NASA Daily News Summary For Release: Sept.

13, 1999 Media Advisory m99-186 Summary: No News Releases Today. Video File for Sept. 13, 1999 Summary: ITEM 1 - LA NINA RESURFACES, HAS EFFECT ON HURRICANES 17:03 (replay) ITEM 2 - HURRICANE FLOYD IMAGES ********** If NASA issues any news releases later today, we will e-mail summaries and Internet URLs to this list. Index of 1999 NASA News Releases: http://www.nasa.gov/releases/1999/index.html ********** Video File Advisory for Sept. 13, 1999 Summary: ITEM 1 - LA NINA RESURFACES, HAS EFFECT ON HURRICANES 17:03 (replay) ITEM 2 - HURRICANE FLOYD IMAGES Live Television Events Coming Up This Week: TRT TRT

September 14, Tuesday ​ 8:00 - 9:00 am - Uplink Test - LARC​​ 2:00 - 3:00 pm - STS-93 Crew Presentation - HQ September 16, Thursday ​ 1:00 - 2:00 pm - Eileen Collins and STS-93 Crew at the National Press Club (questions from Press Club audience only) - HQ September 17, Friday ​ 6:00 - 10:00 am - Diabetes Technology Live News Interviews LARC​​ 1:00 - 2:00 pm - Diabetes Technology Live News Interviews - LARC ******* ITEM 1 - LA NINA RESURFACES, HAS EFFECT ON HURRICANES 17:03 (replay) Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz 202/358-1730. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler 301/286-6256. ITEM 1a - LA NINA RESURFACES This data sequence shows the evolution and demise of warm El Nino conditions in 1997 and early 1998. The cooler waters associated with La Nina began to emerge in the spring of 1998, peaked in the winter of 1998 and became much less organized in the spring of 1999. During the past two months the cool La Nina waters have resurfaced. Red indicates warmer than normal temperatures, and blue indicates cooler than normal temperatures. Sea height data is from NASA/CNES TOPEX/Poseidon radar altimeter. Subsurface temperature data is from NOAA TOGA TAO. Sea surface temperature data from NOAA NCEP SST analysis through 8/28/99. ITEM 1b - LA NINA RESURFACES - SATELLITE SEA TEMPERATURES This data sequence traces the evolution and demise of warm El Nino conditions in 1997 and early 1998. In June 1998, scientists were TRT

surprised by the rapid transition to cool La Nina conditions when water temperatures near the Galapagos Islands dropped over 10 degrees Fahrenheit in just a week. La Nina then became much less organized in the spring of 1999. During the past two months the cool La Nina waters have resurfaced. Sea surface temperature data is from NOAA NCEP SST analysis through 9/4/99. ITEM 1c - THE WINDS OF LA NINA Stronger than normal low-level equatorial winds have helped bring the cooler than normal waters to the ocean surface. ITEM 1d - THE HURRICANE CONNECTION Animation compares the effects of La Nina and El Nino on the formation of Atlantic Hurricanes. El Nino tends to suppress the formation of Atlantic hurricanes. During El Nino, the subtropical jet is displaced southward toward hurricane generation areas in the Atlantic. The quick moving air aloft tends to blow the top of the developing clouds in a hurricane which inhibits full growth of the system and decreases the number of hurricanes making North American landfall. During La Nina, the subtropical jet is displaced northward, away from hurricane generation areas, and hurricanes are not inhibited by the shearing effect of the quick moving air aloft. They are more free than normal to develop and make North American landfall. ITEM 1e - HURRICANES OF 1999 Images of Hurricanes of 1999. Hurricane Dennis as seen from SeaWiFS and GOES. Credit: NASA/NOAA ITEM 1f - HURRICANE MITCH - (TRMM) The 1998 hurricane season was unusually severe. This "CAT scan" image of Hurricane Mitch was captured by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The spaceborne rain radar allows scientists to create 3-D views of precipitation and the height of the rain column inside hurricanes. Red colors indicate

rain rates in excess of 2 inches per hour. Data for this sequence were collected on 10/27/98. Credit: NASA/NASDA ITEM 1g - HURRICANE MITCH - (GOES) This time-lapse sequence of Hurricane Mitch was captured by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Credit: NASA/NOAA ITEM 1h - WORLDWIDE CLIMATE CHANGES Animation illustrates how El Nino and La Nina drive global climate changes. As warm water in the tropical Pacific shifts its location one-third of the way around the globe, this major heat source to the atmosphere changes the position of atmospheric high and low pressure centers. This causes changes in the position of the jet streams hitting North America and associated temperature and rainfall patterns. The jet stream location is critical for steering storms into the continental U.S. During El Nino, the subtropical jet is displaced southward and storms are steered by the subtropical jet into southern California. During La Nina, the subtropical and polar jet streams combine to steer storms toward the northwest United States. ITEM 1i - SEASONAL EFFECTS OF LA NINA Graphic shows seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation in the United States as seen in previous La Nina events. ITEM 1j - SEASONAL EFFECTS OF EL NINO Graphic shows seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation in the United States as seen in previous El Nino events. ITEM 1k - B-ROLL: SCIENTISTS DECIPHER LA NINA PUZZLE

ITEM 1l - REBOUND FROM EL NINO El Nino also has a dramatic impact on the global biosphere. Satellite instruments that measure color in the oceans monitor chlorophyll concentrations. These measurements help scientists monitor changes in phytoplankton, the lowest level of the marine food chain. During El Nino, an upwelling of nutrients in colder water is suppressed, with often disastrous implications for marine ecosystems. NASA's SeaWiFS instrument enabled scientists to witness the ocean transition from El Nino (first image) to La Nina (second image) conditions in the equatorial Pacific. The cooler, upwelled nutrient-rich waters associated with the demise of El Nino and the transition to La Nina initiated a huge plankton bloom along the equator. ITEM 1m - EXPLOSION IN THE GALAPAGOS On regional scales, the SeaWiFS instrument documented the rapid demise of El Nino in the waters around the Galapagos Islands. The images show an explosion in plankton growth as the warm El Nino waters blamed for choking off essential ocean nutrients are replaced by deep, cold, upwelled waters. The false color images, which document plankton concentrations over a period from May 9 24, 1998, show that life in the region to the west of the archipelago has returned in remarkable abundance. High concentrations are shown in red. Areas occluded by clouds are shown in white. ITEM 1n - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS David Adamec, Research Oceanographer, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

ITEM 2 - HURRICANE FLOYD IMAGES ITEM 2a - HURRICANE FLOYD IN 3D TRT 1:07

Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Deanna Corridon 301/286-0041.

This 3D image shows the precipitation rates and the height of the rain column in Hurricane Floyd. Red color indicates rain rates in excess of 2 inches per hour. This TRMM animation sequence is of Hurricane Floyd captured at 5:40AM (EDT), on September 13, 1999. TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) is a joint U.S.-Japanese mission. These images were enhanced and rendered at the Scientific and Visualization Studio (SVS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. ITEM 2b - HURRICANE FLOYD NOTE: This image will be available, beginning with the 3:00 pm feed, only if we can acquire the image in time This image of Hurricane Floyd was captured by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), onboard the Sea Star spacecraft. The image was taken at 12:40 p.m. on September 13, 1999. This image was enhanced and rendered at the Scientific and Visualization Studio (SVS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

---------Unless otherwise noted, ALL TIMES ARE EASTERN. ANY CHANGES TO THE LINE-UP WILL APPEAR ON THE NASA VIDEO FILE ADVISORY ON THE WEB AT ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/tv-advisory/nasa-tv.txt WE UPDATE THE ADVISORY THROUGHOUT THE DAY. The NASA Video File normally airs at noon, 3 p.m., 6 p.m., 9 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. Refer general questions about the video file to NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Ray Castillo, 202/358-4555, or Elvia Thompson, 202/358-1696, elvia.thompson@hq.nasa.gov During Space Shuttle missions, the full NASA TV schedule will continue to be posted at:

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