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NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

INDEX

S.NO NAME OF EXPERIMENT DATE OF SIGNATURE


EXPERIMENT
To study the oscillations of simple pendulum
1

To determine the radius of gyration of a


2 compound pendulum

To determine the spring stiffness and natural


frequency of single degree spring mass system
3 theoretically and experimentally.

To determines the natural frequency of


undammed torsional vibration of single shaft
4 rotor system

To determine the damping ratio and


logarithmic decrement of damped
5 Torsional vibration of single shaft rotor
system.

To study the whirling of Shaft


6

To determine natural frequency and node point


of two rotor system by theoretically and
7 experimentally

To study sound and noise measuring methods


8 and equipments

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 1


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-1
Semester :- 7thSem Date:-
Subject:- Mechanical vibration & Noise engineering (ME-703)

AIM:
To study the oscillations of simple pendulum

PROCEDURE:
Fix the balls with nylon ropes in to the hooks provided at the top of beam of the frame,and
measure the length of pendulum as shown. Oscillate the pendulum and measurethe time
required for 10 oscillations. Repeat the procedure by changing the ball and changing the
length

OBSERVATION:

Sr. Time for 10 Time Fexp %


Ball Size Length L m Fth
No. Oscillations period Tp Deviation

CALCULATIONS:
For Simple pendulum

1) Experimental Natural Frequency can calculated


Texp= T/n

Therefore Texp =
F(exp)= 1/T(exp)= _____________________cycles/sec

Where T is time period and n is the no of oscillation

2) Theoretical Natural Frequency is calculated by

Tth = 2

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NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fth= 1/Tth= _____________________cycles/sec

Compare the values obtained practically and theoretically.

CONCLUSION:

Q1. Derive the Expression to find the natural frequency of simple pendulum with neat
sketch.

Marks/ Grade Obtained Signature of faculty

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 3


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-2
Semester :- 6thSem Date:-
Subject:- (Mechanical vibration & Noise engineering (ME-703)

AIM:
To determine the radius of gyration of a compound pendulum

INTRODUCTION:
A rigid body is allowed to oscillate in vertical plane about the axis of suspension underthe
action of gravitational force. This body is called a compound pendulum. The unit is provided
with a compound pendulum with a simple design as shown in figure.

PROCEDURE:
Fix the brass bush in any of the holes of pendulum and mount the pendulum over
thesuspension shaft which is fitted at the top disc. Oscillate the pendulum and measure
thetime required for 10 oscillations. Repeat the procedure by putting the bush in
differentholes.

OBSERVATION:
h = distance of c.g. of axis of suspension

Time for 10 Time Fexp %


Sr.No h (m) Fth
oscillation period Tp Deviation

CALCULATIONS:
Let,

m = Mass of compound Pendulum =

k = radius of gyration about an axis through c.g. perpendicular to plane of oscillations

1) Experimental Natural Frequency can calculated


Texp= T/n

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Therefore Texp =
F(exp)= 1/T(exp)= _____________________cycles/sec

3) Theoretical Natural Frequency is calculated by

Conclusion:-

Marks/ Grade Obtained Signature of faculty

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 5


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-3
Semester :- 7thSem Date:-
Subject:- Mechanical vibration and noise engineering(ME-703)

Aim:
To determine the spring stiffness and natural frequency of single degree spring
mass system theoretically and experimentally.

Description of Apparatus:

One end of the open coil spring is fixed to the screw which engages with the screwed
hand wheel. The screw can be adjusted vertically in any convenient position and then clamed
to upper supported plane by the means of lock nuts. Lower end of the spring is attached to the
platform carrying the dead loads. Thus the design of the system incorporates vertical
positioning of the unit.

Procedure:
1. Fix one end of the helical spring to the upper screw.
2. Determine the free length.
3. Put some mass on the platform and note down the deflection.
4. Stretch the spring through some distance and release.
5. Count the time requires for oscillations in seconds, say n.
6. Determine the actual time period.
7. Repeat the procedure for different masses.

Observation table No. 1

Deflection of
Obs. Mass m the spring K=mg/ kmean
No attached(kg) (N/m) (N/m)
(m)

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 6


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Sample Calculations:
4) Stiffness k= Load/Deflection
5) K mean=(k1+k2+k3......)/No. of readings
Where k1=m1g/1
K2= m2g/2
K3= m3g/3

6) Theoretically Natural frequency can be obtained by using relation

7) Experimental Natural Frequency can calculated


Texp= T/n
Therefore Texp =

F(exp)= 1/T(exp)= _____________________cycles/sec

Conclusions:

Marks/ Grade Obtained Signature of faculty

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 7


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-4
Semester :- 7thSem Date:-
Subject:- Mechanical vibration and Noise Engineering (ME-703)

Aim:-To determines the natural frequency of undammed torsional vibration of single shaft
rotor system.

Description of Set up :-

One end of the shaft is gripped in the chuck and heavy flywheel free to rotate in ball
bearing is fixed at the other end of the shaft. The bracket with fixed end of the shaft can be
clamped at any convenient position along vertical beam. Thus length of the shaft can be
varied during the experiments. Specially designed chucks are used for clamping ends of the
shaft. The ball bearing support to the rotor provides negligible damping during the
experiment. The bearing housing is fixed to side member of main frame.

Procedure:-
1. Fix the bracket at convenient position along the vertical beam
2. Grip one end of the shaft at the bracket by the chuck
3. Fix the rotor one the other end of the shaft
4. Twist the rotor through some angle and release.
5. Note down the time required for n oscillation.
6. Repeat the procedure for the different length of the shaft.
7. Make the following observations.
o Shaft Diameter =
o Diameter of the disc =
o Mass of the disc (m) =
o Modulus of rigidity of the shaft =

Observation table:-

2
Where I is the moment of inertia = mk =mr2/2

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 8


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Conclusion:-

Q1Draw neat sketch of shaft rotor system to find the natural frequency

Q2 Derive the expression of natural frequency of torsional vibration

Where

Q3 Compare the experimental and theoretical values of frequency and find


% deviation

Marks/ Grade Obtained Signature of faculty

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 9


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-5
Semester :- 7thSem Date:-
Subject:- Mechanical vibration and Noise Engineering (ME-703)

Aim :- To determine the damping ratio and logarithmic decrement of damped


Torsional vibration of single shaft rotor system.

Description of set-up:

Set up consists of a long elastic shaft gripped at the upper end by the chuck in the
bracket. The bracket is clamped to the upper beam of main frame. A disc clamped at the
lower end of the shaft suspends from the bracket. On this disc, two extension rods from
the periphery are arranged. The rods facilitate for another rods in each to be clamped
vertically. The rods (damper arms) clamped vertically can be used for different depths of
immersion in water or oil housed by two tanks on the sides of a disc.

The recorder is placed below the disc in order to note the cycle by a sketch pen.
The speed of paper is 40mm/sec.

Procedure:
1. Arrange the set up.
2. Fill the required fluid in damping liquid tank.
3. Immerse the arms in the liquid tank to required depth.
4. Oscillate lower rotor and start the recorder.
5. Wait till the oscillations diminish.
Repeat the procedure for different depth of immersion.

Observation Table:-

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 10


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Calculations:
Let X0 and Xn be amplitude at successive time interval t1 and t2. Then, logarithmic
decrement
1 X
ln 0
N Xn
Where,

X0 =Amplitude of vibration at the beginning of measurement to be found from record.


Xn=Amplitude of vibration after n cycles from record.

Damping ratio

Conclusion:-

Q1. Derive the expression of displacement for under damped vibration and by using that

relation prove that logarithmic decrement

Q2. Draw the displacement vs time graph for under damped vibration showing how the
Amplitude is decreases with time.

Marks/ Grade Obtained Signature of faculty

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 11


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-6

Semester :- 7thSem Date:-


Subject:- Mechanical vibration and Noise Engineering (ME-703)

AIM:

To study the whirling of Shaft

THEORY:

If a body or disc mounted upon shafts rotates about it then C.G. of disc must be at shaft axis,
if perfect running balance is to be obtained. But practically, because of difficulty of perfect
machining, disc C.G. does not coincide with shaft axis. Hence, when such shaft rotates, it
deflects towards heavier side of disc due to unbalanced centrifugal force. As we go on
increasing the speed of shaft, a speed is reached at which the disc vibrates violently, this is
the critical speed. After passing this speed, the shaft again runs quietly.

Critical speed depends upon the magnitude and location of the load carried by the
shaft, length and diameter of the shaft and support conditions. The shaft may be operated
below and above critical speed. Higher speed are rarely used, e.g. some stream turbines
exceed critical speed, but they do not run long enough at critical speed for vibrations to build
up to an excessive amplitude.

APPARATUS DESCRTPTION:

The apparatus is designed to demonstrate this phenomenon. lt consists of a base frame over
which two bearing supports are mounted. The driving end carries a bearing block with two
ball bearings giving fixed end condition for shaft. At tail end, two types of bearing blocks are
provided , one for fixed tail end and one for free tail end. The shaft is driven by a variable
speed motor.

Each shaft is provided with eccentric revolving disc. Thus, the student can visualize
the effect of whirling of the shaft".

i) Shaft

ii) Bearing blocks - 3.15 mm 1 mm and 8 mm

iii) Driving End - Fixed end shaft support with two SRDG bearing - 1 Nos '

iv) Tail end a) Fixed end shaft support with two SRDG bearing - 1 Nos '

b) Free end shaft support with self-aligned ball bearing - 1Nos

v) Motor 1/6 HP, 1500 rpm universal motor with variable speed drive

vi) Rotating discs - one for each shaft

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 12


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

PROCEDURE:

i) Fix the required shaft at the driving end.

ii) Fix the bearing block at tail end (either for fixed end condition or free end condition) and
tighten the shaft.

iii) Start the motor and slowly increase the speed. At a certain speed, disc will vibrate
violently. Hold the shaft by hand to avoid shaft bending and note down the speed.

iv) Increase the speed. Now shaft will operate above critical speed without vibrations.

v) Repeat the procedure by changing the end conditions.

vi) Repeat the procedure by changing the shaft.

OBSERVATION:

Sr. no Shaft Size (mm) End Condition Whirling Speed (rpm)

CALCULATIONS:

1) Considering own weight of shaft.

Deflection of shaft under own weight,

s1 = 5. m1.g. L4 / 384.E.I -------------Both Ends Fixed


.
OR

s2 = 5. m1.g. L4 / 185 E.I. -------------One Ends Fixed and one End Free

2) Considering mass of disc only (Located centrally)

d1 = m2 .g. L3 / 192 E.I -------------Both Ends Fixed


.

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NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

OR

d2 = 7. M2.g. L3 / 768 E.I. ------------- One Ends Fixed and one End Free

3) Frequency for own weight of shaft - fns = 0.5623 / s

4) Frequency for disc weight only fnd = 0.4987 / s

5) Resultant Frequency of shaft be fn then

CONCLUSION:

Q1 derive the expression for whirling of shaft for given


figure

Marks/ Grade Obtained Signature of faculty

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 14


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-7
Semester :- 7thSem Date:-
Subject:- Mechanical vibration and Noise Engineering (ME-703)

AIM:
To determine natural frequency and node point of two rotor system by theoretically and
experimentally

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP:-


Two discs of different moment inertia are attached at each end of the shaft by means of
collect and chucks. Mass moment of inertia of any discs can be changed by attaching the
cross lever masses. Both discs are free to oscillate.

PROCEDURE:
1. Fix two disc of the shaft and fit the shaft in the bearing.
2. Deflect the disc in opposite direction by hand and then release.
3. Note down the time required for particular number of oscillations.
4. Repeat the procedure with different diameter shafts and note down the time.

OBSERVATIONS:

Radius of disc A =
Radius of disc B =
Mass of disc A =
Mass of disc B =
Diameter of the shaft =
Length the shaft between two rotors (L) =
Locate the node point, let the distance of small rotor from the node point be La and hence, the
distance of big rotor is (La-L)

La can be found by La =L ( )

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 15


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Observation Table:-
Avg
Ia Time Time Freq. Freq.
(kg Ia (kg No of Time Taken Period Experimental Theoretical %
S.No. m2) m2) cycles n Taken (Tavg) (Tavg) (Hz) (Hz) deviation

Theoretical Calculation:-

=0

fn2 =

Where I is the moment of inertia = mk2 = mr2/2

For node point:-


Distance of a node
point from disc A Distance of a
Ia (kg m2) Ib (kg m2) theoretically node from disc A %
deviation
experimentally
La =L ( )

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 16


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Coclusion:-

Q1. Find the 1st and 2nd natural frequecy of two rotor system for the diagram

given below. = 0 and =

Q2. Draw the node diagram for 1st and 2nd natural frequency.
Q3. Calculate the % deviation of natural frquency obtained experimentall and
theoretically.

Marks/ Grade Obtained Signature of faculty

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 17


NOWGONG ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO:-8
Semester :- 7thSem Date:-
Subject:- Mechanical vibration and Noise Engineering (ME-703)

Aim :- To study sound and noise measuring methods and equipments

Prepared by:- RAHUL SINGH 18