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UNIVERSITI

PETRONAS

FINAL EXAMINATION
MAY 2012 SEMESTER

:
COURSE QAB1013 PHYSICAL GEOLOGY
DATE : 6th SEPTEMBER 2012 (THURSDAY)

TIME : 9.00 AM - 12.00 NOON (3 HOURS)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. Answer ALL questions from the Questions Booklet.


2. Begin EACH answer on a new page in the Answer booklet given.
3. lndicate clearly answers that are cancelled, if any.
4. Where applicable, show clearly steps taken in arriving at the solutions and indicate
ALL assumptions.
5. Do not open this Question Booklet until instructed.

Note : There are SIX (6) pages in this Question Booklet including the cover page.

Universiti teknologi PETRoNAS


QAB 1013

1. a. Describe how processes within the rock cycle produce igneous,


sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
[6 marks]

b. With the aid of diagrams, discuss the following tectonic settings:

i. Ocean-ocean convergence.

i. Ocean-continent convergence.

c. Describe with the aid of diagrams TWO (2) types of geological


structures that occur in extensionaJ tectonic environments.
[6 marks]

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QAB 1013

2. a. Draw the geological time scale from the Cambrian to the

Quaternary.
[6 marks]

b. main fossil that are found in each of the

i Palaeozoic.
[3 marks]
ii. Mesozoic.
[3 marks]
iii. Cenozoic.
[3 marks]

Explain the concept of extinction in the fossil record; give examples.


[5 marksJ

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QAB 1013

3. a. Explain the differences between acidic and basic extrusive and


intrusive igneous rock types in terms of:

i. Place of origin.

ii. Mineralogy and texture.

b. With the aid of diagrams, discuss how palaeomagnetism,


represented by the apparent polar wander path (APWP) and
magnetic stripes, has suppofted the plate tectonics theory.
[10 marks]

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QAB 1013

4. a. Discuss the following:

i. Polymorph minerals.
[2 marks]
. Predominance of silicate minerals in the Earth's crust.
[2 marks]
iii. Formation of different types of igneous rocks.
[2 marks]

b. Explain why a complete petroleum system can only be formed in


sedimentary rocks.
[8 marks]

c. Discuss the influence of FOUR (4) geomorphological agents in


forming landforms.
[6 marks]

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QAB 1013

5. a. Compare and contrast between:

i. Focus and epicenter of an earthquake.


[2 marks]
ii. Rockfall and rockslide.
[2 marks]
iii. Renewable and non-renewable energy resources.
[2 marks]

b. Discuss FOUR (4) factors that may control groundwater infiltration.


[6 marks]

c. Write an account on the igneous processes that may form metallic


ores, illustrate your answer with sketches.
[B marks]

END OF PAPER