NASA Daily News Summary For Release: Sept.

14, 1999 Media Advisory m99-187 Summary: No News Releases Today. Video File for Sept. 14, 1999 ITEM 1 - 1999 ANTARCTIC OZONE "HOLE" EMERGES TRT 4:20 ITEM 2 - POET GARY SOTO TRT 6:05 ITEM 3 - LA NINA RESURFACES, HAS EFFECT ON HURRICANES TRT 17:03 (replay) ITEM 4 - HURRICANE SATELLITE IMAGES Note: if we can acquire images in time, they will appear on the 3:00 pm feed and thereafter throughout the day SCHEDULE NOTE: THE 3:00 PM VIDEOFILE TODAY MAY BE DELATED SLIGHTLY DUE TO THE STS-93 CREW PRESENTATION SCHEDULED TO RUN FROM 2:00 3:00 PM. WE ANTICIPATE THAT THE PRESENTATION MAY RUN LONG. Live Television Events Coming Up This Week: ​ September 14, Tuesday ​ 8:00 - 9:00 am - Uplink Test - LARC​​ 2:00 - 3:00 pm - STS-93 Crew Presentation - HQ September 16, Thursday ​ 1:00 - 2:00 pm - Eileen Collins and STS-93 Crew at the National Press Club (questions from Press Club audience only) - HQ The STS-93 crew, including Eileen Collins, the first woman Space Shuttle Commander, will discuss the significance of space exploration and share unique perspectives from their flight as part of a luncheon presentation Thursday, Sept. 16 at the National Press Club, 529 14th St., NW, Washington, D.C. The luncheon begins at 12:30 p.m., the presentation at 1 p.m. For ticket information, call Pat Nelson at (202) 662-7539. The Press Club Web site is at http://npc.press.org/ September 17, Friday ​ 6:00 - 10:00 am - Diabetes Technology Live News Interviews LARC​​

1:00 - 2:00 pm - Diabetes Technology Live News Interviews - LARC ********** If NASA issues any news releases later today, we will e-mail summaries and Internet URLs to this list. Index of 1999 NASA News Releases: http://www.nasa.gov/releases/1999/index.html ********** Video File for Sept. 14, 1999 ITEM 1 - 1999 ANTARCTIC OZONE "HOLE" EMERGES TRT 4:20

New images from NASA show the depleted region of ozone commonly known as the "ozone hole" is again emerging over Antarctica. Scientists are closely monitoring ozone levels in Antarctica after observing record low levels of ozone in 1998. The Antarctic "ozone hole" develops each year between late August and early October. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler 301/286-6256. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz 202/358-1730. ITEM 1a - 1999 ANTARCTIC OZONE "HOLE" EMERGES New images from NASA show the depleted region of ozone commonly known as the "ozone hole" is again emerging over Antarctica. The latest images show that region of depleted ozone exceeds 9 million square miles (23 million square kilometers). Lower concentrations of ozone are shown in purple. Higher concentrations are in yellow and red. The Antarctic "ozone hole" develops each year between late August and early October. ITEM 1b - 1998 OZONE "HOLE" The 1998 Antarctic ozone "hole" was the largest ever observed. Data from the satellites show that ozone depletion reached a record size of 10.5 million square miles (27.3 million square kilometers) on Sept. 19, 1998. Scientists believe the unusually

cold stratospheric temperatures contributed to the record size of the "hole." ITEM 1c - OZONE TRENDS This shows yearly comparison of ozone levels in Antarctic. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Though "ozone holes" of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists expect to see a reduction in ozone losses as levels of ozone-destroying CFCs are gradually reduced. ITEM 1d - TOMS SATELLITE The measurements were obtained this year using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard NASA's Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) satellite. ITEM 1e - OZONE SCIENTISTS - B-ROLL Scientists and others have a keen interest in ozone depletion, given that the increased amounts of ultraviolet radiation that reach the Earth's surface because of ozone loss have the potential to increase the incidence of skin cancer and cataracts in humans, harm some crops, and interfere with marine life.

ITEM 2 - POET GARY SOTO

TRT 6:05

Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Bert Ulrich 202/358-1713. Poet Gary Soto, author of nine poetry collections, is the first person commissioned by the NASA Art Program to write poetry for NASA. ITEM 2a - INTERVIEW WITH GARY SOTO ITEM 2b - GARY SOTO READS HIS POEM, "THE BOYS' FIRST FLIGHT"

ITEM 3 - LA NINA RESURFACES, HAS EFFECT ON HURRICANES 17:03 (replay) Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz 202/358-1730. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler 301/286-6256. ITEM 3a - LA NINA RESURFACES This data sequence shows the evolution and demise of warm El Nino conditions in 1997 and early 1998. The cooler waters associated with La Nina began to emerge in the spring of 1998, peaked in the winter of 1998 and became much less organized in the spring of 1999. During the past two months the cool La Nina waters have resurfaced. Red indicates warmer than normal temperatures, and blue indicates cooler than normal temperatures. Sea height data is from NASA/CNES TOPEX/Poseidon radar altimeter. Subsurface temperature data is from NOAA TOGA TAO. Sea surface temperature data from NOAA NCEP SST analysis through 8/28/99.

TRT

ITEM 3b - LA NINA RESURFACES - SATELLITE SEA TEMPERATURES This data sequence traces the evolution and demise of warm El Nino conditions in 1997 and early 1998. In June 1998, scientists were surprised by the rapid transition to cool La Nina conditions when water temperatures near the Galapagos Islands dropped over 10 degrees Fahrenheit in just a week. La Nina then became much less organized in the spring of 1999. During the past two months the cool La Nina waters have resurfaced. Sea surface temperature data is from NOAA NCEP SST analysis through 9/4/99. ITEM 3c - THE WINDS OF LA NINA Stronger than normal low-level equatorial winds have helped bring the cooler than normal waters to the ocean surface. ITEM 3d - THE HURRICANE CONNECTION Animation compares the effects of La Nina and El Nino on the formation of Atlantic Hurricanes. El Nino tends to suppress the formation of Atlantic hurricanes. During El Nino, the subtropical jet is displaced southward toward hurricane generation areas in the Atlantic. The quick moving air aloft tends to blow the top of the developing clouds in a hurricane which inhibits full growth of

the system and decreases the number of hurricanes making North American landfall. During La Nina, the subtropical jet is displaced northward, away from hurricane generation areas, and hurricanes are not inhibited by the shearing effect of the quick moving air aloft. They are more free than normal to develop and make North American landfall. ITEM 3e - HURRICANES OF 1999 Images of Hurricanes of 1999. Hurricane Dennis as seen from SeaWiFS and GOES. Credit: NASA/NOAA ITEM 3f - HURRICANE MITCH - (TRMM) The 1998 hurricane season was unusually severe. This "CAT scan" image of Hurricane Mitch was captured by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The spaceborne rain radar allows scientists to create 3-D views of precipitation and the height of the rain column inside hurricanes. Red colors indicate rain rates in excess of 2 inches per hour. Data for this sequence were collected on 10/27/98. Credit: NASA/NASDA ITEM 3g - HURRICANE MITCH - (GOES) This time-lapse sequence of Hurricane Mitch was captured by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Credit: NASA/NOAA ITEM 3h - WORLDWIDE CLIMATE CHANGES Animation illustrates how El Nino and La Nina drive global climate changes. As warm water in the tropical Pacific shifts its location one-third of the way around the globe, this major heat source to the atmosphere changes the position of atmospheric high and low pressure centers. This causes changes in the position of the jet streams hitting North America and associated temperature and rainfall patterns. The jet stream location is critical for steering storms into the continental U.S. During El Nino, the subtropical jet is displaced southward and storms are steered by the subtropical jet into southern

California. During La Nina, the subtropical and polar jet streams combine to steer storms toward the northwest United States. ITEM 3i - SEASONAL EFFECTS OF LA NINA Graphic shows seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation in the United States as seen in previous La Nina events. ITEM 3j - SEASONAL EFFECTS OF EL NINO Graphic shows seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation in the United States as seen in previous El Nino events. ITEM 3k - B-ROLL: SCIENTISTS DECIPHER LA NINA PUZZLE ITEM 3l - REBOUND FROM EL NINO El Nino also has a dramatic impact on the global biosphere. Satellite instruments that measure color in the oceans monitor chlorophyll concentrations. These measurements help scientists monitor changes in phytoplankton, the lowest level of the marine food chain. During El Nino, an upwelling of nutrients in colder water is suppressed, with often disastrous implications for marine ecosystems. NASA's SeaWiFS instrument enabled scientists to witness the ocean transition from El Nino (first image) to La Nina (second image) conditions in the equatorial Pacific. The cooler, upwelled nutrient-rich waters associated with the demise of El Nino and the transition to La Nina initiated a huge plankton bloom along the equator. ITEM 3m - EXPLOSION IN THE GALAPAGOS On regional scales, the SeaWiFS instrument documented the rapid demise of El Nino in the waters around the Galapagos Islands. The images show an explosion in plankton growth as the warm El Nino waters blamed for choking off essential ocean nutrients are replaced by deep, cold, upwelled waters. The false color images, which document plankton concentrations over a period from May 9 24, 1998, show that life in the region to the west of the archipelago has returned in remarkable abundance. High concentrations are shown in red. Areas occluded by clouds are shown in white. ITEM 3n - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS

David Adamec, Research Oceanographer, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

ITEM 4 - HURRICANE FLOYD IMAGES

---------Unless otherwise noted, ALL TIMES ARE EASTERN. ANY CHANGES TO THE LINE-UP WILL APPEAR ON THE NASA VIDEO FILE ADVISORY ON THE WEB AT ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/tv-advisory/nasa-tv.txt WE UPDATE THE ADVISORY THROUGHOUT THE DAY. The NASA Video File normally airs at noon, 3 p.m., 6 p.m., 9 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. Refer general questions about the video file to NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Ray Castillo, 202/358-4555, or Elvia Thompson, 202/358-1696, elvia.thompson@hq.nasa.gov During Space Shuttle missions, the full NASA TV schedule will continue to be posted at: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/nasatv/schedule.html For general information about NASA TV see: http://www.nasa.gov/ntv/ ********** Contract Awards Contract awards are posted to the NASA Acquisition information Service Web site: http://procurement.nasa.gov/EPS/award.html ********** The NASA Daily News Summary is issued each business day at

approximately 2 p.m. Eastern time. Members of the media who wish to subscribe or unsubscribe from this list, please send e-mail message to: Brian.Dunbar@hq.nasa.gov ********** end of daily news summary