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Vol. 25, No. 9, September 2016, pp. 15061512 DOI 10.1111/poms.

ISSN 1059-1478|EISSN 1937-5956|16|2509|1506 2016 Production and Operations Management Society

Changing a Leopards Spots: A New Research

Direction for Organizational Culture in the Operations
Management Field
Donna Marshall
Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business, University College Dublin, Blackrock, Dublin A94 XF34, Ireland,

Richard Metters
Mays School of Business, Texas A&M University, MS 4217, College Station, Texas 77843,USA,

Mark Pagell
Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business, University College Dublin, Blackrock, Dublin A94 XF34, Ireland,

perations Management (OM) research on organizational culture has to change to be able to inform practice. Cur-
O rently, organizational culture research in OM is largely confined to narrow topical and methodological niches and
culture is most frequently used as an explanatory variable in quantitative, survey-based research. We argue that the rele-
gation of culture to this niche is due to self-imposed methodological blinders that hobble the OM field. We then present
four research imperatives to reinvigorate organizational culture research within our field. We urge OM scholars to view
culture as a dynamic concept that can be influenced, to adopt alternative methods, to use non-traditional data sources,
and to rethink assumptions about dependent variables. We also identify gaps in the current knowledge and new research
questions for the OM domain. We conclude that the field of OM could greatly expand its understanding of organizational
culture and in so doing greatly improve business practice, but that to do so will require a change in the culture of the
operations management research community.
Key words: organizational culture; research methods; ethnography
History: Received: October 2014; Accepted: February 2016 by Kalyan Singhal, after 4 revisions.

threw rivets and garbage at it. The Quality Cat was

1. Introduction intended to help build a culture of quality, instead it
Extant operations management (OM) research on contributed to a culture of animosity between work-
organizational culture is of little to no use to practic- ers and managers.
ing managers. The OM research community has rec- Despite such obvious failures as the Quality Cat,
ognized the importance of organizational culture and the OM literature offers almost no guidance to
its impact on the decision making of operations man- managers on how to create, change, or preserve an
agers and the efficacy of operational practices. We appropriate organizational culture. We believe orga-
know that organizational culture is important to prac- nizational culture research in OM has been held back
tice and is a critical explanatory variable in OM by a series of self-imposed methodological limits.
research. As an example of what is possible, the anthropolo-
However, the conclusion that culture matters is of gists Briody et al. (2010) chronicled the organizational
little use to managers who already know this and cultural change at General Motors (GM) that occurred
struggle with the critical next step of developing that as a result of the Ideal Plant Culture project. Their
culture. For instance, Hamper (1991) discusses an research identified barriers to and drivers of organiza-
early attempt by the management of an auto-assem- tional change, explored how GM identified and com-
bly plant to increase quality by creating a mascot; municated what had to change, explicated the change
Howie Makum, the Quality Cat. Howie Makum process itself and explored how the changed organi-
was a worker dressed in a cat suit with a large Q (for zational culture impacted operations. The results
Quality) on his cape. His presence was meant to allowed the researchers to offer advice and guidance
inspire workers to produce defect-free cars. Unsur- to GM and also allowed others to learn from the GM
prisingly, the workers found the cat demeaning and experience. Traditional survey-based OM research
Marshall, Metters, and Pagell: Organizational Culture in Operations
Production and Operations Management 25(9), pp. 15061512, 2016 Production and Operations Management Society 1507

would have concluded that organizational cultural 4. Change assumptions about dependent vari-
change was a necessary element for operational ables.
improvement, but the anthropologists were able to
This study demonstrates how these changes can allow
explain how to change the organization to achieve the
OM researchers to expand their understanding of
desired operational outcomes.
organizational culture and increase the odds of their
This is what OM research should also be able to
research creating real change and practical insight.
do; presently it cannot. Therefore, this study pre-
sents a research agenda to move the field in a new
direction. Figure 1 shows the most common model 2. What the OM Research Community
of organizational culture used in OM research, Knows about Organizational Culture
while Figure 2 shows the possible interactions of
Organizational culture, which refers to the culture of
interest when OM researchers become more open
a firm and of the employees within the firm, is based
to alternative methods and research questions. This
on the organizations values, beliefs and artifacts,
study is inspired by Singhal and Singhals (2012a,b)
which stem from a variety of sources. Firm founders
call for radical innovation in research, to be brought
and management often stress personal values, beliefs
about by learning from other disciplines. We opera-
and assumptions that impact company goals and pri-
tionalize this call by presenting four proposed
orities and dictate the way company members should
research imperatives in organizational culture
act in various situations. Organizational culture is
research in OM:
within the span of control of operational managers
1. Regard organizational culture as a dynamic, and it is by understanding organizational culture that
malleable construct that is within the influence OM research can help to shape OM practice.
of the operations manager; The OM field has expanded to welcome a wider
2. Research organizational culture using the same range of methodological tools than in the past, but the
methods as researchers who study culture; foundations of the field are grounded in operations
3. Use non-traditional data sources outside the research and built on the (often implicit) assumption
realm of normal OM research; and from economics that people behave in rational ways

Figure 1 Cultural Research in Operations Management Today

Figure 2 An Alternative Cultural Research Model

Marshall, Metters, and Pagell: Organizational Culture in Operations
1508 Production and Operations Management 25(9), pp. 15061512, 2016 Production and Operations Management Society

and that rational means profit maximizing. Cul- gaps will be necessary if OM research is to advance
ture, as a system of shared values and beliefs, fits beyond merely saying that organizational culture
poorly in this paradigm, so perhaps it is not surpris- matters. Closing these gaps will lead to the ability to
ing that extant OM cultural research has been primar- answer new research questions and direct practice.
ily quantitative and survey-based. (A summary of
OM articles on organizational culture is available 3.1. Organizational Culture as a Dynamic,
from the authors). Malleable Variable
Cultures can, and do, change over time. Yet with We call for future research to treat culture as mal-
the exception of Bititci et al. (2006) there is virtually leable. This view is common in other fields (e.g., Deni-
no research in OM that treats the organizational cul- son 1990, Fitzgerald 1988). Merely saying that a lack
ture as malleable. In almost all OM research, organi- of fit between culture and practice harms perfor-
zational culture is treated as a fixed, explanatory mance is not sufficient; instead, this should be a start-
variable affecting the outcomes of different opera- ing point for research to examine how organizations
tional techniques. Organizational culture moderates adapt, build or change a culture to create the needed
the practice to performance link that much of OM fit. How this happens and affects operational imple-
research is interested in. OM researchers explore the mentation and outcomes is especially pertinent to the
fit of practices with the culture or the defining fea- OM field, particularly OM managers.
tures of the culture, but in either case the culture is Work on behavioral operations partially accom-
treated as fixed and unchanging. The prevailing para- plishes this. However, this field is still limited in
digm of culture as something that is fixed and mea- terms of the unit of analysis (usually individual
sured in a quantitative fashion via a survey is a very decision-makers), assumptions about the amount of
limited view of culture. And this limited view of cul- discretion the decision-makers have, and methodol-
ture limits the impact of our research. ogy (experimental designs). Thus, while researchers
The OM field needs to move from telling managers seeking to understand organizational culture as a
what they already knowthat organizational culture dynamic construct can learn from behavioral opera-
mattersto providing real insights into how these tions, they need to learn from other fields as well (sec-
cultures can be built, changed, adapted, or protected tion 3.2).
in an operational setting. The following section devel- For example, Pagell et al. (2014) identified organi-
ops a new research agenda for OM researchers to zational culture as key to providing a foundation for
meet these needs. safe, productive work, but they did not specify how
this occurs. Future research could examine the mecha-
3. A New Research Agenda for nisms behind building an organizational culture that
prioritizes both safety and operational outcomes, con-
Organizational Culture in OM sidering not only the values of the members of the
Four interrelated methodological issues affect the organization but also the practices that occur and the
impact of OM research on organizational culture. interaction of values and practices. Researchers could
First, researchers tend to treat organizational culture investigate the barriers or facilitators to organizational
as a static explanatory variable rather than as a culture change and how this new culture allows
dynamic and malleable construct. Second, when they safety and productivity to coexist. Rather than simply
do study culture, it is often from a methodological concluding that culture matters, such research would
perspective that is incompatible with subjective con- provide a path for managers to create the needed fit.
structs such as values and beliefs. Third, OM research
focuses almost entirely on managers as key infor- 3.2. Studying Culture Like Researchers Who Study
mants. Workers are often completely absent from OM Culture
organizational culture studies. Singhal and Singhal (2012a,b) made a call for OM
Finally, OM researchers have made certain assump- researchers to break free from our methodological
tions about the dependent variables of organizational biases and learn from other fields. They can do so by
culture. Specifically, profit or operational perfor- learning to study culture from those who do this full-
mance is seen as the dependent variable of choice. time: anthropologists.
Although profit and performance are undoubtedly The differences between OM and anthropology
important, excluding other stakeholders views seri- come from a different world-view regarding what
ously limits the impact of findings. constitutes culture, what is important in research, and
An understanding of how to define, describe, cre- what constitutes evidence. For example, the Compet-
ate, change, influence, and respond to organizational ing Values Framework (Quinn 1988) has been used in
culture is largely absent in our literature. Therefore, multiple OM studies of organizational culture (e.g.,
we postulate that addressing these methodological Prajogo and McDermott 2011). This framework
Marshall, Metters, and Pagell: Organizational Culture in Operations
Production and Operations Management 25(9), pp. 15061512, 2016 Production and Operations Management Society 1509

provides measures for several aspects of culture that practice X effective in implementing QM? anthropol-
are deemed independent and are typically measured ogists examine a specific environment in great depth
using quantitative tools. This approach fits well to determine why a certain practice may or may not
within the OM research community, yet anthropolo- be effective there. This approach can uncover impor-
gists entirely reject this conception of culture. As tant insights.
expressed by Baskerville (2003, p. 2) when anthro- For example, the motives of the workers may not
pologists adopt any such concepts of culture, culture coincide with the long-term success of the firm.
is not divided into component systems, or different Anthropologists Kim (1997) and Mitter et al. (2004)
values in a quantitative style; instead, it is viewed as described work environments where employees were
an integrated pattern of symbols and meanings. The uninterested in improving quality since they believed
questions anthropologists ask and the types of they would not stay at their jobs long enough to bene-
answers they find differ from those of OM research- fit. Unlike the lifetime auto assemblers of Japan and
ers. While OM research is concerned with questions the US, these workers are not career-driven and do
of what or how many, anthropology is more con- not identify with the company. As a result, they have
cerned with the specificity of time and place and little interest in applying QM techniques regardless of
answers questions of how or why. Additionally, their training. This kind of information would be diffi-
evidence in anthropology is usually gathered through cult to gain through surveys of executives focusing on
ethnographic methods, often involving extended which operations management practices were used to
investigator contact with informants. improve quality.
Data obtained through direct observation or partic- Suckley et al. (2013) studied a failed QM imple-
ipation can differ greatly from those obtained mentation in the UK. Training and even physically
through interviews. One of the purposes of direct moving the Quality and Production departments next
observation is to grasp the natives point of view. to each other failed to improve quality. The authors
The point is to examine the processes of organiza- concluded that QM did not fail because specific tech-
tional life that have become so familiar to workers niques were not adopted, but rather as a result of
that they do not even notice them. Actually doing long-held inter-departmental antagonisms, siloed
the work for a certain period of time is a frequently management, and department management positions
used technique for anthropologists. This is done to being short-term assignments used as managerial
gain a technical competence that allows the stepping stones. This action research proposed vari-
researcher to understand the work as well as to ous managerial remedies that ultimately proved suc-
establish rapport and trust with their informants so cessful: the managerial reporting structure was
one can discover the hidden truth. changed, with both departments reporting directly to
For example, Salzingers (2003) a priori, manage- the same Vice President (VP), who was rewarded for
ment approved research plan was to first interview the achievement of a balance between throughput
management, then work as a factory laborer. In her and quality. The VP mandated interdisciplinary
management interview, she was told that new work- teams, which caused the blame culture between the
ers had daily evaluations during the first 2 weeks, departments to evaporate.
monthly evaluations during the first 6 months, [and] While these authors have much to say about opera-
weekly supervisory meetings and that, upon earning tions, our journals would not view their methods
a promotion, exchanged their blue smocks for yellow fondly. Yet this subjective and intensely personal
ones in a ceremony to signify the achievement (Sal- fieldwork is able to provide prescriptions for practice
zinger 2003, p. 130). Working on the shop floor she that our methods cannot.
discovered that none of this was true. The manager We do not ask that the OM field or POM publish
had not lied; rather, management mistakenly thought any story from anyone who once telephoned a busi-
they knew the actual operations of the firm. Future ness executive or spent an hour working in an opera-
OM research in which researchers act as participant tional job. Rather, we suggest that researchers and
observers embedded as workers in an operational set- reviewers focus on insight and impact on practice, as
ting has the potential to radically alter our under- well as the perceived rigor of the method be it ethnog-
standing of OM. raphy or econometric.
The subset of anthropology that studies organiza- What the rich nature of ethnographic methods is
tional culture is variously called industrial ethnogra- supposed to find are the hidden subtexts or multiple
phy or anthropology of work. Anthropologists meanings through deconstruction of text. An insightful
have studied the adoption of quality management interpretation of words and events distinguishes good
(QM) programs. However, their ethnographic work. Aspects of organizational culture often do not
research takes a different perspective from traditional appear on banners at the workplace. Some aspects of
OM research. Rather than answering the question is organizational culture may not be spoken of directly at
Marshall, Metters, and Pagell: Organizational Culture in Operations
1510 Production and Operations Management 25(9), pp. 15061512, 2016 Production and Operations Management Society

all, or flatly denied if mentioned aloud. For example, less, workers are rarely respondents or participants in
in Freemans (2000) analysis of an airline data process- OM research.
ing center, 98% of the workers were young and female. In a rare exception, Pagell et al. (2014) collected
In the three other facilities the same airline had for the data from managers, workers and, where appropriate,
same work, gender was far more balanced. The reason the workers union. The coding of culture for one of
given for this was not that young women were pre- the cases, a smelter, demonstrates the value of this
ferred in this data center; that was denied. Rather, range of respondents.
workers claimed that mens fingers are too big to The smelter plant manager said that, in the past, the
work the keyboard, and men have to be moving facility was considered an armpit because it was
around during the work day and are unable to sit at a hot, dusty and dangerous. However, the same man-
keyboard. Content analysis software will not help ager was hired to change this and had done so. Man-
interpret these words. Only immersive methods such agers in the plant reported a host of changes and
as ethnography could discover that the overwhelm- investments. The plant manager discussed the chan-
ingly female work force was a result of and influenced ged operations, site cleanup, and safety investments.
the organizational culture at this facility. The safety manager described expansive safety train-
ing and safety equipment purchases. The environ-
3.2.1. Ethnographic Research in Marketing. While mental manager explained how hazards were now
ethnographic studies are rare in OM, they have better controlled, thus reducing the likelihood of
become more prevalent in marketing. Anthropologi- worker exposure to spills. All the managers referred
cal tools found a foothold in marketing research to a new program they called See Understand Plan
because of the types of questions they allowed Act or SUPA.
researchers to answer. McAlexander et al. (2002) built See Understand Plan Act attempted to get workers
on Schouten and McAlexander (1995) to study how involved in continuous improvement and safety. All
companies interact with customers to build not a workers were trained in SUPA, and there were ban-
brand, but a brand community. These studies were ners and signs about SUPA facility-wide. Based only
the first to describe brand communities as dynamic on the information gathered from the managerial
and to show how to build, maintain, or change a respondents, one could have concluded that the plant
brand community. Today similar tools are used to had a very strong safety culture.
answer a range of how questions, including how to However, the data collected from the workers and
build brands across borders (e.g., Belk 2013) and how unions painted a very different picture. The workers
to integrate members of virtual communities into new all described SUPA as an acronym for safety unless
product development (e.g., F uller et al. 2006). These production affected. They described a plant in which
studies have significant practical applications. production was the primary concern and safety short-
McAlexander and his co-authors have worked with cuts were taken to meet production quotas. The work-
organizations such as HarleyDavidson, Jeep and ers had interpreted the original values as unchanged
multiple higher education institutes on their brand and SUPA as window dressing. Without this input
communities (Idea Enthusiasm 2015). from workers and union representatives on what they
New avenues to knowledge creation were opened actually experienced and believed, this insight would
in the marketing field when researchers adapted have been lost and the plants culture misunderstood.
anthropological tools to the marketing setting. A simi- As this example shows, non-traditional respon-
lar effect can occur in the OM setting if OM research- dents in OM research are vital to taking organiza-
ers likewise adapt ethnographic tools to their context. tional culture research forward. When trying to
understand how to change an organizational culture,
3.3. Non-Traditional Data Sources researchers should investigate multiple stakeholders,
Ethnographies that focus on the same key respon- including managers, workers, unions and contractors,
dents as existing research will provide limited insight. and other parties affecting or affected by the organiza-
A culture comprises the values, beliefs and artifacts of tional change. Without the responses of these differ-
the entire organization or supply chain, not just the ent participants, it would be difficult to discern the
managers. Thus, the first step that should be taken is reality of the situation from the socially desirable
to collect data from operational workers. Studies of answer managers want the researcher to hear.
operations have long noted that workers need to be
involved in continuous improvement. Workers will 3.4. Changing Views on Dependent Variables
interpret and perform a process based on their own The final broad change involves rethinking dependent
individual understanding of the work, as well as the variables, in terms of both their inclusion and their
relevant culture and organizational priorities (e.g., focus on profits or a proxy for profits, such as
Parmigiani and Howard-Grenville 2011). Nonethe- operational performance. What and how many
Marshall, Metters, and Pagell: Organizational Culture in Operations
Production and Operations Management 25(9), pp. 15061512, 2016 Production and Operations Management Society 1511

questions lend themselves to x leads to y research, culture in OM. What we can do, however, is offer
whereas how questions do not, especially when the places to start.
latter involve understanding and changing a culture. One fruitful area of research would involve devel-
Future research in OM will need to move beyond the oping an understanding of the content of operational
worldview that sees research as valid only if x can pre- cultures as well as how to build, change and manage
dict y. Some research on culture will not have any operational cultures. It is striking that safety research-
dependent variables. For instance, a study that ers have defined, measured and even tried to explain
describes a supply chain culture or the process of inte- the creation of safety climates and cultures for opera-
grating a new strategy into an existing operational cul- tional workers (e.g., Zohar 2010), while there remains
ture would be purely descriptive and would thus not no equivalent understanding in operations, even
have any dependent variables. Nonetheless, this infor- though a safety culture is in essence a sub-culture
mation could, like the anthropological research in mar- aimed at operational workers (Pagell et al. 2014).
keting, provide important insights into practice. To understand operational cultures will necessitate
Similarly, research on the process of changing a culture understanding operational workers values and
might start with an in-depth analysis of a change effort beliefs. This can only occur if operational workers and
but then shift toward a focus on the process. other stakeholders, such as unions, have a voice in the
Additionally, we need to recognize that a focus on research and if researchers understand the work set-
profit is both subjective and a cultural artifact. Treat- ting, which will require participant observation of the
ing profit as a primary dependent variable is a norm work.
of the OM field, which other research fields or mem- Similarly, many would argue that the field has
bers of the organizational culture under study may evolved from studying a single firms operations to
not share. Extant research tends to treat culture as fit- studying the entire supply chain. The concept of a
ting the operation if the culture enables increased multi-firm co-destiny in a supply chain has been
profit. However, if organization members or key mentioned in the OM literature for more 20 years,
stakeholders do not view profit as the only success but the literature has yet to truly address supply
metric, or if they view other measures as warranting chain culture. Future research should begin to seek
attention, then this focus is misguided. For firms that to understand this phenomenon. Such an under-
have an organizational culture that values doing standing will lead to thinking of these cultures as
well by doing good, environmental and social con- dynamic, allowing research to focus on building,
cerns can trump profit. For instance, Patagonia has maintaining and changing operational and supply
registered as a benefit-corporation, which means their chain cultures.
fiduciary responsibility extends beyond making prof- A final area that requires study and challenges mul-
its, to protecting the environment and their workforce tiple assumptions of the OM research community is
(Patagonia 2016). Pagell et al. (2014) provide a partial that of practices as routines that workers perform. In
example of what research of this nature could look our literature, with the notable exception of Gray and
like. Their dependent variables include outcomes Massimino (2014), there is an implicit assumption that
important to operations managers such as profits and practices are performed as intended (see Pagell et al.
quality, as well as safety outcomes that are of concern 2015). In contrast, researchers studying routines in
to workers, unions and regulators. other fields have shown that workers perform a rou-
tine based on their interpretation of what they are
3.5. New Questions and New Answers supposed to do and their understanding of the values
Removing methodological blinders and altering and assumptions of the culture (e.g., Pentland et al.
assumptions would change how culture is studied in 2011). In other words, many practices are not enacted
OM, opening the door to new insights and the ability as designed. To manage operations successfully
to answer important new research questions that requires the management of operational workers, a
could inform practice. The proposed research agenda topic the field has largely overlooked until the recent
will, if followed, allow research to provide insights interest in behavioral operations. The research on rou-
into how cultures are built, changed, adapted, or pro- tines suggests that understanding worker behavior
tected in an operational setting. requires understanding the organizations culture.
Just as marketing researchers in the 1980s could not We need to understand what the values are and, more
have predicted that ethnographic methods would importantly, how to create a match between these val-
evolve into netnographic studies (e.g., Kozinets 2002) ues and intended practices (or how to adapt practices
or lead to the study of how leaving a religion changes and values to each other).
consumption patterns (McAlexander et al. 2014), so None of these questions can be neatly modeled.
we cannot predict how the adoption of new types of Instead, OM researchers will need to be willing to
cognition and new tools might change the study of change their assumptions, adopt new methods,
Marshall, Metters, and Pagell: Organizational Culture in Operations
1512 Production and Operations Management 25(9), pp. 15061512, 2016 Production and Operations Management Society

engage with new respondents, and consider new Hamper, B. 1991. Rivethead: Tales from the Assembly Line. Warner
outcome variables. Books, NY.
Idea Enthusiasm. 2015. (accessed
date May 25, 2015).
4. Conclusions Kim, S. 1997. Class Struggle or Family Struggle? The Lives of Women
Factory Workers in South Korea. Cambridge University Press,
In essence, our conclusion is that the culture of the New York.
OM research community needs to change in order to Kozinets, R. V. 2002. The field behind the screen: Using netnogra-
conduct research on culture that will matter to OM phy for marketing research in online communities. J. Mark.
Res. 39(1): 6172.
practice. We argue that OM research is constrained by
McAlexander, J. H., J. W. Schouten, H. F. Koenig. 2002. Building
methodological blinders that limit researchers to ask-
brand community. J. Market. 66(1): 3854.
ing does culture matter? rather than asking ques-
McAlexander, J. H., B. L. Dufault, D. M. Martin, J. W. Schouten.
tions that pertain to developing or changing a culture. 2014. The marketization of religion: Field, capital, and con-
We further argue that OM researchers need to learn sumer identity. J. Consum. Res. 41(3): 858875.
from other fields, especially anthropology and mar- Mitter, S., G. Fernandez, S. Varghese. 2004. On the threshold of
keting, to successfully answer such questions. In so informalization: Women call centre workers in India, Chapter
6. M. Carr, ed. Chains of Fortune: Linking Women Producers and
doing, the field will have to move on from the com- Workers with Global Markets. Commonwealth Secretariat,
fortable, but ultimately restrictive, quantitative mod- London, 165183.
els of culture we have used in the past. If this occurs, Pagell, M., D. Johnston, A. Veltri, R. Klassen, M. Biehl. 2014. Is
the value of OM research to practice will be enhanced. safe production an oxymoron? Prod. Oper. Manag. 23(7):
However, if OM researchers instead continue to treat 11611175.
culture as a static control variable and leave the Pagell, M., R. Klassen, D. Johnston, A. Shevchenko, S. Sharma.
2015. Are safety and operational effectiveness contradictory
understanding of how to build and change cultures to requirements? The roles of routines and relational coordina-
others, they should not be surprised when managers tion. J. Oper. Manag. 36: 114.
ignore their research. Parmigiani, A., J. Howard-Grenville. 2011. Routines revisited:
Exploring the capabilities and practice perspectives. Acad.
Manage. Ann. 5(1): 413453.
Acknowledgments Patagonia. 2016.
All authors contributed equally to this manuscript. The assetid=68413 (accessed date February 26, 2016).
authors thank the three anonymous referees for their contri- Pentland, B. T., T. Haerem, D. Hillison. 2011. The (N)ever-
butions to this work. A special thanks goes to Kal Singhal changing world: Stability and change in organizational routi-
nes. Organ. Sci. 22(6): 13691383.
for particularly helpful suggestions.
Prajogo, D. I., C. M. McDermott. 2011. The relationship between
multidimensional organizational culture and performance.
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