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Background of the Study (Why? Context)
Philippines has a problem with solid waste. It is evident in the construction industry that debris from
wastage coming from all sorts of engineering materials is a major problem that we need to address.
These wastes bring about environment issues that lead to the economic growth of our country. The
research aims to provide a solution to problems on waste generation cause by ceramic tiles
production and usage in construction. A certain tile manufacturing company in the Philippines
allegedly breaks approximately 0.01% of their ceramic tiles upon delivery.
As for the tiles wastes in construction, there are two types of materials in construction that are subject
to estimation. These are the countable and measurable. Ceramic tiles are part of the measurable types
of materials. According to Philippine laws, statutes and codes RA 1984 d, the contractors should not
waste more than 10% of the volume.
In the journal solid waste segregation and recycling in Metro Manila: Household attitudes and
behavior by Ma Eugenia C. Bennagen, Georgina Nepumuceno and Ramil Covar, they categorized
ceramic tiles as inert materials along with rocks, bricks, o stones, cinder etc. Their journal shows how
much of the waste is recovered, burned, reused and disposed. Only 10 percent of the inert materials
are reused (as fill) and 90 percent of it is disposed.
In the past, researches had been conducted in order to come up with economical solutions in
construction, due to constant increase of prices of materials used. We can solve this problem by using
cheap materials as a substitute for the standard materials used in construction
Based from literatures, crushed ceramic waste can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregates in
concrete. The researchers conducted this similar study on the ceramic tiles waste in the country. The
ceramic tiles differ by region since the soils being used to make tiles in one place differs from the
other place. In order to examine the effectiveness of the substitution of ceramic tiles in coarse
aggregates, testing of concrete specimens using universal testing machine was made.
Sustainable development is nowadays the main topic around the world in all areas of human
activity. One of
areas that consume large quantities of natural resources is civil engineering. For example, the
yearly consumption
of aggregates in Poland equals 4-4.5 ton/person and result in exploitation of 3 milliard tons of
natural resources per year, with an average annual increase of 7 % [1]. Taking into
consideration this fact, the
search for alternate mortar and concrete components, preferably made from recycled and waste
materials, becomes crucial. Still, the basic condition for the implementation of such innovative
approaches is the assurance that it will
not result in any significant reduction in the quality of the structures and elements built with
these products.
The use of ceramic waste in cement composite manufacturing fits very well into sustainable
strategy. There are some publications addressing the potential of different types of ceramic
waste as active
additives to Portland cement-based materials [2-4], most of them dealing with their influence on
the properties of
mortars and concretes when used in replacement of natural aggregates [5-8]. Medina et al.
examined the properties
of concretes that incorporate 4/12.5-mm crushed sanitary ceramic in partial replacement of
natural coarse aggregate
[9]. Results of their studies revealed that incorporation of sanitary ceramic aggregates up to
25% improves
compressive and tensile splitting strengths. Authors also demonstrated that the ceramic
particles do not interfere
with cement hydration. Moreover internal transition zone between cement paste and recycled
ceramic aggregate is
more compact and less porous in comparison with that found at the surface of natural
aggregates, which may
improve the resistance to aggressive agents. Furthermore, Medina et al. studied the
permeability of O2 and CO2 in
concretes where aggregates were replaced by 20 and 25% of 4/12.5 mm crushed ceramic
waste particles [10]. The
results indicated that gas permeation in both the reference and modified concretes proceeds at
comparable level,
regardless of the ceramic filler content. The depth of penetration of water under pressure also
did not change within
the investigated range of natural aggregate substitution and in relation to reference concrete.
However, the volume
of capillary pores in concrete was found to rise, causing increased sorptivity [11].
Halicka et al. also carried out research on the concrete incorporating ceramic waste [12, 13].
They replaced the
natural aggregates (coarse only?) with crushed ceramic aggregates prepared from
postproduction sanitary ceramic
waste supplied by a Polish manufacturer. The ceramic aggregate used in that study had a 0/8
mm grading. The
density values were similar to those of natural aggregate (2.64 and 2.36 respectively), while the
absorption was
found to be slightly higher (1.53%). Author reveled that concrete with sanitary ceramic
aggregate would have
initial cohesion. Consistency of designed mixtures examined by slump cone test were
significantly different.
Halicka et al. observed that slump of modified mix was more than four times lower in
comparison with traditional
concrete with natural aggregates, which are characterized by smaller water absorption [13]. The
resistance, determined by direct measurements of specimen height changes, was greater in
case of ceramic waste
concrete. The same trend was observed for compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and
resistance to high

Construction and demolition waste (CDW) is generated during the life cycle of a
building, but concentrated in the rehabilitation and demolition phases. In the
Mediterranean countries, such as Spain, Portugal and Italy, these phases generate
concrete waste from structural elements and ceramic waste from external and partition
walls. Two types of recycled aggregates (RA) can be obtained from such CDW, recycled
concrete aggregate (RCA) and mixed recycled aggregate (MRA).
RA from CDW is used mainly in road construction as unbound road sub-base or as
structural layer materials [1-7]. These unbound applications generate a low added value
to these materials, so past studies have considered the use of RA treated with cement in
road sections [8-9]. However, a higher added value can be achieved with selected RA
through the manufacture of new concrete and mortar.
The physico-mechanical and chemical properties of coarse RA from CDW and its
In current time the environment is severely polluted by various
wastes and toxics which create a danger for all living beings.
When people ask the researchers, how to start helping our
environment? One of the first things the researchers always
suggest is to reduce wastes they produce ends up polluting the
environment like___
The researchers say this because it is one way to go green that
is easy to do, healthier for you, better for the planet, and
puts money in your wallet. Its a triumph for everyone.
But first, whats with___? Properties of Ceramic Tiles However,
Problems related to According to
Cement Mortar for Plastering
Nowadays, material recycling is a growing trend in the development of building materials and further usage of
secondary raw materials for production of new building materials. We also have noted the transition from the
application of non-renewable sources of raw materials to renewable raw materials. Renewable raw materials include
organic sources of raw materials which are based on plant fibres (hemp hurds, sisal, coir, wood pulp) and recycled
materials such as waste paper. This material is used to contribute to environmental protection and to save non-
renewable resources of raw materials.
Large quantities of lignocellulosic waste are being generated worldwide. Lignocellulosic materials are obtained
from wood and natural plants. They are composed of lignin and cellulosic compounds as the main chemical
constituents. Agriculture and construction are just two examples of the many sources of waste. This accumulation of
waste leads to serious environmental concerns [1]. Karades research [2] has found that the use of waste and natural
cellulose fibres as reinforcement in cement composites has enormous potential in the field of recycled materials for
building construction.
In fact, lignocellulosic fibres or particles are available mainly from wood, but several local annual plants and
agricultural crops as well as industrial residues can also be considered as potential sources of raw materials. The
increasing demand for lignocellulosic materials for traditional uses (mainly paper and textile production, but also for
cellulose derivatives) and their potential incorporation into new material families necessitates looking for new
sources. For this purpose, several studies have tried to valorise various agricultural or industrial by-products
available locally [3].
Wood pulp fibres are unique reinforcing materials that offer numerous advantages. They are non-hazardous,
renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibres. As a result,
pulp fibrecement composites have found practical applications in the recent decades in the commercial market
as a replacement for hazardous asbestos fibres. Today, pulp fibrecement composites can be found in products
such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials [4].

Paper is an example of a valuable material that can be recycled. Disposable paper available in abundance
throughout the world is composed mainly of short natural cellulose fibres and is already used in many local low
materials. Waste paper comes from various sources such as newspapers, office and printing papers and boxes.
Each has a different type of fibre quality, and mixing all these papers of different qualities will reduce the purity of
the highest quality fibre. The quality of the waste determines the end quality of the recycled paper. Therefore, an
investigation concerning the potential of different re-pulped waste paper types as construction materials is
essential in order to gain an insight into their behaviour and properties [1].

One of the types of building products based on the use of cellulosic material is mortar. Mortars, including
rendering mortar and plastering mortar, are used for ages and play an important role in shaping the surface
structures. Mortars are used to cover the wall and ceiling surfaces. These finish materials are used as a design
element or as protection of masonry against weather influence and mechanical loads. Rendering and plastering
mortar must comply with the standards and requirements [5].

The aim of this review is to compile the available literature data on the use of cellulosic fibres, mainly fibres from
the recycled paper. It can be used as a guideline for our upcoming research of utilization of cellulosic fibres derived
from recycled paper into mortar/plaster.

Problem Statement (gap? Missing? Inefficient?)

The feasibility of using selected fibers will be investigated in mortar. The fundamental rule is that
mortar should have strength and movement characteristics that are compatible with the masonry
unit. This implies that the standard mortar (for example, Class N) is may be too strong for most
compressed earthen masonry units. Earthen masonry is brittle. The ideal mortar for earthen mortar
should be compatible to form a composite unit that will behave desirably within a walling system.
Compressed blocks for the study are at least 300 psi 600 psi therefore the ideal mortar in addition
to being equally brittle should have compressive strength values in that range.
With the increasing demand for faster and cost efficient construction, this study was conducted to
examine some important aspects of Reinforced Concrete block as an alternative building material for
the traditional Concrete Hollow block. This study seeks to find answers to the following questions:
1. How can Reinforced Concrete (RC) blocks be more economical than ordinary Concrete hollow
blocks (CHB)?

a) How much is RC block and CHB per piece?

b) How much is the total material and labour cost both in constructing CHB and RCB wall?
c) How much is the total construction cost per wall area using RC block? Using CHB? 2. What
are the advantages of RC block over ordinary CHB? a) What is the difference in design of RC
block and CHB? b) How effective is the RCBs pre-fabricated configuration of walls? c) What
block has a higher compressive strength? 3. Will RC blocks be more time efficient to work on
than CHB? a) What is the installation process of RCB and CHB? b) What is the difference
between the total elapsed time of constructing CHB and RCB wall? c) What is the outcome of
the wall construction of CHB and RCB in two days?

Due to the craggy and unleveled roadway in Sinaman, Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte, this
project proposes a roadway using recycled aggregates as Road sub-base layer. This project also aims
to eliminate the use of natural aggregates.
Objectives of the Study (what are you going to do? To + Verb)
The objective of this research is to study the effect of using pulverized ceramic tiles admixtures
to improve concrete properties both in its fresh and hardened stages
in the extremely hot and dry weather of the Sudan.
This can be achieved through experimental work on:
1. Improvement of workability.
2. Increasing of strength.
3. Reducing cement content, hence cost saving.

The research conducted has the objective:

The study aimed to provide an alternative additive for concrete mix using burning
Specifically, the study aimed to meet the following objectives:
To differentiate the compressive strength between concrete with burning residuals
and normal concrete.
To determine the most economical mix proportion of cement and burning residuals.
To determine the optimum mixture of cement and burning residuals.
To quantify the costs of using burning residuals as an additive to concrete on
structural estimates.
The aim of this research was to theoretically and experimentally quantify and compare the
performance to compare the performance of natural and synthetic fibers in low strength mortar
using easily accessible fibers like recycled PET fiber, coconut fiber, sisal fiber, synthetic hair
fiber, engineered microfiber and polypropylene fiber strands.
This research is performed in phases;
Conducting a literature review of published studies that relate to fiber additions in mortar.
Analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of using natural and synthetic fibers in mortar.
Developing a mortar mix design enhanced through the addition of recycled PET fibers,
coconut fibers and engineered microfibers.
Quantifying and analyzing the enhancement in compressive and tensile strength in the
various fibers.
Analyze the difference in performance of the fiber types in the mortar specimen.
This study aims to compare the use of Reinforced Concrete blocks with the use of ordinary
Concrete hollow blocks in construction works for interior and exterior walls. Specifically it also
aims (a) to compare reinforced concrete blocks to the traditional concrete hollow block wall
construction (b) to research on the effectiveness of the RC block when compared to CHB, (c) to
compare the time elapsed in wall construction when using Reinforced Concrete block and
Concrete hollow block without sacrificing the strength of its structure.
The objective of this research is to determine the effects that an organic ash imparts to
lime plaster, focusing upon performance criteria relevant for base coat application, such as
water retention, shrinkage, permeability, adhesion, and flexural strength. By establishing
the addition of organic ash as beneficial for this application, one can hypothesize that ancient
base coats containing ash were not low grade plasters relegated to this purpose,
but were in fact selected and possibly modified to fulfill this specific role. The clarified
fijnction of such plasters within composite plaster linings may allow fiarther insight into the
durability exhibited by ancient hydraulic linings. Finally, if ash improves the performance
of lime plaster for specific application, it offers the potential to improve lime based
materials used in the conservation of historic architecture.
The general objective of this project is to design a roadway using recycled aggregates as road sub-
base layer in Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte
To fulfill the general objective, the following specific objectives of this project must be attained:
To design and organize the functionality of Sinaman rough road.
To improve the serviceability of the Sinaman rough road.
To use recycled concrete aggregates as sub-base material as a better alternative to natural aggregates.
To improve accessibility in Dipolog Citys commercial area.
Significance of the Study (why are you doing this?)
The study aimed to provide information about the use of burning residuals for
additive on concrete. It serves as an innovation for producing concretes that will be used on
structure with new properties. The study serves as a source of knowledge or reference for
those students who wish to pursue or improve the study about the use of burning residuals as
an additive for the concrete. The study aims to inform the society about the beneficial effects
of using burning residual in concrete. This includes the knowledge on how to minimize the
dispersal of diseases caused by the toxic chemicals present in burning residuals.
In general, this study could showcase the probability of a faster rate of construction method of
producing a more durable and cost saving material to be used in construction than the conventional
material being used at present. In effect, the reader would be knowledgeable on how to analyse the
cost estimates, differentiate the characteristics of the reinforced concrete blocks to the conventional
concrete hollow blocks, and compare the time of wall construction between using RC block and
The beneficiaries of this study are the following:
To the society:
This study could provide awareness and additional knowledge to the owners about the advantages
and benefits of RC block which they can use to construct their homes or facilities in a faster and
economic way.
To the Civil Engineers: This study might provide solution to the common problems encountered by
engineers in a site. This study will enlighten the contractors that RC block is cost efficient than CHB.
This research could encourage contractors to utilize this innovation to earn more profit and provide a
better quality of structural works.
To the students/researchers:
This study will serve as a guide or related literature for the development of their studies.
The primary beneficiaries of this project will be Dipolog City and the Province of Zamboanga del
Norte which will be developed due to the upgrade of the roadway in the selected location. The
secondary beneficiaries will be the motorist that will enjoy the safe and comfortable roadway to
travel from one destination to another.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study focused on the use of burning residuals as an additive for concrete mix.
The main residual referred in this study is limited to fly ash only. The sample additive should
pass the specification stated in ASTM C618-05 Standard Specification for Fly Ash and Raw
or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for use as a Mineral Admixture on Portland Cement Concrete.
In the experiment the concrete samples went through compressive strength test using the
Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The type of cement used was Type-I Portland Cement
also known as general purpose cement and the experiment followed the standard procedures
of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM).
The design mix was used as a substitute on load bearing walls made of concrete
hollow blocks. Estimations for the costs of load bearing walls were made including concrete
hollow blocks, plasters, and fills. Horizontal and vertical steel reinforcements as well as labor
costs were excluded upon estimation.
This study was conducted to make a comparative cost analysis of reinforced concrete block to
the traditional concrete hollow block construction. The use of reinforced concrete block (RC
block) is recommended for low rise building purposes. For cost analysis, the total cost will be
based on the overall expense accumulated in constructing an RC block or CHB wall within two
consecutive working days. The expense for common equipment would be neglected in the
The step by step procedures of installation of RC block and CHB is differentiated. Time
recording will begin on the first laying of RC block or CHB on the first day of work and stops
when all blocks are laid. On the second day, timer will start as the labourer begins to work and
stops when the wall is finished. Time analysis is limited for only two days of work. Compressive
strength testing applied for both blocks was performed and observed to determine which is
more durable of the two. This study investigated within a span of less than nine months.
Literature Review
Research Design
Research Locale
Materials of the Study
This study limits the number of specimens to four for each category. According to ASTM C192 4.5,
usually three or more specimens are being molded for each test age. We will make four specimens per
test age. We have three test ages, namely the 7th day, the 14th day and the 28th day. To elaborate, we
will make twelve concrete specimens for the batch containing 0% of the ceramic tiles wastes, another
twelve concrete specimens for the batch containing 50% of the ceramic tiles wastes, another twelve
concrete specimens for the batch containing 75% and twelve concrete specimens for the batch
containing 100% of the ceramic tiles wastes. The researchers will substitute the coarse aggregates with
ceramic tiles. The fine aggregates will not be replaced. The percentage substitution is 25%, 50%, 75%
and 100% for the coarse aggregates with the ceramic waste. The maximum size of aggregates for
ceramic and coarse aggregates is 19 mm.

The target strength we used 15 MPa at 28 days. When the specimens were submerged for 7, 14 and 28
days, we used the Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to measure the compressive strength of each of
these specimens and then compare the control specimens with the specimens that have ceramic tiles
waste partially substituted for their coarse aggregates.

This is the summary of the steps taken. Using ASTM procedures on the mixing of concrete:

Step 1: We acquired ceramic tiles wastes and crushed them

Step 2: We deglazed the ceramic tiles with the use of a grinder.

Step 3: Pretesting (sieve analysis, moisture content, specific gravity, density)

Step 4: We acquired more ceramic tiles wastes and deglazed them and sieved them so that they will not
exceed a size of 19mm

Step 5: Mixing of the concrete using the design mixed computed by the group

Step 6: Compressive strength tests

High early strength Portland cement CEM I 42.5R (conforming to EN 197-1), CEN reference sand

to EN 196-1), sanitary ceramic filler and pipeline water were chosen to carry out the investigation. The

filler used in the experiments was obtained by crushing and grinding waste ceramic (see Fig.1) supplied
by a Polish

manufacture of sanitaryware. With a final maximum particle size of 0.05 mm (Fig. 2), they were
considerably finer

than the CEN reference sand, in which according to PN-EN 196-1 only 2% of particles could pass through
a sieve

with a square mesh 0.08 mm. The measured density (2.48) was found to be similar to that of ceramic
additives used

in concrete by Medina et al. [9] and Halicka et al. [13]. In the present study, four mixtures were
produced to evaluate the influence of waste sanitary ceramic fillers on

mortar properties: a reference mortar formulated in accordance with EN 196-1 (M0) and three mortars

respectively 10, 15 and 20% of ceramic fillers by weight of cement in replacement of natural aggregates

M15 and M20). Mortars mixes as well as 4x4x16 cm prisms (3 for every batch) were prepared in
accordance with

European Standard EN 196-1.

General Objective:

Objectives: analyze-to breakdown, compare, contrast; synthesize-categorize, rearrange, review,

design; , evaluate-appraise, conclude, justify, critique, criticize

Specific Objectives:



Operative words:

To name, list, identify, illustrate, define, describe, match

To convert, distinguish, estimate, explain, summarize, rewrite

To complete, apply, construct, operate, predict, produce