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Chapter 3


This chapter presents the various methods and techniques used by researchers in conducting

the study. The following are explained in this chapter: (a) Research Design; (b) Population and

Sampling; (c) Respondents of the Study; (d) Research Locale; (e) Research Instrument; (f) Data

Gathering Procedure; and (g) Statistical Treatment of Data.

Research Design

This study entitled "Effects of Short Messaging Services (SMS) on the Spelling

Competency of Grade 9 and 10 students of Saint Augustine School Mendez SY: 2017-2018"

used descriptive method of research.

According to Shields et al. (2013), a Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics

of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why

the characteristics occurred, rather it addresses the "what" question (e. i. What are the

characteristics of the population or situation being studied?). Burns and Grove (2003) also

defined descriptive research as a study that is designed to provide a picture of a situation as it

naturally happens.

Through descriptive research, the researchers were able to identify, describe and picture out

the effects of SMS on the spelling competency of students.

Research Locale

This study was conducted at Saint Augustine School Mendez from July 2017- . The

researchers chose this institution as the best place to conduct the study because they wanted to

help the Grade 8 students of this institution to be aware of the effects of SMS on their spelling
competency. The place was also suitable for the capabilities of the researchers because it has

only small population.

Population and Sampling

Sampling Technique is a shortcut method for investigating a whole population. The

researchers used purposive sampling technique in selecting respondents Purposive sampling can

be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where

sampling for proportionality is not the main concern (Babbie, 2001).

The respondents were chosen according to what the researchers needed. Respondents were

selected through the initial survey. The survey was used to identify if the respondents use their

cellphones for texting. If they answer yes, they will be chosen and will be receiving a


Research Instrument

Research instruments are used to gather more information about the respondents. The

instruments chosen by the researchers were used in order to identify the samples and their

corresponding characteristics. The respondents received three research instruments:

Initial Survey. Through the initial survey the researchers were able to identify and pick out

their respondents. The samples were asked if they use Short Messaging Service (SMS). If they

answer yes, they will be part of the research and if not, they wont be qualified.

Questionnaire. In order for the researchers to get the effects of SMS on the spelling

competency of the respondents, the researchers used a questionnaire. A questionnaire is a

research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of

gathering information from respondents. This questionnaire has two parts: the first part is the
two-question portion which pinpoints the frequency of the respondents in using SMS and their

reason for using SMS. The second part is a table which contains fifteen statements that classifies

the effects of SMS on the spelling competency of the students. The respondents will answer

using the following rating scale:

5 - Strongly Agree, strongly agree affect the spelling competency

4 - Agree, agree affect the spelling competency

3 - Neutral, neutral affect the spelling competency

2 - Disagree, disagree affect the spelling competency

1 - Strongly disagree, strongly disagree affect the spelling competency

Spelling Competency Test. This is used to know the effects of Short Message Service

(SMS) to the spelling competency of the respondents and if SMS really affects the spelling

competency of students. This test has three levels: Easy, Average and Difficult. The respondents

need to spell five given words in each level with the total of 15 items.

Data Gathering Procedures

Before doing the actual data gathering, a letter was given to Mrs. Ma. Lucila M. Ambojia,

the school vice principal, which serves as a permission to be able to give out questionnaires and

conduct a spelling competency test that is needed in gathering needed information.

Once the letter was approved, the researcher started the actual data gathering. The

researchers distributed the questionnaires to every respondent of each section in Grade 8. The

researchers asked the president of each section to collect and return the questionnaire to the

researchers once the respondents finish answering the questions. After retrieving all the

questionnaires, the researchers went to every section of Grade 8 and conducted a spelling
competency test. The respondents were requested to answer a 15-item test and to return it

immediately after answering. The collected answer sheet was checked by the researchers.

The gathered data were collected and subjected to the Statistical Treatment. The researchers

collected, tallied, recorded, computed and analyzed the collected information.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The statistical tools used for the analysis and the interpretation of the data are as follows:

Frequency Percentage. This formula is used to determine the quantitative relation to the

whole response. The process of gathering the frequency percentage was dividing the frequency

(sum of responses) by the total number of responses.

FP = (f/n)*100


FP = frequency percentage

f = frequency

n = total number of respondents

Mean. This formula is used to get average or central tendency of the data. The mean is

equal to the sum of all the scores in the data set divided by the number of values in the data set.


= mean

= summation of all scores

n = total number of respondents