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Chemistry Students Todays lecture

Todays lecture
Lab Coat and Safety Glasses on Sale Review continued
Where: Parker Building Foyer (Main Floor) 9redox reactions
When: Mon, Sept 14th 18th (Mon-Fri) 9Nomenclature
Time: 9 AM to 11 AM & 1 PM to 3 PM ionic compounds
Cost (No Tax): Coat - $ 20.00 Polyatomic anions
Glasses- $ 6.00 hydrates
Supporting: 9acid-base reactions

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Iclicker Question
BACKGROUND EXPECTATIONS What is the oxidation state of sulfur in the
compound H2SO3?
Describe what happens in redox or oxidation
reduction reactions. A) +6 B) +4 C) 0 D) -4 E) -6

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OxidationReduction
Oxidation, Reduction Definitions oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously
9 if an atom loses electrons another atom must take them
oxidation occurs when an atoms oxidation state the reactant that reduces an element in another reactant
increases during a reaction is called the reducing agent. The reducing agent
contains the element that is oxidized
reduction occurs when an atoms oxidation state the reactant that oxidizes an element in another reactant
decreases during a reaction
is called the oxidizing agent.
CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O 9 the oxidizing agent contains the element that is reduced
-4 +1 0 +4 2 +1 -2
2 Na(s
Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2 Na+Cl(s)
oxidation Na is oxidized, Cl is reduced
reduction Na is the reducing agent, Cl2 is the oxidizing agent
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Identify the Oxidizing and Reducing Iclicker Question
Agents in Each of the Following Which of the following are redox reactions?

3 H2S + 2 NO3 + 2 H+ 3 S + 2 NO + 4 H2O (1) CaO(s) + CO2 (g) CaCO3(s)

(2) Zn(s) + Fe2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Fe(s)

(3) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 LiCl(aq)


MnO2 + 4 HBr MnBr2 + Br2 + 2 H2O PbCl2(s) + 2 LiNO3(q)

a)reaction 1 b) reaction 2 c) reaction 3


d) reactions 1,2 e) reactions 2,3
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Naming Binary Ionic Compounds


BACKGROUND EXPECTATIONS for Metals
Identify (symbol and name) the simple ions 1. Name metal cation first, name nonmetal
formed by the elements in Main Groups 1, 2, anion second
13, 16, and 17. 2. metal cation name is the metal name If the
Given the chemical formula of a molecular or metal has more than one oxidation state
ionic binary compound, write its name in then a Roman numeral in parentheses is
accordance with IUPAC nomenclature rules.
used to indicate its charge
Given the IUPAC name of a molecular or ionic
binary compound, write its chemical formula. 3. nonmetal anion named by changing the
ending on the nonmetal name to -ide
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Name the following compounds Some Common Polyatomic Ions


Name Formula Name Formula
acetate C2H3O2 hypochlorite ClO
1. TiCl4
carbonate CO32 chlorite ClO2
hydrogen carbonate chlorate ClO3
HCO3
(aka bicarbonate) perchlorate ClO4
2. PbBr2
hydroxide OH sulfate SO42
nitrate NO3 sulfite SO32
3. Fe2S3 nitrite NO2 hydrogen sulfate
HSO4
chromate CrO42 (aka bisulfate)
dichromate Cr2O72 hydrogen sulfite
HSO3
ammonium NH4+ (aka bisulfite)
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Name the following Hydrates Prefix No. of
hydrates are ionic compounds containing a Waters
specific number of waters for each formula
1. NH4Cl unit hemi
water of hydration often driven off by mono 1
heating
in formula, attached waters follow di 2
9 CoCl26H2O
tri 3
2. Ca(C2H3O2)2 in name attached waters indicated by suffix
-hydrate after name of ionic compound tetra 4
9 CoCl26H2O = cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate
9 CaSO4H2O = calcium sulfate hemihydrate penta 5
hexa 6
3. Cu(NO3)2 Hydrate Anhydrous hepta 7
CoCl26H2O CoCl2
octa 8
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Iclicker Question
BACKGROUND EXPECTATIONS
The formula for the compound iron(II) phosphate is
Define acids and bases according to Arrhenius
a) IrP b) IrPO4 c) FePO3 and Brnsted theories
d) FePO4 e) Fe3(PO4)2 Describe the reaction of an acid with a base
(neutralization).

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Proton Transfer Reactions Iclicker Question


acid is a proton donor, base is a proton acceptor Which of the species in the equation below act as
(Bronsted-Lowry definition) ACIDS?
in an acid-base (neutralization) reaction, the acid
molecule gives an H+ to the base molecule HCN + H2O H3O+ + CN-

HCl(aq) + H2O(l) Cl(aq) + H3O+(aq) a) HCN and H3O+


acid base b) HCN and CN-
c) H2O and CN-
HCl(aq) is acidic because HCl transfers an H+ to d) H2O and H3O+
H2O, forming H3O+ ions e) none of these species; this is not an acid-base
reaction
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Appendix II
Appendix I
Properties of Acids
Naming Monatomic Nonmetal Anion
determine the charge from position on the sour taste
Periodic Table react with active metals
9 i.e., Al, Zn, Fe, but not Cu, Ag, or Au
to name anion, change ending on the element 2 Al + 6 HCl 2 AlCl3 + 3 H2
name to ide 9 corrosive
react with carbonates, producing CO2
4A = -4 5A = -3 6A = -2 7A = -1
9 marble, baking soda, chalk, limestone
CaCO3 + 2 HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
C = carbide N = nitride O = oxide F = fluoride
change color of vegetable dyes
Si = silicide P = phosphide S = sulfide Cl = chloride 9 blue litmus turns red
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Binary Acids Oxoacids


Binary acids have acid hydrogens attached to Oxoacids have acid hydrogens attached to an
oxygen atom
a nonmetal atom
9HCl, HF

Binary acids are named by taking the anion Oxoacids are named by taking the polyatomic
prefixing it with hydro and replacing ide anion name and replacing ate or ite
ending with ic ending with ic
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Strong Acids and Bases Properties of Bases


Strong acids and bases are compounds that totally ionize also known as alkalis
in water taste bitter
9 alkaloids = plant product that is alkaline
often poisonous
The binary acids HCl, HBr, HI as well as the oxoacids
HNO3, H2SO4, HClO3, HClO4 are all strong acids. solutions feel slippery
change color of vegetable dyes
(different color than acid)
There are many strong bases, oxides and hydroxides of 9 red litmus turns blue
the alkali and the alkaline earth metals (i.e. Main groups
1, 2) are strong bases react with acids to form ionic salts
9 neutralization

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Common Bases
Chemical Common Conjugate Pairs
Formula Uses Strength
Name Name
sodium lye, soap, plastic, In a Brnsted-Lowry Acid-Base reaction, the
NaOH Strong
hydroxide caustic soda petrol refining original base becomes an acid in the reverse
potassium soap, cotton,
hydroxide
KOH caustic potash
electroplating
Strong reaction, and the original acid becomes a base in
calcium the reverse process
Ca(OH)2 slaked lime cement Strong
hydroxide
sodium
each reactant and the product it becomes is
NaHCO3 baking soda cooking, antacid Weak
bicarbonate called a conjugate pair
magnesium milk of
hydroxide
Mg(OH)2
magnesia
antacid Weak the original base becomes the conjugate acid;
ammonium NH4OH, ammonia
detergent, and the original acid becomes the conjugate base
fertilizer, Weak
hydroxide {NH3(aq)} water
explosives, fibers
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Conjugate Pairs
In the reaction H2O + NH3 HO + NH4+
H2O and HO constitute an
Acid/Conjugate Base pair

NH3 and NH4+ constitute a


Base/Conjugate Acid pair

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