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J Mar Sci Technol

DOI 10.1007/s00773-015-0312-7

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Modeling and control of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)


in heading and depth attitude via self-adaptive fuzzy PID
controller
Mohammad Hedayati Khodayari Saeed Balochian

Received: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2015


JASNAOE 2015

Abstract This paper focuses on design of a new self- 1 Introduction


adaptive fuzzy PID controller based on nonlinear MIMO
structure for an AUV. Complexity and highly coupled Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) is an unmanned
dynamics, time-variance, and difficulty in hydrodynamic submersible in different sizes. It is intended to provide sci-
modeling and simulation, complicates the AUV modeling entists and researchers with simple, low-cost, medium and
process and the design of proper and acceptable controller. long-range, appropriate time response capability to collect
In this work, the comprehensive nonlinear model of AUV environmental data. There are a lot of applications for AUVs,
is derived through kinematics and dynamic equations and including oil industry, survey on underwater animals and
then its treatment in open-loop is verified. In proposed plants, operations in dangerous waters, photometric survey,
controller, the PID parameters are adjusted by Mamdani pipeline route survey, seabed mapping, environmental
fuzzy rules. Combined adaptive methods and dual PID monitoring, chemical plume tracing [1], salvage and rescue
controllers can improve solving of the uncertainty chal- requests, and so on [2]. Today the significance of AUVs can
lenge in the PID parameters and AUV modeling uncer- easily be understood if the Unmanned Underwater Vehicles
tainty. The simulation results indicate that developed (UUV) program for the US Navy is studied [3].
control system is stable, competent, and efficient enough to Derivation of AUV parameters is a difficult process and
control the AUV in tracking the two channels of heading finally its validation demands to analyze practical test like
and depth with stabilized speed. Obtained results show that two tank test [4] or telemetry under sea [5, 6]. However, at
the proposed controller is not only robust, but also gives last, estimation of parameters has uncertainty and varia-
excellent dynamic, stunning steady-state characteristics tion; therefore, the controller must be self-tuning and ro-
and robust stability compared with a classically tuned PID bust in counter to variation of AUV parameters and also
controller. unpredictable environmental disturbances.
Inherently, nonlinear dynamics of AUVs make it more
Keywords AUV  PID (Proportional Integral difficult to exert commonly used linear control. The dy-
Derivative)  IAE (Integrated Absolute Error)  AFPIDC namic characteristics of an AUV are quite complex due to
(Adaptive Fuzzy PID Controller)  MIMO systems its high nonlinearity, time-varying dynamic behavior,
uncertainties in hydrodynamic coefficients, and distur-
bances caused by sea currents and waves.
A good control system must be regarded for two rea-
sons: the first one for being robust and its ability to account
for parameter changes and the second one for having a self-
M. H. Khodayari  S. Balochian (&)
adaptive capability to account for variations in control
Department of Electrical Engineering, Gonabad Branch, Islamic
Azad University, 96916-29 Gonabad, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran performance during operation due to environmental dis-
e-mail: saeed.balochian@gmail.com turbances, sensor noise, and changes in AUV dynamics.
M. H. Khodayari Throughout the years various models of control tech-
e-mail: m.hedayati.kh@gmail.com niques have been proposed. This includes linear controllers

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J Mar Sci Technol

[1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 28], which have performed satisfactorily; 3: Develop a detailed understanding of control systems
SMC controllers [11, 13], adaptive control [12, 13, 22], available to AUVs, concentrating on self-adaptive
FLC (Fuzzy Logic Control) [14], predictive control [18 fuzzy PID controller, and its simulation results.
21], static feedback control [30], and neural-network-based 4: Compare and analyze the performance of both
control [1517] have also shown good robustness and controllers in the presence of environmental distur-
tuning ability. Since almost all control methods have some bances, sensor noise, and parameter variations of
pros and cons, a proper controller can be achieved by the AUV dynamics.
combination of classical and modern intelligent method.
Controlling AUV is considered to be an important
One of the most important disadvantages of linear
problem due to aforementioned reasons. It is not easy to
controllers like LQR and LQG is that they are unable to
model these characteristics easily and accurately, hence it
account for the nonlinearities of the system, thus they can
is suitable to have a self- adaptive controller to be able to
result in suitable performance and even instability in high
handle parameter variations.
maneuver treatments.
The advantage of using a PID controller is it is simple
In brief, the adaptive control is a type of nonlinear
to implement and maintain, however, it is primarily ap-
control using a system with uncertainty or time-varying
plicable for linear time-invariant systems, though many
parameters. It is implemented on plants with a definite
extensions to nonlinear systems have been made such as
structure with unspecified fixed or slowly varying pa-
[23] and references therein. As a matter of fact the
rameters. Adaptive method is useful for AUVs because of
performance of this type of controller is variable, and the
variation of real model parameters. The controller can
employed methods are essentially a trial and error pro-
adapt itself according to the level or characteristics of
cedure and do not guarantee suitable and enough ac-
waves and currents or to the changing weight of AUV.
ceptable results. In addition, this kind of controller has
Also, neural network has some weak points that bind its
the disadvantage of the difficulty of adjusting parameter
improvement. It converges to a precise model with long
on-line. Hence, the combination of traditional and mod-
training time and slow rate, which is not acceptable by
ern or intelligent methods such as fuzzy controller is
many systems. Also, classical neural network does not
useful [2426].
qualify the main requirements such as fast response, less
This paper is organized as the following. Section 1 deals
overshootundershoot.
with a brief discussion on the dynamic equations, coordi-
SMC is an earlier method that is a good solution for
nate systems, and modeling. Section 2 deals with classical
nonlinear system but it can cause chattering on actuators,
controller. In Sect. 3, the proposed controller, i.e. self-
waste energy, and make fault on fins. However, there are
tuning PID controller is described. In Sect. 4, comparative
some methods like combination with fuzzy or changing the
simulation results and analysis of the robustness of the
sign function by saturation function to reduce chattering.
controllers are presented.
The FLC is easy to use in industrial process because of
its simple control structure, easy and cost-effective design
[29]. However, FLC with fixed scaling factors and fuzzy
2 Model description
rules may not give complete performance if the controlled
plant has uncertainty and high nonlinearity [29]. Tradi-
2.1 Coordinate systems and kinematic and dynamic
tional FLC can have errors in steady state if the system
equations of motion
does not have an inherent integrating property. Modern
controllers are more robust to dynamic variations and can
Generally, the motion of an AUV can be introduced by
offer better performance index than classical controllers;
six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) differential equations of
however, they may require neat to exact models.
motion [4], [27]. These equations are developed using
The main aim of this paper is to develop an attitude
two coordinate frames shown in Fig. 1. Six velocity
control system of an AUV based on model REMUS100 via
components [u, v, w, p, q, r] (surge, sway, heave ve-
using a self-adaptive fuzzy PID controller. The goal is to
locity, roll, pitch rate, yaw rate) are defined in the body-
1: Understand the general dynamics of AUVs and fixed frame, while the earth-fixed frame defines the
especially on the model of REMUS100 by corresponding attitudes and positions [x, y, z, u, h, and
MATLAB2014/SIMULINK. w]. It is listed in Table 1. The axis is right-handed. The
2: Achieve the existing PID controller employed in origin of the body-fixed coordinate system is center of
REMUS100 model as an initial controller in three mass, it means Xcg 0:00 m Ycg 0:00 m Z cg 1:96e
channels of depth, heading, and velocity. 002.

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Fig. 1 Reference frame of


AUV

Table 1 Symbols used to DOF Motion Forces and moments Linear and angular velocity Positions and Euler angles
describe 6-DOF
1 Surge X (N) u (m/s) x (m)
2 Sway Y (N) v (m/s) y (m)
3 Heave Z (N) w (m/s) z (m)
4 Roll K (N m) p (rad/s) / (rad)
5 Pitch M (N m) q (rad/s) h (rad)
6 Yaw N (N m) r (rad/s) w (rad)

The AUV motion is described by these vectors:

g1 x y z T position vector; g2 / h w T Euler angles vector;


m1 u v w  linear velocity vector; m2 p q r T angular velocity vector;
T

s1 X Y Z T forces vector; s2 K M N T moments vector:

It should be considered that in order to avoid singularity Transformation between these two coordinate systems is
in calculations and transformation, Euler angles should be as follows:
in this boundary:

2 32 32 3
cosw  sinw 0 cosh 0 sinh 1 0 0
T
J1 g2 Cz;w T
: Cy;h T
: Cx;u 4 sinw cosw 0 54 0 1 0 54 0 cos/  sin/ 5 1
0 0 1  sinh 0 cosh 0 sin/ cos/

p p For transformation of linear velocities, by the following


p\/  p;  \h\ ; 0  w\2p:
2 2 matrix equation time rate of the displacements described
with respect to world coordinate (earth-fixed) frame rates
can be obtained as follows:

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2 3 2 3 2 3
x_ u 1 0  sinh
4 y_ 5 J1 g2 4 v 5 2 J21 g2 4 0 cosu sinu cosh 5 13
z_ w 0  sinu cosu cosh

Inversely, body coordinate frame velocities can be deter- Combined speed matrix definitions are as follows in
mined from world coordinate frame velocities in a similar matrix notation:
fashion:     
g_ 1 J g 033 m1
2 3 2 3 g_ Jg2 :m , 1 2 14
g_ 2 033 J2 g2 m2
u  1  x_
4 v 5 J g2 4 y_ 5 3
1
w z_

2 3
cos h  cos w sin u  sin h  cos w  cos u  sin w cos u  sin h  cos w sin u  sin w
J1 g2 4 cos h  sin w sin u  sin h  sin w cos u  cos w cos u  sin h  sin w  sin u  cos w 5 4
 sin h sin u  cos h cos u  cos h

 
Since the body to world coordination rotation matrix J1  J g 0
V world Jg2 V body 1 2 V body 15
is an orthogonal matrix, it follows that inverse of J1  0 J2 g2
equals to transpose of J1 :
V body Jg2 1 V world
 
J11 g2 J1T g2 Cx;u  Cy;u  Cz;u 5 J1 g2 T 0
V world 16
Therefore: 0 J2 g2 1
2 3 2 3
u x_
4 v 5 J1 g2 T 4 y_ 5 6 2.2 Dynamics
w z_
2.2.1 Forces and moments equations
Angular rates described with respect to body-fixed
frame are transformed into the time rate of Euler angles by
Centers of buoyancy and gravity are introduced;
following non-orthogonal transformation matrix.
rB xB ; yB ; zB T :, rG xG ; yG ; zG T
u_ p q sinu tanh r cosu tanh 7 External forces and moments are obtained according to
h_ q cosu  r sinu 8 [4]. The external forces acting on the rigid body of AUV
are combined of hydrostatic forces, hydrodynamic forces,
q sinu r cosu and forces due to the control surfaces and propeller; that is
w_ 9
cosh X
Fext Fhydrostatic Flift Fdrag Fcontrol Fdisturbances : 17
These three equation forms are represented in matrix
notation: According to this subject of REMUS100, the centers of
2 3 2 3
u_ p buoyancy and gravity are according to [27], if the selec-
4 h_ 5 J2 g2 4 q 5 10 tions of origin in body coordinate are in this way that the
 
w_ r inertial moment matrix Io diag Ixx ; Iyy ; Izz is orthogo-
2 3  
1 sinu tanh cosu tanh nal, in another word Ixy; Ixz; Iyz; are negligible compared
 
J2 g2 4 0 cosu  sinu 5 11 with Ixx ; Iyy ; Izz . It means
0 sinu sech cosu sech 2 3
Ixx 0 0
Angular velocity from Euler angular rates is as follows: Io 4 0 Iyy 0 5 18
2 3 2 3 0 0 Izz
p u_
4 q 5 J 1 g2 4 h_ 5 12 After the simplification of the motion equations for
2
r w_ quantities driven by external forces and moments, we have:

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Fig. 2 External forces and moments

   2 3
m u_  vr wq  xG q2 r 2 yG pq  r_ zG pr q_ 0
X 19 fG g2 J11 4 0 5 25
  2  W
m v_  wp ur  yG r p2 zG pr  p_ xG qp r_ 2 3
0
Y 20 fB g2 J11 4 0 5 26
  2  B
m w  uq vp  zG p q2 xG rp  q yG rq p_
Z 21 The hydrostatic forces and moments on the vehicle can
 be explained as:
Ixx p_ Izz  Iyy qr myG w_  uq vp
zG v_  wp ur  K 22 FHS fG  fB : 27
MHS rG  fG  rB  fB ; rG xG ; yG ; zG T ; rB
Iyy q_ Ixx  Izz rp mzG u_  vr wq
x B ; y B ; zB  T 28
xG w_  uq vp M 23
 These equations can be expanded to yield the nonlinear
Izz r_ Iyy  Ixx pq mxG v_  wq ur
equations for hydrostatic forces and moments:
yG u_  vr wq N: 24 2 3
W  Bsh
The first three equations are related to external forces for 6 W  Bchs/ 7
  6 7
Fhydrostatic 6  W  B chs/ 7
translational motion and the second three equations are 6
6
7
7
related to rotational motion. Generally, Schematic of forces
Mhydrostatic 6 yG W  yB Bchcu zG W  zB Bchs/ 7
4 zG W  zB Bsh xG W  xB Bchc/ 5
and moments are illustrated in Fig. 2. xG W  xB Bchs/  yG W  yB Bsh
29
2.2.2 Hydrostatic forces and moments
This equation can be added to the right hand side of the
The buoyancy and weight force vectors do not change with equations of motion in Eqs. 1924. After the combination
AUV attitude for bodies that are submerged. The buoyant of other force and moment components such as axial and
and weight components are acting in the global vertical lateral of body, roll drag, axial and lateral add mass effect,
direction and they must be transformed into components in roll added mass, body lift and moment, actuator lifts, and
the body coordinates in order to be added into the equations propeller forces according to [4], [27, 28], the final equa-
of motion. By exerting the transformation from earth to tion obtained is
body, the vertical force components can be obtained as: where right-hand side of Eq. 30 are

2 32 3 2P 3
m  Xu_ 0 0 0 mzg myg u_ X
6 0 m  Yv_ 0 0 0 mxg  Yr_ 7 6 v_ 7 6 P Y 7
6 76 7 6 7
6 76 7 6 P 7
6 0 0 m  Zw_ myg mxg  Zq_ 0 76 w_ 7 6 Z 7
6 76 7 6 P 7 30
6 0 mzg myg Ixx  Kp 0 0 76 p_ 7 6 K 7
6 76 7 6 7
6 76 7 6 P 7
4 mzg 0 mxg  Mw_ 0 Iyy  Mq_ 0 54 q_ 5 4 M 5
P
myg mxg  Nv_ 0 0 0 Izz  Nr_ r_ N

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X X
Xext XHS Xujuj ujuj Xu_ u_ Xwq wq Xqq qq Kext KHS Kpj pj pj pj Kp_ p_ Kprop 34
X
Xvr vr Xrr rr Xprop 31 Mext MHS Mwjwj wjwj Mqjqj qjqj Mw_ w_ Mq_ q_
X
Yext YHS Yvjvj vjvj Yrjrj r jr j Yr_r_ Yv_ v_ Yur ur Muq uq Mvp vp Mrp rp Muw uw
Muuds u2 ds
Ywp wp Ypq pq Yuv uv Yuudr u2 dr
35
32 X
X Next NHS Nvjvj vjvj Nrjrj r jr j Nr_r_ Nv_ v_ Nur ur
Zext ZHS Zwjwj wjwj Zqjqj qjqj Zw_ w_ Zq_ q_
Nwp wp Npq pq Nuv uv Nuudr u2 dr :
Zuq uq Zvp vp Zrp rp Zuw uw Zuuds u2 ds
36
33

Table 2 Some of the main used parameters in equations


Parameters Values Used equations 3 Control methodology

Initial surge velocity (u) 1.54 m/s Eqs. 2023 AUV motion in the water is created by propeller system
Xprop 3.861 N Eqs. 39 and control fin surfaces. The REMUS AUV control system
Kprop 0Nm Eqs. 34, 40 uses two rudder fins and two elevator (stern) fins. Through
2
Weight 2.99 9 10 N Eqs. 1925, 29, 40 the control of propeller and fins deflection, control is
Buoyancy 2.99 9 102 N Eqs. 26, 29, 40 achievable. For completeness, this paper presents two
zB 0m Eqs. 29, 41 control schemes and implements them in AUV control
xB 0m Eqs. 29, 40 system. These are tuned PID control system and self-
yB 0m Eqs. 29, 40 adaptive fuzzy PID control system. In this section, the
zG 0.0196 m Eqs. 29, 30 specific designs are presented.
xG 0m Eqs. 29, 30 As a matter of fact, there are three means that we want
yG 0m Eqs. 29, 30 to maximize the maneuverability of the AUV:
Ixx 0.177 kg m2 Eqs. 18, 2224
1. Depth control
Iyy 3.45 kg m2 Eqs. 18, 2224
2. Steering (heading) control
Izz 3.45 kg m2 Eqs. 18, 23, 24
3. Forward velocity [surge speed (u)] control.

Fig. 3 SIMULINK model of


AUV with specified inputs/
outputs for linearization and
output categorizing

Input1-C1

Input2-C2

OUTPUT1-Y

OUTPUT2-Z

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3.1 Modeling in SIMULINK related to initial condition and system inputs that are not
completely clear in [4].
In this model, initial states are as follows and can be
changed to the desired values according to Table 2. 3.2 PID controller
This model is completely nonlinear and has three inputs
and three desired outputs. The system has 12 states As mentioned before, the control of z-axis and y-axis are
(v u v w p q r x y z / h u ). In our related to stern and rudder actuators, respectively, but in-
model, inputs are Xprop ds dr  and outputs are teraction between two types of actuator should not be
x y z  (MIMO structure). This model is shown in forgotten. In this literature, the control strategy of both
Fig. 3. The model includes one sub-block in which non- channels is almost identical.
linear equations with an integral function (with initial The individual PID controller was tuned using constraint
condition u = 1.54 m/s; [1.54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]T) has optimization. The constraints are formulated as a feasibility
been used in it. In this sub-block, all velocities and accel- problem, thus the optimization algorithm finds parameter
eration are calculated and obtained by nonlinear equations. values that satisfy all constraints within specified toler-
The trim calculation consists of estimating the control ances but almost does not minimize any objective or cost
parameterselevator angle, rudder angle and propeller function.
torquewhich result in vehicle orientation in which all the
forces and moments acting on the vehicle are balanced. For 3.2.1 Speed controller
example, two of this transfer function for dyr and dzs are in
Eqs. 37, 38 through SIMULINK linearization mode. In this In this section, in order to simplify the design of the speed
linearization, trim point defines in this way: u 1:54 controller, only the surge is considered. As a rational as-
v 0 w 0 p 0 q 0 r 0 x y z / 0 h 0 u 0. sumption, it is assumed that the interactions with other
x y z  is free and can get any desired values depending on parameters such as heave, sway, pitch, roll, and yaw to
desired trajectory. Note that trim point is a type of equi- swage are minor. Moreover, the system with regardless of
librium point and could be defined by our desires and forward disturbances is stable in x-axis; therefore, it seems
requirements. that a proportional controller for propeller is enough.

Y
G1
C1
0:2721S8 100:5S7  1241S6  1:911e005S5  1:948e006S4  7:429e007s3  4:617e006s2  7:904e008s  0:0001404
10
s 531:3s9 6:028e004S8 8:625e005S7 3:701e007S6 3:088e008S5 3:989e008S4 6:467e007s3 5:578e007s2
37

Z
G2
C2
0:06271S7 25:08S6  604:3S5  2:266e004S4 4:691e004S3 4:524e007s2 4:162e006s 5:096e008
:
s9 531:3s8 6:028e004S7 8:625e005S6 3:701e007S5 3:088e008S4 3:989e008S3 6:467e007s2 5:578e007s
38

After modeling of an AUV dynamics, the validation of Xprop Xujuj ujuj 2:28Xujuj ; 39
open-loop results has been compared with good standing
references [4], [28]. It shows that the modeling is very near where Xujuj is axial drag coefficientresisting forward mo-
to these references. Both of the comparing results are in tion (-1.62 kg m-1) [27].
Figs. 4 and 5. In this comparison, in some cases, there are Moreover, Kprop that describes the torque of motor is
some small and minor differences that most of them are achievable in model. The main equation of Kprop is

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Kprop KHS yg W  yb B cos h cos / zg W  zb B cos h sin /


0:995yg W  yb B  0:093zg W  zb B:
40
Simulations have been carried out using
MATLAB2014/SIMULINK programs to determine the
possible values of kp (for more details about
MATLAB2014/SIMULINK programs refer to [31]). The
value of kp is chosen to achieve an acceptable level of
performance. The suitable choice for the gain is kp = 10.08
(according to SIMULINK tuning) and the desired speed is
1.54 m/s. Figure 6 shows that the velocity of AUV de-
creases to 1.27 m/s with the desired speed 1.54 m/s and the
steady speed 1.27 m/s. For more accurate speed it can be
Fig. 4 Euler angles in our open-loop model
changed to PI controller. It should be noticed that, it is also
seen that the nonlinearity is much more severe at higher
speeds than at the lower values.

3.2.2 Depth and heading control by PID controller

For depth control, the four variables involved are heave


velocity w(t), pitch rate q(t), pitch angle h(t), and depth z(t).
The control variable is the deflection angle of stern planes
ds(t). For heading control, the four variables involved are
sway velocity v(t), yaw rate r(t), yaw angle w(t), and y(t). The
control variable is the deflection angle of rudder planes dr(t).
In this work, according to estimated AUV equations and
by ignoring minor terms, the control of depth limits to
control of h and z and the control of heading limits to
control of u and y, respectively. In this way, MIMO
structure is in this shape by three inputs Xprop ds dr ,
and control of two outputs z and y is achievable.
In other words, the control can be divided in the two
Fig. 5 Angular speed in our open-loop model
independent planes. Each plane has inner and outer loop.

Fig. 6 Surge velocity of tuning


with kp 10:08

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Fig. 7 Main block diagram of


depth controller in PID strategy

Fig. 8 Total dual PID controller model in SIMULINK

For example in depth we adopt dual loop control both channels (inner loop of depth and heading channels)
methodology by means of an inner pitch control loop and have a zero on right side of imaginary axis, and therefore,
an outer depth control loop. In the dual loop methodology, we have two non-minimum phase system, so proper strat-
the depth controller makes a desired pitch angle which egy should be regarded (Fig. 8).
becomes the input to the pitch controller. The pitch con- In this model, the boundary of fins is limited between [-
troller then handles the elevator deflection ds, based on the 10 ?10] and is implemented by saturation function be-
proper pitch angle. This idea for depth is illustrated in cause of actuator inputs. To improve actuator treatments, a
Fig. 7. low pass filter can be added after saturation function. The
The inner plane should be stable and faster than outer results of simulation are shown as follows:
plane. Therefore, stability and optimal accurate tracking As we can see in Figs. 9, 10 and 11, this controller has a
are enough for inner PID loop. This can be done by clas- good situation in fins and can track a complex trajectory in
sical methods or by changing the tuning parameter by in- a good way. There is no hard effort on fins and tracking
creasing the loop speed. Therefore, further improvement without interaction has been met in both channels simul-
was not required. Finally, each plane can be tuned by taneously. Tuning parameters have been brought in
tuning of outer loop from classical ZeiglerNichols rules. Table 3.
It should be mentioned that after the investigation on A disadvantage of the derivative term of the PID con-
inner loop by obtaining transfer functions, it is clear that troller is that small amounts of noise measurement can

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Fig. 9 Step response of Y and


Z channel, respectively, from
bottom to top

cause big changes in the output. Measurements are there- y1


H1
fore changed with an LPF to remove high frequency noise. u1
According to physical structure of REMUS100 and its 0:3042S4 1:455S3 2:288S2  34:46S  116:5

symmetrical weight distribution [4], its low speed and its s6 1:558s5 22:29S4 37:48S3  57:42S2
environmental assumptions [4], the AUV is symmetric 41
about the xz plane and close to symmetric about the yz
y2 0:297S3 1:377S2 4:79S 0:7267
plane. Although the AUV is not symmetric on xy plane it H2 5
is assumed that it is symmetric about this plane, so one is u2 s 1:7s4  1:329S3 0:395S2 0:1008S
able to decouple the degrees of freedom. The AUV can be 42
assumed to be symmetric about three planes since the ve- In order to obtain the minimum proper period of
hicle operates at low speed. According to linearization in desired trajectory in both channels, the response sys-
SIMULINK on model, this subject confirmed that the tem in both channels should be investigated simulta-
2 3
y1 neously. This shows that T = 40 s is minimum for
6 07
MIMO matrix is4 u1 y2 5. having both proper channels at the same time in mixed
0 trajectory.
u2

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Fig. 10 Situation of rudder and


stern, respectively

4 Self-adaptive fuzzy PID controllers where


W 1 1 1
In this work, fuzzy control offers a proper degree of ro- 2 3
bustness. A variation of PID structure that was mentioned Zt
dkD tet5 45
before is formulated as follows: CT 4kp tet kI ses ds
dt
0
Zt
  dkD tet The PID controller is equivalently represented as:
ut kp tet kI ses ds 43 Zt
dt   dkD tet
0 ut kp tet kI ses ds
2   3 dt
kp tet 0
6 Rt 7 h i Z t
6 kI ses ds 7  0 
1 1 1 6 7 kp0 Dkp t et kI DkI s es
60 7 o
4 dk tet 5
D dk0 DkD tet
dt D
dt
WCkp tet; kI ses; kD tet; 44
46

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Fig. 11 Path following in 3


axes in dual PID

Table 3 Coefficients of PID controller where


8
Coefficient/ u y h z > Rt det
>
< u0 t kp0 tet kI0 esds kD0
channel dt
0
kp -4.9761 0.16742 -6 -0.2803285 > R
> Dut Dk t)e(t) Dk sesds dDkD tet
t
: P I
0 dt
kI -0.32442 0.0003153 -0.1 -0.000829
kD -4.934 -0.45 -9 0.47021093 48
LPF 21.6765 0.30459 10.6636 0.47859 In order to generate the signals of DkP , DkI ; and DkD , an
coefficient
(N) FLC is recommended in this paper. The FLC is the fuzzy
linguistic variables NB, NM, NS, ZR, PS, PM, PB which
represent Negative Big, Negative Medium, Negative
Small, Zero, Positive Small, Positive Medium, and Positive
where Big, respectively. The FLC has two inputs. One is the
8 system error e(t) and the other is its change ec(t). To
< kp t kp0 Dkp t produce the three signals, the FLC needs three outputs.
kI t kI0 DkI t 47 Consequently, the FLC in this paper has two inputs and
:
kD t kD0 DkD tet three outputs that are shown in Figs. 12 and 13.
The parameters kp0 ,kI0 ; and kD0 have been achieved from When the deviation |e| is large, in order to have fast-
PID tuning from pervious section and are time-invariant tracking performance, kP should be greater, taking a
during simulations. But the parameters DkP , DkI ; and DkD smaller value of kD prevents instantaneous value of |ec| too
are adopted during simulation time. Using these time- large, at the same time a larger system response in order to
varying parameters in control system, we have avoid the overshoot, the integral action should be limited,
the kI value should normally be very small.
Zt When the deviation |e| is of medium size, in order to
det
ut kp0 tet kI0 esds kD0 DkP tet ensure fast system response and have small overshoot, kP
dt
0 should be reduced, while larger kD increase the impact of
Z t
dDkD tet system response, kI should be appropriate.
DkI sesds When |e| is small, to ensure that the system has the ideal
0 dt
u0 t Dut; static performance, should make kP and kI bigger, while to

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Fig. 12 Configuration of
AFPIDC controller

Fig. 13 Selection of inputs/


outputs for designing fuzzy
inference structure for AFPIDC

avoid the vicinity of a shock at the system settings, kD shall Table 4 The fuzzy control rules for DkP
be chosen by the change of |e|. e NB NM NS Z PS PM PB
Considering the experience to design fuzzy tuning rules, ec
kP , kI and kD of Fuzzy rule set as follows:
The membership functions for the inputs and the outputs NB PB PB PM PM PS PS Z
are trimf and gbellmf, respectively. Here gbellmf and trimf NM PB PB PM PM PS Z Z
represent generalized bell curve membership function and NS PM PM PM PS Z NS NM
triangular curve member function respectively in fuzzy logic. Z PM PS PS Z NS NM NM
The fuzzy rules to compute DkP , DkI and DkD are listed PS PS PS Z NS NS NM NM
in Tables 4, 5 and 6, in order. PM Z Z NS NM NM NM NB
In the following, the fuzzy PID scheme and one of its PB Z NS NS NM NM NB NB
subsystems (purple blocks) are shown in Figs. 14 and 15.
In SIMULINK model, for each channel, entering of dis-
turbance, sensor noise and changing the nonlinear model AUV can qualify is (T  40 s). In both trajectories the
are considered as input problems and the result has been stability has been met. In this figure, intentionally the tra-
investigated. According to next simulation, the situation of jectory includes variation in three axis, to prove the good
adaptive fuzzy controller is better than classical PID con- cancelation of interaction between axes.
troller in all alternation of parameters, noise presence and
disturbances. Solver of differential equation has been
considered BogackiShampine with fixed step size 0.1 s. 5 Simulation results
In the following, the simulation results of tracking the
two inputs are shown in Fig. 16. The left desired trajectory In the proposed Adaptive Fuzzy PID Controller (AFPIDC),
that is more difficult to meet is related to a pulse with the parameters kp0 , kI0 , and kD0 need to be designated. The
amplitude 25 and period 400 s and the right one is related discourse universes for the e, ec, fuzzy logic outputs and
to a sin trajectory with the near highest frequency that fixed PID parameters are listed in Table 7.

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In this model, the nonlinear equation of AUV plant is results. At first for initial assessment of step response in
identical to first model in classical PID, but the subsystems both methods, a step with 20 amplitude is illustrated in
include both conventional PID and self-adaptive Fuzzy PID Fig. 17. This shows that we improved the overshoot, un-
that can switch between them easily and compare the dershoot, and rising time. Improvement in O.V (overshot)
is 7.05 % and in undershoot is about 9.55 % (Figs. 18, 19,
Table 5 The fuzzy control rules for DkI 20).
e NB NM NS Z PS PM
ec 5.1 Encountering by uncertainty in parameters

NB NB NB NB NM NM Z The story of the problem is as follows the input of the


NM NB NB NM NM NS Z system is considered in y channel (it is desirable, channel
NS NM NM NS NS Z PS z can be selected) and the desired trajectory is a pulse with
Z NM NS NS Z PS PS 20 amplitude, 300 s simulation time period, and pulse
PS NS NS Z PS PS PM width is equal to 50 %. The results are stunning and are
PM Z Z PS PM PM PB shown in Figs. 21, 22 and 23. Substituted parameters for
PB Z Z PS PM PB PB assessment of uncertainty are listed in Tables 8 and 9.
These results show that the total error by IAE perfor-
mance index during simulation time relatively decreases,
Table 6 The fuzzy control rules for DkD and the situation of actuator is very different and better, as
e NB NM NS Z PS PM well the effort of control decreases. Some other tests in
ec encountering with noise and disturbances have been done
in this work; the results and their improvements are listed
NB PS PS Z Z Z PB
in Table 10. More details about the way of causing prob-
NM NS NS NS NS Z NS
able disturbance in the sea have been described in [9], but
NS NB NB NM NS Z PS
our assumptions on disturbance in this model have been
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
exaggerated to ensure us good robustness of model.
PS NB NM NS NS Z PS In the following, other comparison of figures between
PM NM NS NS NS Z PS AFPIDC and classical PID in parameter variations and
PB PS Z Z Z Z PB different inputs are depicted and the stability is examined.

Fig. 14 Total scheme of AFPIDC SIMULINK by possibility of entering noise and disturbance and trajectory maker on left corner

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Fig. 15 Fuzzy PID subsystem (upper purple block in Fig. 14) in y-axis channel

Fig. 16 3D Pulse and sin tracking by AFPIDC

Figures 21, 22, and 23 with variations in internal pa- versa as AFPIDC. The tracking of both controllers has been
rameter show that classical PID cannot be stable and track examined by input pulses and in other desired inputs like
the desired trajectory in the presence of uncertainty pa- sin and so on. According to this simulation and these fig-
rameters. PID controller is completely dependent on ures (Figs. 21, 22, 23), the situation of classical dual PID
nominal design point, however, though PID is almost a deteriorates as time elapses, which is vice versa of AFPIDC
robust controller inherently but it cannot adapt itself vice that keeps itself in a good manner.

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Table 7 FLC domain of inputs/outputs


e ec Dkp t DkI t DkD t kp0 kI0 kD0

h [-25 25] [-5 5] [-3 3] [-0.06 0.06] [-4 4] -6 -0.1 -9


trimf (triangle) trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf
z [-20 20] [-5 5] [-0.885 0.885] [-0.005 0.005] [-1.7 1.7] -0.2803285 -0.000829 0.47021093
trimf trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf
u [-25 25] [-5 5] [-0.65 0.65] [-9e-063 9e-063] [-0.62 0.62] -4.9761 -0.32442 -4.934
trimf trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf
y [-16 16] [-5 5] [-0.6 0.6] [-0.0063 0.0063] [-0.4 0.4] 0.16742 0.0003153 -0.45
trimf trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf

Fig. 17 Comparing of step


response in PID by AFPIDC

Fig. 18 Comparing response to


input pulse entrance as a main
trajectory

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Fig. 19 Error of channel y via


PID controller

Fig. 20 Error of channel y via


AFPIDC

Fig. 21 Desired trajectory with


input pulse with period 500 s in
y-axis with instability in PID
No. 7 in Table 10

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Fig. 22 Desired trajectory with


input pulse with period 600 s in
y-axis with instability in PID
No. 8 in Table 10

Fig. 23 Desired trajectory with


input pulse with period 1000 s
in y-axis with instability in PID
No. 9 in Table 10

Table 8 Substituted parameters for assessment of uncertainty


Input Initial parameters Substituted parameters Improvement results

Pulse type Yuv = -2.86e1 Yuvl = -22.8e1 First O.V = 11 %


Amplitude:20 Zuw = -2.86e1 Zuwl = -22.86e1 First under shoot = 21.02 %
Priode:300 s Muw = -4.47 Muwl = -0.47 Second O.V = 16.05 %
Pulse width = 50 % Nuv = 4.47 Nuvl = 18.47 Error of Adaptive Fuzzy by IAE = 1192
Zuq = 9.3e-1 Zuqa = 19.3e-1
Muq = 1.93 Muqa = 5.93 Error of PID by IAE index = 2583
Muw = 3.46e1 Muwa = 9.46e1 (IAE in during of simulation time)
Weight = B Weight = 2.99e2
Weight = 2.99e2 B = 3.06e2
Iyy = 3.45 Iyy = 0.25
Izz = 3.45 Izz = 0.25
zg = 0.0196 zg = 0.0196
xg = 0.0 xg = 0.005
yg = 0.0 yg = 0.007

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Table 9 Introduction of the No. Parameter Description Units


parameters have been altered in
Table 8 1 Yuv Drag resisting sway due to forward and sway motion kg m-1
2 Zuw Drag resisting heave due to forward and yaw motion kg m-1
3 Muw Coefficient of moment resisting pitch due to forward and yaw motion kg
4 Nuv Coefficient of moment resisting yaw due to forward and sway motion kg
5 Zuq Heave coefficient for forward & pitching motion kg rad-1
6 Muq Pitch mom Coefficient for forward & pitching motion kg m rad-1
7 Muw Coefficient of moment resisting pitch due to forward and yaw motion kg m-1
8 Iyy Vehicle moment of inertia around y-axis kg m2
9 Izz Vehicle moment of inertia around z-axis kg m2
10 xg Center of gravity in x-axis m
11 yg Center of gravity in y-axis m

Table 10 Description in the presence of noise and disturbance via AFPIDC


No. Input pulse [Amp-period(s)] Sensor noise Disturbance Improvement results
(Desired trajectory) (Amp-x (rad/s)) (Amp-x (rad/s))

1 20100 Amp = 0.1 None O.V = 8.15 %


x = 0.011 Under shoot = 4.14 %
2 20260 None Amp = 13 O.V = 8.85 %
x = 0.01 Under shoot = 3.37 %
3 20200 Amp = 0.19 Amp = 0.12 O.V = 7.7 %
x = 0.035 x = 0.9 Under shoot = 2.15 %
4 20260 Amp = 0.3 None O.V = 4.6 %
x = 0.055 Under shoot = 3.35 %
5 20260 None Pulse 1, 2: O.V = 7.05 %
Time:[0 60], Amp = 5 Under shoot = 4.11 %
Time:[160 200], Amp = -5
6 20260 None Pulse 1, 2: O.V = 6.95 %
Time:[0 80], Amp = 10 Under shoot = 4.1 %
Time:[160 200], Amp = -10
7 20450 None None Unstable PID
Stable AFPIDC
Figure 21
8 20600 None None Unstable PID
Stable AFPIDC
Figure 22
9 201000 None None Unstable PID
Stable AFPIDC
Figure 23

6 Conclusion controllers have two inputs. One input signal is a function


of the system error which is proportional to the traditional
In this paper, after the modeling of an AUV according to PID parameters kp0 , kI0 ; and kD0 ; respectively, and the other
the first mechanical principles and verifying it by out- one is rate of system error. The parameters kp0 , kI0 , and kD0
standing references, a fuzzy self-adapting PID controller are kept fixed during the PID controller working according
has been presented. In the proposed approach, the AFPID

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to initial optimizing. The performance of the proposed 14. Jun SW, Kim DW, Lee HJ (2011) Design of T-S fuzzy-model-
controller is investigated in simulation by SIMULINK. In based controller for depth control of autonomous underwater
vehicles with parametric uncertainties. In: 2011 11th international
this literature, the requirements for implementation in re- conference on control, automation and systems, ICCAS 2011,
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are very better than the dual PID controller. It also shows Neural network-based nonlinear tracking control of kinematically
redundant robot manipulators. Math Comput Model
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compared to the conventionally tuned PID in different based sliding mode adaptive control for robot manipulators.
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autonomous underwater vehicle in an in situ estimated water
current profile. Oceans, Yeosu, pp 18
19. Steenson LV (2013) Experimentally varied model predictive
control of a hover-capable AUV. PhD thesis, University of
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