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T-connected Transformer Integrated Three-leg VSC Based 3P4W DSTATCOM for Power Quality Improvement

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VSC based 3P4W DSTATCOM for Power

Quality Improvement

Yogesh Rohilla, Yash Pal

high current will flow through the neutral wire and may be a

Abstract--This paper provides power factor correction, cause of insulation failure of neutral wire and hazards.

harmonics elimination, load balancing and neutral current To cope with all these problems Distribution STATic

compensation of linear and non-linear, balanced and

COMpensator (DSTATCOM) is employed [2-3]. Here

unbalanced loads using custom power device DSTATCOM for

three-phase four-wire (3P4W) system. Perfect Harmonic DSTATCOM is made with 3-leg voltage source converter

cancellation (PHC) theory has been used for reference current (VSC) with DC capacitor for three phases and T-connected

generation. A three-leg voltage source converter topology with transformer for neutral current compensation [5] [7-8]. PHC

T-connected transformer as distribution static compensator control algorithm has been used as an indirect approach for

(DSTATCOM) is used in this paper. T-connected transformer is the reference source current generation. The three-phase

introduced here for neutral current compensation. Capability of

reference supply currents are derived using sensed ac

this arrangement is demonstrated using results obtained from

MATLAB-Simulink based environment. voltages at point of common coupling (PCC) and dc bus

voltage of the DSTATCOM as feedback signals. One

Index Terms--DSTATCOM, Neutral current compensation, proportional plus integral (PI) controllers is used to estimate

Perfect Harmonic Cancellation theory, Power factor correction, the amplitudes of in-phase components of reference supply

T-connected Transformer, THD. currents. Hysteresis current controller has been used to

generate the six gating pulses to operate the 3-leg VSC.

I. INTRODUCTION Simulation results during steady state and transient operating

electric energy both to commercial and domestic users.

Both of these types of users use loads employing

conditions of the DSTATCOM are presented and discussed to

demonstrate power-factor correction, load balancing and

harmonic reduction capabilities of the DSTATCOM system.

semiconductors like television sets, air conditioners, ovens, Power system blockset of MATLAB (MATrix LABoratory)

refrigerators, uninterrupted power supplies, rectifiers, Simulink software is used to show the required results.

inverters, computer loads etc [1-3]. Also variation in load is

very high changing minute to minute, day n night, morning to II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND DESIGN

evening. Seasonal effects also change the load requirements.

VS ZS IS IL Different

Even a half degree rise in temperature in summer results in PCC

high increase in air-conditioning loads [1]. Similarly a Varying

L s Rs IC VPCC Loads

decrement in temperature in winter increases the heating

loads. This load increment or decrement is very high in

highly cooled and hot areas. Also the lifestyle of generation is DSTATCOM

moving towards comfort zone which increases the

televisions, computer and inverter type load. Fans and

Cdc

pumping loads work on the lagging power factor and draw

reactive power from the supply. Compact fluorescent lamps Vdc

although requires very less electrical energy but works on Fig. 1. Single line diagram of DSTATCOM.

poor power factor and act a source of reactive power

consumption. 3P4W system consists of three-phase as well as Fig.1 shows the single line diagram of DSTATCOM

single phase loads. The arrangement of single-phase load on connected as shunt compensator. A three-phase, four-wire ac

spur lines is not equal and creates unbalancing in load source with line impedance (Ls, Rs) feeds power to balanced

or unbalanced, linear or non-linear load and combination of

problems. All the loads discussed above are non-linear in

all the loads. At the DC bus side of the VSC (voltage source

nature and distorts the sinusoidal nature of the supply voltage

converter) of the DSTATCOM, a DC capacitor is used to

and currents and require high amount of reactive power. maintain the constant DC bus voltage. The operation of

When this distorted supply is applied on other loads affects DSTATCOM can be accomplished in two modes, power

their performance and life also. Due to unbalanced load a factor correction (PFC) and zero voltage regulation (ZVR).

978-1-4799-0727-4/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE

7

The PFC mode is considered here. In PFC mode, among the three phases. The windings of the T-connected

DSTATCOM supplies the reactive power demanded by the transformer are designed such that the mmf is balanced

load so that the source should supply only the active power properly in the transformer.

required by the load. The PFC mode phasor diagram of

DSTATCOM is shown in Fig.2. The synchronous reference

frame control algorithm is used to extract reference source

currents and PI controller is used to regulate the DC bus

voltage. The extracted reference source currents are

compared with the respective sensed source currents and

current errors are used to generate the switching signals for

the VSC after amplification of errors. For generating the

switching signals, current errors are feed to the carrier based

PWM generator or carrier less PWM generator (hysteresis

PWM generator). Carrier less PWM generator has been used

here to simulate the DSTATCOM system in this work. The Fig.2. Phasor diagram of PFC mode of DSTATCOM.

design values of DSTATCOM system components for a load

of 20kVA, .8 power factor, 415V (L-L), 50Hz is given in A. DSTATCOM

appendix. The operation of VSC of DSTATCOM is similar to The power and control diagram of DSTATCOM is shown

the 3-leg DSTATCOM. For compensation of load neutral in Fig.3 to understand the working of it. The following steps

current, a T-connected transformer is used which allow are involved:

flowing zero sequence or loading neutral current and split it

Rr Cr

Va Ls R s CS VS isa CS iLa

Vsa Three-Phase

Foue-Wire

Vb isb Vsb iLb Linear, Non-

linear,

Vc Balanced,

isc Vsc iLc

Unbalanced

iSn iLn and Dynamic

Vsn Loads

iCn b1

b2

a2 a1

iCa iCb iCc

b3 T-connected

Transformer

Cdc

3-Leg VSC

6 Gating

isa isb isc Signals

Current Controller

Vsa

Vsb

Vsc iLa

Compute Reference iLb

Vdc Source Currents iLc

Fig.3. Power and control diagram of 3-leg VSC with T-connected transformer as DSTATCOM.

1. As shown in figure, first of all, three voltages (vSa, vSb 2. Now with the help of load currents and PCC voltages

and vSc) at point of common coupling (PCC), three load reference currents ( are generated with

currents (iLa, iLb and iLc), three supply currents (iSa, iSb the use of control algorithm. Control algorithm is needed

and iSc) and voltage across the DC capacitor (vdc) are to generate the reference source currents. Reference

sensed.

7

source currents mean the currents which the source icr(p-p) is current ripple,

should supply. fs is the switching frequency,

3. After that reference source currents and sensed supply Vdc is dc bus voltage of DSTATCOM.

currents are fed into current controller. This current

F. Computation of Controller Gains

controller produces the six switching signals on the basis

of difference in behavior of the two currents. A PI controller is required for regulating the voltage of self-

4. Feed the switching signals produced by the current supporting DC bus. It requires two controller gains,

controller in the 3-leg VSC. These switching signals are proportional gain (kp) and integral gain (ki). In this work the

used to on-off the six IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar values of both the gains are found by hit and trial method.

Junction Transistor) of the VSC. As a result required G. Current controlled PWM Generator

compensator current is produced. Compensator currents

In a current controller, the sensed and reference source

are the currents which flow through the VSC. As it is

currents are compared to generate the switching signals

required that source should supply only active power of

forVSC. There is much type of current controllers in use.

load but load power requirement is of both active and

Hysteresis current controller is used here and a MATLAB

reactive types. So DSTATCOM supply the reactive

power as required by the load and source supply only model of the controller is shown in Fig.4.

active power of the load. DSTATCOM get this power

from the self-supporting dc capacitor connected at the

one end of the VSC.

B. DC Capacitor Voltage

The minimum dc bus voltage of VSC of DSTATCOM

should be greater than twice the peak of the phase voltage

of the system [6] [7]. The dc bus voltage is calculated as

Fig.4. MATLAB based model for Hysteresis Current Controller

where m is the modulation index,

VLL is the ac line output voltage of DSTATCOM. H. Design of T-connected Transformer

Fig.3 shows the connection of two single-phase

C. DC Bus Capacitor

transformers in T-conguration for interfacing with a three-

The value of dc capacitor (Cdc) of VSC of DSTATCOM phase four-wire system. The T-connected windings of the

depends on the instantaneous energy available to the transformer not only provide a path for the zero-sequence

DSTATCOM during transients [6] [7]. The principle of fundamental current and harmonic currents but also offer a

energy conservation is applied as path for the neutral current when connected in shunt at point

of common coupling (PCC). Under unbalanced load, the

zero-sequence load-neutral current divides equally into three

where Vdc is the reference dc voltage, currents and takes a path through the T-connected windings

Vdc1 is the minimum voltage level of dc bus, of the transformer. The current rating of the windings is

a is the overloading factor, decided by the required neutral current compensation. The

V is the phase voltage, phasor diagram shown in Fig.5 gives the following relations

I is the phase current and to nd the turns ratio of windings [7]. If Va1 and Vb1 are the

t is the time by which the dc bus voltage is to be voltages across each winding and Va is the resultant voltage,

recovered. then

D. Ripple Filter

A low-pass rst-order lter tuned at half the switching

frequency is used to lter the high frequency noise from the

voltage at the PCC. Ripple filter should be designed such that

its impedance as high as only a small current can pass

through. This insures the very small loss across the RC filter.

E. AC Inductor

The selection of the ac inductance (Lf) of VSC depends

on the current ripple, switching frequency, dc bus voltage. Lf

is given as

where m is the modulation index, Fig.5. Phasor diagram of T-connected transformer

a is the overload factor,

Va1 = K1Va

7

Vb1 = K2Va the DC bus voltage at a constant reference value ( ).

where K1 and K2 are the fractions of winding in the phases. is the losses of DSTATCOM and this power is required by

Considering |Va | = |Vb | = V and Va1 = Va cos 30o, Vb1 =Va the self-supporting DC bus of DSTATCOM and it is

sin 30o, then from above two equations, one gets, K1 =0.866 estimated by the PI controller over the DC bus voltage of

and K2=0.5. DSTATCOM and can be expressed as:

III. CONTROL SCHEME

Many control theories are available in the literature for the Where = error in DC bus voltage.

control of DSTATCOM by the production of reference and are reference voltage and actual voltage of DC bus of

source currents for the VSC [9-16]. Some of them are DSTATCOM respectively. are the proportional

instantaneous reactive power theory [9], synchronous and integral gains of the PI controller over the DC bus

reference frame theory [11] [16] on single phase and three voltage of DSTATCOM.

phase basis, Icos control theory [12-14], perfect harmonic Reference supply current in a-b-c frame can be

cancellation [15] etc. In this work PHC control theory is calculated by inverse transformation as:

considered for DSTATCOM operation. The control theory is

developed for the unity power factor operation of the

DSTATCOM.

and are the required reference source currents.

]

2 1 1/ 2 1/ 2

v 1 .[ p DC + p DCe

3 0 3 / 2 3 / 2

These extracted reference source currents ( and ) and

is*

1 0 i sa* the respective sensed source currents are fed

v + 1

+

0

2

2 1 1/ 2 1/ 2 i * 1 / 2 3 / 2 i sb* in hysteresis current controller to generate the switching

s 3

3 0 3 / 2 3 / 2

1 / 2 3 / 2

signals or pulses for the DSTATCOM.

( 3 )

i sc*

1

= Ax

iS 0

i S*

iS

vdc*

*

*

Fig.6. Block diagram of extracting reference source currents using PHC The DSTATCOM (3-leg VSC with T-Connected

Transformer) is modeled and simulated in MATLAB-

The block diagram representation of the PHC control Simulink with power system toolbox. This model is shown in

theory is shown in Fig.6. The perfect harmonic cancellation Fig.7. Different load arrangement is shown. The result will

(PHC) method can be regarded as a modication of the be discussed for linear as well as non-linear load with

instantaneous reactive power theory and unity power factor unbalancing using phase out. First linear but unbalanced load

theory. Its objective is to compensate all the harmonic is applied which is not shown here and then the results for

currents and the fundamental reactive power demanded by the non-linear loads are tested. After some interval of time

the load in addition to eliminating the imbalance. The source load of phase a and then phase b are out. The R-C ripple

current will therefore be in phase with the fundamental filter is connected with the DSTATCOM to filter out the

positive-sequence component of the voltage at the PCC. The ripples in the PCC voltage. PCC voltage and load current

reference source current will be given by along with the dc capacitor voltage are required to generate

the reference source current with the PHC for the hysteresis

current controller. Source current and generated reference

Where is the PCC voltage space vector with a single

fundamental positive-sequence component and K is a source current are compared in Hysteresis current controller

constant whose value depends on the PCC voltage and the to generate 6-pulse switching signals to control the 3-leg

load. The power delivered by the source will be voltage source converter IGBTs so that it supply required

reactive power by the load. Connection of T-connected

In above equation represents the DC component transformer is shown for the purpose of nearly zero neutral

which is responsible for fundamental active power whereas current.

is harmonic power component. As source is required to

supply fundamental power only and the other power V. SIMULATION RESULTS

requirement i.e. reactive power must be supplied by The performance of 3-leg VSC with T-connected

DSTSTCOM so only is required from above equation. transformer as DSTATCOM is tested with linear-unbalanced

The fundamental instantaneous active power component can and nonlinear-unbalanced load for the purpose of power

be extracted from the by using a low Pass Filter factor correction, load balancing, harmonics reduction and

(Butterworth type). neutral current compensation. All the results are shown with

the simulation environment.

A. Linear Load

Performance of DSTATCOM with linear load with

Where

represent the reference source unbalancing is shown in Fig.8 for power factor correction,

harmonics reduction, load balancing and neutral current

current signals in --0 coordinates respectively.

compensation. Three-phase load is changed to two-phase

and is active power required to maintain load at time 0.5s and to single-phase at 0.56s. And loads are

reapplied from single-phase to two-phase aat 0.63s and three- i.e., whole reactive power is suppllied by DSTATCOM. It is

phase at 0.68s. Results shows PCC voltagee and load current shown neutral current by source iss nearly zero whereas load

are in same phase. Also reactive power suppplied by source is neutral current is very high at the time

t of phase out as whole

negligible small as compared to power reqquired by the load neutral current is compensated by T-connected

T arrangement.

Fig.7. Matlab-Simulink simulation based model of 3-leeg VSC with T-connected transformer as DSTATCOM

Fig.8. Performance of DSTATCOM in PFC mode for llinear load (a) supply voltage vS (V), (b) supply current iS (A), (c) load currents iL (A), (d) compensator

currents iC (A), (e) supply voltage of phase a vSA (V) annd supply current of phase a iSA (A), (f) DC bus voltage VDC (V), (g) reacctive power demand by load qL

(W) and reactive power supplied by source qS (W) for pphase a, (h) source neutral current iSn (A), (i) load neutral current iLn (A)).

load at time 0.47s and to single-phase at 0.56s. And loads are

Performance of DSTATCOM with nonnlinear load with

reapplied from single-phase to twoo-phase at 0.64s and three-

unbalancing is shown in Fig.9 for power factor correction,

harmonics reduction, load balancing andd neutral current

phase at 0.73s. Results shows PCC voltagee and load current shown neutral current by source iss nearly zero whereas load

are in same phase. Also reactive power suppplied by source is neutral current is very high at the time

t of phase out as whole

negligible small as compared to power reqquired by the load neutral current is compensated by T-connected

T arrangement.

i.e., whole reactive power is supplied by D

DSTATCOM. It is

Fig.9. Performance of DSTATCOM in PFC mode for nonlinear load (a) supply voltage vS (V), (b) supply current iS (A), (c) lo oad current of phase a iLA (A), (d)

load current of phase b iLB (A), (e) load current of phasse c iLC (A), (f) compensator currents iC (A), (g) DC bus voltage VDC (V),, (h) source neutral current iSn (A),

(i) load neutral current iLn (A), (j) current supplied by ttransformer iTn (A), (k) transformer current for phase a iTa (A),(l) transfformer current for phase b iTb (A),

(m) transformer current for phase c iTc (A).

Fig.10. Waveform and THD spectrum of (a) PCC voltaage of phase c, (b) source current of phase c, (c) load current of phase c.

Waveform and total harmonic distortion (THD) b) Nonlinear load: 3 Single phase diode bridge rectifier load

spectrum of PCC voltage, source current and load current is with RL=8 and CL=300 F

shown in Fig.10. We can see that the THD of load current is PI controller: Kp = .19, Ki = 6.25

45.79% and waveform is spiky in nature. This load current AC inductor: .1, 15 mH

THD is compensated by the DSTATCOM to 2.77% to make T-connected transformer: Two single-phase transformers of

supply current sinusoidal. THD in PCC voltage is 3.22%. rating 5 kVA, 240/120/120 V and 5 kVA, 208/208 V.

Both the THDs for PCC voltage and supply current is well

below the maximum THD standard i.e., 5% as given by REFERENCES

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q Theories pplied to Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter under

studied for power factor correction, load balancing, neutral Different Operating Conditions: A Comparative

current compensation and harmonics reduction for various Evaluation,International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems

linear, nonlinear and unbalanced load. T-connected Volume 11, Issue 2, 2010 Article 1.

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Analog Circuit Implementation of a Three-Phase Shunt Active Filter

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are in phase shows that power factor correction goal are DELIVERY, VOL. 23, NO. 2, APRIL 2008, pp. 1222-1235.

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below 5%. Although THD level are well below the limits but Circuit Implementation of a Three-phase Shunt Active Filter using the

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APPENDIX DELIVERY, VOL. 28, NO. 3, JULY 2013, pp. 1516-24.

Ripple filter: R = 15, C = 1 F

DC Bus voltage: 700 V

DC Bus Capacitor: 4700 F

Line impedance: Rs = 0.01, Ls = 1 mH

Loads: a) linear: 20 kVA, 415 V, 50 Hz, pf = 0.8 lag

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