20 views

Uploaded by Le Anh Tuan

control of autonomous underwater vehicles using PID

control of autonomous underwater vehicles using PID

© All Rights Reserved

- PID control
- Study on Pid Parameters Tuning Method Based on MatlabSimulink
- Process Modeling, Identificaion and Control
- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide DS405E EBooklet
- CPC L3_Analysis of System Dynamics_2013_1
- EE331_Lab2
- mesb333 pid control
- 81131f Controller Eng (1)
- EECE460_PIDTuning
- j1
- L-13(SS) (IA&C) ((EE)NPTEL)
- 2010JPCP922
- Tuning of PID Controller Using Ziegler-Nichols
- Process Model
- Exp1_P4E9Flow_Jan2015
- Frst Order Tym Delay Systm
- 20181220 Understanding Terminology to Advance Yourself and the Automation Profession
- PIDOUTPUTFUZZIFIEDWATERLEVELCONTROLINMIMOCOUPLEDTANKSYSTEM
- 1. Introduction
- 9_PID Controller S7-1200-EN.pdf

You are on page 1of 20

DOI 10.1007/s00773-015-0312-7

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

in heading and depth attitude via self-adaptive fuzzy PID

controller

Mohammad Hedayati Khodayari Saeed Balochian

JASNAOE 2015

adaptive fuzzy PID controller based on nonlinear MIMO

structure for an AUV. Complexity and highly coupled Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) is an unmanned

dynamics, time-variance, and difficulty in hydrodynamic submersible in different sizes. It is intended to provide sci-

modeling and simulation, complicates the AUV modeling entists and researchers with simple, low-cost, medium and

process and the design of proper and acceptable controller. long-range, appropriate time response capability to collect

In this work, the comprehensive nonlinear model of AUV environmental data. There are a lot of applications for AUVs,

is derived through kinematics and dynamic equations and including oil industry, survey on underwater animals and

then its treatment in open-loop is verified. In proposed plants, operations in dangerous waters, photometric survey,

controller, the PID parameters are adjusted by Mamdani pipeline route survey, seabed mapping, environmental

fuzzy rules. Combined adaptive methods and dual PID monitoring, chemical plume tracing [1], salvage and rescue

controllers can improve solving of the uncertainty chal- requests, and so on [2]. Today the significance of AUVs can

lenge in the PID parameters and AUV modeling uncer- easily be understood if the Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

tainty. The simulation results indicate that developed (UUV) program for the US Navy is studied [3].

control system is stable, competent, and efficient enough to Derivation of AUV parameters is a difficult process and

control the AUV in tracking the two channels of heading finally its validation demands to analyze practical test like

and depth with stabilized speed. Obtained results show that two tank test [4] or telemetry under sea [5, 6]. However, at

the proposed controller is not only robust, but also gives last, estimation of parameters has uncertainty and varia-

excellent dynamic, stunning steady-state characteristics tion; therefore, the controller must be self-tuning and ro-

and robust stability compared with a classically tuned PID bust in counter to variation of AUV parameters and also

controller. unpredictable environmental disturbances.

Inherently, nonlinear dynamics of AUVs make it more

Keywords AUV PID (Proportional Integral difficult to exert commonly used linear control. The dy-

Derivative) IAE (Integrated Absolute Error) AFPIDC namic characteristics of an AUV are quite complex due to

(Adaptive Fuzzy PID Controller) MIMO systems its high nonlinearity, time-varying dynamic behavior,

uncertainties in hydrodynamic coefficients, and distur-

bances caused by sea currents and waves.

A good control system must be regarded for two rea-

sons: the first one for being robust and its ability to account

for parameter changes and the second one for having a self-

M. H. Khodayari S. Balochian (&)

adaptive capability to account for variations in control

Department of Electrical Engineering, Gonabad Branch, Islamic

Azad University, 96916-29 Gonabad, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran performance during operation due to environmental dis-

e-mail: saeed.balochian@gmail.com turbances, sensor noise, and changes in AUV dynamics.

M. H. Khodayari Throughout the years various models of control tech-

e-mail: m.hedayati.kh@gmail.com niques have been proposed. This includes linear controllers

123

J Mar Sci Technol

[1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 28], which have performed satisfactorily; 3: Develop a detailed understanding of control systems

SMC controllers [11, 13], adaptive control [12, 13, 22], available to AUVs, concentrating on self-adaptive

FLC (Fuzzy Logic Control) [14], predictive control [18 fuzzy PID controller, and its simulation results.

21], static feedback control [30], and neural-network-based 4: Compare and analyze the performance of both

control [1517] have also shown good robustness and controllers in the presence of environmental distur-

tuning ability. Since almost all control methods have some bances, sensor noise, and parameter variations of

pros and cons, a proper controller can be achieved by the AUV dynamics.

combination of classical and modern intelligent method.

Controlling AUV is considered to be an important

One of the most important disadvantages of linear

problem due to aforementioned reasons. It is not easy to

controllers like LQR and LQG is that they are unable to

model these characteristics easily and accurately, hence it

account for the nonlinearities of the system, thus they can

is suitable to have a self- adaptive controller to be able to

result in suitable performance and even instability in high

handle parameter variations.

maneuver treatments.

The advantage of using a PID controller is it is simple

In brief, the adaptive control is a type of nonlinear

to implement and maintain, however, it is primarily ap-

control using a system with uncertainty or time-varying

plicable for linear time-invariant systems, though many

parameters. It is implemented on plants with a definite

extensions to nonlinear systems have been made such as

structure with unspecified fixed or slowly varying pa-

[23] and references therein. As a matter of fact the

rameters. Adaptive method is useful for AUVs because of

performance of this type of controller is variable, and the

variation of real model parameters. The controller can

employed methods are essentially a trial and error pro-

adapt itself according to the level or characteristics of

cedure and do not guarantee suitable and enough ac-

waves and currents or to the changing weight of AUV.

ceptable results. In addition, this kind of controller has

Also, neural network has some weak points that bind its

the disadvantage of the difficulty of adjusting parameter

improvement. It converges to a precise model with long

on-line. Hence, the combination of traditional and mod-

training time and slow rate, which is not acceptable by

ern or intelligent methods such as fuzzy controller is

many systems. Also, classical neural network does not

useful [2426].

qualify the main requirements such as fast response, less

This paper is organized as the following. Section 1 deals

overshootundershoot.

with a brief discussion on the dynamic equations, coordi-

SMC is an earlier method that is a good solution for

nate systems, and modeling. Section 2 deals with classical

nonlinear system but it can cause chattering on actuators,

controller. In Sect. 3, the proposed controller, i.e. self-

waste energy, and make fault on fins. However, there are

tuning PID controller is described. In Sect. 4, comparative

some methods like combination with fuzzy or changing the

simulation results and analysis of the robustness of the

sign function by saturation function to reduce chattering.

controllers are presented.

The FLC is easy to use in industrial process because of

its simple control structure, easy and cost-effective design

[29]. However, FLC with fixed scaling factors and fuzzy

2 Model description

rules may not give complete performance if the controlled

plant has uncertainty and high nonlinearity [29]. Tradi-

2.1 Coordinate systems and kinematic and dynamic

tional FLC can have errors in steady state if the system

equations of motion

does not have an inherent integrating property. Modern

controllers are more robust to dynamic variations and can

Generally, the motion of an AUV can be introduced by

offer better performance index than classical controllers;

six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) differential equations of

however, they may require neat to exact models.

motion [4], [27]. These equations are developed using

The main aim of this paper is to develop an attitude

two coordinate frames shown in Fig. 1. Six velocity

control system of an AUV based on model REMUS100 via

components [u, v, w, p, q, r] (surge, sway, heave ve-

using a self-adaptive fuzzy PID controller. The goal is to

locity, roll, pitch rate, yaw rate) are defined in the body-

1: Understand the general dynamics of AUVs and fixed frame, while the earth-fixed frame defines the

especially on the model of REMUS100 by corresponding attitudes and positions [x, y, z, u, h, and

MATLAB2014/SIMULINK. w]. It is listed in Table 1. The axis is right-handed. The

2: Achieve the existing PID controller employed in origin of the body-fixed coordinate system is center of

REMUS100 model as an initial controller in three mass, it means Xcg 0:00 m Ycg 0:00 m Z cg 1:96e

channels of depth, heading, and velocity. 002.

123

J Mar Sci Technol

AUV

Table 1 Symbols used to DOF Motion Forces and moments Linear and angular velocity Positions and Euler angles

describe 6-DOF

1 Surge X (N) u (m/s) x (m)

2 Sway Y (N) v (m/s) y (m)

3 Heave Z (N) w (m/s) z (m)

4 Roll K (N m) p (rad/s) / (rad)

5 Pitch M (N m) q (rad/s) h (rad)

6 Yaw N (N m) r (rad/s) w (rad)

m1 u v w linear velocity vector; m2 p q r T angular velocity vector;

T

It should be considered that in order to avoid singularity Transformation between these two coordinate systems is

in calculations and transformation, Euler angles should be as follows:

in this boundary:

2 32 32 3

cosw sinw 0 cosh 0 sinh 1 0 0

T

J1 g2 Cz;w T

: Cy;h T

: Cx;u 4 sinw cosw 0 54 0 1 0 54 0 cos/ sin/ 5 1

0 0 1 sinh 0 cosh 0 sin/ cos/

p\/ p; \h\ ; 0 w\2p:

2 2 matrix equation time rate of the displacements described

with respect to world coordinate (earth-fixed) frame rates

can be obtained as follows:

123

J Mar Sci Technol

2 3 2 3 2 3

x_ u 1 0 sinh

4 y_ 5 J1 g2 4 v 5 2 J21 g2 4 0 cosu sinu cosh 5 13

z_ w 0 sinu cosu cosh

Inversely, body coordinate frame velocities can be deter- Combined speed matrix definitions are as follows in

mined from world coordinate frame velocities in a similar matrix notation:

fashion:

g_ 1 J g 033 m1

2 3 2 3 g_ Jg2 :m , 1 2 14

g_ 2 033 J2 g2 m2

u 1 x_

4 v 5 J g2 4 y_ 5 3

1

w z_

2 3

cos h cos w sin u sin h cos w cos u sin w cos u sin h cos w sin u sin w

J1 g2 4 cos h sin w sin u sin h sin w cos u cos w cos u sin h sin w sin u cos w 5 4

sin h sin u cos h cos u cos h

Since the body to world coordination rotation matrix J1 J g 0

V world Jg2 V body 1 2 V body 15

is an orthogonal matrix, it follows that inverse of J1 0 J2 g2

equals to transpose of J1 :

V body Jg2 1 V world

J11 g2 J1T g2 Cx;u Cy;u Cz;u 5 J1 g2 T 0

V world 16

Therefore: 0 J2 g2 1

2 3 2 3

u x_

4 v 5 J1 g2 T 4 y_ 5 6 2.2 Dynamics

w z_

2.2.1 Forces and moments equations

Angular rates described with respect to body-fixed

frame are transformed into the time rate of Euler angles by

Centers of buoyancy and gravity are introduced;

following non-orthogonal transformation matrix.

rB xB ; yB ; zB T :, rG xG ; yG ; zG T

u_ p q sinu tanh r cosu tanh 7 External forces and moments are obtained according to

h_ q cosu r sinu 8 [4]. The external forces acting on the rigid body of AUV

are combined of hydrostatic forces, hydrodynamic forces,

q sinu r cosu and forces due to the control surfaces and propeller; that is

w_ 9

cosh X

Fext Fhydrostatic Flift Fdrag Fcontrol Fdisturbances : 17

These three equation forms are represented in matrix

notation: According to this subject of REMUS100, the centers of

2 3 2 3

u_ p buoyancy and gravity are according to [27], if the selec-

4 h_ 5 J2 g2 4 q 5 10 tions of origin in body coordinate are in this way that the

w_ r inertial moment matrix Io diag Ixx ; Iyy ; Izz is orthogo-

2 3

1 sinu tanh cosu tanh nal, in another word Ixy; Ixz; Iyz; are negligible compared

J2 g2 4 0 cosu sinu 5 11 with Ixx ; Iyy ; Izz . It means

0 sinu sech cosu sech 2 3

Ixx 0 0

Angular velocity from Euler angular rates is as follows: Io 4 0 Iyy 0 5 18

2 3 2 3 0 0 Izz

p u_

4 q 5 J 1 g2 4 h_ 5 12 After the simplification of the motion equations for

2

r w_ quantities driven by external forces and moments, we have:

123

J Mar Sci Technol

2 3

m u_ vr wq xG q2 r 2 yG pq r_ zG pr q_ 0

X 19 fG g2 J11 4 0 5 25

2 W

m v_ wp ur yG r p2 zG pr p_ xG qp r_ 2 3

0

Y 20 fB g2 J11 4 0 5 26

2 B

m w uq vp zG p q2 xG rp q yG rq p_

Z 21 The hydrostatic forces and moments on the vehicle can

be explained as:

Ixx p_ Izz Iyy qr myG w_ uq vp

zG v_ wp ur K 22 FHS fG fB : 27

MHS rG fG rB fB ; rG xG ; yG ; zG T ; rB

Iyy q_ Ixx Izz rp mzG u_ vr wq

x B ; y B ; zB T 28

xG w_ uq vp M 23

These equations can be expanded to yield the nonlinear

Izz r_ Iyy Ixx pq mxG v_ wq ur

equations for hydrostatic forces and moments:

yG u_ vr wq N: 24 2 3

W Bsh

The first three equations are related to external forces for 6 W Bchs/ 7

6 7

Fhydrostatic 6 W B chs/ 7

translational motion and the second three equations are 6

6

7

7

related to rotational motion. Generally, Schematic of forces

Mhydrostatic 6 yG W yB Bchcu zG W zB Bchs/ 7

4 zG W zB Bsh xG W xB Bchc/ 5

and moments are illustrated in Fig. 2. xG W xB Bchs/ yG W yB Bsh

29

2.2.2 Hydrostatic forces and moments

This equation can be added to the right hand side of the

The buoyancy and weight force vectors do not change with equations of motion in Eqs. 1924. After the combination

AUV attitude for bodies that are submerged. The buoyant of other force and moment components such as axial and

and weight components are acting in the global vertical lateral of body, roll drag, axial and lateral add mass effect,

direction and they must be transformed into components in roll added mass, body lift and moment, actuator lifts, and

the body coordinates in order to be added into the equations propeller forces according to [4], [27, 28], the final equa-

of motion. By exerting the transformation from earth to tion obtained is

body, the vertical force components can be obtained as: where right-hand side of Eq. 30 are

2 32 3 2P 3

m Xu_ 0 0 0 mzg myg u_ X

6 0 m Yv_ 0 0 0 mxg Yr_ 7 6 v_ 7 6 P Y 7

6 76 7 6 7

6 76 7 6 P 7

6 0 0 m Zw_ myg mxg Zq_ 0 76 w_ 7 6 Z 7

6 76 7 6 P 7 30

6 0 mzg myg Ixx Kp 0 0 76 p_ 7 6 K 7

6 76 7 6 7

6 76 7 6 P 7

4 mzg 0 mxg Mw_ 0 Iyy Mq_ 0 54 q_ 5 4 M 5

P

myg mxg Nv_ 0 0 0 Izz Nr_ r_ N

123

J Mar Sci Technol

X X

Xext XHS Xujuj ujuj Xu_ u_ Xwq wq Xqq qq Kext KHS Kpj pj pj pj Kp_ p_ Kprop 34

X

Xvr vr Xrr rr Xprop 31 Mext MHS Mwjwj wjwj Mqjqj qjqj Mw_ w_ Mq_ q_

X

Yext YHS Yvjvj vjvj Yrjrj r jr j Yr_r_ Yv_ v_ Yur ur Muq uq Mvp vp Mrp rp Muw uw

Muuds u2 ds

Ywp wp Ypq pq Yuv uv Yuudr u2 dr

35

32 X

X Next NHS Nvjvj vjvj Nrjrj r jr j Nr_r_ Nv_ v_ Nur ur

Zext ZHS Zwjwj wjwj Zqjqj qjqj Zw_ w_ Zq_ q_

Nwp wp Npq pq Nuv uv Nuudr u2 dr :

Zuq uq Zvp vp Zrp rp Zuw uw Zuuds u2 ds

36

33

Parameters Values Used equations 3 Control methodology

Initial surge velocity (u) 1.54 m/s Eqs. 2023 AUV motion in the water is created by propeller system

Xprop 3.861 N Eqs. 39 and control fin surfaces. The REMUS AUV control system

Kprop 0Nm Eqs. 34, 40 uses two rudder fins and two elevator (stern) fins. Through

2

Weight 2.99 9 10 N Eqs. 1925, 29, 40 the control of propeller and fins deflection, control is

Buoyancy 2.99 9 102 N Eqs. 26, 29, 40 achievable. For completeness, this paper presents two

zB 0m Eqs. 29, 41 control schemes and implements them in AUV control

xB 0m Eqs. 29, 40 system. These are tuned PID control system and self-

yB 0m Eqs. 29, 40 adaptive fuzzy PID control system. In this section, the

zG 0.0196 m Eqs. 29, 30 specific designs are presented.

xG 0m Eqs. 29, 30 As a matter of fact, there are three means that we want

yG 0m Eqs. 29, 30 to maximize the maneuverability of the AUV:

Ixx 0.177 kg m2 Eqs. 18, 2224

1. Depth control

Iyy 3.45 kg m2 Eqs. 18, 2224

2. Steering (heading) control

Izz 3.45 kg m2 Eqs. 18, 23, 24

3. Forward velocity [surge speed (u)] control.

AUV with specified inputs/

outputs for linearization and

output categorizing

Input1-C1

Input2-C2

OUTPUT1-Y

OUTPUT2-Z

123

J Mar Sci Technol

3.1 Modeling in SIMULINK related to initial condition and system inputs that are not

completely clear in [4].

In this model, initial states are as follows and can be

changed to the desired values according to Table 2. 3.2 PID controller

This model is completely nonlinear and has three inputs

and three desired outputs. The system has 12 states As mentioned before, the control of z-axis and y-axis are

(v u v w p q r x y z / h u ). In our related to stern and rudder actuators, respectively, but in-

model, inputs are Xprop ds dr and outputs are teraction between two types of actuator should not be

x y z (MIMO structure). This model is shown in forgotten. In this literature, the control strategy of both

Fig. 3. The model includes one sub-block in which non- channels is almost identical.

linear equations with an integral function (with initial The individual PID controller was tuned using constraint

condition u = 1.54 m/s; [1.54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]T) has optimization. The constraints are formulated as a feasibility

been used in it. In this sub-block, all velocities and accel- problem, thus the optimization algorithm finds parameter

eration are calculated and obtained by nonlinear equations. values that satisfy all constraints within specified toler-

The trim calculation consists of estimating the control ances but almost does not minimize any objective or cost

parameterselevator angle, rudder angle and propeller function.

torquewhich result in vehicle orientation in which all the

forces and moments acting on the vehicle are balanced. For 3.2.1 Speed controller

example, two of this transfer function for dyr and dzs are in

Eqs. 37, 38 through SIMULINK linearization mode. In this In this section, in order to simplify the design of the speed

linearization, trim point defines in this way: u 1:54 controller, only the surge is considered. As a rational as-

v 0 w 0 p 0 q 0 r 0 x y z / 0 h 0 u 0. sumption, it is assumed that the interactions with other

x y z is free and can get any desired values depending on parameters such as heave, sway, pitch, roll, and yaw to

desired trajectory. Note that trim point is a type of equi- swage are minor. Moreover, the system with regardless of

librium point and could be defined by our desires and forward disturbances is stable in x-axis; therefore, it seems

requirements. that a proportional controller for propeller is enough.

Y

G1

C1

0:2721S8 100:5S7 1241S6 1:911e005S5 1:948e006S4 7:429e007s3 4:617e006s2 7:904e008s 0:0001404

10

s 531:3s9 6:028e004S8 8:625e005S7 3:701e007S6 3:088e008S5 3:989e008S4 6:467e007s3 5:578e007s2

37

Z

G2

C2

0:06271S7 25:08S6 604:3S5 2:266e004S4 4:691e004S3 4:524e007s2 4:162e006s 5:096e008

:

s9 531:3s8 6:028e004S7 8:625e005S6 3:701e007S5 3:088e008S4 3:989e008S3 6:467e007s2 5:578e007s

38

After modeling of an AUV dynamics, the validation of Xprop Xujuj ujuj 2:28Xujuj ; 39

open-loop results has been compared with good standing

references [4], [28]. It shows that the modeling is very near where Xujuj is axial drag coefficientresisting forward mo-

to these references. Both of the comparing results are in tion (-1.62 kg m-1) [27].

Figs. 4 and 5. In this comparison, in some cases, there are Moreover, Kprop that describes the torque of motor is

some small and minor differences that most of them are achievable in model. The main equation of Kprop is

123

J Mar Sci Technol

0:995yg W yb B 0:093zg W zb B:

40

Simulations have been carried out using

MATLAB2014/SIMULINK programs to determine the

possible values of kp (for more details about

MATLAB2014/SIMULINK programs refer to [31]). The

value of kp is chosen to achieve an acceptable level of

performance. The suitable choice for the gain is kp = 10.08

(according to SIMULINK tuning) and the desired speed is

1.54 m/s. Figure 6 shows that the velocity of AUV de-

creases to 1.27 m/s with the desired speed 1.54 m/s and the

steady speed 1.27 m/s. For more accurate speed it can be

Fig. 4 Euler angles in our open-loop model

changed to PI controller. It should be noticed that, it is also

seen that the nonlinearity is much more severe at higher

speeds than at the lower values.

velocity w(t), pitch rate q(t), pitch angle h(t), and depth z(t).

The control variable is the deflection angle of stern planes

ds(t). For heading control, the four variables involved are

sway velocity v(t), yaw rate r(t), yaw angle w(t), and y(t). The

control variable is the deflection angle of rudder planes dr(t).

In this work, according to estimated AUV equations and

by ignoring minor terms, the control of depth limits to

control of h and z and the control of heading limits to

control of u and y, respectively. In this way, MIMO

structure is in this shape by three inputs Xprop ds dr ,

and control of two outputs z and y is achievable.

In other words, the control can be divided in the two

Fig. 5 Angular speed in our open-loop model

independent planes. Each plane has inner and outer loop.

with kp 10:08

123

J Mar Sci Technol

depth controller in PID strategy

For example in depth we adopt dual loop control both channels (inner loop of depth and heading channels)

methodology by means of an inner pitch control loop and have a zero on right side of imaginary axis, and therefore,

an outer depth control loop. In the dual loop methodology, we have two non-minimum phase system, so proper strat-

the depth controller makes a desired pitch angle which egy should be regarded (Fig. 8).

becomes the input to the pitch controller. The pitch con- In this model, the boundary of fins is limited between [-

troller then handles the elevator deflection ds, based on the 10 ?10] and is implemented by saturation function be-

proper pitch angle. This idea for depth is illustrated in cause of actuator inputs. To improve actuator treatments, a

Fig. 7. low pass filter can be added after saturation function. The

The inner plane should be stable and faster than outer results of simulation are shown as follows:

plane. Therefore, stability and optimal accurate tracking As we can see in Figs. 9, 10 and 11, this controller has a

are enough for inner PID loop. This can be done by clas- good situation in fins and can track a complex trajectory in

sical methods or by changing the tuning parameter by in- a good way. There is no hard effort on fins and tracking

creasing the loop speed. Therefore, further improvement without interaction has been met in both channels simul-

was not required. Finally, each plane can be tuned by taneously. Tuning parameters have been brought in

tuning of outer loop from classical ZeiglerNichols rules. Table 3.

It should be mentioned that after the investigation on A disadvantage of the derivative term of the PID con-

inner loop by obtaining transfer functions, it is clear that troller is that small amounts of noise measurement can

123

J Mar Sci Technol

Z channel, respectively, from

bottom to top

H1

fore changed with an LPF to remove high frequency noise. u1

According to physical structure of REMUS100 and its 0:3042S4 1:455S3 2:288S2 34:46S 116:5

symmetrical weight distribution [4], its low speed and its s6 1:558s5 22:29S4 37:48S3 57:42S2

environmental assumptions [4], the AUV is symmetric 41

about the xz plane and close to symmetric about the yz

y2 0:297S3 1:377S2 4:79S 0:7267

plane. Although the AUV is not symmetric on xy plane it H2 5

is assumed that it is symmetric about this plane, so one is u2 s 1:7s4 1:329S3 0:395S2 0:1008S

able to decouple the degrees of freedom. The AUV can be 42

assumed to be symmetric about three planes since the ve- In order to obtain the minimum proper period of

hicle operates at low speed. According to linearization in desired trajectory in both channels, the response sys-

SIMULINK on model, this subject confirmed that the tem in both channels should be investigated simulta-

2 3

y1 neously. This shows that T = 40 s is minimum for

6 07

MIMO matrix is4 u1 y2 5. having both proper channels at the same time in mixed

0 trajectory.

u2

123

J Mar Sci Technol

stern, respectively

W 1 1 1

In this work, fuzzy control offers a proper degree of ro- 2 3

bustness. A variation of PID structure that was mentioned Zt

dkD tet5 45

before is formulated as follows: CT 4kp tet kI ses ds

dt

0

Zt

dkD tet The PID controller is equivalently represented as:

ut kp tet kI ses ds 43 Zt

dt dkD tet

0 ut kp tet kI ses ds

2 3 dt

kp tet 0

6 Rt 7 h i Z t

6 kI ses ds 7 0

1 1 1 6 7 kp0 Dkp t et kI DkI s es

60 7 o

4 dk tet 5

D dk0 DkD tet

dt D

dt

WCkp tet; kI ses; kD tet; 44

46

123

J Mar Sci Technol

axes in dual PID

8

Coefficient/ u y h z > Rt det

>

< u0 t kp0 tet kI0 esds kD0

channel dt

0

kp -4.9761 0.16742 -6 -0.2803285 > R

> Dut Dk t)e(t) Dk sesds dDkD tet

t

: P I

0 dt

kI -0.32442 0.0003153 -0.1 -0.000829

kD -4.934 -0.45 -9 0.47021093 48

LPF 21.6765 0.30459 10.6636 0.47859 In order to generate the signals of DkP , DkI ; and DkD , an

coefficient

(N) FLC is recommended in this paper. The FLC is the fuzzy

linguistic variables NB, NM, NS, ZR, PS, PM, PB which

represent Negative Big, Negative Medium, Negative

Small, Zero, Positive Small, Positive Medium, and Positive

where Big, respectively. The FLC has two inputs. One is the

8 system error e(t) and the other is its change ec(t). To

< kp t kp0 Dkp t produce the three signals, the FLC needs three outputs.

kI t kI0 DkI t 47 Consequently, the FLC in this paper has two inputs and

:

kD t kD0 DkD tet three outputs that are shown in Figs. 12 and 13.

The parameters kp0 ,kI0 ; and kD0 have been achieved from When the deviation |e| is large, in order to have fast-

PID tuning from pervious section and are time-invariant tracking performance, kP should be greater, taking a

during simulations. But the parameters DkP , DkI ; and DkD smaller value of kD prevents instantaneous value of |ec| too

are adopted during simulation time. Using these time- large, at the same time a larger system response in order to

varying parameters in control system, we have avoid the overshoot, the integral action should be limited,

the kI value should normally be very small.

Zt When the deviation |e| is of medium size, in order to

det

ut kp0 tet kI0 esds kD0 DkP tet ensure fast system response and have small overshoot, kP

dt

0 should be reduced, while larger kD increase the impact of

Z t

dDkD tet system response, kI should be appropriate.

DkI sesds When |e| is small, to ensure that the system has the ideal

0 dt

u0 t Dut; static performance, should make kP and kI bigger, while to

123

J Mar Sci Technol

Fig. 12 Configuration of

AFPIDC controller

outputs for designing fuzzy

inference structure for AFPIDC

avoid the vicinity of a shock at the system settings, kD shall Table 4 The fuzzy control rules for DkP

be chosen by the change of |e|. e NB NM NS Z PS PM PB

Considering the experience to design fuzzy tuning rules, ec

kP , kI and kD of Fuzzy rule set as follows:

The membership functions for the inputs and the outputs NB PB PB PM PM PS PS Z

are trimf and gbellmf, respectively. Here gbellmf and trimf NM PB PB PM PM PS Z Z

represent generalized bell curve membership function and NS PM PM PM PS Z NS NM

triangular curve member function respectively in fuzzy logic. Z PM PS PS Z NS NM NM

The fuzzy rules to compute DkP , DkI and DkD are listed PS PS PS Z NS NS NM NM

in Tables 4, 5 and 6, in order. PM Z Z NS NM NM NM NB

In the following, the fuzzy PID scheme and one of its PB Z NS NS NM NM NB NB

subsystems (purple blocks) are shown in Figs. 14 and 15.

In SIMULINK model, for each channel, entering of dis-

turbance, sensor noise and changing the nonlinear model AUV can qualify is (T 40 s). In both trajectories the

are considered as input problems and the result has been stability has been met. In this figure, intentionally the tra-

investigated. According to next simulation, the situation of jectory includes variation in three axis, to prove the good

adaptive fuzzy controller is better than classical PID con- cancelation of interaction between axes.

troller in all alternation of parameters, noise presence and

disturbances. Solver of differential equation has been

considered BogackiShampine with fixed step size 0.1 s. 5 Simulation results

In the following, the simulation results of tracking the

two inputs are shown in Fig. 16. The left desired trajectory In the proposed Adaptive Fuzzy PID Controller (AFPIDC),

that is more difficult to meet is related to a pulse with the parameters kp0 , kI0 , and kD0 need to be designated. The

amplitude 25 and period 400 s and the right one is related discourse universes for the e, ec, fuzzy logic outputs and

to a sin trajectory with the near highest frequency that fixed PID parameters are listed in Table 7.

123

J Mar Sci Technol

In this model, the nonlinear equation of AUV plant is results. At first for initial assessment of step response in

identical to first model in classical PID, but the subsystems both methods, a step with 20 amplitude is illustrated in

include both conventional PID and self-adaptive Fuzzy PID Fig. 17. This shows that we improved the overshoot, un-

that can switch between them easily and compare the dershoot, and rising time. Improvement in O.V (overshot)

is 7.05 % and in undershoot is about 9.55 % (Figs. 18, 19,

Table 5 The fuzzy control rules for DkI 20).

e NB NM NS Z PS PM

ec 5.1 Encountering by uncertainty in parameters

NM NB NB NM NM NS Z system is considered in y channel (it is desirable, channel

NS NM NM NS NS Z PS z can be selected) and the desired trajectory is a pulse with

Z NM NS NS Z PS PS 20 amplitude, 300 s simulation time period, and pulse

PS NS NS Z PS PS PM width is equal to 50 %. The results are stunning and are

PM Z Z PS PM PM PB shown in Figs. 21, 22 and 23. Substituted parameters for

PB Z Z PS PM PB PB assessment of uncertainty are listed in Tables 8 and 9.

These results show that the total error by IAE perfor-

mance index during simulation time relatively decreases,

Table 6 The fuzzy control rules for DkD and the situation of actuator is very different and better, as

e NB NM NS Z PS PM well the effort of control decreases. Some other tests in

ec encountering with noise and disturbances have been done

in this work; the results and their improvements are listed

NB PS PS Z Z Z PB

in Table 10. More details about the way of causing prob-

NM NS NS NS NS Z NS

able disturbance in the sea have been described in [9], but

NS NB NB NM NS Z PS

our assumptions on disturbance in this model have been

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

exaggerated to ensure us good robustness of model.

PS NB NM NS NS Z PS In the following, other comparison of figures between

PM NM NS NS NS Z PS AFPIDC and classical PID in parameter variations and

PB PS Z Z Z Z PB different inputs are depicted and the stability is examined.

Fig. 14 Total scheme of AFPIDC SIMULINK by possibility of entering noise and disturbance and trajectory maker on left corner

123

J Mar Sci Technol

Fig. 15 Fuzzy PID subsystem (upper purple block in Fig. 14) in y-axis channel

Figures 21, 22, and 23 with variations in internal pa- versa as AFPIDC. The tracking of both controllers has been

rameter show that classical PID cannot be stable and track examined by input pulses and in other desired inputs like

the desired trajectory in the presence of uncertainty pa- sin and so on. According to this simulation and these fig-

rameters. PID controller is completely dependent on ures (Figs. 21, 22, 23), the situation of classical dual PID

nominal design point, however, though PID is almost a deteriorates as time elapses, which is vice versa of AFPIDC

robust controller inherently but it cannot adapt itself vice that keeps itself in a good manner.

123

J Mar Sci Technol

e ec Dkp t DkI t DkD t kp0 kI0 kD0

trimf (triangle) trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf

z [-20 20] [-5 5] [-0.885 0.885] [-0.005 0.005] [-1.7 1.7] -0.2803285 -0.000829 0.47021093

trimf trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf

u [-25 25] [-5 5] [-0.65 0.65] [-9e-063 9e-063] [-0.62 0.62] -4.9761 -0.32442 -4.934

trimf trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf

y [-16 16] [-5 5] [-0.6 0.6] [-0.0063 0.0063] [-0.4 0.4] 0.16742 0.0003153 -0.45

trimf trimf gbellmf gbellmf gbellmf

response in PID by AFPIDC

input pulse entrance as a main

trajectory

123

J Mar Sci Technol

PID controller

AFPIDC

input pulse with period 500 s in

y-axis with instability in PID

No. 7 in Table 10

123

J Mar Sci Technol

input pulse with period 600 s in

y-axis with instability in PID

No. 8 in Table 10

input pulse with period 1000 s

in y-axis with instability in PID

No. 9 in Table 10

Input Initial parameters Substituted parameters Improvement results

Amplitude:20 Zuw = -2.86e1 Zuwl = -22.86e1 First under shoot = 21.02 %

Priode:300 s Muw = -4.47 Muwl = -0.47 Second O.V = 16.05 %

Pulse width = 50 % Nuv = 4.47 Nuvl = 18.47 Error of Adaptive Fuzzy by IAE = 1192

Zuq = 9.3e-1 Zuqa = 19.3e-1

Muq = 1.93 Muqa = 5.93 Error of PID by IAE index = 2583

Muw = 3.46e1 Muwa = 9.46e1 (IAE in during of simulation time)

Weight = B Weight = 2.99e2

Weight = 2.99e2 B = 3.06e2

Iyy = 3.45 Iyy = 0.25

Izz = 3.45 Izz = 0.25

zg = 0.0196 zg = 0.0196

xg = 0.0 xg = 0.005

yg = 0.0 yg = 0.007

123

J Mar Sci Technol

parameters have been altered in

Table 8 1 Yuv Drag resisting sway due to forward and sway motion kg m-1

2 Zuw Drag resisting heave due to forward and yaw motion kg m-1

3 Muw Coefficient of moment resisting pitch due to forward and yaw motion kg

4 Nuv Coefficient of moment resisting yaw due to forward and sway motion kg

5 Zuq Heave coefficient for forward & pitching motion kg rad-1

6 Muq Pitch mom Coefficient for forward & pitching motion kg m rad-1

7 Muw Coefficient of moment resisting pitch due to forward and yaw motion kg m-1

8 Iyy Vehicle moment of inertia around y-axis kg m2

9 Izz Vehicle moment of inertia around z-axis kg m2

10 xg Center of gravity in x-axis m

11 yg Center of gravity in y-axis m

No. Input pulse [Amp-period(s)] Sensor noise Disturbance Improvement results

(Desired trajectory) (Amp-x (rad/s)) (Amp-x (rad/s))

x = 0.011 Under shoot = 4.14 %

2 20260 None Amp = 13 O.V = 8.85 %

x = 0.01 Under shoot = 3.37 %

3 20200 Amp = 0.19 Amp = 0.12 O.V = 7.7 %

x = 0.035 x = 0.9 Under shoot = 2.15 %

4 20260 Amp = 0.3 None O.V = 4.6 %

x = 0.055 Under shoot = 3.35 %

5 20260 None Pulse 1, 2: O.V = 7.05 %

Time:[0 60], Amp = 5 Under shoot = 4.11 %

Time:[160 200], Amp = -5

6 20260 None Pulse 1, 2: O.V = 6.95 %

Time:[0 80], Amp = 10 Under shoot = 4.1 %

Time:[160 200], Amp = -10

7 20450 None None Unstable PID

Stable AFPIDC

Figure 21

8 20600 None None Unstable PID

Stable AFPIDC

Figure 22

9 201000 None None Unstable PID

Stable AFPIDC

Figure 23

of the system error which is proportional to the traditional

In this paper, after the modeling of an AUV according to PID parameters kp0 , kI0 ; and kD0 ; respectively, and the other

the first mechanical principles and verifying it by out- one is rate of system error. The parameters kp0 , kI0 , and kD0

standing references, a fuzzy self-adapting PID controller are kept fixed during the PID controller working according

has been presented. In the proposed approach, the AFPID

123

J Mar Sci Technol

to initial optimizing. The performance of the proposed 14. Jun SW, Kim DW, Lee HJ (2011) Design of T-S fuzzy-model-

controller is investigated in simulation by SIMULINK. In based controller for depth control of autonomous underwater

vehicles with parametric uncertainties. In: 2011 11th international

this literature, the requirements for implementation in re- conference on control, automation and systems, ICCAS 2011,

ality have been considered. The simulation results show Gyeonggi-do, Korea, Republic of, 2011, pp 16821684

that the AFPID controllers adaptive ability and robustness 15. Kumar N, Panwar V, Sukavanam N, Sharma SP, Borm JH (2011)

are very better than the dual PID controller. It also shows Neural network-based nonlinear tracking control of kinematically

redundant robot manipulators. Math Comput Model

that the proposed AFPIDC can improve the robustness, 53(910):18891901

effort control, overshoot, undershoot, and good stability 16. Sun T, Pei H, Pan Y, Zhou H, Zhang C (2011) Neural network-

compared to the conventionally tuned PID in different based sliding mode adaptive control for robot manipulators.

conditions. Today fuzzy logic and PID controller have been Neurocomputing 74(1415):23772384

17. Xu B, Pandian SR, Sakagami N, Petry F (2012) Neuro-fuzzy

implemented in many industries easily by means of mi- control of underwater vehicle-manipulator systems. J Franklin

crocontroller or mini-PLC, therefore implementation of Institute, 349(3):11251138

this controller would be easy. 18. Medagoda L, Williams SB (2012) Model predictive control of an

autonomous underwater vehicle in an in situ estimated water

current profile. Oceans, Yeosu, pp 18

19. Steenson LV (2013) Experimentally varied model predictive

control of a hover-capable AUV. PhD thesis, University of

References Southampton

20. Wang L (2010) Model predictive control system design and

1. Farrell JA, Pang S, Li W, Arrieta R (2004) Biologically inspired implementation using MATLAB, Springer

chemical plume tracing demonstrated on an autonomous under- 21. Steenson LV, Phillips AB, Turnock SR, Furlong ME, Rogers E

water vehicle, Man, and Cybernetics Conference, September (2012) Effect of measurement noise on the performance of a

2004, Hague, Netherlands depth and pitch controller using the model predictive control

2. Yildiz O, Gokalp RB, Yilmaz AE (2009) A review on motion method. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), 2012 IEEE/

control of the Underwater Vehicles. In: Proceedings of electrical OES, 1(8):24-27

and electronics engineering, 2009. ELECO 2009, Bursa, 2009, 22. Mohan S, Kim J (2012) Indirect adaptive control of an au-

pp 337341 tonomous underwater vehicle-manipulator system for underwater

3. UUV programs (2007) http://ftp.fas.org/irp/program/collect/ manipulation tasks. Original Res Article Ocean Eng

uuv.htm 54(1):233243

4. Prestero T (2001) Verification of a six-degree-of-freedom 23. Cooney LA (2009) Dynamic response and maneuvering strate-

simulation model for the REMUS autonomous underwater vehi- gies of a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle in hovering.

cle, MSc/ME Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thesis of master of science in ocean engineering, Massachusetts

5. Geisbert JS (2007) Hydrodynamic modeling for autonomous Institute of Technology

underwater vehicles using computational and semi-empirical 24. Yang Y, Yang W, Wu M, Yang Q, Xue Y (2010) A new type of

methods. Verginia Polytechnis Institute and State University intelligent control and automation, Jinan, Adaptive Fuzzy PID

6. Yue C, Guo S, Li M (2012) ANSYS fluent-based modeling and Controller. In: Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on China

hydrodynamic analysis for a spherical Underwater robot. In: 25. Chang X, Jianhong L, Ming C et al (2007) Neural network PID

Proceedings of 2012 IEEE international conference on mecha- adaptive control and its application. Control Eng China

tronics and automation, pp 15771581 14(3):284286 (In Chinese)

7. Guo S, Mao S, Shi L, Li M (2012) Design and kinematic analysis 26. Jiangjiang W, Chunfa Z, Youyin J (2008) Adaptive PID control

of an amphibious spherical robot. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE with BP neural network self-tuning in exhaust temperature of

international conference on mechatronics and automation, micro gas turbine. In: Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE international

pp 22142219 conference on industrial electronics and applications, Piscataway,

8. Herman P (2009) Decoupled PD set-point controller for under- NJ, USA, pp 532537

water vehicles. J Ocean Eng 36(67):529534 27. Sgarioto D (2008) Steady state trim and open loop stability

9. Model based predictive control of AUVS for station keeping in a analysis for the REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle. De-

shallow water wave environment (2005) Naval Postgraduate fense Technology Agency, New Zealand Defense Force, DTA

School, Center for AUV search, Monterey, CA, 93943-5000 Report 254

10. Wadoo S, Kachroo P (2010) Autonomous underwater vehicles: 28. Yang C (2007) Modular modeling and control for autonomous

modeling, control design and simulation. CRC Press, edn 1 underwater vehicle (AUV). Thesis of master of engineering de-

11. Buckham BJ, Podhorodeski RP, Soylu S (2008) A chattering-free partment of mechanical engineering national university of

sliding-mode controller for underwater vehicles with fault toler- Singapore

ant infinity-norm thrust allocation. J Ocean Eng, 29. Lin FC (2003) Adaptive fuzzy logic-based velocity observer for

35(16):16471659 servo motor drives. Mechatronics 13:229241

12. Qi X (2014) Adaptive coordinated tracking control of multiple 30. Subudhi B, Mukherjee K, Ghosh S (2013) A static output feed-

autonomous underwater vehicles. Ocean Eng 91:8490 back control design for path following of autonomous underwater

13. Zeinali M, Notash L (2010) Adaptive sliding mode control with vehicle in vertical plane. Ocean Eng 63:7276

uncertainty estimator for robot manipulators. Mech Mach Theory 31. http://www.mathworks.com/help.html

45(1):8090

123

- PID controlUploaded bymhghiamatyoun
- Study on Pid Parameters Tuning Method Based on MatlabSimulinkUploaded byjalilemadi
- Process Modeling, Identificaion and ControlUploaded byluisagarcia366
- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide DS405E EBookletUploaded byJose Maria Rodriguez Rivera
- CPC L3_Analysis of System Dynamics_2013_1Uploaded byKeith Ng
- EE331_Lab2Uploaded byMohannad S. Alghamdi
- mesb333 pid controlUploaded byMohd Khairi
- 81131f Controller Eng (1)Uploaded byhenry
- EECE460_PIDTuningUploaded byYutee
- j1Uploaded bySaad Sardar
- L-13(SS) (IA&C) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byMarvin Bayanay
- 2010JPCP922Uploaded bykapilkumar18
- Tuning of PID Controller Using Ziegler-NicholsUploaded byPraveen Meena
- Process ModelUploaded byParthiban Kesavan
- Exp1_P4E9Flow_Jan2015Uploaded byFelicia Chiew
- Frst Order Tym Delay SystmUploaded byAnupama V Kumar
- 20181220 Understanding Terminology to Advance Yourself and the Automation ProfessionUploaded byKarl Glorstad
- PIDOUTPUTFUZZIFIEDWATERLEVELCONTROLINMIMOCOUPLEDTANKSYSTEMUploaded by2810khalid
- 1. IntroductionUploaded byvani
- 9_PID Controller S7-1200-EN.pdfUploaded byduy
- 0002Uploaded byhumazzini6016
- APC 2009 MATLAB Demo 1 SlidesUploaded byNicholas Ang
- Revision 2Uploaded bySaravanan Reddy
- Line Tracking RobotUploaded byUpendra Vadde
- AbstractUploaded byahmedenaami
- hvacfeedback.pdfUploaded byNikhil Tiwari
- PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND MODELLING OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTORUploaded byIJIERT-International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology
- SOP2Uploaded bySheetal Kumari
- Design of IMC Filter for PID Control StrUploaded byShamsMohd
- PID Explained for Process Engineers- Part 1 - The Basic Control Equation.pdfUploaded byCristian Urrego

- Doctoral thesis-Five finger robotic handUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- 20161130 Dinamica Del Veicolo IUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Motorcycle Design Guide 2009Uploaded byHimanshu Malhotra
- Thesis_of_Raja_Rout_609EE103.pdfUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Robotic handUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Weight Optimization of Turbine BladesUploaded byAltairEnlighten
- 15564_FULLTEXTUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Nbosi Ct Manual_2014Uploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Shadow Dexterous Hand Technical Specification E1 20130101Uploaded byKatherine Gutierrez
- Russo v L.submarine Tankers.1960.TRANSUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Concepts in Submarine DesignUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- RCMeAe Abstract Vu Quoc HuyUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Print_ANSYSUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- ANSYS 17.0 Capabilities - BrochureUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Tier 2 nuclear safetyUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Modeling dexterous handUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Accident of nuclear power plantUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- Fortran TutorialUploaded byIzemAmazigh
- Theory Manual 1-6Uploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- fatigue lifeUploaded byPartibanKumar
- 01 Meshless OverviewUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- LicenseUploaded byLe Anh Tuan
- 3.4. Stress StiffeningUploaded byLe Anh Tuan

- Arbitration - Parol Evidence RuleUploaded byzuomin
- Band Class Specification for Cdma2000 Spread Spectrum SystemsUploaded byedwin_serpas2894
- Effective LeadershipUploaded byVenu Gopal
- Elbow Joint 3D Scan Info 2Uploaded byPhi Nguyen
- Remote SensingUploaded byVenkatraman Perumal Veeraraghavan
- Milton McCray v. State of Maryland, 456 F.2d 1, 4th Cir. (1972)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- Selfllery Whitepaper EnUploaded bysamuelpemon
- Application of Economic Equity Value Added and True Value Added in Explaining of Modern Models Derived From Free Cash FlowsUploaded byAndre Prasetya Willim
- Toshiba-TTK2698-datasheet.pdfUploaded bydanielalbertomc
- Mengenal Alat Ukur CaliperUploaded bysafrudin
- Guia PracticaUploaded byCarlos Menjivar
- IRDM Assignment-I.pdfUploaded byPiyush Aggarwal
- KX-T1232.pdfUploaded bypro_tec_serv442
- Philips Report_Vineeth VijayanUploaded byVineethVijayan
- 1_DucharmeUploaded byRonny
- RT-HDUploaded bydiya15
- Spring Letter Final to Lee Chief Judge Rebecca Beach Smith, Jr Dec 20, 2015 Wri of Error ReconsiderationUploaded byJaniceWolkGrenadier
- Developing and Implementing an Online Research Data RepositoryUploaded byRay Uzwyshyn
- Strategic ManagementUploaded byMuhammad Umar
- IEC 62320-1 Ed1.0 en AIS Base StationsUploaded byrafaelespinosasemper
- Blue Star Finacial SummeryUploaded byakant choudhary
- Juris Occupy WallstreetUploaded byCaroline Yez
- How to Confirm a Delete in an ASPUploaded byrenieroliva
- CItizen G900.pdfUploaded byStephanie Roberts
- EDC-2markUploaded byavv456
- Automotive HVAC # Pressure ZonesUploaded byVishal Saxena
- OSST Know Your Steel Guide January 2010Uploaded bymehul2011
- The Weekender 06-08-2011Uploaded byThe Times Leader
- Exportacion a XcelUploaded byJose Gustavo Sánchez Sandoval
- SATI C o m p a n y P r o f i l eUploaded byRoseann Salazar