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Table of Contents










NFL is known in the industry for its work culture; value added human resources, safety,
environment, concern for ecology and its commitment to social upliftment. All NFL
plants have been certified for ISO-9002 for conforming to international quality standards
and International Environmental Standard i.e. ISO-14001. With the certification of
Corporate Office/Marketing operations under ISO-9001:2000, NFL has become the first
Fertilizer Company in the country to have its total business covered under ISO-9001
Certification. On 23rd August 1974, NFL was formed and registered to set up two modern
large capacity Nitrogenous Fertilizers plants.

NFL, Bathinda (Punjab)

NFL, Panipat (Haryana)

NFL was incorporated on 23rd August 1974 in order to implement this project
contract were entered into with M/s " TOYO ENGINEERING CORPORATION " a well
known Japanese Engg. Company and Engg. India Ltd (EIL), a public sector and Engg.
Organization .This contract becomes effective on September 26, 1974 with a guaranteed
Feed in on the Bathinda Fertilizers project to implement within 36 months from the
zero date.
Due to the power requirements and some other factors, later on it was planned to
set up its own power house known as Captive Power Plant (CPP) with 2 turbo generators
of 15 MW each.
National Fertilizers Limited (N.F.L.) is the largest manufacturer of nitrogenous
fertilizers in the Northern India. It is presently operating four large fertilizers plants, two
of which are located at Nangal and Bathinda in the Punjab State, one at Panipat in
Haryana and one at Guna in M.P. All plants are gas based. The overall installed capacity
of NFL plants is 35.68 lakh MT per annum.
The old plant at Nangal was commissioned in 1961 followed by expansion which
was commissioned in 1978. Bathinda and Panipat plants were commissioned in 1979.

Guna Plant which is the latest plant of NFL was commissioned in Dec, 1988 and is now
in full production.

NFL was incorporated on 23rd August, 1974 with two

manufacturing Units at Bathinda and Panipat.
Subsequently, on the reorganization of Fertilizer group
of Companies in 1978,
The Nangal Unit of Fertilizer Corporation of India came
under the NFL fold. The Company expanded its
installed capacity in 1984 by installing and
commissioning of its Vijaipur gas based Plant in
NFL Corporate office:
Madhya Pradesh. Noida

The Vijaipur Plant was a land mark achievement in project management in India. The
plant was completed well within time and approved project cost. In recognition of this
achievement, the project was awarded the First Prize in Excellence in Project
Management by Govt. of India. Subsequently the Vijaipur plant doubled its capacity to
14.52 lakh MTs by commissioning Vijaipur Expansion Unit i.e. Vijaipur-II in 1997. The
plant annual capacities have now been re-rated w.e.f. 1.4.2000 from 7.26 lakh MT of
Urea to 8.64 lakh MT for Vijaipur-I &Vijaipur-II Plants each.

Three of the Units are strategically located in the high consumption areas of Punjab and
Haryana. The Company has an installed capacity of 35.49 lakh MTs of Nitrogenous

Strategically Located - Urea Plants

Leading Producer of Nitrogenous Fertilizers in the Country.


Capital Cost, Feed Stock & Plants Capacity

Capital Cost Existing Capacity

(Rs.Crore) (Lakh MT/Yr.) MT/Year
Plants Feed Stock Ammonia Urea CAN Bio-Fert.
Nangal-I 91.26 Naptha 0.66 - 3.181 -
Nangal-II 299.19 Natural Gas 2.97 4.785** - -
Panipat 338.41 Natural Gas 2.97 5.115 - -
Bathinda 349.41 Natural Gas 2.97 5.115 - -0
Vijaipur-I 516.00 Natural Gas 5.016* 8.646* - -
Vijaipur-II 1071.00 Natural Gas 5.016* 8.646* - -
Indore 1.42 Strains - - - 100
Total 2666.55 19.602 32.307 3.181 100




NH3:CO2 4:1

H20 0.54:1




CO2 250 kg/cm2

Carbamate 250 kg/cm2
Ammonia 250 kg/cm2



1. Synthesis section.
2. Decomposition section.
3. Crystallization &Prilling section.
4. Recovery section.


Urea is an Organic compound. Its chemical formula is NH2CONH2

Properties of Urea:

Melting point at 1 atm: 132.47C

Nitrogen content: 46.6 %

Color: white

Raw material requirement for Urea production

Liquid Ammonia (NH3)

Carbon Di-Oxide (CO2)


1. Nitrogen content is highest among various nitrogenous fertilizers (46%).

2. Cheapest fertilizer from transportation point of view

3. CO2 which is one of the raw materials for the manufacture of urea is available at
negligible cost from ammonia plant.

4. It is not subject to fire or explosion hazard.

5. It has got better flowing characteristics

6. As such it is not toxic and used in preparation of various types of medicines and in
other industries.


2NH3 liq. + CO2 = NH2-COO-NH4 + Heat

Ammonium Carbonate

NH2-COO-NH4 = NH2-CO-NH2 +H20


Carbon dioxide from battery limit at 1.02 Kg/cm2 is compressed to 30 Kg/cm2 ina 3-
stagecentrifugal booster compressor which runs at 4730 kw and 7930 rpm. After first
stage of compression the compressed air goes to the intercooler and then to heat
exchanger and comes back for the second stage compression then again to the intercooler
and then again to the heat exchanger. The lubrication is provided by mobile oil. The
compressed air at 30 Kg/cm2 is sent to the 2-stage reciprocating Kobe compressor in
which air is firstly compressed to 90 Kg/cm2 to 250Kg/cm2. Stage 1 consists of two
cylinders and stage 2 consists of one cylinder. Now this compressed carbon dioxide is
sent for reactor.

Ammonia(gas) from battery limit is send for reciprocating pump which are 4 in number
(4th being standby) to be compressed. Large pumping action of pumps is achieved by
400 Kw,3300V Electric motor. The turbulent liquid is stabilized in spherical shaped
resonator. now compressed NH3 is sent to the reactor at around 200 Kg/cm2.


Carbamate pumps are required for pumping the recycle carbamate solution coming at the
suction pressure of 24 Kg/cm2 and discharge pressure of 260 Kg/cm2. These are 8 stage
centrifugal pumps with casing design pressure of 308 Kg/cm2. There are two such pumps
out of which one is standby. In order to handle corrosive carbamate solution, all
components are made up of austenitic andferritin duplex stainless steel. All the wearing
parts are chromium plated.


Ammonia is the major constituent in the production of urea and separately in the
ammonia plant. This plant has production capacity of 900 M.T. of liquid ammonia per
day. We can easily divide the whole process into following different section and discuss.
Then separately according of function of these section:




Air has following composition:
Nitrogen 78.03%
Oxygen 20.93%
Argon 0.93%
Carbon 0.93%
It is provided for getting oxygen and nitrogen required for production of NH3 from air is
the first section from atmosphere and is pre-cooled. Then further cooled in air chiller.
Then moisture and dust etc. are removed by passing through alumina molecular seves.
Final products i.e. N2 and O2 are obtained when air is rectified in the rectifying column.
Product O2 is the first compressed and then led to reactors in shell gasification process.
For partial oxidation of food stock for producing raw gas is separated toH2, H2S and CO2,
CO2 is send to the urea plant, H2S is sent to Sulphur recovery plant. On the other hand N2
and H2 are given to N.W.U. in the ratio of 1:3 to get pure synthesis gas to manufacture


Sulphur compound are removed in this section because otherwise these poison the
catalyst present in the next section. Methanol has a property of absorbing different gases
at different temp. Absorption process is carried out at low temp. and high pressure, H2O
and COS are removed in the raw gas to only 0.1 PPM in this unit by absorbing with Me
OH. Me OH is regenerated by N2 by stripping and H2S is sent to Sulphur recovery plant.


In this unit get CO2 and H2 from CO and steam at high temp. by passing the gas catalyst
as per the following reaction:
CO(g) +H2O(steam) ......... H2 + CO2
In this industrial method of producing H2 as per le chattier principle for high
concentration of product excess is to be introduced and temp. should kept low and
reaction rate is high. So compromise is made and temp. is around 350-500oC. Fe is used
as catalyst in reaction.


In this unit we get a mixture of gas(H2, CO2) from shift conversion and CO2 is removed
from H2 by absorbing CO2 with methanol of low temp. This mixture of Me OH and CO2
is stripped by N2 where CO2 is regenerated and send to UREA PLANT, in this unit we
get 98% of H2 and send to N.W.U.


Even a little of CO still remains in raw gas after the shift convertor process. This is
removed in N.W.U. where liquid N2 is sprayed on raw gas of 98% H2 from the top of the
tank. Before leaving this section, purified H2 gas is mixed with N2 in the ratio 3:1 and
forms an admixture without reaction, it is called synthesis gas.


The synthesis gas from N.W.U. is compressed from 37 kg/cm2 to 230 kg/cm2 in the
centrifugal type synthesis compressor. Then the gas enters the synthesis hot exchanger
with hot effluent gas from synthesis economizer. At the outlet of the compressor the gas
contains 16% ammonia.
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3


The O & U group of plants consist of the following sections :

i) Raw Water Plant.
ii) D.M. Water Plant.
iii) Instrument Air Compressor House.
iv) Cooling Tower.


This water treatment plant has a design capacity to treat 2400 NM3/hr of raw water into
portable occasional over lead of 20%. The plant consists essentially of flash Mixers
Clarifloculators, rapid gravity filters and a chemical House comprising of Alum tanks,
lime tanks and a chlorine room etc.The raw water from the pumping main is received by
the inlet of the RCC Ventury flume. In the ventury flume the calculated amount of alum
solution is closed for mixing with the raw water. The chemically treated water then flows
to clarifloculators. The pludge thus formed after chemical treatment settles down in the
clarifloculator where from it is expelled out while the clear water overflows to the
launder leading to filter beds. The filter water is disinfected with the addition of chlorine
and then collected in filter eater sump.


D.M. water plant was supplied by M/s Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. It consists of
cation units, Degasser Towers, Anion units. Mixed bed units No.l&2. Filtered water
coming from raw water filtration plant is received in filter water reservoir. From reservoir
filter water passes through a strongly acidic cat-ion exchange resin where cat-ions like
Ca, Ng & Na are removed, the water passes through degasser tower where dissolved, Ce2
is removed. Then water passes through Anion exchange resin and Anion like CI, S, Se4
and silica, are removed in this unit. Free from cations and anions water passes through
mixed bed unit No.l, where further removal of cations and anions takes place. Then
treated water coming out from MB, unit goes to DM water tank .Return condensate from

Ammonia and Urea Plants is collected in D.M. water tank after treatment in cat-ion unit
No.2. Then D.M. water is pumped from DM water tank to mixed bed No.2(MB) for
further polishing and collected in polish water tank, which is supplied to boilers through
Ammonia Plant.


The purpose of this section is to supply instrument air and service air to all the plants.
The instrument air compressor house consists of three instrument air compressors and
one service air compressor. One is kept in line generally. The compressed air from
instrument air compressors at9.3 kg/cm2 absolute pressure passes through two sets of
dryer, which is filled with silica-gel for removal of moisture. Air coming out from dryer
is sent to instrument air feeder for supplying to different plants through instrument air
receiver in order to drive various valves and instruments.


The cooling water system provided in NFL, Bathinda is closed re-circulating system
supplyingcooling water to various consumers in the plant. The system mainly consists of
cooling towers,cooling water re-circulation pumps, supply & return headers and cooling
water treatment facility.
There are three cooling water systems :
i) C.W. system supplies cooling water to Ammonia Plant.
ii) Urea Plant and Boilers, Instrument -Air Compressor, Caustic dissolving facilities.
iii) C.W. system supplies cooling water to Crystallization section of Urea Plant.



Steam Generation plant is mainly installed for production of steam and then distributed to
various parts of the plant.
Here this section of plant installed in National Fertilizers Limited, Bathinda unit
produces and supplies steam at 100 Kg / cm2 pressure and nearly 480C temperature to
Ammonia Plant.
In todays world steam has gained importance in Industries. It may be used for
power processes and heating purposes as well.


It is colorless, odorless and tasteless.

Very economical
Can be used as heat exchanger.
It can be easily distributed to various sections of plant.

Steam is generated in Boilers (Water tube boilers mounted on common base fitted with
mountings and fittings) and then distributed to other parts of plants. For governing the
quantity of fuel to be burned and for maintaining the required pressure their are many
automatic fuel feeders, equipments and auxiliaries like pressure gauge etc.
In the Boilers used at National Fertilizers Limited (Bathinda unit); coal, oil natural gas
are used as a fuel for production of steam.
NFL , Bathinda is using steam for two purposes ; first and the main reason is for
running prime mover and other reason is to exchange heat in the processes taking place
There are three boilers capable of producing steam at the rate of 150 Tones/hr
installed in SGP which were supplied and erected by BHEL. Generally two boilers are
enough to meet the requirements but third boiler is simultaneously running because if

steam load consumption increases then the third boiler plays its part in order to avoid any
faulty condition.


Coal :
To obtain steam of desired Temperature and pressure, coal is burned to give major source
of heat.
Initially coal is stored at Coal Handling plant brought from coal sites. It is this section of
plant where coal is crushed by crushers in order to make small pieces of coal, then after
crushing it the coal pieces rare passed through heavy electromagnet where iron is
separated from coal if present. Coal is then sent to Bunkers from where it goes to
Grinding mill. Grinding mill is grinding coal into powder form.
Conveyor Belts are being used in the whole plant for transportation of Coal. The powder
form of coal is sent to the Boilers through pump as pump sucks the coal from grinding
mills and throws it into the boiler for combustion.

Fuel Oil :
As the Boilers are designed to work on both Coal as well as Fuel Oil so fuel oil can
also be pumped to Boiler for combustion.
Generally coal alone is not burnt Initially but Fuel Oil (LSHS) is mixed coal and then
sent to the furnace for combustion in order to get desired temperature .
As National Fertilizers Ltd, Bathinda unit has its own Steam Generation Plant
where steam is produced which is used for driving Turbo Compressors, Heating
Purposes, for various reactions taking place in the plant itself.
Steam is mainly consumed in the Ammonia Plant as nearly 6 to 7 tone of steam is
required to produce 1 tone of Ammonia. High Pressure Turbines are being used where
high pressure and temperature is to be maintained so SGP section plays a important role
for maintaining the said condition.

There are three boilers (VU-40 type supplied by M/S BHEL) of 150 tone/hr
capacity .These boilers are Water Tube Boilers i.e. water is inside the tubes and hot air
surrounds it when coal is burnt, this makes the water in the tubes boil and steam
formation takes place. In the beginning coal is burnt with fuel oil in order to get desired
As the steam being used should be free from impurities like minerals, silica, oxygen, Iron
etc. in order to insure Safe and Efficient working of Steam turbines and Boilers. For this
purpose Raw Water is physically and chemically treated and finally supplied to Steam
Generation Plant from Ammonia plant. This water is called Boiler Feed water which is
further heated to 240 C by the flue Gases and taken to Steam Drum. Steam Drum Acts as
storage tank and also separates water from the steam at 315 C and 106 kg/cm2 pressure
water then enters the Ring Header formed at on the bottom of outside the furnace and
rises by gravity through water wall tubes on the all the four sides, taken heat from furnace
and enters steam drum as a mixture of steam and water.


The products of combustion in the furnace consist of carbon-di-oxide, nitrogen,
ash, oxygen and Sulphur-di-oxide. After leaving the furnace the heat Of these gases
called FLUE GASES, is utilized at various levels.
First the steam from steam drum is heated in two super heaters to get the required
temperatures of 4950C and then feed water in BANK TUBES is also heated and the gases
leave bank tubes at around 4970C next the heat is utilized to heat feed water in the
ECONOMIZER and gases are cooled down to 3200C. These gases are further cooled
down to 1500C in ROTARY AIR HEATER where the air is required for combustion and
conveying the coal is heated up. Temperature is not reduced further because at lower
temperature oxides of Sulphur present in flue gases are converted to ACID which
damages the down stream equipments. These gases then pass through ELECTRO
STATIC PRECIPITATOR (ESP) where ash is removed.



National Fertilizers Limited has set a Captive Power Plant (CPP) at their complex
at BATHINDA, to ensure availability of stable, uninterrupted power and stream to the
Ammonia and Urea plant. This will minimize the tripping of the Fertilizer Plant due to
transit voltage dips and power cuts.
Since inception, Bathinda unit was drawing electric power from Punjab State
Electricity Board (P.S.E.B). Electricity is the main driving force after steam in the plant,
being used for moving auxiliary equipments. The unit requires 27MW of power/hr when
running at full load. There are two 15 MW turbo-generators to generate power. Under
normal running conditions of the plant and healthiness of the P.S.E.B. grid, we generally
run in synchronism with the grid merely drawing the power corresponding to the
minimum charges to be paid to state electricity board. In case of any disturbance in the
grid, our system gets isolated from the grid automatically. With both generators running,
we are able to feed power to the whole plant, thus production is not affected. In case only
one turbo generator is in line and grid cuts off, urea plant is cut off automatically to
balance the load with one generator. As soon as the grid becomes stable, the generators
are again synchronized with it. The power generation of each generator can be varied
with 2 MW to 15 MW maximum, provision exists to run the generator on 10 % extra load
continuously for one hour only.
Operation of C.P.P. is based upon microprocessor based computerized
instrumentation which allows automatic operation, start up, shut down of the whole or
part of the plant.
Latest instrumentation has been used in this plant. It allows controlling process
variables like flow, pressure, temperature, power factor, voltage, frequency, etc. There is
operator interface unit (IOU) Like a TV screen on which various parameters can be
displayed and controlled. It allows fully automatic start-up, shut-down of boiler, turbine
and other auxiliaries.


It was thought to install a captive power plant in which electric power for our
requirement shall be generated in a COAL FIRED BOILER. The benefits envisaged

1. Any disturbance in the PSEB grid used to trip the whole plant. Lot of money was
lost due to this as each re-startup costs around 40 to 50 lakhs rupees. Moreover,
frequent trippings had an ill effect on machines and equipments extending the
re-startup period.
2. Three boilers of 150Te/hr steam capacity were initially installed in SGP to keep 25
boilers running and one stand by as designed steam requirement was less than
300Te/hr. but in actual operation steam requirement was more and all three
boilers had to be run and there was no breathing time for their maintenance. As
new boiler was to be installed for CPP, its capacity was so designed that it could
export around 60Te of steam for process requirement so that only 2 boilers of
SGP would be run keeping the 3rd as stand by.
With these points in mind CPP was installed. The functioning of CPP can be sub-
divided into parts:

BOILER AND ITS AUXILIARIES: For generation of high pressure superheated


TURBO-GENERATOR AND ITS AUXILIARIES: To generate power, using steam

from the boiler.

Operation of CPP is based upon microprocessor based computerized instrumentation

which allows automatic operation, start up, shut down of the whole or the part of the


The basic principle of this boiler is the same as discussed earlier for SGP boiler
that is formation of steam by heating boiler feed water inside furnace fired by coal and
heavy oil, utilization of heat of the gases and venting these gases at a safe height. Main
differences between the two boilers are:
SGP boiler is tangentially fired where as CPP boiler is front fired with 6 coal
burners and 6 oil gun fixed inside the coal housing.
SGP boiler can be loaded up to 30% load with oil firing only whereas CPP boiler
can be fully loaded with oil alone.
Height of combustible zone in CPP boiler is more and it has residence time of 1.5 sec
where SGP boiler has 1.0 sec.
Mills used for pulverizations of coal in SGP are negative pressure bowl mills whereas in
CPP ball tube mill are used which are positive pressure mills.
Due to more residence time and better pulverization the efficiency of CPP boiler is
about 4% higher.
Boiler feed water required for steam generation can be fully generated in CPP itself.
A part of the steam generated is exported for process use in ammonia plant and
rest is utilized for power generation in turbo generators as described below:



Maximum evaporation 2, 30,000kg/hr
Design process for boiler 124kg/cm2G
Steam temp at outl 4950C
Heating surface 1250M2


In C.P.P. two generators of 15MW capacity generate a voltage of 11KV which is

fed to the two transformers in the yard. The rating of the transformers is 31.5/25 KVA,
these two values depend upon the cooling which we provide, as here 25KVA capacity is

when cooling is oil natural air natural and 31.5KVA capacity is when cooling is oil
natural air forced. Both these transformers step up the voltage level to 132KV. From the
transformers the three phases pass through the lightning arrestors (LA). After this they
pass on to the isolator. After this the two lines pass on to the TRANSMISSION pole
called DOUBLE CIRCUIT TRANSMISSION. Then these lines go to the M.R.S. i.e.
main receiving station.


The turbine used is supplied by M/S SGP of AUSTRIA. It is condensing cum

extraction turbine designed as single casing reaction turbine with single control stage and
high pressure (HP), mild pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) reaction parts.
The turbine is fed with high pressure steam at 100kg from boiler and flows through
various control valves for normal and emergency operation. It gets high velocity through
the nozzle group and then passes over the impellers fixed on to the rotor and fixed
diffusers thus rotating the turbine. The enthalpy of steam is utilized in steps. Steam is also
extracted from various stages. HP1 at 10.4kg/cm2, HP2 at 8.1kg/cm2, feed water bleed at
4.3kg/cm2 and LP bleed at 0.9kg/cm2.
The exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed in a condenser maintained under
vacuum to extract maximum steam enthalpy. The output of the turbine depends on flow
of steam and heat difference that is on condition of steam at the main steam valve and the
pressure at the turbine outlet or condenser pressure. The turbine is connected to the
generator through speed reducing gears.
The exhaust steam is condensed in a condenser using cooling water. The resulting
condensate can be fed back to LP heater but is normally sent to the polishing water plant.
As shall be clear from the attached block diagram various bleeds from the turbine
are utilized for heating purpose. HP1 and HP2 are used for heating boiler feed water in
HP1 and HP2 heaters. Feed water bleeds is used for heating the feed water tank and LP
bleed is used for heating the polish water make up to the feed water tank.
A lubrication system is also there to lubricate the various bearings of the turbine,
gears and generator. Normally the oil pump driven by the turbine shaft supplies oil but

auxiliary motor driven pumps are used for start up and during shutdown. A turning gear
has been provided for slow cooling of turbine rotor.
Latest instrumentation has been used in this plant. Baileys net work-90
microprocessor based instrumentation system is being used. The NETWORK 90
SYSTEM is a distributed process control system. Using a series of integrated control
nodes. The network 90 system allows controlling process variables like flow, pressure
and temperature according to a control configuration. There is operator interface unit
(OIU) like a TV screen on which various parameters can be displayed and controlled. It
allows fully automatic start-up/shut-down of boiler, turbine and other auxiliaries.


Make Simmering Graz Panker, Austria

Type Multifunction (28 stages)
Capacity 65 T/H at 15 MW
RPM 6789 at 50 Hz
Critical speed 3200-3600 RPM


CPP is having two number turbo generators of capacity 15MW each. The generators are
type SAT three phase, 50Hz, 11kV, 984amps, at 0.8 power factor rating supplied by M/S
JEUMONT SCHNEIDER OF FRANCE. These are totally enclosed self ventilated type
with two lateral airs to water coolers for cooling. The alternators are able to bear 10%
overload for one hr with an increase in temp. of 100C while maintaining the voltage as
near as possible to the rated one. The excitation is compound and brush less with exciter
rotor and Rectifier Bridge mounted on the extended main shaft on non driving end. The
excitation is controlled automatically with automatic voltage regulator and a PLC
controller. All protection relays installed for protection of generator are solid state having
high accuracy, quick response and low power consumption.
Under normal running conditions of the plant and healthiness of the PSEB grid, we
generally run in synchronism with the grid merely drawing the power corresponding to

minimum charges to be paid to state electricity board. In case of any disturbance in the
grid measured by higher low frequency, high rate of change of frequency, low voltage
etc. our system gets isolated from the grid automatically. With both generators running,
we are able to feed power to the whole plant, thus production is not affected.


The uninterruptible power supply system is connected between a critical load, such as
digital drives & automation, distributed digital process control system, telecom
equipment, programmable logic controller, mission critical applications, computer and its
three phase mains power supply under all rated load and input supply conditions.
The system offers the user with the following advantages: -
Increased power supply: -
The UPS has its own internal voltage and frequency regulator circuits which ensure
that its output is maintained within close tolerances independent of voltage and frequency
variations on the mains power lines.


In a non-redundant configuration the system is sized such that both UPS modules
are required to feed the potential load and if one of the two modules develops a fault or
for some reason shut down, the other module also automatically shuts down.
In such an event the load is transferred to an unprocessed bypass supply.
In a redundant module configuration the system is sized such that the potential load can
be provided by just one of the two modules. Under normal circumstances both modules
are operational and share the load current equally; but if one module develops a fault, or
is shut down, the second module is able to take over the full load demand and continue to
provide it with processed, backed-up power.
7400 Module Design:-

The UPS basically operates as an AC- DC-AC converter. The first conversion
stage (from AC to DC) uses a 3 phase fully controlled silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
bridge rectifier to convert the incoming mains supply into a regulated 432V DC bus bar.
The DC bus bar produced by the rectifier provides both battery charging power and
power to the inverter section-which is of a transistorized / IGBT based pulse width
modulation (PWM) design and provides the second conversion phase i.e. reconverting
the DC bus bar voltage back into an AC voltage waveform.