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9/12/2015 CatExams 9/12/2015 CatExams

(A)Iftrue,thisstatementwouldhelpexplainthediscrepancyinawayunrelatedtotheschools'encouragementof
students:namely,becausethestudentsinDistrict1havemorefreetime,theyaremorelikelytobeabletopursue
scienceirrespectiveofthelevelofencouragementtheyreceiveatschool.Therefore,notonlyisthisstatementnot
anassumption,buttheargumentmustinfactassumethatitisnottrue.

(B)Theoverallpopulationsofthedistrictsarenotusefulinevaluatingtheargument,sincenothingaboutthenumber
ofstudentsineitherdistrictmaybereliablyinferredfromsuchinformation.Forinstance,itcouldbethecasethat
CATExamReview onedistricthasamuchlargerproportionofseniorcitizensthandoestheother.

YouwereINCORRECT (C)Negativestatementsareofteneasiertolookatthroughnegation.IftheaverageschoolinDistrict2doeshave
morestudentsthantheaverageschoolinDistrict1,thenitshouldbeeveneasierforschoolsinDistrict2tofind10
Question2of41 femalestudentstocompeteinthesciencefair.ThatwouldmakeitmorelikelythatDistrict1doesabetterjobof
encouraginggirlstopursuescience.Becausethenegationofthestatementsupportstheargument,theoriginal
InthecityofCantville,ahighschoolearnstheYoungWomeninScienceawardforagivenyearifatleasttenof
wordingmustnotsupporttheargument.Hence,itcannotbeanassumptionthattheargumentreliesupon.
itsfemalestudentsparticipateinthatyear'sstatescienceexposition.Lastyear,80percentofallhighschoolsin

Cantville'sDistrict1earnedthisaward,whileonly63percentofallhighschoolsinthecity'sDistrict2earnedthe
(D)CORRECT.Thisstatementisrequiredbytheargument.Ifitisfalsei.e.,ifDistrict2hassignificantlymore
sameaward.Furthermore,thesepercentageshaveremainedatornearthoserespectivelevelsthroughouttheentire
allmalehighschoolsthenwewouldhaveanalternateexplanationforthedifferenceinstatistics,becausetheall
twelveyearssincetheawardwasinstituted.Itisclear,then,thatthehighschoolsinDistrict1doabetterjobof
maleschoolswouldbeunabletoqualifyfortheaward.
encouraginggirlstopursuesciencethandothehighschoolsinDistrict2.


(E)Theargumentdoesassumethatschoolplaysaroleinencouraging(female)studentstopursuescience,but
Whichofthefollowingisassumedintheargumentabove?
doesnotrequirethenotionthatschoolistheprimarysourceofthatencouragement.
StudentsinDistrict1havemorefreetimetopursuescienceprojectsthandostudentsinDistrict2. EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

TheoverallpopulationofDistrict1isnotsubstantiallylargerthanthatofDistrict2.
TheaveragehighschoolininDistrict2doesnothavemorestudentsthandoestheaveragehighschool
inDistrict1.
District1doesnothavesignificantlyfewerallmalehighschoolsthandoesDistrict2.
Schoolistheprimarysourceofencouragementforstudents'pursuitofscience.

HideExplanation
(1)IdentifytheQuestionType
Theproblemexplicitlyasksforanassumption,sothisisaFindAssumptionquestion.

(2)DeconstructtheArgument
Theargumentpresentsastatisticaldiscrepancy:80percentofhighschoolsinCantville'sDistrict1havesentat
leasttenfemalestudentstothestatescienceexposition,yetonly63percentofhighschoolsinthecity'sDistrict2
havedonethesame.TheargumentusesthisstatistictoconcludethathighschoolsinDistrict1aremoreactive
thanthoseinDistrict2inencouragingyoungwomentopursuescience.

(3)StatetheGoal
Thereasoningintheargumentisbasedontheideathatthedifferenceinthesepercentagessignifiesa
correspondingdifferenceintheschools'encouragementoftheirfemalesciencestudents.Forthattobethecase,
theremustnotbeanyotherviableexplanationforthediscrepancy.Theargumentthusmustassumethatanything
thatwouldprovideadifferentexplanationforthediscrepancyisfalse.

(4)WorkfromWrongtoRight

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accepts.However,theanalystdoesnotargueagainstthispremiseinstead,theanalystarguesagainsttheexperts'
position,whichisbasedonthispremise.

(C)Thefirstboldfacedstatementisnotapositionthatthepolicyanalystarguesagainstinfact,thefirstboldfaced
statementisonethattheanalystacceptsastrue.Moreover,thesecondboldfacedstatementisnotthepolicy
analyst'spositionitisevidenceofferedinsupportoftheanalyst'sposition,whichisthattheexperts'
recommendationisimpractical.

CATExamReview (D)CORRECT.Thefirstboldfacedstatement,thefactthatgovernmentagenciesbecomelesseffectiveovertime,
isacceptedbythepolicyanalystastrueandyetisusedasevidencetosupporttheexperts'position,whichthe
policyanalystrejects.Thesecondboldfacedstatement,theobservationthatcertaingovernmentagenciescannot
YouwereINCORRECT
affordeventemporaryupheaval,isusedtodefendtheanalyst'sposition.
Question24of41
(E)Thischoicecorrectlystatesthatthesecondboldfacedstatementoffersaconsiderationinsupportofthepolicy
Policyanalyst:Mostgovernmentagenciesbecomelesseffectiveovertime.Someexpertsgosofarasto analyst'sposition.Itisalsotruethatthefirstboldfacedstatementisageneralizationthatthepolicyanalystaccepts
recommendthateveryagencybeeliminatedafter10yearsandcreatedanewbyreplacingallofitsexisting asaccurate.However,thefirstboldfacedstatementisnotusedasthebasisfortheanalyst'spositionitisusedas
personnelandrevampingitsbureaucraticstructure.However,thispolicywouldbeimpracticalsincecertain thebasisfortheexperts'position.
governmentagenciesperformvitalfunctions,suchasprotectingnationalsecurity,andthereforecannot
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev
affordeventemporaryupheaval.

Inthepolicyanalyst'sargumentabove,thetwoportionsinboldfaceplaywhichofthefollowingroles?

Thefirstisevidenceofferedinsupportofanopinionthatthepolicyanalystrejectsthesecondoffers
informationthatcontradictsthatevidence.
Thefirstisapremisethatthepolicyanalystacceptsbutarguesagainstthesecondoffersevidencethat
supportstheanalyst'sposition.
Thefirstisapositionthatthepolicyanalystarguesagainstthesecondisthepositionthattheanalyst
defends.
Thefirstisageneralizationthatthepolicyanalystacceptsasaccurateandisusedasthebasisforan
opinionthattheanalystrejectsthesecondisaconsiderationusedtodefendtheanalyst'sposition.
Thefirstisageneralizationthatthepolicyanalystacceptsasaccurateandisusedasthebasisforthe
analyst'spositionthesecondoffersanotherconsiderationusedtodefendthatposition.

HideExplanation

Theconclusionofthepolicyanalystisthattheexperts'recommendationtoeliminateeverygovernmentagency
after10yearsandcreateitanewisimpractical.Thefirstboldfacedstatement,thegeneralizationthatgovernment
agenciesbecomelesseffectiveovertime,isusedasevidencetosupporttheexperts'position.Thesecondbold
facedstatement,theobservationthatcertaingovernmentalagenciescannotaffordeventemporaryupheaval,is
usedtodefendtheanalyst'sposition.

(A)Thischoicecorrectlystatesthatthefirstboldfacedstatementoffersevidenceinsupportofanopinion(the
experts')thatthepolicyanalystrejects.However,thesecondboldfacedstatementdoesnotcontradictthepremise
thatgovernmentagencieslosetheireffectivenessovertime.Instead,thesecondboldfacedstatementsimplyoffers
anotherobservationthatcertaingovernmentagenciescannotaffordeventemporaryupheaval.

(B)Thischoicecorrectlystatesthatthesecondboldfacedstatementoffersevidenceinsupportofthepolicy
analyst'sposition.Additionally,itistruethatthefirstboldfacedstatementisapremisethatthepolicyanalyst

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(C)Thesecondboldportiondoesnotcomeasaconsequenceofthefirst.Infact,thetwoboldportionsarein
completecontrasttooneanother.

(D)Thesecondboldportionisnotthemainpositionthattheauthordefends.Themainpositionisthatraisingthe
fineto$1,000wouldincreasetheamountoflitterinthepicnicarea.

(E)CORRECT.Thisanswerchoicecorrectlyidentifiesthefirstboldportionasastatementofcausationthatdoes
notsupporttheauthorsclaim,andthesecondboldstatementasalineoflogicthatdoessupportthisclaim.
CATExamReview EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

YouwereINCORRECT

Question28of41

Localauthoritiesareconsideringanamendmenttothelitterlawthatwouldraisethefineforlitteringinthe
communitypicnicareato$1,000.Sincetheinceptionofthelitterlaw,incrementalincreasesinthelitteringfine
haveproventobeconsistentlyeffectiveatfurtherreducingtheamountoflitterinthecommunitypicnicarea.
However,raisingthefineto$1,000wouldactuallyhavetheunintendedeffectofincreasingtheamountoflitterinthe
picnicarea.Picnicareauserswouldperceivethisfinetobeunreasonableandunenforceable,andwould
disregardthelitterlawaltogether.

Intheargument,thetwoportionsinboldfaceplaywhichofthefollowingroles?

Thefirstisirrefutableevidencethattheauthoroffersinsupportofapredictionthesecondisthat
prediction.
Thefirstisastatementofcausationthattheauthorpredictswillberepeatedinthecaseathandthe
secondraisesevidenceagainstthisprediction.
Thefirstisastatementoffactthattheauthoracceptstobetruethesecondispresentedasa
consequenceofthisfact.
Thefirstisevidencethatweakensthemainpositionthattheauthordefendsthesecondisthatposition.
Thefirstisastatementofcausationthattheauthorpredictswillnotholdinthecaseathandthesecond
offersalineofreasoningtosupportthisprediction.

HideExplanation
Theauthorconcludesthatraisingthefineto$1,000wouldhavetheunintendedeffectofincreasingtheamountof
litterinthepicnicarea.Whendeterminingthefunctionofthetwoboldstatements,wemustconsiderhowtheyrelate
tothisconclusion:thefirstboldportionweighsagainsttheconclusion,whilethesecondboldportionsupportsthe
conclusion.Thecorrectanswerwillrepresenttheserelationships.

(A)Thepredictionmentionedherereferstotheauthorsconclusion(raisingthefineto$1,000wouldincreasethe
amountoflitter).Thisanswerchoiceincorrectlystatesthatthefirstboldportionsupportsthisconclusion.Also,this
choiceincorrectlystatesthatthesecondboldstatementistheprediction,orconclusion.

(B)Thischoiceincorrectlystatesthattheauthorsprediction,orconclusion,isconsistentwiththefirstbold
statementwheninfactitpredictstheexactoppositeoutcome.Further,thisanswerstatesthatthesecondbold
portionweighsagainsttheauthorsconclusionwheninfactitsupportstheconclusion.

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HideExplanation

(1)IdentifytheQuestion

Thepromptasksforastatementthatsupportsoneofthetwoargumentsinthepassagewhileunderminingthe
other.Thisproblemthuscombinestheattributesofa"strengthen"questionanda"weaken"question.

Fortunately,thebasicmindsetforstrengtheningargumentsisthesameasthatforweakeningthemtheextra
CATExamReview challenge,inaproblemlikethisone,liesinkeepingtrackofwhichargumentyoumustsupportandwhichyoumust
undermine.

YouwereINCORRECT (2)DeconstructtheArgument

Question39of41 Thegarmentindustryrepresentativedescribesthecurrentlyprevailingsizingsystemforwomen'spantsasystem
inwhichpantsaresizedaccordingtotheaveragewearer'snaturalwaistcircumference,ratherthanaccordingtoany
Garmentindustryrepresentative:Women'spantsareusuallysizedaccordingtothecircumferenceofthewearer's
actualdimensionofthepantsthemselves.Theconsultantcriticizesthissystem,claimingthatanalternativesystem
naturalwaistthenarrowestpartofhertorso,locatedroughlyattheheightofhernavel.Forinstance,apairof
basedonthemeasurementsofthepantsthemselveswouldbelessconfusing.Thegarmentindustryrepresentative
women'spantstaggedsize29isdesignedtofittheaveragewomanwitha29inchnaturalwaist.
arguestheoppositeaccordingtotherepresentative,asystembasedontheactualmeasurementsofthepants
Consultant:Butthenthesizingnumberisnotanactualmeasurementofthepantsthemselves.Ifapairofpantsis wouldbemoreconfusing,notlessso.
taggedsize29,thennodimensionofthepantsthemselveswillnecessarilymeasure29inches.Thecurrentsizing
(3)StatetheGoal
systemisthuslikelytobemoreconfusingforconsumersthan,say,asysteminwhichsizesarenumbered
accordingtothewaistbandcircumferenceofthepantsthemselves. Youaretofindastatementthatsupportstherepresentative'spositionwhileunderminingtheconsultant's.Inother
words,thedesiredstatementshouldrepresentanadvantageoftheexistingsystem(basedonthewearer'sbody
Garmentindustryrepresentative:Youarecorrectthatthesizenumberdoesnotnecessarilyrepresentanactual
measurements)and,atthesametime,adisadvantageoftheconsultant'sproposedsystem(basedonthe
dimensionofthepants.However,yourproposedsizingsystemwouldleadtosubstantiallymoreconfusionthanthe
measurementsofthepants).
currentone.
(4)WorkfromWrongtoRight
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,supportsthegarmentindustryrepresentative'spositionandalsounderminesthe
consultant'sargument? (A)Ifshoppersarequicktolearnthesizingsystemsoftheirfavoritebrands,themostlikelyconclusionisthatno
sizingsystemwillremainconfusingforverylong.Ratherthansupportingonesideattheexpenseoftheother,then,
Mostconsumersarequicktolearnthesizingsystemsoftheirpreferredbrands,regardlessofhow thisstatementrenderstheentiredebateunimportant.
counterintuitiveorunusualtheymayfindthosesystemsatfirst.
(B)Thisstatementsupportsthenotionofasystembasedonthemeasurementsofthepants,ratherthanonthoseof
thewearer'sbody.Thischoicethusaccomplishestheoppositeofwhatisdesired:itsupportstheconsultant's
Manyshopperswillmeasuretheirfavoritepairsofpantsathomebeforeashoppingtrip,sothattheycan argumentandunderminestherepresentative's.
quicklyevaluatethefitofunfamiliarbrandsofpantswithouthavingtotrythemon.
(C)Ifthisstatementistrue,thenasizingsystembasedonthewearer'sbodymeasurementscannotfeasibly
accountfortherangeofpreferencesdesiredasystembasedonthemeasurementsofthepantsthemselvescould
Evenwhenwearingidenticalbrandsandstylesofpants,somewomenpreferatighterfit,whileother possiblydoso.Thischoicethusaccomplishestheoppositeofwhatisdesired:itsupportstheconsultant'sargument
womenwithsimilarbodiespreferalooserfitmoreover,agivenwoman'spreferencesoftenvary andunderminestherepresentative's.
unpredictablyfromstyletostylewithinthesamebrand.
(D)Thisstatementprovidesevidencethatmanyshopperswouldbemorepsychologicallypleasedbyasystem
basedontheirwaistmeasurement,asthatnumber(asdescribed)willbesmallerthanthecorrespondingnumberfor
Manywomenfindsmallersizenumberspsychologicallyappealingand,whenchoosingamongidentically thewaistbandofthepantsthemselves.However,theargumentisnotconcernedwithdeterminingwhichsystem
sizedgarments,aremorelikelytobuythosetaggedwithsmallersizenumbers. wouldbemorepsychologicallyappealingtoshoppersitisconcernedonlywithwhichsystemwouldbeless
confusingtothem.Thischoicegivesnoevidencethateithersystemismoreorlessconfusingthantheother,soit
isirrelevant.
Differentstylesofwomen'spantsarewornwiththeirwaistbandsatwidelyvaryingheights,someashigh
asthewearer'snaturalwaistandsomeaslowasthewearer'shipbone. (E)CORRECT.Ifthisstatementistrue,then,underasystembasedonthemeasurementsofthepantsthemselves
(asproposedbytheconsultant),shopperswouldhavetoknowtheexactheightatwhicheverystyleofpantswas

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designedtobeworn,aswellastheirownpreferredsizeateachofthoseheights.Thatsystemwouldthusbemuch
morecomplicatedandthereforemoreconfusingthantheexistingsystem,inwhicheachshopperonlyneedsto
knowonemeasurement(hernaturalwaistline).

EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

CATExamReview
YouwereINCORRECT

Question41of41

EachbankinthetownofLaRinconadahasonlyasinglesetoflockingdoorsatitsentrance.Inthetownof
Inverness,ontheotherhand,theentrancestonearlyallbanksareequippedwithtwoconsecutivesetsoflocking
doors,operatedbyamechanismthatallowsonlyonesetofdoorstobeopenatatime.Itisclear,then,thatbanks
inInvernessexperiencemorerobberyattemptsthandothoseinLaRinconada,andhavethusadoptedtheextra
doorsasasecuritymeasure.

Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,mostweakenstheargumentabove?

LastyearthenumberofbankrobberiesinLaRinconadawasalmostonehalfgreaterthanthe
correspondingfigureforthepreviousyear.
Invernessisknownforitsharshwinters,whiletheclimateofLaRinconadaisquitemildyearround.
ThemechanismofthedoubledoorsusedbybanksinInvernessallowsbanksecuritypersonneltolock
thedoorsremotely.
Bankrobberyattemptsaretypicallyunsuccessful,and,evenwhentherobbersdomanagetoescapewith
stolenmoney,thesumisusuallyquitesmall.
InvernesshasalmosttwiceasmanypoliceofficerspercapitaasdoesLaRinconada.

HideExplanation
(1)IdentifytheQuestionType
Thequestionasksustoweakentheargumentpresented,sothisisaWeakentheConclusionquestion.

(2)DeconstructtheArgument
TheargumentattemptstoexplainwhyalmostallbanksinInvernesshaveseparatelylockingdoubledoors,in
contrasttothetotallackofsuchdoorsinthetownofLaRinconada.Theargumentconcludesthatthedoubledoors
mustbeanextrasecuritymeasureagainstcrime,andthat,byextension,therateoftherelevantcrime(here,bank
robbery)mustbehigherinInvernessthaninLaRinconada.

(3)StatetheGoal
ForWeakenquestions,wehavetofindananswerthatmakestheconclusionatleastalittlelesslikelytobetrueor
valid.

Theexplanationpresentedintheargumentdoesseemreasonablecertainly,onereasonforusingdoubledoors
couldbesecurityconcerns.Theargumentcanbeattacked,though,onthegroundsthatitclaimsthismustbethe

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reason.Ifthereareotherpossiblereasonsforusingthedoubledoors,thentheclaimthatthedoorsareuseddueto
securityconcernsandahigherrobberyratebecomeslesslikelytobetrue.

(4)WorkfromWrongtoRight

(A)TheyearoveryeargrowthrateofbankrobberiesinLaRinconadaaloneisnothelpfulinmakingacomparison
betweenLaRinconadaandanothertown.

(B)CORRECT.ThedoormechanisminInvernesscreatesaneffectivebarrieragainstharshwinterwindsandcold CATExamReview
air:Atnopointwillbothsetsofdoorsbeopenatthesametime,sotheintroductionofcoldairintothebankwillbe
minimizedrelativetoatypicalsingledooropening.Thischoicethusprovidesanalternativerationaleforthe YouwereINCORRECT
presenceofthedoubledoors,weakeningtheforceoftheoriginalconclusion.
Question41of41
(C)Thischoiceactuallystrengthenstheargument:Ifthedoubledoorsareequippedwithsuchafeature,itbecomes
EachbankinthetownofLaRinconadahasonlyasinglesetoflockingdoorsatitsentrance.Inthetownof
morereasonabletospeculatethattheywereinstalledasasafeguardagainstcrime.Also,thischoicecanbe
Inverness,ontheotherhand,theentrancestonearlyallbanksareequippedwithtwoconsecutivesetsoflocking
eliminatedimmediatelyonthegroundsthatitdoesn'tdistinguishatallbetweenthetwotowns,andthusprovidesno
doors,operatedbyamechanismthatallowsonlyonesetofdoorstobeopenatatime.Itisclear,then,thatbanks
reasonforthedoorsystemtobepresentinInvernessbutnotalsoinLaRinconada.
inInvernessexperiencemorerobberyattemptsthandothoseinLaRinconada,andhavethusadoptedtheextra
doorsasasecuritymeasure.
(D)Thischoicedoesnotaddresstheargument'sconclusion:thereasonforthepresenceofdoubledoorsin
InvernessbanksandthelackofdoubledoorsinLaRinconadabanks.
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,mostweakenstheargumentabove?

(E)Theproportionofcitizenswhoarepoliceofficersdoesnotprovidemeaningfulinformationaboutbankrobbery LastyearthenumberofbankrobberiesinLaRinconadawasalmostonehalfgreaterthanthe
ratesinthetwotowns,oraboutthereasonforthepresenceofdoubledoorsinInvernessbanksandthelackof correspondingfigureforthepreviousyear.
doubledoorsinLaRinconadabanks.
Invernessisknownforitsharshwinters,whiletheclimateofLaRinconadaisquitemildyearround.
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.ProblemList<<Prev
ThemechanismofthedoubledoorsusedbybanksinInvernessallowsbanksecuritypersonneltolock
thedoorsremotely.
Bankrobberyattemptsaretypicallyunsuccessful,and,evenwhentherobbersdomanagetoescapewith
stolenmoney,thesumisusuallyquitesmall.
InvernesshasalmosttwiceasmanypoliceofficerspercapitaasdoesLaRinconada.

HideExplanation
(1)IdentifytheQuestionType
Thequestionasksustoweakentheargumentpresented,sothisisaWeakentheConclusionquestion.

(2)DeconstructtheArgument
TheargumentattemptstoexplainwhyalmostallbanksinInvernesshaveseparatelylockingdoubledoors,in
contrasttothetotallackofsuchdoorsinthetownofLaRinconada.Theargumentconcludesthatthedoubledoors
mustbeanextrasecuritymeasureagainstcrime,andthat,byextension,therateoftherelevantcrime(here,bank
robbery)mustbehigherinInvernessthaninLaRinconada.

(3)StatetheGoal
ForWeakenquestions,wehavetofindananswerthatmakestheconclusionatleastalittlelesslikelytobetrueor
valid.

Theexplanationpresentedintheargumentdoesseemreasonablecertainly,onereasonforusingdoubledoors
couldbesecurityconcerns.Theargumentcanbeattacked,though,onthegroundsthatitclaimsthismustbethe

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reason.Ifthereareotherpossiblereasonsforusingthedoubledoors,thentheclaimthatthedoorsareuseddueto
securityconcernsandahigherrobberyratebecomeslesslikelytobetrue.

(4)WorkfromWrongtoRight

(A)TheyearoveryeargrowthrateofbankrobberiesinLaRinconadaaloneisnothelpfulinmakingacomparison
betweenLaRinconadaandanothertown.

(B)CORRECT.ThedoormechanisminInvernesscreatesaneffectivebarrieragainstharshwinterwindsandcold CATExamReview
air:Atnopointwillbothsetsofdoorsbeopenatthesametime,sotheintroductionofcoldairintothebankwillbe
minimizedrelativetoatypicalsingledooropening.Thischoicethusprovidesanalternativerationaleforthe YouwereINCORRECT
presenceofthedoubledoors,weakeningtheforceoftheoriginalconclusion.
Question33of41
(C)Thischoiceactuallystrengthenstheargument:Ifthedoubledoorsareequippedwithsuchafeature,itbecomes
Joanne:Anincreasingnumberofonlineretailersnowallowcustomerstocreatewishlistsofitemstheywouldlike
morereasonabletospeculatethattheywereinstalledasasafeguardagainstcrime.Also,thischoicecanbe
toreceiveasgifts.Suchlistsarecertainlyuseful,buttheseretailersshouldalsoexploreotherwaystosuggestgift
eliminatedimmediatelyonthegroundsthatitdoesn'tdistinguishatallbetweenthetwotowns,andthusprovidesno
purchasesforthesecustomers.Inparticular,withoutrevealingthespecificsofacustomer'spurchasehistory,a
reasonforthedoorsystemtobepresentinInvernessbutnotalsoinLaRinconada.
websitecouldquicklyanalyzearetailer'sentireinventory,selectalistofitemssimilartothosethecustomerhas
alreadypurchased,andthenemailthatlisttoagroupofcontactsspecifiedbythecustomer.Suchasystemwould
(D)Thischoicedoesnotaddresstheargument'sconclusion:thereasonforthepresenceofdoubledoorsin
suggestgiftsthat,becauseoftheirsimilaritytothecustomer'spriorpurchases,wouldbeextremelylikelytoappeal
InvernessbanksandthelackofdoubledoorsinLaRinconadabanks.
tothecustomer.

(E)Theproportionofcitizenswhoarepoliceofficersdoesnotprovidemeaningfulinformationaboutbankrobbery
Intheargument,Joanneassumesthatthehypotheticalcustomers
ratesinthetwotowns,oraboutthereasonforthepresenceofdoubledoorsinInvernessbanksandthelackof
doubledoorsinLaRinconadabanks. arefamiliarwithmostoralloftheitemsinstockonthewebsiteswheretheyshop
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.ProblemList<<Prev
wouldprefernovelgiftsthatareunliketheitemstheycurrentlyown
donotuseretailwebsitesprimarilytopurchasegifts
wouldberelativelyunconcernediftheirretailpurchasehistorieswereavailabletoothers
preferonlineshoppingtoshoppinginphysicalretailstores

HideExplanation
(1)IdentifytheQuestionType
TheproblemaskswhatisassumedbyJoanne,sothisisaFindAssumptionquestion.

(2)DeconstructtheArgument
Joanneseestheintroductionofwishlistsonretailwebsitesasapositivedevelopment.Asanadditionalwayto
suggestgiftsforcustomers,shesays,retailwebsitesshouldanalyzethosecustomers'previouspurchasesand
generategiftideasthataresimilartothosepurchases.Becausetheseitemswouldbesimilartothingsthatthe
customerhasalreadybought,Joannereasons,theywouldbeidealgifts.

(3)StatetheGoal
WeneedtofindwhatistakenforgrantedbyJoanneintheargument.Herfundamentalpointisthatalistofitems
similartothecustomer'spriorpurchasesshouldaccuratelyreflectthingsthatthecustomerwouldlikeforhimselfor
herself(andwouldthereforemakegoodgiftideas).Tojustifythepremisethatacustomer'spurchasehistoryshould
reflectwhatthatcustomerwantsforhimselforherself,Joannemustassumethatthepurchasehistorydoesnot
consistmostlyofitemsboughtforotherpeople.Itmustalsoassumethatacustomerwantsthingssimilartowhat
theyalreadyown.Ifapersonboughtatoaster,doesthatnecessarilymeanthattheywantanothertoaster?Asthere

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areafewassumptionsmade,wewillhavetoseehowtheanswerchoicesarephrasedbeforemakingadecision.

(4)WorkfromWrongtoRight

(A)Whetherthecustomerisfamiliarwithmostofaretailer'sinventoryisirrelevanttoJoanne'ssuggestion.Her
proposedsystemwouldscanaretailer'sentirecatalog,whetherthetargetcustomerisfamiliarwithmostofthe
productsornot.

(B)Infact,Joanneassumespreciselytheopposite:Hersystemisbasedontheideathatthingssimilartowhata CATExamReview
customeralreadyownswillmakegoodgifts.
YouwereINCORRECT
(C)CORRECT:Fortheargumenttowork,Joannemustassumethatcustomersuseretailwebsitesprimarilyto
purchasethingsforthemselves.Morespecifically,Joannemustassumethatcustomersdonotusethesewebsites Question34of41
primarilytopurchaseitemsforotherpeople,suchasgiftsorresaleitems.Therefore,thisstatementisan
Foreachofthepasttwoyears,majordepartmentstoreshavereportedanearly50%increaseintheirrevenue
assumption.
generatedfromthesaleofmen'sclothingmanufacturedbyZachary,Inc.,aresultthatisallthemoresurprising

becausethesalesofmostotherbrandsofmen'sclothinghavebeendepressedoverthesameperiod.Nevertheless,
Wecanalsousethenegationmethod.Ifthisstatementisfalse,thenthehypotheticalcustomerusesretail
Z.A.C.,theparentcompanyofZacharyInc,doesnotappeartohaveemergedunscathedfromtheoveralltrendof
websitesprimarilytopurchasegiftsforotherpeople.Inthatcase,thecustomer'spurchasehistorywillreflectthe
decreasedsalesintheindustry:Z.A.C.hasreportedaslightdeclineinoverallsalesineachofthepasttwoyears.
desiresofthepeopletowhomthecustomergivesgifts,ratherthanthoseofthecustomerhimorherselfthus

destroyingtheeffectivenessofJoanne'sargument.
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,mosthelpstoexplainthesurprisingresultabove?

(D)Joanne'sproposedsystemwouldnotrevealcustomers'purchasehistories,sothisconsiderationisirrelevant. ThesalesofclothingatZachary,Inc.'sboutiquestores,which,unlikedepartmentstores,areownedand
operatedbythecompanyitself,haveheldsteadyoverthelasttwoyears.
(E)WhileJoannedoesassumethatcustomershavebuiltupapurchasehistorywithonlineretailers,shemakesno
Twoyearsago,Zachary,Inc.begananambitiousnewadvertisingcampaignineachofthelasttwo
assumptionsabouttheirpreferencesbetweenonlineshoppingandshoppinginstores.
years,thecompany'sadvertisingdepartmenthasoverspentitsplannedbudgetbyalmosthalf.
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev
Z.A.C.isrenownedforthequalityofitsfabrics,andsellslargequantitiesoffabrictoavarietyof
manufacturersofmen'sclothing.
Zachary,Inc.formerlymanufacturedleatheraccessoriesandwomen'sclothinginadditiontomen's
clothing,but,forthepastthreeyears,thecompanyhasproducedonlymen'sclothing.
Inthelasttwoyears,Z.A.C.,inadditiontomaintainingitspriorbusinessventures,expandedintotwo
newmarkets,neitherofwhichhasbeenparticularlyprofitablethusfar.

HideExplanation
(1)IdentifytheQuestion

Thepromptasksusto"explainthesurprisingresult"inthepassage,sothisisanExplaintheDiscrepancyquestion.

(2)DeconstructthePassage

Accordingtothepassage,salesofZacharyIncmensclothing(asubsidiaryofZ.A.C.)atdepartmentstoresareup
significantlyoverthelasttwoyears.Nevertheless,despitethatincrease,parentcompanyZ.A.C.'soverallsales
numbershaveshrunkoverthesameperiod,inkeepingwiththetrendforthesaleofotherlinesofmensclothing.

(3)StatetheGoal

The"surprisingresult",here,isthedecreaseinZ.A.C.soverallsales,despitethejumpinthesalesofitsdaughter
company(ZacharyInc)men'sclothingatdepartmentstores.SincethedepartmentstoresalesofZacharyIncs
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mensclothinghavedefinitelyincreased,theonlypossibleexplanationforthisresultwouldbeadecreaseinsome
otheraspectofZ.A.C.ssales.

(4)WorkfromWrongtoRight

(A)Accordingtothisstatement,theboutiquestores'salesremainedconstant.Tohelpexplaintheunexpecteddrop
intheZ.A.C.'soverallsales,though,theboutiquestores'saleswouldneedtohavedecreasedoverthetwoyear
period.
CATExamReview
(B)ThecurrentpassageisfocusedonlyonZ.A.C.andZacharyIncssales,notontheoverallprofitabilityofZachary
Inc,soadvertisingexpensesareirrelevant. YouwereINCORRECT

(C)CORRECT.Ifsalesoffabrictoothermen'sclothingmanufacturerswhichthemselvesexperienceddepressed Question8of41
salesconstitutesasignificantportionofZ.A.C.soverallsales,thenadecreaseinthatcomponentoftheZ.A.C.'s
Thepresidentsnomineestofederalcircuitcourtshavebeenjudgedconservativefortheirstandsonhot
salescouldconceivablyaccountfortheunexpectedresultinthepassage.
buttonissues.ButareviewoftheirfinancialdisclosureformsandSenatequestionnairesrevealsthatthenominees

aremorenotablefortheirclosetiestocorporateandeconomicinterests,especiallytheenergyandmining
(D)ThepassageisconcernedonlywiththetrendsintheZacharyIncandZ.A.C.'ssalesoverthepasttwoyears,
industries.Someofthemwerepaidlobbyistsforthosesameinterests.Further,thenomineeswithindustryties
soanyearlierchangesinZacharyInc'sprofileareirrelevant.
wereoverwhelminglyappointedtocircuitcourtsregardedastraditionalbattlegroundsoverlitigation

affectingtheseindustries.Independentobserverswhofollowthefederalbenchbelievethattheextensivecorporate
(E)Participationintwonewbusinessventuresthathavenotprovedtobeprofitableasofyetdoesnotexplainthe
involvementamongsomanyofthenomineesisunprecedented.
decreaseinsalesreportedforZ.A.C.Evenifthelackofprofitsignifiespoorsalesinthosetwonewareas,thislack
ofanincreaseinthosetwoventuresdoesnotnecessarilyconstituteadecreaseforthecompanyoverall.
Intheargumentabove,thetwoportionsinboldfacepaywhichofthefollowingroles?
Furthermore,theanswerchoicealsostipulatesthatZ.A.C.maintaineditspriorbusinessventures.
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev Thefirstisageneralizationthattheauthoraimstoattackthesecondisthatattack.
Thefirstisapatternthattheauthoracknowledgesastruethesecondistheauthorsconclusionbased
onthatacknowledgment.
Thefirstisaphenomenonthattheauthoracceptsastruethesecondisevidenceinsupportofthe
authorsconclusion.
Thefirstistheauthorspositionbasedontheevidencecitedthesecondisapatternpresentedinsupport
ofthatposition.
Thefirstisanexceptiontoaruleintroducedintheargumentthesecondprovidesthereasoningbehind
theexception.

HideExplanation

Theconclusionoftheargumentisthatthenominees"aremorenotablefortheirclosetiestocorporateandeconomic
interests"thanfortheirpositionsoncontroversialissues.Thefirstboldfacedstatementisarecognitionofthefact
thatthepresident'snomineeshavebeenbrandedconservative.Thesecondboldfacedstatementoffersinformation
insupportoftheassertionthatthenomineesaremorenotablefortheircorporateties.Soweneedtofindachoice
thatdescribesbothstatementsaccurately.

(A)Theauthordoesnotseektoattacktheassertionmadeinthefirststatement.

(B)Theauthordoesacknowledgethefirststatementastrue.However,thesecondstatementisnottheconclusion.

(C)CORRECT.Theauthordoesacceptthefirststatementastrue,andthesecondstatementisindeedgivenin
supportoftheconclusion.

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(D)Thefirststatementisnottheauthor's"position"(i.e.,conclusion).

(E)Thefirststatementisnotanexceptiontoarule,makingthedescriptionofthesecondstatementfalseaswell.

EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

CATExamReview
YouwereINCORRECT

Question37of41

TheActionPackedGamingCompany,basedonthesuccessofthepreviousseasonsvideogamefeaturingthe
characterSamLi,ofthepopularFistofAweseriesofmartialartsmovies,developedforthecurrentseasonasimilar
martialartsgamefeaturinganewcharacterwhoisalsoamartialartsmaster.Thenewgamehadimproved3D
graphics,enhancedmultiplayercapability,anddozensofnewmartialartsmovesdevelopedbyreallife
masters.However,marketingsurveysshowedthatteenagerswereuninterestedinthisnewgame,andthegame
soldverypoorly.

Thepassageimpliesthatanexplanationforthefailureofthenewgameisbasedondoubtregardingwhichofthe
followingassumptions?

Teenagersmakepurchasingdecisionsbasedonthetechnologicalmeritsofvideogames,notthename
recognitionofthegamesmaincharacters.

Buyersofvideogamesprefertopurchasegamesbasedonpopularmovies.

TheFistofAweseriesofmovieswasextremelypopularwithteenagerswhoregularlypurchasevideo
games.

Technologicalimprovementfromonevideogametothenextdoesnotguaranteeacorresponding
increaseinsales.

ThesuccessfulvideogamemayhavebenefitedfromadvertisingassociatedwiththeFistofAwemovies,
abenefitthefailedvideogamedidnothave.

HideExplanation
Theargumentcanbesummarizedasfollows:

Avideogamebasedonapopularmoviecharacterwassuccessfulwithteenagers.
Acompanyattemptedtoreplicatethissuccesswithasimilargamethathadbettertechnology,andasimilar
butunknowncharacter.
Thenewgamewasafailurewithteenagers.
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ItmaybehelpfultoanticipatetheargumentsconclusionthatmoviecharacterSamLiwasacrucialfactorinthe
firstgamessuccessbeforeproceedingtothequestion.

Thequestionasksusforthestatementthatisunlikelytobetruethatis,thestatementthatisanassumptionthat,
ifuntrue,wouldsupportanexplanationforthenewgamesfailure.

A.Thisstatementdirectlycontradictsthefactsofthepassage.Teenagerspreferredthelesstechnologically
advancedgamefeaturingSamLitothemoretechnologicallyadvancedgamefeaturinganunknown CATExamReview
character.Therefore,doubtregardingthestatementinanswerchoiceAsupportsanexplanationforthefailureofthe
newgame.AnswerchoiceAiscorrect. YouwereINCORRECT

B.Thisstatementissupportedbythefactsofthepassage.Incorrect. Question4of41

TheWestIndianmanatee,adistantrelativeoftheelephant,returnedtotheseasome50millionyearsago.These
C.ThisstatementsupportstheimpliedconclusionofthepassagethatSamLiwasamoreimportantfactorthan
thousandpoundherbivoresinhabitthewarmcoastalwaterswhereAmericansliketoplay.Despiteconservation
improvedtechnology.Incorrect.
efforts,criminalpenaltiesforharmingthesecreatures,andanoverabundanceofSAVETHEMANATEE!bumper

stickers,noneoftheseanimalscanbeconsideredsafe.
D.Thisstatementissupportedbythefactsofthepassage.Incorrect.

Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,moststronglysupportstheargumentabove?
E.ThisstatementsupportstheimpliedconclusionofthepassagethatSamLiwasamoreimportantfactorthan
improvedtechnology.Incorrect. Lastyear,severalmanateesweremysteriouslykilledbyanunidentifiedtoxin.

Allmanateesswimatdepthsthatmakethemvulnerabletothebladesofmotorboatengines.
TheanswerisA.
Mosttouristsareunawareoftheongoingeffortstosavethemanatee.
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev
Thepopulationofmanateesinthewildhasdwindledtofewerthan2,500animals.

Althoughdozensofmanateedeathsaredocumentedeachyear,manymoredeathsgounreported.

HideExplanation
Theargumentconcludesthat,despitenumerousprotections,noneofthemanateescanbeconsideredsafe.The
correctanswerchoicemustsupporttheassertionthatallmanateesarethreatened.

(A)Thedeathsofseveralmanateesfromaspecifictoxininnowayindicatesthatallmanateesareunsafe.

(B)CORRECT.Thischoiceexplicitlystatesthatallmanateesputthemselvesinharmswaybyswimmingat
depthsthatmakethemvulnerabletothebladesofmotorboatengines.

(C)Theawarenessofprogramstosavethemanateeisirrelevanttotheargument.

(D)Thesimplefactthatalimitednumberofmanateesremainsinthewildinnowaysuggeststhateveryoneofthe
2,500remainingmanateesisthreatened.

(E)Thedeathseachyearofanumberofmanatees,whetherdocumentedorundocumented,donotindicatethatall
livingmanateesarethreatened.
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

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waitinguntiltheconsumerdemanddeclinesbeforeannouncinganewtechnology.Howeverfrequentlyconsumers
typicallypurchasetechnology,somewillbereadytobuytheolddevicewhennewsoftheupcomingdevicegetsout
andaccordingtotheargument,thisnewswillcausesomeofthoseconsumerstowait.

(E)Thepassagemakesnomentionofwhetherthetechnologiesbelongtothesamecompanyordifferent
companies.

EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev
CATExamReview
YouwereINCORRECT

Question18of41

Analyst:Thepaceoftechnologicaldevelopmentbringsaconstantstreamofnewdevicestothemarket,andmany
ofthemenjoycommercialsuccess.Butannouncingnewtechnologytoosoonaftertheintroductionofasuccessful
devicecanbackfire.Onceconsumershearaboutthenewdevice,theymaystopbuyingtheonecurrentlyonsale.
So,ifacompanywishestoannouncetheupcomingsaleofanewdevice,itshouldwaituntilpurchasesoftheold
devicehavebeguntodecline.

Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,wouldbestsupporttheanalyst'smainassertion?

Newtechnologyoftenbecomeslessexpensiveafteraninitialsurgeinsales.
Mediaoutlets,suchastelevisionprogramsandmagazines,oftenreportontheplannedintroductionof
newdeviceswhilethesalesofolddevicesarestillstrong.
Manyconsumersareunabletodeterminewhethernewtechnologyissuperiortocurrenttechnology.
Surveyshaveshownthatsomeconsumersmakeonlyoneortwotechnologypurchasesperyear,
whereasothersmakemorefrequentpurchases.
Consumerstendtobeloyaltotechnologycompanieswhoseproductstheyenjoyusing.

HideExplanation

Theconclusionisthatacompanyshouldwaituntilpurchasesofanolddevicehavebeguntodeclinebefore
announcinganewdevice.Thebasisforthisclaimisthatconsumersstopbuyingtheolddevice.Weareaskedto
strengthentheargument.

(A)Thetypicaldropinthepriceofnewtechnologydoesnotinfluencewhetheracompanyshouldwaituntilsalesof
anoldtechnologybegintodeclinebeforeintroducinganewone.

(B)CORRECT.Thischoicestatesthatmediaoutletssuchastelevisionandmagazinesoftenreportontheplanned
introductionofnewdeviceswhilesalesofolddevicesarestillstrong.Theargumentrequiresthatconsumers"hear
aboutthenewdevice"storiesinthemediaprovideameansforconsumerstodoso.

(C)Ifmanyconsumersareunabletodeterminethesuperiorityofnewtechnology,thentheymightbelessswayed
towaitforanew,recentlyannounceddevicethanotherwise.Asaresult,thisclaimmaybeseentoweakenthe
analyst'sassertion.

(D)Thenumberoftechnologypurchasesperyeardoesnotdirectlyrelatetothisargument.Theargumentisabout

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nolongerreceivevaccinations".Basedonthisstatement,itisreasonabletoconcludethatsomepeoplewithout
healthsavingsarelikelytocontractinfectiousdiseases.

(E)Theargumentdoesnotprovideenoughinformationtoconcludethatthecausalrelationshipbetweenan
individual'shealthandthatpersonsmedicalcarehasbeenadequatelydocumented.Infact,neitherthelinkbetween
medicalcareandhealthnordocumentationofsuchalinkisdirectlydiscussed.
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

CATExamReview
YouwereINCORRECT

Question25of41

Advocatesinsistthathealthsavingsaccountsareanefficientmethodtoreducemedicalexpenses.However,
widespreadadoptionoftheseaccountswillsoonunderminethepublicshealth.Onereasonforthisisthatmost
peoplewillbereluctanttodepletetheiraccountstopayforregularpreventiveexaminations,sothatinmanycasesa
seriousillnesswillgoundetecteduntilitisfaradvanced.Anotherreasonisthatpoorpeople,whowillnotbeableto
affordhealthsavingsaccounts,willnolongerreceivevaccinationsagainstinfectiousdiseases.

Thestatementsabove,iftrue,mostsupportwhichofthefollowing?

Wealthyindividualswillnotbeaffectednegativelybyhealthsavingsaccounts.
Privatehealthinsurancewillnolongerbeavailable.
Mostdiseasesaredetectedduringregularpreventiveexaminations.
Somepeoplewithouthealthsavingsaccountsarelikelytocontractinfectiousdiseases.
Thecausalrelationshipbetweenanindividualshealthandthatpersonsmedicalcarehasbeen
adequatelydocumented.

HideExplanation
Thepassagestatesthathealthsavingsaccountswillunderminethehealthofthepublicbecausepeoplewillnotuse
themforpreventivecare.Furthermore,peoplewhocannotaffordthemwillnotbeabletoreceiveevenbasiccare
suchasvaccinations.Thecorrectanswerwillbeaconclusionthatcanbesupportedsolelybythefactsstatedin
theargument,withoutrelyingonoutsideinformationoradditionalassumptions.

(A)Theargumentdoesnotprovideenoughinformationtoconcludethatwealthyindividualswillnotbeaffected
negativelybyhealthsavingsaccounts.Theargumentneverspecificallymentionswealthyindividuals,justpeoplein
general.

(B)Theargumentdoesnotprovideenoughinformationtoconcludethatprivatehealthinsurancewillnolongerbe
available.Infact,privatehealthinsuranceisnevermentioned.

(C)Theauthorarguesthatpeoplewillnotgetregularpreventiveexaminations,andwillthereforenotreceivemedical
attentionuntildiseasesareadvanced.Thislogic,eveniftrue,doesnotallowustoconcludethatmostdiseasesare
detectedduringregularpreventiveexaminations.

(D)CORRECT.Theargumentstatesthat"poorpeople,whowillnotbeabletoaffordhealthsavingsaccounts,will

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staff.

Forexample,supposetherewere100fullyqualifiedfamiliesandonly8ofthemwerepersonallyacquaintedwiththe
staffthose8happenedtobechosen,whileonly2of92qualifiedapplicantswhowerenotacquaintedwithstaff
werechosen.Ifthatweretrue,itwouldunderminetheauthor'sclaimthattheagencydidnotshowanyfavoritism.
TheauthormustbeassumingthatthisisNOTthecase.

(4)WorkfromWrongtoRight
CATExamReview
(A)Theargumentisconcernedonlywithwhetherabiastowardpersonallyacquaintedapplicantsispresentor
YouwereINCORRECT absentitisnotconcernedwithwhethersuchabiasmay,infact,leadtoplacementsthataremoresuccessfulin
thelongterm.
Question29of41
(B)CORRECT.Fortheargumenttoestablishlackofbiastowardcertainapplicants,theproportionof"previously
Adoptionagencyrepresentative:Itistruethateightofourlasttenbabieshavebeenplacedwithparentswhowere
acquainted"peopleamongthoseapplicantschosenforplacementmustreflectthecorrespondingproportionamong
personallyacquaintedwithatleastoneofourstaffmembersbeforeinitiatingtheadoptionprocess.However,there
allapplicants.Inotherwords,ifeightoutofthetenparentsactuallychosenwerepersonallyacquaintedwiththe
isnotruthtotheaccusationagainstusoffavoritismourdecisionshavebeenguidedsolelybythebestinterestsof
staff,thenasimilarmajorityofallapplicantsshouldhavebeensimilarlyacquaintedwiththestaff.Alternatively,use
thechildren.Indeed,alltenbabies'newparentsfarsurpassedtheadoptioncriteriasetbothbythelawandbyour
thenegationtest.Ifthisstatementisfalse,thenthemajorityofqualifiedapplicantswereinfactunacquaintedwith
ownpolicy.
agencystaffasituationinwhichtheplacementofeightoftenbabieswithpersonallyacquaintedapplicantsisa
clearsignalofbias.Sincethenegationofthisstatementdefeatstheargument,theoriginalstatementmustbe
Whichofthefollowingisanassumptiononwhichtherepresentative'sargumentdepends?
assumed.
Theagency'spriorplacementsofbabieswithparentswhowerepreviouslyacquaintedwithitsstaffhave
not,ingeneral,beenmoresuccessfulthanthosewithparentsunacquaintedwiththestaff. (C)Theargumentisconcernedonlywithdeterminingwhetherabiasisdemonstratedbytheagency'stenmost
recentplacementsitdoesnotinvolvetheideaofwhetherthoseplacementsweremadeatatypicalrate.
Ofthoseprospectiveparentswhosubstantiallysurpassedthecriteriaforadoption,mostwerepersonally
acquaintedwithagencystaffbeforebeginningtheapplicationprocess.
(D)Applicantswhodonotmeetthecriteriaareirrelevanttheargumentisconcernedwithdeterminingwhethera
Foratimeperiodequalindurationtothatduringwhichthedatawerecollected,theaveragenumberof biasexistsamongfullyqualifiedapplicants.Therefore,therelativeproportionofunqualifiedcandidatesamongall
babiesplacedbytheagencyisclosetoten. applicantsdoesnotaffecttheargument.
Mostprospectiveparentswhoapplytoadoptbabiesdonotmeettheagency'scriteriaforadoption.
Theagencywillonlyplacebabieswithparentswhonotonlymeetthelegalandinstitutionalcriteriafor (E)Althoughalltenoftheagency'smostrecentplacementsmayindeedhavebeenplacedwithparentswho"far
adoption,butwhoinfactsurpassthosecriteria. surpassed"thecriteria,thereisnothingintheargumenttosuggestthatallsuccessfulapplicantsmustsubstantially
surpassthosecriteria(asopposedtosimplymeetingorfulfillingthem).
HideExplanation EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev
(1)IdentifytheQuestionType
Theword"assumption"inthequestionstemindicatesthatthisisaFindtheAssumptionquestion.

(2)DeconstructtheArgument
Accordingtotheargument,theadoptionagencyhasawardedthemajorityofitsrecentplacementstoparentswho
werepersonallyacquaintedwithagencystaff.Theargumentdeniesthatthisdiscrepancyisasignoffavoritism
towardcertainapplicants,onthegroundsthatalltenplacementsweremadewithparentswhosurpassedthe
agency's(andthelaw's)criteriaforadoption.

(3)StatetheGoal
OnFindtheAssumptionquestions,we'relookingforsomethingthattheauthormustbelievetobetrueinorderto
drawthegivenconclusion.Theargumentconcludesthattheagencydidnotengageinfavoritismbecauseallofthe
chosenparentssurpassedtheadoptioncriteria.However,theargumentisalsoassumingthat,amongallwell
qualifiedapplicants,therewasnofavoritismtowardindividualswhowerepersonallyacquaintedwiththeagency

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bill,sothatthedollaramountdoesnotchange.Ifthelegalpercentageisdecreased,healthcareprovidersmust
increasethebillinglevelinordertooffsetthechange.Alternatively,ifthelegalpercentageisincreased,healthcare
providerswouldhavetodecreasethebillinglevelinordertooffsetthechange.

(3)StatetheGoal
Oninferencequestions,werelookingfortheanswerthatmustbetrueaccordingtotheinformationgiveninthe
passage.Themosttemptingwronganswersareoftenitemsthatmightbetruebutdonthavetobetrue.

CATExamReview (4)WorkfromWrongtoRight

YouwereINCORRECT (A)CORRECT.Thepassagestatesthat,ifthepercentageischanged,healthcareproviderswilladjusttheamount
ofthebillsothatthedollaramountdoesnotchange.Inparticular,ifthelegalpercentageisdecreased,healthcare
Question38of41 providersmustbillincreasedamountstoaccomplishthisobjective.Sinceprivatepatientsareresponsibleforthefull
amountbilled,theywillberesponsibleforthenew,higheramount.
Inacertaincountry,insurancecompaniespayonlyafixedpercentagesetbylawanduniformacrossallinsurance
companiesofthefeesactuallybilledbyhealthcareproviderstheremainingbalanceiswaived.Patientswithout
(B)Thereisnothinginthepassagetosuggestthattheamountpaidbyinsurancecompaniescouldnotchangefor
insurancecoverage,however,arelegallyresponsibleforthefullamountofthosefees.Ifthefixedpercentagesetfor
reasonsunrelatedtothelaw.Forexample,nothinginthepassagepreventsthehealthcareprovidersfromchanging
insurancecompaniesischanged,healthcareproviderswilladjusttheirfeessothattheinsurancecompaniespaythe
theirprices,andachangeinpriceswithoutachangeinthepercentagepaidwouldresultinachangeinthedollar
samedollaramountthattheywouldhavepaidbeforethechange.
amountpaidbytheinsurancecompanies.
Theinformationgivenmoststronglysupportswhichofthefollowinggeneralclaimsaboutthecountrydescribed?
(C)Thisstatementmightbetrue,butthereisnothinginthepassagetoindicatethatitmustbetrue.Thepassage
describeswhathealthcareproviderswilldoonlyintheeventofachangeinthelawitdoesnotdescribewhatthey
Ifthepercentageprescribedbylawforinsurancecompaniesisdecreased,privatepatientswithout willdoinothersituations,suchastheonedescribedinthisanswerchoice.
insurancecoveragewillpaymoreforhealthcareservices.
(D)Thepassageprovidesnoinformationaboutwhatdeterminesthelegallysetpercentage.

Thedollaramountpaidbyinsurancecompaniestohealthcareproviderswillnotchangeunlessthelegally
(E)Thisstatementmaybetrueforsomepatientsbutdoesnothavetobetrueforall,e.g.,forthosewhouse
specifiedpercentageischanged.
healthcareservicesveryinfrequently.Forsuchpatientseveniftheypaygreaterbillswhentheydousehealthcare
servicesthedifferencemaynotmakeupforthecostofinsurancepremiums,especiallyifthosepremiumsare
Ifthenumberofpatientswithoutinsurancecoveragegrowsbeyondthenumberofpatientscoveredby high.
insurance,healthcareproviderswilladjusttheirbillingpracticesaccordingtotheneedsofthosepatients.
EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

Ifaneconomicrecessioncausesthehealthcareindustrytosuffer,thelegallyprescribedpercentagepaid
byinsurancecompanieswillbeincreased.

Acquiringinsurancecoverage,ifpossible,wouldbeasoundeconomicdecisionforanypatient.

HideExplanation

(1)IdentifytheQuestionType
AtfirstthismayseemtobeaStrengthenquestion,becauseofthephrasemoststronglysupports.However,we
areaskedwhichanswerchoiceissupportedbytheinformationinthepassage,sothisisanInferencequestion.

(2)DeconstructtheArgument
Underthelaw,insurancecompaniesonlyhavetopayafixedpercentageofhealthcarebills,butprivatepatients
mustpaythefullamount.Inaddition,ifthepercentageischanged,healthcareproviderswilladjusttheamountofthe
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(E)Theeducatorisnotnecessarilyclaimingthatallchildrenshouldstudymusic.Asinchoice(B),theeducator
onlyarguesthatsomeofthechildrenwhodon'tstudymusichavelatentmusicaltalents.Furthermore,theeducator
doesnotprovideanyotherrationalesforstudyingmusic,besidesthedevelopmentofproficiency.

EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev

CATExamReview
YouwereINCORRECT

Question35of41

Educator:Likemanyotherdifficultpursuits,musicrequiresintensestudyandpracticefromanearlyageinorderfor
onetobecomeproficient.Butmanyschoolmusicprogramsencourageonlychildrenwhodemonstrateearlyaptitude
tocontinuestudyingmusic,whilechildrenwhodonotappearespeciallymusicalaredirectedtowardsother
activities.Havinglearnedtothinkofthemselvesasmusicallyinept,thesechildrendonotdevoteanytimetomusic,
andthussomeofthemdeprivethemselvesoftheopportunitytodeveloplatentbutpotentiallysignificantmusical
talent.

Theeducator'sstatements,iftrue,wouldbestsupportwhichofthefollowingconclusions?

Musiceducationshouldnotdevotespecialattentiontotalentedstudents.
Everyonehasthepotentialtolearnmusic.

Thenumberofproficientadultmusiciansislessthanitcouldbe.

Childrenareparticularlysensitivetocriticismfromadults.
Allchildrenshouldstudymusic.

HideExplanation
Weareaskedtodrawaconclusionbasedontheeducator'sstatements.Theeducatorstatesthatchildrenwho
demonstrateearlytalentformusicareencouragedtopursueit,whilechildrenwhodonotshowsuchtalentarenot
encouraged,andthussomeofthemdeprivethemselvesoftheopportunitytodeveloplatentbutpotentially
significantmusicaltalent.Wemustfindananswerchoicethatisbasedonlyonthesestatements.

(A)Thischoicestatesthatmusiceducationshouldnotdevotespecialattentiontotalentedstudents.Thisassertion
goesbeyondthescopeoftheeducator'sstatements.

(B)Thischoicestatesthateveryonehasthepotentialtolearnmusic.However,theeducatoronlyarguesthatsome
ofthechildrennotclassifiedasmusicalactuallyhavelatentmusicaltalents.

(C)CORRECT.Sincesomechildrendonoteverdeveloptheirlatentbutpotentiallysignificantmusicaltalents,the
numberofproficientadultmusiciansislowerthanitwouldbeifthesetalentsweredeveloped.

(D)Thefactthatchildrenwhoaredirectedtowardsotheractivitieshavelearnedtothinkofthemselvesasmusically
ineptdoesn'timplythatchildrenareparticularlysensitivetocriticismfromadultsingeneral.
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Question19of41

ThenumberofnewcasesoftuberculosisdiagnosedinCountryXincreaseddramaticallythisyear.Thecountry's
newsmediahavespeculatedthatthesharpincreaseinnewcasesistheresultofthetuberculosisoutbreakthat
occurredinneighboringCountryYlastyear.HealthofficialsinCountryXhavethereforeproposedthatallvisitors
fromCountryYmustsubmittoamedicalexaminationbeforeenteringCountryX.

Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,moststronglysuggeststhattheproposedmedicalexaminationswillNOThelpcurb
thespreadoftuberculosisinCountryX?

CountryZ,whichalsoneighborsCountryY,hasnotexperiencedanincreaseincasesoftuberculosis.
Currentmedicaltechnologyisnotcapableofdetectingallcarriersoftuberculosis.
CountryXdoesnothavetheresourcestoexamineallvisitorsfromCountryY.
Tuberculosisisnotspreadthroughhumancontact.
CitizensofCountryYwillnottraveltoCountryXiftheproposalisimplemented.

HideExplanation
BecauseofthespeculationthatthetuberculosisoutbreakinCountryXwastheresultofanoutbreakoftuberculosis
inCountryY,healthofficialsinCountryXhaveproposedrequiringallvisitorsfromCountryYtoundergoamedical
examination.Weareaskedtofindachoicethatsuggeststhatthisproposalwillnothavethedesiredeffectof
curbingthespreadoftuberculosisinCountryX.

(A)ThishasnobearingonthesituationbetweenCountryXandCountryY.

(B)ThissuggestsonlythattheproposalwouldnotpreventALLcases.Buteveniftheproposaldoesnotpreventall
cases,itcouldhelppreventmany.

(C)ThissuggestsonlythattheproposalwouldnotcatchALLcarriersofthediseasefromCountryY.Butevenifthe
proposaldoesnotpreventallcases,itcouldhelppreventmany.

(D)CORRECT.ThissuggeststhatthevisitorsfromCountryYarenotthesourceofthedisease.Thus,testing
themwouldlikelydolittletocurbthespreadofthedisease.

(E)Thisdoesnotsuggestthattheproposalwillnothelpcurbthespreadofthedisease.IfthevisitorsfromCountry
Yareindeedcarriers,thentheirrefusaltovisitCountryXwillhelpcurbthedisease.

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(B)
IfmostofXYZscouriervehiclesaresubjecttospeedlimitslowerthanthoseforcommuterautomobiles,thenthe
couriervehiclescommutetimewillprobablybelongerthanJohnscommutetimeinhispersonalvehicle.

(C)Correct
Thecitedroundtriptimespecificallyexcludesthetimerequiredforloading,unloading,anddelivery,sothelengthof
timetakenbythesetasksisirrelevanttotheconclusionathand.
CATExamReview
(D)
YouwereINCORRECT Sincetrafficpatternsarehighlydependentuponthetimeofday,thegiven80minuteaveragecannotnecessarilybe
expectedtoholdattimeswhenXYZdoesnotmakedeliveries.
Question5of41
(E)
Forthelastfiveyears,theXYZCourierCompanyhasmaderegulardeliverytripsbetweenTownAandTownB.The
Ifthisstatementistrue,then,forthefirstthreeyearsofthefiveyearperiodinquestion,thetransittimebetweenthe
averagetimetakenbythecompanysdriverstodrivetheroundtripbetweenthetwotowns,excludingthetimetaken
twotownswouldhavebeenmuchlongerthanthatforthelasttwoyearsoftheperiod(andthusthecurrent
forloading,unloading,anddelivery,overthatperiodhasbeen80minutes.John,adriverforXYZ,needstomakea
time).Therefore,inthiscase,thefiveyearaveragewillnotberepresentativeofthecurrenttime.
personaltripbetweenthetwotownshefiguresthatheshouldallowapproximately80minutesfortheroundtrip.



Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,doesnotcallJohnsconclusionintoquestion?
ThecorrectanswerisC.

TheroutebetweenTownAandTownBhasbeenplaguedbyincreasingcongestionoverthelastfive EndExamYoumustselectananswertoproceed.Next>>ProblemList<<Prev
years,asthearea'spopulationhasdoubledduringthattime.

MostofXYZscouriervehiclesareheavytrucks,forwhichspeedlimitsarelowerthanforpassenger
vehicles.

ManyofthepackagescarriedbyXYZbetweenTownAandTownBarelarge,highsecuritypackages,
forwhichtheprocessesofloading,unloading,anddeliverycantakeuptohalfthelengthofthetripitself.

JohnwillmakehispersonaltripatanhourwhenXYZdoesnotmakedeliverytrips.

BeforeafreewaywasbuiltbetweenTownAandTownBtwoyearsago,theonlyroutesbetweenthetwo
townswerestatehighwayswithmultipletrafficlightsandreducedspeeddowntownzones.

HideExplanation
JohnassumesthathisroundtripdrivingtimebetweenthetwotownswillbesimilartoXYZsaveragetime,overthe
lastfiveyears,forthesameroundtrip.Therefore,Johnsconclusionwillbeweakenedby(a)anysystematic
differencebetweenJohnspersonaltripandXYZscompanytrips,or(b)anyreasonwhythefiveyearaverageisnot
representativeofthetimecurrentlyrequiredtodrivebetweenthetwotowns.

(A)
Ifthisstatementistrue,thenthefiveyearaveragecommutetimewillnotberepresentativeofthecurrentcommute
time,sincetheincreasingcongestionwillhaveraisedthecurrentcommutetimetoalevelgreaterthanthefiveyear
average.

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responsibilitiestotheirfamilies.Thesecondstudystatesthat80%ofseniorshaveopenedabankaccount,andof
this80%,onethirdhasbouncedacheck.Thenumberofseniorsthathasbouncedacheck(onethirdof80%)is
fewerthanthenumberofseniorswithsignificantfinancialresponsibilitiestotheirfamilies(onethirdof100%).

(D)Thepassagestatesthatcertainhighschoolseniorswhocontributetothefood,shelter,orclothingfor
themselvesortheirfamiliesratethemselvesashavingsignificantfinancialresponsibilities.Thisdoesnotmeanthat
anyhighschoolseniorwhocontributestothesecategorieshassignificantfinancialresponsibilities.

CATExamReview (E)Thepassagestatesthatonethirdofhighschoolseniorssaythattheyhavesignificantfinancialresponsibilities.
Thisinnowayindicatesthattheothertwothirdshavenoresponsibilities.Becausenoinformationisgivenabout
YouwereINCORRECT theothertwothirdsofthestudents,areasonedconclusioncannotbedrawnaboutthem.
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Question13of41

Accordingtoarecentstudyonfinancialroles,onethirdofhighschoolseniorssaythattheyhavesignificant
financialresponsibilities.Theseresponsibilitiesinclude,butarenotlimitedto,contributingtofood,shelter,or
clothingforthemselvesortheirfamilies.Atthesametime,asecondstudydemonstratesthatacrisisinmoney
managementexistsforhighschoolstudents.Accordingtothisstudy,80%ofhighschoolseniorshavenevertaken
apersonalfinanceclasseventhoughthesamepercentageofseniorshasopenedbankaccountsandonethirdof
theseaccountholdershasbouncedacheck.

Whichofthefollowingconclusionscanbeproperlydrawnfromthestatementsabove?

Highschoolswouldbewisetoincorporatepersonalfinanceclassesintotheircorecurricula.
Atleastonethirdofhighschoolseniorsworkparttimejobsafterschool.
Thenumberofhighschoolseniorswithsignificantfinancialresponsibilitiesisgreaterthanthenumberof
seniorswhohavebouncedacheck.
Anyhighschoolseniorswhocontributetofood,shelter,orclothingforthemselvesortheirfamilieshave
significantfinancialresponsibilities.
Themajorityofhighschoolstudentshavenofinancialresponsibilitiestotheirfamilies.

HideExplanation
Thispassagerelatesinformationfromtwostudiesconcerninghighschoolseniors:thefirstdiscussesthefinancial
responsibilitiesofhighschoolseniors,whilethesecondexplainsthecourseworkinfinancetakenbytypicalhigh
schoolseniors.OntheGMAT,aproperresponsetoadrawaconclusionquestionmustbedirectlysupportedby
evidencefromthepassage.

(A)Althoughitmightbetruethatschoolswouldbewisetoeducatestudentsinfinance,thisisanopinionitdoesn't
necessarilyneedtofollowfromthegivenevidence.Aconclusionmustbedirectlysupportedbyevidencefromthe
passagewithoutanyadditionalinformationorassumptions.

(B)Thefactthatonethirdofhighschoolseniorsclaimsignificantfinancialresponsibilitiestotheirfamiliesdoesnot
necessarilymeanthatthesesamestudentsworkparttimejobsafterschool.Therearemanypossiblewaysthat
thesestudentsmightearnmoneyfortheirfamilies.Iftheydowork,theymightworkonweekendsoroverthe
summer,forexample.

(C)CORRECT.Thefirststudystatesthatonethirdofallhighschoolseniorshavesignificantfinancial

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boldfacestatement.

(D)CORRECT.Theauthordoesbelievetheevidencepresentedinthefirstboldfaceportionisnolongervalid
further,theauthordoesusethesecondboldfaceportiontosupporttheauthor'sconclusion.

(E)Thesecondboldfaceportionisnottheauthor'smainpointrather,itisapieceofevidenceinsupportofthe
author'sconclusion.
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Question29of41

Fornearlyacentury,physiologistsbelievedthatabuildupoflacticacidinmuscletissuewastheprimarycause
ofthesorenessthatmanypeopleexperienceafterstrenuousexercise.Theacidisthewasteproducedby
metabolicactivityinthemuscleand,theresearchersclaimed,reaches"threshold"levelsthatcausesoreness
severaldayslater.Researchershaverecentlydiscovered,however,thatthelacticacidbyproductisalsoused
asasourceofenergyduringintenseexercise.Theacidisthusconsumedbeforeitcanaccumulatesufficientlyto
causemusclefatigue,leadingresearcherstoconcludethatsomethingelsemustcausethetypicalmusclesoreness.

Intheargumentabove,theportionsinboldfaceplaywhichofthefollowingroles?

Thefirstisanassertionthattheauthorarguesagainstthesecondisevidencepresentedascontraryto
theauthor'sargument.
Thefirstisanassertionthattheauthoracceptsastruethesecondisaconsiderationinsupportofthat
assertion.
Thefirstisscientificevidencethattheauthoracknowledgesmaybevalidthesecondcontradictsthat
evidence.
Thefirstisevidencethattheauthorbelievesisnolongervalidthesecondisevidencethattheauthor
usestosupporthismainpoint.
Thefirstisaclaimthattheauthorbelievestobeinvalidthesecondistheauthor'smainpoint.

HideExplanation
Toanalyzethetwoboldfaceportionseffectively,wefirstdeterminetheconclusionoftheargument:"somethingelse
mustcausethetypicalmusclesoreness."Thenwerelateeachboldfaceportiontothisconclusion.Thefirstboldface
portionrepresentsaconclusionpreviouslyheldbyphysiologiststhisstatementdirectlycontradictstheargument's
conclusion.Thesecondboldfaceportionindicatesthatamorerecentdiscoverycallsthatoriginalconclusioninto
questionthisstatementsupportstheargument'sconclusion.

(A)Theauthordoesargueagainstthefirstboldfaceportion.Thesecondboldfaceportion,however,isnotcontraryto
theauthor'sargumentrather,itsupportstheauthor'sargument.

(B)Theauthordoesnotacceptthefirstboldfaceportionastruerather,theauthor'sconclusioncontradictsthefirst
boldfaceportion.Thesecondboldfaceportiondoesnotsupportthefirstrather,itsupportstheauthor'sconclusion.

(C)Theauthordoesnotbelievethefirstboldfaceportionisvalidrather,theauthor'sconclusioncontradictsthefirst

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