ whose source of relaxation comes from playing golf. their families. For them. lying or embezzling which go against their moral standards. gamble to find relief from feelings of anxiety. relief and escape gamblers. As they continue to gamble. or playing with loaded dice or marked cards. For them. • Compulsive Gamblers Compulsive gamblers have lost control over their gambling. They are identical to relief and escape drinkers. Gambling does not interfere with family. Relief and escape gamblers are not compulsive gamblers. social or vocational obligations. yet these individuals place gambling second in importance to family and vocation. Super Bowl bets. gambling may be a distraction or a form of relaxation. a yearly trip to Las Vegas and casual involvement in the lottery. This type of gambler could be compared to a ‘golf nut. Gambling is a major source of relaxation and entertainment. serious social gamblers invest more of their time in gambling. friends and employers are negatively affected. Compulsive gamblers cannot stop gambling.• Antisocial or Personality Gamblers In contrast to professional gamblers. They may attempt to use a compulsive gambling diagnosis as a legal defense. • Relief and Escape Gamblers Custer's fifth type. anger.

the social interaction.Benefits of Gambling From the above. These are: • Professional gamblers • Antisocial or personality gamblers. and level 3 .gamblers with some gambling problems. the risk of one's money. while also buying the hope of a win. Level 1 . Gambling therefore attracts individuals who derive pleasure from the venues.gambler with no gambling problems. From the consumers' perspective. Activity 7.gamblers with significant gambling gambling. it can be seen that gambling does not affect all individuals negatively. level 2 . a major benefit of gambling is recreation.2 Explain the difference between a professional gambler and a pathological gambler. level 0 .1 How would casino staff be able to distinguish a level 2 gambler from a level 3 gambler? Activity 7. and the thrill of anticipation. Summary the level of gambling individuals engage in can be distinguished in simple terms. six types of gamblers can be identified based on their gambling habits. • Casual social gamblers • Serious social gamblers • Relief and escape gamblers • Compulsive gamblers Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 121 . In addition.

Divorce and Separation as likely to be results of disordered gambling. Correlation does not mean cause or the direction of causality. unemployed. disabilities.e. What is not clear is which influences which.S. income. less education being consistently associated with lower socioeconomic status. Demographic Correlates of Disordered Gambling The individuals who make up the 11 to 13 percent of the general population who are either Level two or Level three gamblers have disproportionately more young. As with ethnicity there may be other issues that confuse or confound this finding i. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government. • Marital Status Disordered gamblers are consistently much more likely to be unmarried. employment status.Prevalence of Gambling Problems Prevalence of gambling will usually be analysed based on demographic characteristics. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 122 . and even location. and across households. marketing or opinion research. are both of interest. as well as trends over time.’ (Petry) • Race Ethnic minorities (non white ethnicity in the U. The correlation between these variables is clear. Commonly-used demographics include race. divorced or separated. • Age Age is inversely related to problem gambling in the general population. age. mobility educational attainment. poorly educated.A or culturally alienated minorities else where) have been shown to be associate with the risk of developing disordered gambling habits. • Social and Economic Status Lower social economic status is consistently associated with increased rated of disordered gambling. ‘Disordered gambling is young adults and adolescents than it is older adults. Distributions of values within a demographic variable. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population. or the demographic profiles used in such research. home ownership.

Petry (2005) • Substance Abusers (Cocaine. While the relationship is unclear for university health centres the likely hood of poorly screened employees plus the exposure to gambling likely play a role in the rates among casino workers. academic health centres. • Employees in Special Fields Specific studies revealed gambling problems in a larger number of employees than expected in the general population in institutional settings. That is if an opportunity presents itself they are much more likely to gamble. Alcohol) Substance abusers experience gambling problems more frequently than the general population. While gambling problems are not generally a problem among older adults there are statistically recognisable increases after retirement. This suggests that these individuals are becoming more generalised in their gambling behaviour. This is likely due to increased availability of non productive time. • Gamblers or People Taking Exit Polls at Casinos Who Also Purchased Lottery Tickets These gamblers are more likely to have gambling problems than the general population.• Gender Male gender is repeatedly and consistently shown to be correlated with problem gambling. Marijuana. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 123 . gaming and casino employees. • Education There is a general correlation between lower education achievement and problem gambling. This likely has some relation to the role that poor impulse plays in addiction and how substance abuse affects impulse control. Prevalence Rates in Special Populations Four other special groups have been identified as populations over represented in Level two and there and therefore other members of those groups are more at risk of becoming gambling addicts. • Older Adults Those over the age 61 years begin gambling as recreational and social activity.

3 What are the demographic correlates that profile the pathological gambler in the U. poorly educated. both personally and financially. unmarried men of lower economic status than the general population are level 2 and level 3 gamblers. Disproportionately more young. A pathological gambler usually progresses from occasional gambling to habitual gambling. Gambling Addiction A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. As the gambling progresses. When the above mentioned symptoms are present. unemployed. This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. • Gambling until large debts are accumulated. • Lack for concern for society’s expectations and law. until all money is lost or the game is terminated.Activity 7. whether winning or losing. • Loss of control over time spent gambling. financial ruin and criminal behaviour to support the gambling habit. the gambler begins to risk more. This often leads to severe personal problems. and • Unlawful behaviour may occur to support the habit and pay debts.A? Summary Prevalence of gambling problems are usually analysed based on demographic characteristics. gambling is considered a disorder. • Gambling continues. Stages of Gambling Addiction Naken (1988) identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 124 . The most common symptoms of problem gambling are: • Occasional gambling becomes habitual.S.

• Lies and deception become a regular part of the gambler’s life. • The gambler’s productivity decreases (irresponsibility. • The gambler becomes totally enslaved to gambling. • The gambler’s most important relationships become severely damaged or destroyed. The recovery process will depend on the stage of addiction the person is in when seeking treatment. The following changes take place at this stage: • Negative changes take place within the gambler. • Gambling addiction dominates every facet of the gambler’s life. • The gambler begins stealing money and using other dishonest means to gamble. • The gambler views gambling as harmless entertainment or as a release. conflict with coworkers) • The gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. • Most of the gambler’s awake hours are spent gambling or taking steps to gamble. • The gambler’s social world consists mostly of other gamblers. procrastination). • The gambler has a new sense of competence.Problem gamblers go through the same stages. The following changes take place at this stage: • The gambler’s whole lifestyle is affected by gambling. power and control. • The gambler becomes more consumed with gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 125 . Stage One – Internal Change The gambler develops a dependence on gambling. Relationships with others are negatively affected (arguing with family and friends. Stage Two – Lifestyle Change A gambling problem becomes obvious to those closest to the gambler. Stage Three – Losing Control The gambler loses all control. The following changes take place at this stage: • The euphoria from gambling is gone but the gambler keeps gambling anyway. Gambling becomes his or her master. • Chaos and complete loss of control characterize the gambler’s life. • The gambler feels a sense of euphoria and exhilaration. • These changes are not yet obvious to others.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 126 . This leads to severe personal and/or social consequences. use of gambling as an escape from boredom. The gambler attempts suicide. • Gambling behaviours Chasing losses. • Interpersonal problems Gambling-related arguments with family members. depression or guilt over gambling. friends and work colleagues.• • • • Legal problems mount (the gambler may be arrested for stealing or embezzling). Addiction does not happen overnight. relationship breakdown. Summary A compulsive or pathological gambler is someone who is unable to resist impulses to gamble. The aspects include: • Personal and Psychological Characteristics Difficulties in controlling expenditure. although not all of these aspects have to be present in a person who is regarded as being a problem gambler. or lack of time with the family. and giving up formerly important social or recreational activities in order to gamble. thinking about gambling for much of the time. but rather in stages. thoughts of suicide or attempted suicide. stress or depression. anxiety. The gambler files for bankruptcy. spending more time or money on gambling than intended and making repeated but failed attempts to stop gambling. The gambler begins contemplating suicide. Naken identifies 3 stages of addiction: • Stage One – Internal Change • Stage Two – Lifestyle Change • Stage Three – Loosing Control Impact and Costs of Problem Gambling Psychological Issues Associated With Problem Gamblers There are a number of features widely recognised as characteristics of problem gambling.

a high income gambler who loses $10. whereas the same expenditure out of an income of $50. though not only. This compares to frequent.000 will probably entail highly problematic outcomes. where absenteeism. source of the problem associated with problem gambling is the financial loss which then has a range of repercussions for the social and personal life of the gambler. where the harms appear to stem mainly from the quantity consumed. In severe cases. these may result in court cases and prison sentences. factors which are found to vary enormously across socioeconomic groups. non-problem. • Financial effects Large debts.• Job and study problems Poor work performance. lost time at work or studying and resignation or sacking due to gambling. gamblers who report no such effects of gambling on their performance at work. The level of expenditure and time spent on gambling activities does not mean that a person has a problem with gambling. lower productivity and job loss can be costly to both workers and employers. and criminal behaviour due to gambling. or in the future. • Legal problems Examples are misappropriation of money. For example. in the case of high gambling commitments out of current earnings.000 a year out of an income of $200. Affordability is very important. The primary. Financial Loss is the main trigger for problem gamblers to give rise to a range of social and personal repercussions.000 will probably not suffer significant adverse consequences. theft. passing bad cheques. because they are relative to each person’s available leisure time and disposable income. The financial and social impact of problem gambling is felt in the workplace. This is unlike alcohol or tobacco. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 127 . unpaid borrowings and financial hardship for the individual or family members (either in the present. Problem gamblers are also more likely to ask for advances on their pay and to borrow from fellow employees. in the case of assets that are liquidated to finance gambling).

up to 12 other people are affected (family. excessive spending on gambling has serious consequences for the family. ill health. and colleagues). suicide Financial – debts. assets losses. Prison Bankruptcy Legal Neglect. The main impacts stem from the following: • • • • • • Personal – stress. Asset Loss Impacts Community Service Interpersonal Charities.Stress Job loss. imprisonment Interpersonal – neglect of family. the money spent on gambling does not affect family finances to the extent that it is money put aside for entertainment. Often it means that bills don’t get paid. utilities are cut off and the grocery money dwindles. loan sharks. But for problem gamblers. Fraud. job loss Impact on the Family For non-problem gamblers.1 Impact of problem gambling on a gambler’s life Research from around the world indicates that for every problem gambler. friends. fraud. bankruptcy Legal – theft. Violence Fig 7. Poor Performance Personal Work & Study Financial Debt. domestic/other violence. anxiety. divorce Community Services – loads on public purse and charities Work and study – poor performance. absenteeism. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 128 . Public purse Theft. embezzlement. depression.

holidays. maturity. Family breakdown. but health and mental distress for the partners. Cost of crime. The severe financial impact of gambling will also lead to other problems such as debts. access to help. may have less control over the situations in which they find themselves. together with deception about their gambling and the anxiety. petty. and even food. Shift in spending away from small business. He will also expereince a range of personal and psychological characteristics such as anxiety and depression. unlawful borrowing of money and even crime and legal problems. but also for the government and the community. The most immediate concern for children’s welfare in problem gambling households is poverty. The children of problem gamblers are affected in many ways and. Summary Problem gambling impacts all aspects of a gambler’s life. mood swings and stress accompanying their gambling. Costs of Problem Gambling Problem gambling does not only have cost implications for the gambler and his/her family. Activity 7. a pleasant home. a serviceable car. lacking the autonomy. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 129 . Increased welfare demand.Problem gamblers tend to devote large amounts of money and time on gambling. including his family life.4 Explain the psychological issues associated with a problem gambler. This. not only generate relationship frictions. Problem gambling eats up resources that otherwise would be spent on household members – from family entertainment. organised or white collar. The following are examples of the costs of gambling: • • • • • Cost of regulation. his work and his social life. and these commitments have severe consequences for the well being of their family. and power of adult partners.

he starts gambling alone. His home life becomes unhappy. • Losing Phase Then comes the loosing phase. restless and withdrawn. excitement prior to him winning – more frequent gambling. the gambling problem leads to the following: • Hopelessness • Suicide Thoughts & attempts • Arrests • Divorce • Alcohol • Emotional Breakdown • Withdrawal Symptoms Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 130 . His reputation gets affected. develops unreasonable optimism and has prolonged episodes of loosing. both legal and illegally but are unable to repay his debts. only thinks about gambling. Phases of Gambling and Recovery – The effects on the Gambler and the Spouse The following are the various phases that a compulsive gambler will pass through. He might blame others for his demise. fantasies about winning the ‘Big One’. He can’t stop gambling and borrows money legally but delays paying his debts. At this stage. • Desperation Phase In the phase he starts borrowing heavily. starts losing time off from work and his personality starts to change – he becomes irritable. Panic sets in and he begins committing illegal acts. He becomes alienated from his friends and family. starts bragging about his wins.Governments and the local community often pay the costs of treating and supporting problem gamblers. He starts covering up and lying. He has a marked increase in amount of money and time spent gambling. occasional gambling – frequent winning. • Winning Phase During the winning phase the gambler will experience instances from. He will start increasing the amount and number of bets hoping to win the big one.

1 The phases that the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 131 .Chart 7.

takes stock of his life. financial crises starts. puts more demands on the gambler. returns to work. starts understanding himself and starts sacrificing for others. considers the gambling problem as temporary. feels rejected. starts taking decisions. she will make excuses for the gambling. • Rebuilding Phase During this phase he develops new goals and new interests. has an insight into himself. provides bailouts. examines his spiritual need. she will accept the increase in gambling.• Critical Phase In this phase the gamblers realizes that he must stop gambling and has an honest desire for help. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 132 . accept the remorse offered by the gambler. Becomes more relaxed. keep concerns to herself. has less irritating behavior patterns. starts to question unpaid bills. She starts isolating herself. easily reassured. has a restitution plan and improves his family life. spends more time with his family and his preoccupation with gambling decreases. has a budget. attempts to control the gambling. his self respect starts to return and his family and friends begin to trust him again. The spouse of a compulsive gambler will go through various phases through the onset and intensifying of the gambling problems. arguments start easily. starts giving attention to others. • Stress Phase In this phase the spouse spends less time with family. He starts thinking responsibly. He accepts self weakness and strengths. Effects of Compulsive Gambling on the Spouse Compulsive gambling does not only devastate the gambler’s life. • Growth Phase In this phase he starts dealing with problems promptly. but also that of their spouses and family members. starts worrying. The following phases and impacts are identified: • Denial Phase The spouse will deny that any gambling is happening in the family. avoids her family and friends. starts paying the bills.

has a desire for help and her guilt diminishes. She stops giving money (bailouts). her self confidence returns. The first three phases lead to the feelings listed below: • Helplessness • Hopelessness • Mental Breakdown • Substance Abuse • Divorce • Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts • Critical Phase During this phase she becomes hopeful and accepts the problem as an illness.• Exhaustion Phase During this phase the spouse has intense resentment towards the gambler. • Rebuilding Phase In this phase the spouse deals with her resentments and begins problem solving. starts helping others. she starts to meet her own needs. She recognizes her self needs and has realistic planning and decision making. Activity 7. She has better self esteem. and starts sharing again. She becomes more relaxed. she has closeness with her friends and family and starts understanding others. • Growing Phase During this phase she starts communicating with everyone. She does a personal inventory. Her physical symptoms are filled with rage. She accepts her friends again.5 What is meant by the term ‘rebuilding phase’? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 133 . anxiety and panic. she gets confused and doubts her sanity. her thinking becomes impaired. she becomes more affectionate and trusting. starts sacrificing for others and she has a sense of achievement.

Chart 7.2 The phases that the Spouse of the Compulsive Gambler will pass through Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 134 .

• Leaving the venue to find money. Some predictors of problem gambling are: • Gambling continuously. When they notice clients behaving irrationally. it must be brought under the attention of a manager or responsible gambling officer. • Crying after loosing. Only two of these indicators need to be displayed for 80% confidence of problem gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 135 . and • Being nervous and edgy.Summary The compulsive gambler will pass through the following stages through addiction and recovery: • Winning phase • Losing phase • Desperation phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growth phase The spouse of the compulsive gambler will experience a variety of personal and psychological effects that can be described through the following phases: • Denial phase • Stress phase • Exhaustion phase • Critical phase • Rebuilding phase • Growing phase Gambling Behaviour Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. • Playing very fast. Gambling behaviour displayed by male and female problem gamblers varies slightly.

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 136 .Male problem gamblers can be identified with three of the following cues: • Gambling for more than 3 hours without taking a break • Sweating a lot • Difficulty in stopping at closing time • Displaying anger Female problem gamblers can be identified by two of the following cues: • Kicking machines • Being nervous or edgy • Gambling so intensely so as not to be aware of surroundings • Multiple ATM withdrawals • Being angry if machine or spot is taken Alcohol and Gambling Casinos make alcoholic beverages available to clients as part of the service provided. or not chasing their losses. not only for the venue. • More distortion about the time spent on gambling. Intoxicated patrons must not be sold or supplied with liquor and may be removed from the premises. and improve the impact of problem gambling and alcohol related problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages affects a person’s judgment. but also for the community. Alcoholic beverages should not be offered as an enticement to gamble. Gambling providers have to serve and promote alcoholic beverages responsibly. The consumption of alcohol together with gambling activities may lead to: • Social gamblers wagering more than they normally would. • Excessive gambling risks. • Impaired judgment on when to stop. and • Anti-social behaviour due to excessive loss of money. As part of the responsible gaming programme the gambling providers need to be aware of the implications of combining alcohol and gambling. The adoption of best practice principles can lessen gambling and liquor abuses. Intoxicated patrons must not be provided with gambling services.

Whether or not gambling creates. lotto as well as sports books.One characteristic of many problem gamblers is the high degree of involvement in other forms of addictive behaviour such as alcohol or drug abuse. e. When it becomes a responsible gaming issue is unfortunately once the client has spent his life savings or entire salary. horse racing. In Singapore it will be possible to track the frequency of visits of local residents to the casino.‘Low Roller’ come into play. When a gambler starts to become an irresponsible gambler. increases. they could be tracked through the staff members that keep daily records of visitors. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 137 . but the tracking of a client can only be done if the client is a member of the player tracking system. internet. as is the question of which addiction comes first. or contributes to other addictive behaviours is a matter of some debate. or get to know the client’s by name. Casinos can track the frequency of visits through their reward systems. Alternatively if clients are not part of a player tracking system. visits not only to casinos but also to any other form of gambling. Frequency of Visit Frequency of visits can be one of the first indications of gambling problems. Clients who are unable to control the amount they spend in the casino are at high risk of developing gambling problems. This is where the term ‘High Roller’. The problem becomes twofold as at this stage the client could become a social burden to the country of his residency. Amount of Spend One of the biggest problems faced by the casino is the actual amount of money that clients should be allowed to spend. The onus has always been on the client to control his spend.g. This entrance criteria is strictly been put into place to protect the person who may have the underlying tendencies to become a habitual gambler. there is no way to monitor the amount of money in the client’s bank account. Although it is possible to monitor the amount spent by a client. as they would be required to produce identification upon entry and pay an entrance fee. The amount of spend is also how the casino judge the value of their clientele.

before work. there are no exit figures required. From the example it shows that the customer could visit the integrated resort or any casino around four times in one day. Although the Singapore Control Act requires that there is a record kept of the entrance figures for visitation to the integrated resorts. Another problem is that one casino might not be aware of the number of visits a client makes to another casino. these visitations would show a trend towards problem gambling. The onus is on the gambling provider to have the responsibility to check all the facilities for clients/patrons who may be lounging around and not being responsible in the vacating of the premises. are still to meet the revenue budgets set. Responsible gambling ethics suggest that the casino should inform the clients when they are visiting too often or spending too much time in the casino. lunchtime. Gambling providers’ player tracking rewards programs are set to work out the clients’ average spend within the casino or gambling area. Although this might seem extravagant. Length of Visit The length of visit is very difficult to ascertain within the casino industry as the only way the casino can gauge the length of visit is by the entrance figures on a daily basis. as well as length of play that they record in the reward system. This figure in the database takes the following into consideration: • Time spent gambling • Average bet • Percentage hold of the game being played • Amount of visits that the client visits. Management has to balance business objectives with responsible gambling ethics. e. The downfall of the system is that the client could be in the establishment for a longer period of time than what the casino management know or take notice of. after work and again after evening dinner. The second part of the downfall side of the length of visit is that the client could give false information when playing on the live gaming tables.In some instances a client could visit a service area several times a day.g. as businesses. But casinos. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 138 .

The consumption of alcohol influences the gambler’s behaviour in various ways and gambling providers has to be ethical with regards the service and promotion of alcoholic beverages.Summary Casino employees must be aware of gambling patterns and behaviour that might indicate a gambling problem. the length of visits and the amount spent. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 139 . Behavioural patterns that can be monitored by casinos include the frequency of visits.

Describe access and referrals to treatment programmes. Introduction to Support Programmes Throughout the casino environment there coexists various different forms of problem gambling support services. Support programmes can be in the form of medical treatment. students should be able to: • • • Discuss the need and demand for problem gambling treatment programmes. Although these problem gambling support services take different approaches to the gamblers problem. The gambling service providers are positive about there approach to the clients when recommending support for the clients who have a gambling problem. they all attempt to help the client resolve the issues that he has with gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 140 . support groups such as Gamblers Anonymous. governmental organisations as well as private organisations.Topic 8 PROBLEM GAMBLING SUPPORT PROGRAMMES Objective This chapter will introduce students to the treatment and support programmes available for problem gamblers. Students will get to appreciate the need and demand for such services. These are recognised internationally and provide a service to the gambling industry as such. Provide examples of counselling and treatment programmes and discuss the work done by treatment providers. Learning Outcome After studying this chapter.

a By Ian Drury. Implementation of secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry. the demand for treatment of gambling related problems in the UK can be seen. The Demand for Counselling and Treatment From the article below. In addition. Although advertising of gambling is very restricted at present. Mail on Sunday. have taken the initiative to address the issue of gambling addiction within their businesses. and have been reluctant to engage directly in interventions. Some gambling providers however. this is likely to become much more liberal over the next decade. gambling providers in the UK are not compelled to supply patrons with help and advice about gambling problems. such as employee training programmes and exclusion programmes.000 p.The number of problem gamblers seeking help has rocketed by 25 per cent since Labour controversially relaxed the laws. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 141 . observations from abroad appear to demonstrate that efforts by the gaming industry to address gambling addiction tend to compete with heavily financed gaming industry advertising campaigns that may work directly to counteract their effectiveness (Griffiths. October 16. UNITED KINGDOM -. It supports recent findings that suggest many problem gamblers have transient problems that often selfcorrect. Currently.000 people called a betting addiction hotline last year compared with just over 30. Gambling addicts soar by 25% under Labour's lax laws as average debts rises to £17. mandatory and voluntary exclusion programmes and gambling venue partnerships with practitioners and government agencies to provide information and improved access to formal treatment services.000 in the previous year. have not always been of the highest quality and compliance has often been uneven. Nearly 38.The Gaming Industry and Gambling Addiction Services The gaming industry has typically viewed pathological gambling as a rare mental disorder that is predominantly physically and/or psychologically determined. 2008. 2005e). Secondary prevention efforts by the gaming industry have included the development and implementation of employee training programmes.

Thirty per cent of those seeking help via the website said they had problems with 'table games' . It must also be remembered that not all problem gamblers seeks Gamcare's annual report said the record 37. or staking money over the counter on horses. up 36 per cent. The number of counseling sessions offered by Gamcare increased to 9. roulette and other card games often played on internet sites. The number of gamblers seeking treatment is much higher as some of them will also get counselling through Gamblers Anonymous and other organisations.000. usually found in betting shops. There were also 1. the demographic material suggests that middle aged gamblers are much more likely to seek treatment.were under 18. The number of problem gamblers is much higher than the number seeking treatment. Worryingly.806 calls to its helpline last year was a 25 per cent increase on 2006. The number of women problem gamblers ringing the helpline jumped from 13 to 18 per cent to comprise nearly a fifth of callers. Women problem gamblers were more likely to fritter away money on 'games of chance' – table games. Seven per cent of callers admitted to owing more than £100.500.800 to £17.407 requests for help to online advisers. we can guess (hypothesize) that the middle aged problem gambler has more to lose than the younger gambler.between 3 and 4 percent . GamCare is just one organisation in the UK offering counselling to problem gamblers.And the average amount of debt soared from £13. bingo or scratchcards. Another fifth played fruit machines. Around 50 per cent placed their bets in bookmakers' shops while nearly one in seven gambled on the internet. fruit machines.594 last year. When we add to this the results for married and employed individuals in the light of the process of addiction we will examine later. up nearly £4. Most commonly. those seeking help were aged between 26 and 35. Demographics of Gamblers Seeking Treatment Nancy Petry’s research on treatment seeking gamblers is in sharp contrast to the demographic profile of heavy and problem gamblers. Almost 60 per cent of those calling by phone were involved in gambling on fixed odds terminals. In terms of age. a small proportion . greyhounds and football. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 142 .000 in 12 months.

Summary Responsible gambling practices require gambling providers to act responsibly by referring problem gamblers to treatment and counselling programmes. However. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 143 . • Marital status Married gamblers are more likely to seek treatment than unmarried gamblers. • Gender Men are heavily over represented in treatment seeking population. Accessing Treatment – Referral Paths People suffering from problem gambling can access free or selffunded treatment via a number of routes. There is a serious need for treatment and counselling as the number of problem gamblers are increasing every year. • Ethnicity In American demographic studies it is found that Caucasians are more likely to seek treatment than other ethnicities. Not all problem gamblers will seek treatment. • Socioeconomic status Education: The more educated a level three gambler the more likely they were to seek treatment Income: Higher income level three gamblers appear to be more likely to seek treatment than lower income gamblers. this might be against the gambling providers’ business interest and this is one of the reasons why gambling providers do not always live up to the expectations of responsible gambling practices. Unlike the profile of the problem gambler where they are over represented there are few young people seeking treatment for gambling problems.• Age Younger gamblers are underrepresented in the demographic group of gamblers seeking treatment.

These units have specialist addiction management psychiatrists and nurses. This may involve the GP providing certain parts of treatment. Activity 8. a GP may not necessarily refer someone to another centre.1 What is meant by court referrals? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 144 . GP referrals Some GPs have undergone additional training in addiction management and run special clinics within their own surgery. however. Court referrals It is also worth mentioning that there are an increasing number of court cases involving problem gambling and that judges often give non-custodial sentences alongside referral for gambling treatment. When this is the case. will refer the person to the local addiction specialist for an assessment and a treatment plan. Where possible. counsellors. These support centres can also be reached through the internet and by contacting them on toll-free hotlines. Some providers will allow individuals to drop in without an appointment. Many GPs. Often treatment is provided on a ‘shared-care’ basis.Self-referrals Problem gamblers can self-refer by contacting one of the many available community addiction centres and clinics where they can have an individual consultation before commencing a treatment programme. while the specialist addiction team provides ongoing monitoring and counseling. arrangements can often be made for the person to be seen by the community specialist addiction nurse or counselor within the general practice. and even if the GP is not able to provide the treatment. a person is given the choice of where he or she is treated. It is not unknown for a problem gambler to say they will attend gambling treatment as a way of helping them get a reduced sentence. prefer to be looked after at a specialist addiction unit because of the anonymity this allows and the fact that everyone is there for the same reason (BBC Health: Help from your GP). for example. Other people however. and social workers working with them. One of the problems with this particular referral path is that the problem gambler may not have any motivation to stop. appropriate prescriptions and treatment for addiction-related health problems. Some prefer to be looked after in the familiar surroundings of their general practice.

Combining professional therapy and GA participation may improve retention and abstinence. These include self-referrals. the spousal component of GA. gamblers can open up. discuss their gambling problems. while GA may help some people achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. have not been sufficiently evaluated. GP referrals and court referrals. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 145 . Gamblers Anonymous (GA) was founded in California in 1957. even relate to other gamblers who are experiencing or have experienced the same things. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. Thus.Summary The compulsive gambler or client has at his disposal different ways of which he can access treatment. functions according to the same principles. By participating in GA meetings. This is a self help group that has a set of principles which they are guided by. only 8 % of attendees achieve a year or more of abstinence.S. it seems to have beneficial effects for only a minority of participants. Marital and family treatments. thus decreasing their feelings of isolation. some evidence suggests that GA may not be very effective. Retrospective reports indicate that 70 to 90 % of GA attendees drop out and that less than 10 % become active members. However. The contactable references are through either the internet or newspapers (media). Counselling and Treatment Providers Gamblers Anonymous (GA) The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous.000 chapters exist in the U. and about 1. This organisation. which was inspired by Alcoholics Anonymous. Moreover. or ask for help. Studies suggest that only 8 % of GA attendees achieve a year of abstinence. including participation in Gam-Anon. Gamblers Anonymous is the most popular intervention for problem gambling. Gamblers meet on a weekly basis. It is one of the most well-known and most frequently used resources for excessive gamblers.

We continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong. 6. We sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him. We admitted we were powerless over gambling – that our lives had become unmanageable. We were entirely ready to have these defects of character removed. except when to do so would injure them or others. Gamblers who join undertake a 12step program during which gamblers reflect on their problem and modify their behaviour. According to GA.Gamblers Anonymous is essentially based on the medical model – in other words. We made a searching and fearless moral and financial inventory of ourselves. We made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of this Power of our own understanding. These questions are below: Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 146 . 4. quite often. we tried to carry this message to other compulsive gamblers. 8. We made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to them all. find comfort and understanding within them. Gamblers Anonymous offers the following questions to anyone who may have a gambling problem. its members see gambling as an irreversible disease and promote total abstinence. GA groups are a very important resource for gamblers who. 5. 10. promptly admitted it. 12. 1. We humbly asked God (of our understanding) to remove our shortcomings. We admitted to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. These questions are provided to help the individual decide if he or she is a compulsive gambler and wants to stop gambling. praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out. 9. success is complete abstinence from gambling for a period of at least two years. 2. 3. 11. We make direct amends to such people wherever possible. Having made an effort to practice these principles in all our affairs. 7. We came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to a normal way of thinking and living. These 12 steps are presented below.

1. disappointments or frustrations create within you an urge to gamble? Did you ever have an urge to celebrate any good fortune by a few hours of gambling? Have you ever considered self destruction or suicide as a result of your gambling? Most compulsive gamblers will answer yes to at least seven of these questions. information and advice to anyone suffering through a gambling problem. 4. 19. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 147 . 12. 16. 8. 13. or considered committing. a registered charity. GamCare provides support. 17. 3. 9. 11. 18. 10. advice and practical help in addressing the social impact of gambling in the UK. trouble. boredom or loneliness? Have you ever committed. 6. 20. GamCare GamCare. Did you ever lose time from work or school due to gambling? Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy? Did gambling affect your reputation? Have you ever felt remorse after gambling? Did you ever gamble to get money with which to pay debts or otherwise solve financial difficulties? Did gambling cause a decrease in your ambition or efficiency? After losing did you feel you must return as soon as possible and win back your losses? After a win did you have a strong urge to return and win more? Did you often gamble until your last dollar was gone? Did you ever borrow to finance your gambling? Have you ever sold anything to finance gambling? Were you reluctant to use "gambling money" for normal expenditures? Did gambling make you careless of the welfare of yourself or your family? Did you ever gamble longer than you had planned? Have you ever gambled to escape worry. 14. has become the leading authority on the provision of counselling. 2. 5. 7. 15. an illegal act to finance gambling? Did gambling cause you to have difficulty in sleeping? Do arguments.

This is not so much due to differences in the various addictions themselves but due to the associated behaviors.GamCare takes a non-judgemental approach to gambling. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 148 . that led to their gambling in the past. Additionally. Gordon House Association works only with the most severe gambling addicts. Those in residential treatment are provided with 'minders' or support workers who help them budget and avoid those places. They do not wish to restrict the choices or opportunities for anyone to operate or engage in gambling opportunities that are available legally and operated responsibly. Gordon House – United Kingdom Gordon House Association believes that a severe addiction to gambling. They strive to develop strategies that will: • Improve the understanding of the social impact of gambling • Promote a responsible approach to gambling • Address the needs of those adversely affected by a gambling dependency GamCare operates the national telephone helpline for anyone affected by a gambling problem and operates a network of both face-to-face and online counselling and support services. needs an inherently different approach to treatment. and situations. although having some parallels to a substance-based addiction. they build their own support networks and develop their own personal relapse prevention strategies. Therefore Gordon House Association provides an extremely high level of support to clients early in recovery. Over the time they remain in treatment they are 'weaned' off this high level of support as. Gordon House Association also provides an Outreach Support Service and an Internet Counseling Service. with the help of the others in treatment and their therapy sessions. GamCare works to support the development and implementation of responsible practice by the gambling industry. therefore new clients will almost certainly have been severely abusing the trust of others to support their habit.

Their dedicated and professional team of counsellors is all trained under a special gambling intervention programme run by the Community Addictions Management Programme of Mental Health and MCYS. The Internet Counseling Service is hosted on the Gordon House Association's Website and provides confidential individual face-to-face counseling for those with access to the necessary computer equipment and voice or text service to those without such access or those requiring total anonymity. There are also 'chat rooms' where trained counselors can answer questions and membership groups. and • To introduce an alternative healthy lifestyle to the addicts. unique 'forums' wherein clients can discuss and learn to deal with the reasons why they compulsively gambled and the extremes to which they have gone to support their gambling. e. ex-residents. support. • To understand the root of the problem and introduce ways to address and cope with the issues. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 149 . Care Corner Counselling . they pride themselves as the first port of call for clients that need help. Their main objectives are. Their gambling addiction solutions include a gambling hotline as well as clinical counselling. where they can seek. Gordon House has over 31 years' experience of providing specialised support and treatment to acutely addicted gamblers. This has allowed them to develop treatment interventions that are purely gambling focused and address the extremes of associated behaviours.g. As a leader in the community services. and give. without it being 'sensationalised' or misunderstood. • To reduce the frequency of problem gambling. Youth and Sports (MCYS) to provide specialised gambling counselling and support services for gambling addicts as well as their immediate families. Because they specialise in gambling they create therapeutic communities that consist entirely of addicted gamblers.Singapore Care Corner Counselling Centre is one of the 2 pilot agencies appointed by the Ministry of Community Development.The Outreach Support Service provides an individual face-to-face service in the home of the client and group support sessions at each of the residential centres for those able to travel.

If services are required that cannot be provided by CAMP. offer information. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 150 . They also run courses for professionals interested in studying addictions and treatment. Mental Status Exam. alcoholism. internet and gaming. • A resource centre for recovering people. when necessary. Group and Family Therapy. • Individual. or any other addiction. professionals. information and emotional support. social and psychological. and advice to callers. All calls will be treated as confidential. can call their help lines for immediate support. • Assessment of severity of the addiction. CAMP – Community Addictions Management Programmes – Singapore CAMP helps anyone suffering from an addiction related problem. families treatment. drug addiction. and • An opportunity for the renewal and transformation of family relationships. caring nurturing environment. student and volunteers. They run two Gambling Helplines and a General Addictions Helpline to provide support. Anybody with questions or concerns about gambling. The counsellors will listen attentively and provide advice. Relapse Prevention Training. which includes Medical Assessment. • Counselling using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. • A holistic. • Medical support and medication during treatment to prevent withdrawal and anxiety. The services offered by CAMP include: • Counselling and rehabilitation (with pharmacotherapy when necessary). eating disorders. • Medically supervised Detoxification Management. The helpline is manned by a team of trained counsellors. 12-Step Support. • A hub for recovery support groups and 12 Step fellowships. and motivational assessment. and Psycho-dynamic Therapy when necessary. the counsellors will refer callers to the relevant agencies where you can get the help they need.The Care Corner Centre provides: • A meeting place of safety and learning for recovering people. The center addresses all addictions including gambling.

2 Explain in detail what Gamblers Anonymous is and how it works. understanding the nature of the problem. for example the Kenilworth Addiction Treatment Centre in South Africa. repairing relationships with families and accessing self-help groups. If the diagnosis warrants it. where the client is adjudged a danger to themselves or to others provision is made for in-patient treatment at one of three designated addiction treatment clinics. It comprises a free help-line available 24 hours a day staffed by telephone counsellors specially trained to deal with gambling problems. Activity 8. Clients are also offered professional assistance with legal and financial management problems where needed. Preventive education. patients may then join a course of six specially designed individual outpatient sessions which are focused on overcoming denial. Training and educational programmes. Referral Services. All this is paid for by the RGP (Responsible Gambling Program). Outpatient follow-up. Activity 8. In some cases. Treatment in Private Clinics Gambling addicts can also seek treatment in private clinics.3 What is the difference between Gamblers Anonymous and GamAnon? Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 151 . All therapists follow the six-session treatment programme developed for this programme by the medical director.• • • • • Peer led support groups. People who call this Centre are offered a free diagnostic consultation with one of 39 clinical psychologists or psychiatric social workers with specialist training in gambling problems located at one of thirteen centres around the country.

and if he was given time it would make a lot of money for the bank. Kerviel.he chased his losses. In this programme.7 billion. Activity 8. In Singapore Care Corner and Camp offer counselling services.” They quoted one insider as saying that Kerviel “seems to have been some kind of Walter Mitty character who had managed to convince himself that he had come up with a great new trading strategy.Summary The most acknowledged problem gambling assistance program worldwide is Gamblers Anonymous. “the fact that he had already lost more than a billion pounds appeared lost on him. put the 31-year-old French junior trader through a six-hour grilling (this was before the full extent of the loss was realised).4 Case Study – Bank Fraud Excerpts of Problem Gambling from the South African Responsible Gambling News Letter 2008 issue Nine The Ultimate Problem Gambler Is Jerome Kerviel accused of perpetrating the biggest bank fraud in history. discuss their gambling problems. involving £3. according to sources close to the bank. had fallen into the classic trap which has ensnared so many other gamblers . 31. Besides counselling services. actually just a problem gambler of a different type? When Jean-Pierre Mustier. Other programmes available in the UK are GamCare and Gordon House. Kerviel kept insisting that he had been acting in the best interests of the bank. and support each other in order to stop gambling or remain abstinent. gamblers meet on a weekly basis. the chief executive of corporate and investment banking at Société Générale." But “in fact. Mr. betting more and more money in the hope of recovering what he had lost until the losses spiraled out of control. gambling addicts can also receive professional treatment at private clinics worldwide.” Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 152 . As Gordon Rayner and Peter Allen of the Daily Telegraph newspaper reported.

who was earning around £75 000 .a modest sum for a trader who had been at the bank for eight years – was desperately trying to get noticed.2 billion. According to colleagues he is a “computer genius” with unspecified “personal problems” who speaks fluent English. but made little impact and was restricted to the most basic type of trading. when he failed to disable the bank's automatic alert system and his irregular trading suddenly showed up. Rayner and Allen quoted bank sources as saying that there was no evidence that he was out for personal gain. At the time the losses were around £1.Kerviel has come across as something of a mystery man. So in December last year he allegedly decided to start trading by himself. using up to £60 billion of the bank's money to bet on whether markets would rise or fall. however. which specializes in the futures markets. He was allegedly able to hack into the bank's computers to hide his trading till he made a basic slip-up on Friday. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 153 .. as to his motivation for embarking on his unauthorised trading spree. “instead. None of these facts give a clue. lists sailing as a hobby in his CV and was so accomplished at judo that he trained children in his spare time. Kerviel. but as the markets plunged in the early part of this week this trebled before the bank was able to shut down the fake accounts he had created. they believe that Mr. In 2005 he was promoted to the Delta One trading team.” Kerviel graduated from the Université Lumière in Lyon with a master's degree in finance and landed a job in the bank's compliance department in 2000.

in the shape of a concession which would allow him to pay off the amount. Virgin Mobile had offered him a session with the Western Cape National Responsible Gambling Programme. telling me to carry on entering. But even this meant financial ruin. An understandably relieved not to mention sadder and wiser. Vodacom promptly suspended his service. so to speak. The SMSs kept coming. Then to his rescue came Virgin Mobile. What Wessels obviously did not know was that the Vodacom website instructs subscribers on how to avoid the temptation that nearly brought him to ruin. When a consternated Wessels confessed that he had no way of paying it. I got swept up. But he sent off an average of 320 SMSs a day in the last two weeks of 2007. Wessels is willing to enter treatment and told reporter Wendy Knowles that Virgin Mobile’s rescue foray had come as a complete relief. In addition. If Wessels had responded like the dog by salivating when he heard a bell ring no harm would have been done. which not only agreed to settle Wessels’s bill but offered him a 12-month complimentary package which would enable him to SMS to his heart’s content — although Virgin Mobile executive head of corporate affairs Nicholas Maweni added that we’ll make sure he can’t use it to enter competitions or partake in any premium offerings. by SMS-ing "Stop" or "Opt out" to 30800. 5 Case Study – Text Messages SMS’s and Gambling The law will soon provide protection for people like Hendricus Wessels. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 154 . His quest for a new set of wheels ground to a halt on New Year’s Eve when Vodacom informed him of the staggering bill he had run up.Activity 8. I have learned a big lesson. Maweni said. although it tossed him a bone. the pensioner who ended up owing Vodacom R48 000 because he responded like Pavlov’s legendary dog to SMSs urging him to keep entering and win a BMW car. I really thought I was going to win a car.

You could still get unsolicited SMSs from companies you already do business with. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 155 . 6 Case Study – Embezzlement Gambler allegedly grabbed R7. A portion of this money was then paid to internet gambling operators and. to 34385. is as simple as well. According to the Burger newspaper Roos dropped out of sight on 29 February after attending a rugby match at Newlands. Gavin Meiring. paid for his gambling debts by misusing his firm’s electronic banking and credit-card system to transfer more than R7-million into his own bank account.whether by SMS.dmasa. Simply send an SMS to the DMA. Mario Roos. which is updated every month. according to the station’s managing director. Roos and his wife had to appear in court on 9 May to show cause why it should not be made final. The court granted a provisional sequestration order against Roos. so you’ll have to send a specific "Stop" SMS to put an end to those.9. In terms of the order. Monique.According to Nowles. Activity 8. Otherwise contact the DMA’s call centre on 0861 362 362 or log on to www. Entering your name on this list. who disappeared at the end of February after auditors started investigating the station’s financial affairs. email. telephone or snail mail . according to papers submitted to the Cape High till recently an employee of Radio Heart 104.1 MILLION IN RADIO FUNDS Missing former radio station financial manager. sending a text run their "hit list" against the Opt-Out register and ensure that any names on the DMA register are deleted from their database. 35 000 South Africans have registered on the Opt-Out Register of the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) since March last year. followed by your ID number. and it will soon be law for any company embarking on a direct marketing campaign . the amount of missing cash might be even higher than stated. was cited as a respondent. such as your bank or cellphone network. His wife.

the Foschini Group. According to Meiring. Meiring stated that between 2 January and 29 February Meiring made 36 transfers to his bank account. when he was hired.4 billion AUSTRALIA -.Meiring testified in court papers that he failed to report for work on March 3. 7 Case Study – Exclusion Man sues Crown Casino after gambling $1. It had been established that on 1 March he had transferred another R4.54 was used to pay off his gambling debts. known as Cash Focus. The theft was not discovered until Meiring became suspicious from media reports about Roos’s disappearance and reviewed the station’s electronic banking transactions. it is clear that he was a regular gambler and used (the station’s) credit-card to pay off his gambling debts.4 billion in a 14-month spree.95 . which will see Crown and senior executives Mr.A gambling addict is suing Crown Casino for allegedly targeting him when he was banned from every casino in Australia.5-million from Radio Igaga’s account.9FM and its sister station. and it was then established that he had flown to London on a business-class ticket on March 1. Craigie and chief operating officer John Williams face serious claims of unconscionable conduct. He said the station had been unaware of the fact that Roos was under investigation for the theft of R61 000 from his former employers. leading him to gamble $1.of which R256 213. Gavin Meiring said Roos had been registered and authorised to use the banking system. Activity 8. amounting to R2408 709. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 156 . Crown Casino chief executive Rowen Craigie was allegedly part of a plan to entice chronic gambler Harry Kakavas back to the Southbank venue. The case is looking to be a landmark case for the Australian gaming industry. to make transfers from the accounts of Heart 104. Radio Igaga.

Horman said." according to the amended statement of claim. In one recorded conversation Crown senior executive Richard Doggert is alleged to have revealed that he had been told to invite Mr. Kakavas in a condition which caused me some concern. Kakavas was allegedly contacted by Mr. a Gold Coast property developer. Kakavas's gambling addiction and related mental issues as early as 1998. Doggert allegedly told Mr. Williams. wore a hidden recording device that captured Crown's senior managers allegedly trying to lure him back to the casino's baccarat tables. On a number of occasions he talked about committing suicide." In January 2005 Mr. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 157 . who is suing the casino for damages. "Over a period of time I observed Mr. back to the casino by Mr. A statement from Crown's general manager of community affairs. Despite the warning email correspondence from October 2004 reveals a plan to lure Mr. Bill Horman. Kakavas that Crown management was aware of an interstate exclusion order from 2004. A separate recording Mr. also reveals that the casino was aware of Mr. Kakavas. allegedly thought up by Crown management after it was discovered he had lost a large amount in Las Vegas casinos. warned of several suicide threats from the property developer. Bill (Horman) and Howard (Aldridge) get a draft copy of the letter in which it would take for Harry to let back (sic) to play at Crown. Kakavas in a separate criminal trial. "Williams asked Doggert to contact the plaintiff (Kakavas) because Williams wanted to look clean if the plaintiff's exclusion order could not be lifted. "Harry Kakavas has apparently just dropped between 3 and 4 million in Las Vegas last week. but did not "give a monkey's" about what happened beyond Victorian borders.. Kakavas back to Melbourne. The statement. prepared for Mr. Kakavas. Regards JW (John Williams). I will then discuss with Rowen (Craigie). Williams.According to amended Supreme Court documents Mr." Mr.

Kakavas finally returned to Crown he lost $36."We want you to come back. When Mr. during which he allegedly turned over $1. Williams said. Enjoy the facilities first.7 million over 14 months. Kakavas is seeking more than $50 million in damages. with the case expected to be heard in the middle of next year. 2009. We don't want you to start too quickly because you've had a problem in the past. Mr. but we want you to start (gambling) slowly." the court documents claim Mr.4 billion. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 158 . Start slowly and the jet will come later.

Appendix One FORMS Singapore pools application for exclusion form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 159 .

printable from the internet for their clients.Suffolk (UK) exclusion forms. Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 160 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 161 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 162 .

Application to be removed from the exclusion program Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 163 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 164 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 165 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 166 .

Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 167 .

Remittance of unlawful winnings form Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 168 .

gamblingcommission.howstuffworks. Casino Management. B. & Cardy. Internet Gambling..htm. (1997).edu/~cyberlaw/cls01/oliver2. R. ISBN 007111131X Hashimoto. et al. Citadel Press. Pearson ISBN 013400177X Eadington. Performance. Casino Management: Past Present and from the Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee Web site: http://www.uiowa. at http://www. at http://entertainment.Source of References: • Eade. W. M.(1999).htm. 04 June 2004. K. Old West Gambling & Gaming . McGraw-Hill. Change. Balkin.htm.. Old West Gambling & Gaming. Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice June 2007 available online at http://www.L. D.A History of Saloon Gambling in the Old West.. (accessed 31/12/08) Howard.bcvc. Management – People. ISBN 081840311X Gambling Commission UK. J. The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues. How Online Gambling Works: Paying to Play. (accessed 31/12/08) Gomez-Mejia.. (2005).& M. ISBN 0471129275 James Oliver. http://www. The Gaming Industry. (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 169 .. Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry.. Publisher & ISBN Ed Grabianowski. Kendall Hurd Publishing. ISBN 0787245186 Howard. (accessed 31/12/08) International Gaming Institute.. Barbary Coast Vigilance Committee. John Wiley and Sons. Will History Repeat Itself. W. (1981). (1998).bcvc. (1996). (2004). (accessed 31/12/08) ons/Document/LCCP%20June%202007.html.

.&Fox. (1996). USA – Provide responsible gambling services (accessed 31/12/08) Nevada Gaming Commission and State Gaming Control 9781591471738 National Qualifications for Improvement of Services. Economic and Social History of Gambling. (accessed 31/12/08) Ministry Of Community Development.2008 – Ministry of Community Development. (accessed 31/12/08) Munting. Singapore CASINO CONTROL ACT 2006. (2008).pl?actno=2006-ACT-10N&doctitle=CASINO%20CONTROL%20ACT%202006%0A&date=l atest&method=part&sl=1. ISBN Responsible Conduct of Gambling Course.agc. Petry (2005). Gaming Statutes and ngSurveyReport2008.nv. R.gaming. (2005). online at www. Report Of Survey On Participation In Gambling Activities Among Singapore Residents. John Wiley and Sons. (accessed 31/12/08) NSW Office of Liquor. Youth and Sports – 28 May 2008 Republic Of Singapore Government Gazette Acts Supplement. Gaming and Racing. Student Notes Report of Survey on Participation in Gambling Activities among Singapore Residents . (2008).mcys.• Kilby. American Psychological Association.J. (2004). Youth And Sports. Casino Operations Manchester University Press. An Economic and Social History of ngSurveyReport2008. 2008 available online at http://www. ISBN 0471266329 Ministry of Communication Youth and Sports. available online at http://statutes.. ISBN 0131926721 Nancy M.J. (accessed 31/12/08) • • • • • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 170 .pdf.pdf.

at http://www. (accessed 31/12/08) Sharing Recovery Through Gamblers Anonymous by Inc Staf Gamblers Anonymous Publis (1984) – ISBN 0-917839-00-5 Sixto Ortiz Jr. http://www.pdf.pdf.• Responsible Gambling Advisory Committee.& Marshall..indiana.. available online at nsible_Gambling_Manual_-_V. ISBN 0139795685 Ryan D. Pearson. (1999). (2001). Northern Territory – Responsible Gambling Manual. Introduction to Casino and Gaming Operations..xhtml?story_id=1210000309E 8& Does Internet Gambling Strengthen the L. Economy? Don’t Bet on It. D. (2006) Viva E-Vegas: The State of Online (accessed 31/12/08) Western Cape Gaming and Racing Board – Summary Report on Responsible Gambling in The Western Cape: Main findings & Comparisons -2002 • • • • • Responsible Gambling DHCM 183 171 .. (accessed 31/12/08) Rudd.

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