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John Cadick, P.E.

Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M.D., M.P.A.
Dennis K. Neitzel, C.P.E.
Al Winfield

Fourth Edition

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To my entire family, for their love, support, and
willingness to sometimes overlook what I am, in
favor of what I try to be. Also to my coauthorsI
am honored and proud to work with each and every
one of you.
John Cadick

In dedication to Michael Allen, Sarah, Benjamin,

Amelia, and Natalie, with all my love.
Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer

To my wife, Brenda Neitzel, who always believed in

me and encouraged me to continue my education
and strive to be the best that I could be; to the
U.S. Air Force for giving me my start in an electrical
career in 1967; to all of my employers, who gave
me countless opportunities to learn and progress;
and to John Cadick, who believed in me enough to
ask me to contribute to this book.
Dennis K. Neitzel

I dedicate this effort to Gerry, my wife and best friend,

for her endless love, support, encouragement, and
belief in me. It is my honor to have John Cadick as a
cherished friend and coworker. The confidence John
Cadick has shown in me by inviting my contribution
to this esteemed project is deeply appreciated.
Al Winfield

John Cadick, P.E., is a registered professional engineer and the founder and
president of the Cadick Corporation. Mr. Cadick has specialized for more than
four decades in electrical engineering, training, and management. His consulting
firm, based in Garland, Texas, specializes in electrical engineering and training
and works extensively in the areas of power systems design and engineering
studies, condition-based maintenance programs, and electrical safety. Prior
to creating the Cadick Corporation and its predecessor, Cadick Professional
Services, he held a number of technical and managerial positions with electric
utilities, electrical testing companies, and consulting firms. In addition to his
consulting work in the electrical power industry, Mr. Cadick is the author of
numerous books, professional articles, and technical papers.

Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M.D., M.P.A., delivers outpatient medical care

services to employees in occupational health service centers. Board-certified
as a physician in general preventive medicine and public health, she is also
a consultant to both the NJATC (National Joint Apprenticeship and Training
Committee of the National Electrical Contractors Association and International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers) and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers) Standards Committees. She lives in Chicago, Illinois.

Dennis K. Neitzel, C.P.E., has specialized in training and safety consulting in

electrical power systems and equipment for industrial, government, and utility
facilities since 1967. He is an active member of IEEE, ASSE, AFE, IAEI, and
NFPA. He is a certified plant engineer (C.P.E.) and a certified electrical inspec-
tor general; principal committee member and special expert for the NFPA 70E,
Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace; serves on the Defense Safety
Oversight CouncilElectrical Safety Working Group for the U.S. Department
of Defense Electrical Safety Special Interest Initiative; serves as working group
chairman for the revision of IEEE Std. 902 (The Yellow Book), IEEE Guide
for Maintenance, Operation, and Safety of Industrial and Commercial Power
Systems (changing to IEEE 3007.1, 3007.2, and 3007.3); and serves as work-
ing group chairman for IEEE P45.5 Recommended Practice for Electrical
Installations on ShipboardSafety Considerations. He earned his bachelors
degree in electrical engineering management and his masters degree in elec-
trical engineering applied sciences. Mr. Neitzel has authored, published, and
presented numerous technical papers and magazine articles on electrical safety,
maintenance, and training.

Al Winfield has more than 50 years of hands-on electrical construction, repair,

system operations, and training experience. Mr. Winfield started his career in
the electrical industry in 1960. During his career in the public utility industry,
his experience included hands-on electrical work as a high-voltage lineman,
operations experience in system operations, and several years as the supervisor
of trainingsystem operations. He has specialized in providing technical and
safety training for electrical system operations personnel and electrical construc-
tion and maintenance personnel for the past three decades. Over the past two
decades, Mr. Winfield has also provided electrical consulting services for several
manufacturing, mining, and petrochemical corporations around the world. He is
currently the director of safety and training for Cadick Corporation.

Foreword xv
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xx

Chapter 1. Hazards of Electricity)>> 1.1

Introduction / 1.1
Hazard Analysis / 1.1
Shock / 1.1
Description / 1.1
Influencing Factors / 1.2
Arc / 1.7
Definition and Description / 1.7
Arc Energy Release / 1.8
Arc Energy / 1.8
Arc Energy Input / 1.11
Arcing Voltage / 1.12
Arc Surface Area / 1.12
Incident Energy / 1.13
Arc Burns / 1.15
Blast / 1.15
Affected Body Parts / 1.18
General / 1.18
Skin / 1.18
The Nervous System / 1.20
Muscular System / 1.21
The Heart / 1.21
The Pulmonary System / 1.22
Summary of CausesInjury and Death / 1.23
Shock Effect / 1.23
Arc-Flash Effect / 1.23
Causes of Injury / 1.24
Causes of Death / 1.24
Protective Strategies / 1.24
References / 1.25

Chapter 2. Basic Physics of Electrical Hazards)>> 2.1

Introduction / 2.1
Electromagnetism / 2.1
Introduction / 2.1
The Four Fundamental Forces (Interactions) of Nature / 2.1
The Electromagnetic Spectrum / 2.4

vi)>> contents

Electrical Properties of Materials / 2.5

Conductors / 2.5
Nonconductors / 2.7
Physics Considerations in Electrical Fault Conditions / 2.8
Risks / 2.8
Bolted Fault / 2.8
Arcing Fault / 2.9
Review of Foundational Approaches to Interpreting Arcing Phenomena / 2.11
Summary / 2.15
References / 2.15

Chapter 3. Electrical Safety Equipment)>> 3.1

Introduction / 3.1
General Inspection and Testing Requirements for Electrical
Safety Equipment / 3.1
Flash and Thermal Protection / 3.2
A Note on When to Use Thermal Protective Clothing / 3.2
Thermal Performance Evaluation / 3.2
Clothing Materials / 3.4
Non-Flame-Resistant Materials / 3.4
Flame-Resistant Materials / 3.5
Work Clothing / 3.6
Flash Suits / 3.9
Head, Eye, and Hand Protection / 3.9
Head and Eye Protection / 3.10
Hard Hats / 3.10
Safety Glasses, Goggles, and Face Shields / 3.12
Rubber Insulating Equipment / 3.13
Rubber Gloves / 3.14
Rubber Mats / 3.17
Rubber Blankets / 3.18
Rubber Covers / 3.21
Line Hose / 3.22
Rubber Sleeves / 3.23
In-Service Inspection and Periodic Testing of Rubber Goods / 3.25
Hot Sticks / 3.41
Description and Application / 3.41
When to Use / 3.43
How to Use / 3.43
Testing Requirements / 3.44
Insulated Tools / 3.44
Description and Application / 3.44
When to Use / 3.45
How to Use and Care For / 3.45
Barriers and Signs / 3.46
Barrier Tape / 3.46
Signs / 3.46
When and How to Use / 3.46
Safety Tags, Locks, and Locking Devices / 3.48
Safety Tags / 3.48
Locks and Multiple-Lock Devices / 3.48
Locking Devices / 3.49
When and Where to Use Lockout-Tagout / 3.51
Voltage-Measuring Instruments / 3.51
Safety Voltage Measurement / 3.51
Proximity Testers / 3.52
)>> contents)>> vii

Contact Testers / 3.53

Selecting Voltage-Measuring Instruments / 3.55
Instrument Condition / 3.55
Low-Voltage Voltmeter Safety Standards / 3.57
Three-Step Voltage Measurement Process / 3.57
General Considerations for Low-Voltage
Measuring Instruments / 3.59
Safety Grounding Equipment / 3.60
The Need for Safety Grounding / 3.60
Safety Grounding Switches / 3.60
Safety Grounding Jumpers / 3.62
Selecting Safety Grounding Jumpers / 3.64
Installation and Location / 3.68
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters / 3.71
Operating Principles / 3.71
Applications / 3.72
Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters / 3.73
Safety Electrical One-Line Diagram / 3.74
The Electricians Safety Kit / 3.74
References / 3.78

Chapter 4. Safety Procedures and Methods)>> 4.1

Introduction / 4.1
The Six-Step Safety Method / 4.1
ThinkBe Aware / 4.2
Understand Your Procedures / 4.2
Follow Your Procedures / 4.2
Use Appropriate Safety Equipment / 4.2
Ask If You Are Unsure, and Do Not Assume / 4.2
Do Not Answer If You Do Not Know / 4.3
Job Briefings / 4.3
Definition / 4.3
What Should Be Included? / 4.3
When Should Job Briefings Be Held? / 4.3
Energized or De-Energized? / 4.3
The Fundamental Rules / 4.3
A Hot-Work Decision Tree / 4.4
After the Decision Is Made / 4.6
Safe Switching of Power Systems / 4.6
Introduction / 4.6
Remote Operation / 4.7
Operating Medium-Voltage Switchgear / 4.11
Operating Low-Voltage Switchgear / 4.15
Operating Molded-Case Breakers and Panelboards / 4.19
Operating Enclosed Switches and Disconnects / 4.21
Operating Open-Air Disconnects / 4.23
Operating Motor Starters / 4.26
Energy Control Programs / 4.27
General Energy Control Programs / 4.28
Specific Energy Control Programs / 4.28
Basic Energy Control Rules / 4.28
Lockout-Tagout / 4.30
Definition and Description / 4.30
When to Use Locks and Tags / 4.31
Locks without Tags or Tags without Locks / 4.31
Rules for Using Locks and Tags / 4.31
viii)>> contents

Responsibilities of Employees / 4.32

Sequence / 4.32
Lock and Tag Application / 4.33
Isolation Verification / 4.33
Removal of Locks and Tags / 4.33
Safety Ground Application / 4.34
Control Transfer / 4.34
Nonemployees and Contractors / 4.36
Lockout-Tagout Training / 4.36
Procedural Reviews / 4.36
Voltage-Measurement Techniques / 4.37
Purpose / 4.37
Instrument Selection / 4.37
Instrument Condition / 4.38
Three-Step Measurement Process / 4.39
What to Measure / 4.39
How to Measure / 4.41
Placement of Safety Grounds / 4.42
Safety Grounding Principles / 4.42
Safety Grounding Location / 4.43
Application of Safety Grounds / 4.47
The Equipotential Zone / 4.48
Removal of Safety Grounds / 4.49
Control of Safety Grounds / 4.49
Flash Hazard Calculations and Approach Distances / 4.51
Introduction / 4.51
Approach Distance Definitions / 4.51
Determining Shock Hazard Approach Distances / 4.51
Calculating the Flash Hazard Minimum Approach Distance (Flash Protection Boundary) / 4.53
Calculating the Required Level of Arc Protection (Flash Hazard Calculations) / 4.56
Introduction / 4.56
The Lee Method / 4.56
Methods Outlined in NFPA 70E / 4.58
IEEE Std 1584-2002 / 4.59
Software Solutions / 4.60
Required PPE for Crossing the Flash Hazard Boundary / 4.60
A Simplified Approach to the Selection of Protective Clothing / 4.61
Barriers and Warning Signs / 4.61
Illumination / 4.65
Conductive Clothing and Materials / 4.66
Confined Work Spaces / 4.66
Tools and Test Equipment / 4.67
General / 4.67
Authorized Users / 4.68
Visual Inspections / 4.68
Electrical Tests / 4.68
Wet and Hazardous Environments / 4.69
Field Marking of Potential Hazards / 4.69
The One-Minute Safety Audit / 4.70
References / 4.72

Chapter 5.Grounding and Bonding of Electrical Systems and Equipment)>> 5.1

Introduction / 5.1
Electric Shock Hazard / 5.1
General Requirements for Grounding and Bonding / 5.2
Grounding of Electrical Systems / 5.2
Grounding of Electrical Equipment / 5.8
)>> contents)>> ix

Bonding of Electrically Conductive Materials and Other Equipment / 5.8

Performance of Fault Path / 5.10
Arrangement to Prevent Objectionable Current / 5.10
Alterations to Stop Objectionable Current / 5.10
Temporary Currents Not Classified as Objectionable Current / 5.10
Connection of Grounding and Bonding Equipment / 5.10
Protection of Ground Clamps and Fittings / 5.11
Clean Surfaces / 5.11
System Grounding / 5.11
Purposes of System Grounding / 5.11
Grounding Service-Supplied Alternating-Current Systems / 5.11
Conductors to Be GroundedAlternating-Current Systems / 5.13
Main Bonding Jumper / 5.13
Grounding Electrode System / 5.13
Grounding Electrode System Resistance / 5.16
Grounding Electrode Conductor / 5.17
Grounding Conductor Connection to Electrodes / 5.18
Bonding / 5.20
Equipment Grounding / 5.21
Equipment to Be Grounded / 5.21
Grounding Cord- and Plug-Connected Equipment / 5.21
Equipment Grounding Conductors / 5.22
Sizing Equipment Grounding Conductors / 5.23
Use of Grounded Circuit Conductor for Grounding Equipment / 5.24
Ferroresonance / 5.27
Summary / 5.28

Chapter 6. Electrical Maintenance and Its Relationship to Safety)>> 6.1

Introduction / 6.1
The Safety-Related Case for Electrical Maintenance / 6.1
Overview / 6.1
Regulatory / 6.2
Relationship of Improperly Maintained Electrical
Equipment to the Hazards of Electricity / 6.2
Maintenance and the Potential Impact on an Electrical Arc-Flash / 6.2
Hazards Associated with Electrical Maintenance / 6.4
The Economic Case for Electrical Maintenance / 6.4
Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) / 6.6
What Is Reliability-Centered Maintenance? / 6.6
A Brief History of RCM / 6.6
RCM in the Industrial and Utility Arena / 6.7
The Primary RCM Principles / 6.7
Failure / 6.9
Maintenance Actions in an RCM Program / 6.9
Impact of RCM on a Facilities Life Cycle / 6.10
Conclusion / 6.12
The Eight-Step Maintenance Program / 6.12
Introduction / 6.12
Step 1Plan / 6.12
Step 2Inspect / 6.13
Step 3Clean / 6.13
Step 4Tighten / 6.14
Step 5Lubricate / 6.14
Step 6Test / 6.14
Step 7Record / 6.15
Step 8Evaluate / 6.15
Summary / 6.15
x)>> contents

Frequency of Maintenance / 6.15

Determining Testing Intervals / 6.16
Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) / 6.16
Introduction / 6.16
The Elements of CBM / 6.17
Data Analysis Methods for CBM / 6.17
Maintenance Requirements for Specific Equipment and Locations / 6.21
General Maintenance Requirements / 6.21
Substations, Switchgear, Panelboards, Motor Control Centers,
and Disconnect Switches / 6.21
Fuse Maintenance Requirements / 6.22
Molded-Case Circuit Breakers / 6.23
Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers / 6.25
Medium-Voltage Circuit Breakers / 6.26
Protective Relays / 6.27
Rotating Equipment / 6.30
Portable Electric Tools and Equipment / 6.30
Personal Safety and Protective Equipment / 6.30
Electrical Safety by Design / 6.31
Introduction / 6.31
Including Safety in Engineering Design Criteria / 6.31
Improved Engineering Standards / 6.33
Conclusion / 6.34
References / 6.34

Chapter 7. Regulatory and Legal Safety Requirements

and Standards)>> 7.1

Introduction / 7.1
The Regulatory Bodies / 7.1
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) / 7.1
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) / 7.3
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) / 7.5
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) / 7.5
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) / 7.6
American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) / 7.7
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) / 7.8
Other Electrical Safety Organizations / 7.15
The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)ANSI C-2 / 7.16
General Description / 7.16
Industries and Facilities Covered / 7.16
Technical and Safety Items Covered / 7.16
The National Electrical Code (NEC)ANSI/NFPA 70 / 7.17
General Description / 7.17
Industries and Facilities Covered / 7.18
Technical and Safety Items Covered / 7.18
Electrical Equipment MaintenanceANSI/NFPA 70B / 7.18
General Description / 7.18
Industries and Facilities Covered / 7.19
Technical and Safety Items Covered / 7.19
Standard for Electrical Safety
in the Workplaceansi/nfpa 70E / 7.19
General Description / 7.19
Industries and Facilities Covered / 7.20
Technical and Safety Items Covered / 7.21
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Standards / 7.21
)>> contents)>> xi

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standards / 7.21

Overview / 7.21
General Industry / 7.24
Construction Industry / 7.25

Chapter 8. Accident Prevention, Accident Investigation,

Rescue, and First Aid)>> 8.1

Introduction / 8.1
Accident Prevention / 8.1
Individual Responsibility / 8.1
Installation Safety / 8.2
Power System Studies / 8.4
First Aid / 8.8
General First Aid / 8.8
Resuscitation (Artificial Respiration) / 8.13
Heart-Lung Resuscitation / 8.13
Automated External Defibrillator (AED) / 8.15
How an AED Works / 8.17
When Should an AED Be Used? / 8.17
How to Use an Automated External Defibrillator / 8.18
What Risks Are Associated with Using an Automated External Defibrillator? / 8.18
Key Points about Automated External Defibrillators / 8.18
Rescue Techniques / 8.19
General Rescue Procedures / 8.19
Elevated Rescue / 8.21
Confined-Space Rescue / 8.21
Ground-Level Rescue / 8.35
Accident Investigation / 8.37
Purpose / 8.37
General Rules / 8.39
Data Gathering / 8.40
Accident Analysis / 8.41

Chapter 9. Medical Aspects of Electrical Trauma)>> 9.1

Introduction / 9.1
Statistical Survey / 9.1
Nonoccupational Electrical Trauma / 9.5
Fatality- and Injury-Related Costs / 9.5
Electrical Events / 9.6
Electrocution and Electrical Fatalities / 9.7
Medical Aspects / 9.9
Nonelectrical Effects in Electrical Events / 9.11
Survivor Experience / 9.12
Worker Reflexes / 9.12
Triage and Medical Evacuation / 9.13
Stabilization and Initial Evaluation / 9.14
Medical and Surgical Intervention / 9.15
Hospitalization Experience / 9.15
Outpatient Care / 9.17
Rehabilitation Focus and Return to Work Planning / 9.17
Reentry to Employment Settings / 9.17
Plateau in Recovery / 9.18
References / 9.19
Further Reading / 9.20
xii)>> contents

Chapter 10. Low-Voltage Safety Synopsis)>> 10.1

Introduction / 10.1
Low-Voltage Equipment / 10.1
Extension Cords / 10.2
Electric Hand Tools / 10.3
Current Transformers / 10.5
Grounding Low-Voltage Systems / 10.6
What Is a Ground? / 10.6
Bonding versus Grounding / 10.6
Voltage Hazards / 10.7
System Grounds / 10.9
Equipment Grounds / 10.11
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters / 10.14
Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters / 10.14
Safety Equipment / 10.15
Overview / 10.15
Hard Hats / 10.15
Eye Protection / 10.15
Arc Protection / 10.18
Rubber Insulating Equipment / 10.19
Voltage-Testing Devices / 10.19
Safety Procedures / 10.21
General / 10.21
Approach Distances / 10.21
Voltage Measurement / 10.21
Locking and Tagging / 10.22
Closing Protective Devices after Operation / 10.22
Electrical Safety around Electronic Circuits / 10.22
The Nature of the Hazard / 10.22
Special Safety Precautions / 10.23
Stationary Battery Safety / 10.24
Introduction / 10.24
Basic Battery Construction / 10.25
Safety Hazards of Stationary Batteries / 10.26
Battery Safety Procedures / 10.26
Electrical Hazards of the Home-Based Business / 10.26
Electrical Hazards in the Home / 10.28
Working Alone / 10.29
Working with Employees / 10.29
Evaluating Electrical Safety / 10.30
Electrical Safety Checklists / 10.30
Electrical Inspections by Professionals / 10.31

Chapter 11. Medium- and High-Voltage Safety Synopsis)>> 11.1

Introduction / 11.1
High-Voltage Equipment / 11.1
Current Transformers / 11.1
Grounding Systems of over 1000 V / 11.3
What Is a Ground? / 11.3
Bonding versus Grounding / 11.4
Voltage Hazards / 11.4
System Grounds / 11.5
Equipment Grounds / 11.7
)>> contents)>> xiii

Safety Equipment / 11.8

Overview / 11.8
Hard Hats / 11.8
Eye Protection / 11.8
Arc Protection / 11.9
Rubber Insulating Equipment / 11.9
Voltage-Testing Devices / 11.9
Safety Procedures / 11.12
General / 11.12
Approach Distances / 11.12
Voltage Measurement / 11.14
Locking and Tagging / 11.14
Closing Protective Devices after Operation / 11.14

Chapter 12. Human Factors in Electrical Safety)>> 12.1

Introduction / 12.1
Overview / 12.4
Defense in Depth / 12.4
Evolution of Human Factors / 12.5
Visualization / 12.7
Cognitive Ergonomics / 12.9
Summary / 12.13
References / 12.13
Recommended Readings / 12.14

Chapter 13.Safety Management and Organizational Structure)>> 13.1

Introduction / 13.1
Changing the Safety Culture / 13.1
Electrical Safety Program Structure / 13.3
Electrical Safety Program Development / 13.4
Company Electrical Safety Team / 13.4
Company Safety Policy / 13.5
Assessing the Need / 13.5
Problems and Solutions / 13.6
Program Implementation / 13.6
Examples / 13.6
Company Safety Procedures / 13.9
Results Assessment / 13.9
Employee Electrical Safety Teams / 13.9
Reason / 13.9
Method / 13.9
Safety Meetings / 13.10
Who Attends / 13.10
What Material Should Be Covered / 13.11
When Meetings Should Be Held / 13.11
Where Meetings Should Be Held / 13.11
How Long Meetings Should Be / 13.12
Evaluation of Safety Meetings / 13.12
Outage Reports / 13.12
Safety Audits / 13.13
Description / 13.13
Purposes / 13.13
xiv)>> contents

Procedure / 13.14
The Audit Team / 13.15
Audit Tools / 13.15
Follow-Up / 13.35
Internal versus External Audits / 13.35

Chapter 14. Safety Training Methods and Systems)>> 14.1

Introduction / 14.1
Safety Training Definitions / 14.1
Training Myths / 14.2
Conclusion / 14.3
Comparison of the Four Most Commonly Used Methods of Adult Training / 14.3
Introduction / 14.3
Classroom Presentation / 14.5
Computer-Based Training (CBT) and Web-Based Training (WBT) / 14.6
Video Training / 14.8
Conclusion / 14.9
Elements of a Good Training Program / 14.9
Element 1: Classroom Training / 14.9
Element 2: On-the-Job Training (OJT) / 14.11
Element 3: Self-Training / 14.12
Conclusion / 14.12
On-the-Job Training / 14.13
Setup / 14.13
Implementation / 14.14
Evaluation / 14.15
Conclusion / 14.15
Training Consultants and Vendors / 14.16
Canned Programs and Materials / 14.16
Tailored Programs / 14.16
Training Analysis / 14.17
Evaluating Training Vendors and Consultants / 14.17
Conclusion / 14.18
Training Program SetupA Step-by-Step Method / 14.18
Introduction / 14.18
Background / 14.18
A Plan / 14.21
Analyze / 14.21
Design / 14.23
Develop / 14.24
Implementation / 14.25
Evaluation / 14.25
Modification / 14.26

Glossary G.1
Index I.1

Electrical power makes modern life easier. It provides energy for appliances and fac-
tory processes that simplify life and industry. Electricity can be manipulated to carry
signals that are easy to interpret, and it can be easily converted to other forms of energy.
However, the hazards associated with electricity can also cause injuries.
In most instances, electricity must be converted to another form before it can be used.
For example, electrical energy must be converted to thermal energy before it can be used
to cook food, heat water, or warm a room. When electrical energy is converted to a more
useful form, the conversion process must be a controlled event. When controlled, the con-
version process is desirable, the result is good, and the process is safe.
Normally, a user of electricity does not think about the conversion process. It is not
necessary for process operators to think about converting electrical energy into mechani-
cal energy for the rotation of a motor when they push a start button. Electrical workers
and electrical manufacturers have provided the necessary electrical equipment to convert
the electrical energy safely to make the motor run.
Consensus electrical standards provide adequate guidance for manufacturers, engineers,
employees, and employers. When workers are trained to understand and follow the guid-
ance provided by consensus standards, operators can push a start button without concern for
their safety. However, when they do not understand the guidance, workers sometimes create
hazard exposures.
Electrical hazards exist in many different forms. Direct contact with an energized con-
ductor exposes workers to current flow through their body. Current flowing through body
tissue produces heat and damages or destroys the tissue, sometimes resulting in death. An
arcing fault is electrical energy that is being converted to another form of energy, such as
heat or pressure, by an uncontrolled process. An arcing fault might expose a worker to
injury from the thermal hazard or from the effects of the accompanying pressure wave.
To avoid injury from an electrical hazard, workers must avoid exposure to the hazard or
use adequate protective equipment and safe work practices. The most important safe work
practice is to remove all electrical energy and eliminate any chance that the energy might
reappear. If the energy cannot reappear, the equipment or circuit is considered to be in an
electrically safe work condition. Consensus standards discussed in this book provide guid-
ance about how to establish an electrically safe work condition.
Each worker must be trained to recognize how exposure to each electrical hazard might
exist and how to avoid that exposure. Workers are exposed to electrical hazards in many
different ways, including the following:

Electrical equipment, devices, and components have a normal lifetime. Control devices
sometimes wear out and malfunction with age or lack of maintenance. When a failure
occurs, a worker is expected to identify the problem, repair the problem, and restore the
equipment to normal service.
Electrical equipment must be maintained. Although the electrical energy sometimes is
removed before a worker begins a maintenance task (best practice), those tasks often are
executed while the source of electricity is energized.

xvi)>> Foreword

Equipment and circuits sometimes are modified to add new devices or circuits. Short-
term employees might be expected to work in an environment that includes exposure to
energized electrical circuits and components. Consultant and service employees are fre-
quently exposed to energized electrical equipment and circuits.
When a problem exists that causes a process to malfunction, a worker might open a door
or remove a cover and expose an energized electrical conductor or component. In many
cases, the worker might troubleshoot while the circuit is energized. Components and
conductors might be added within a piece of equipment while the equipment or parts of
the equipment remain energized.
After correcting a problem, workers sometimes create further hazardous conditions by
leaving an equipment door ajar, leaving latches open, replacing covers with a minimum
number of screws, and removing devices that create holes in a door or cover.

When workers understand that these conditions expose themselves or others to

possible injury, they are more likely to avoid the hazard exposure. Training must build
and reinforce that understanding. This book provides guidance to help trainers and
other workers develop the necessary understanding.
Workers must understand the limits of their knowledge and ability. They should not
accept and perform a work/task unless they have been trained and have the experience
necessary to avoid all hazards, including electrical hazards. When workers are trained
to understand electrical hazards and how to avoid them, then they become a valuable
asset to the employer.

Ray Jones, P.E. (Retired),

IEEE Fellow and Former NFPA 70E Technical Committee Chair.

This fourth edition of the Electrical Safety Handbook comes during an avalanche of
changes in the world of electrical safety.
Since the third edition was published, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
released the 2009 and 2012 editions of the Standard for Electrical Safety in the
Workplace (NFPA 70E). Both documents include numerous changes that both add to and
further explain the practical aspects of electrical safety. NFPA 70E has been adopted by a
multitude of facilities, companies, and organizations around the world.
Labor unions such as the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers have widely
promoted the electrical safety portions of their apprenticeship programs. Colleges and
universities such as Murray State University have added electrical safety as part of their
environmental safety and health (ES&H) degree programs.
Intensive research is ongoing in areas such as the following:

Electrical shock hazard in systems as low as 30 volts

Electrical arc hazards in systems of 208 volts and below
Field testing and measurement of arc energiesa collaboration between NFPA and the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Calculation of incident arc energies in dc systems

The many vendors who write and supply the software packages used for performing
engineering studies such as arc-flash analysis have frequently updated their software to
give the engineering community better and faster tools to perform the necessary calculations.
In addition, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has
revised the 29 CFR 1910 regulation, Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and
Distribution, to include the requirements for an arc-flash analysis and associated arc-rated
clothing and personal protective equipment. The construction equivalent, 29 CFR 1926,
Subpart V, Electric Power Transmission and Distribution, has been changed to be con-
sistent with 1910.269. As part of the revisions of 1910.269 and 1926, Subpart V, OSHA
also revised 1910.137 and 1926.97, Electrical Protective Equipment, to include class 00,
500-volt ac gloves.
ANSI/IEEE C2, the National Electrical Safety Code, in the 2007 edition required an
arc-flash analysis and arc-rated clothing and personal protective equipment. This standard
has also been revised for 2012 and expands on and clarifies the existing requirements.
In 2008, the Canadian Standards Association published CSA Z462-08, Workplace
Electrical Safety, which is essentially the Canadian version of NFPA 70E.
The third edition of the Electrical Safety Handbook (ESH) has continued to be widely
accepted and used throughout the electrical industry. In fact, the authors have noted that
many copies of the ESH are appearing on booksellers sales lists from all over the world.
Because of the nationality of the authors, the ESH has always used North American
regulatory standards for the purpose of example and identifying regulatory needs. While
we continue to use the U.S. and Canadian regulations as our guideline, we have modified
some of the text to be more inclusive.

xviii)>> Preface

Chapters 1, 3, and 4 continue to serve as the central core of the book by presenting
the case for electrical safety (Chapter 1), a broad coverage of electrical safety equipment
(Chapter 3), and detailed coverage of electrical safety procedures (Chapter 4). In this
fourth edition, we have updated and improved each of these chapters. Chapter 1 has been
augmented by inclusion of some information on arc-related hazards such as toxic materi-
als and acoustic injuries. Chapter 3 has been generally edited and new information added
on such topics as arc-fault circuit interrupters. Finally, Chapter 4 has also been edited and
now includes sections on remote operating devices to be used for enhanced safety when
operating switchgear.
Chapter 2 is new to the fourth edition. This new chapter enhances previous editions
of the handbook by covering the fundamental physics underlying the various electrical
hazards. The material is presented in a much more technical format than Chapter 1 and
uses advanced mathematics and citation of high-level research. The authors purpose in
adding this chapter is not to move away from the practical information provided in all pre-
vious editions. Rather, we are presenting some of the more technical data used as the foun-
dation for all electrical safety researchwhether theoretical or practical. In making this
information available in a public way, we hope that others will add their voices and efforts
to the ongoing work in basic research in electrical safety.
Chapter 5 provides a detailed and updated overview of the general requirements for
grounding and bonding electrical systems and equipment. The fourth edition features many
updated, improved diagrams to help clarify the subject of electrical grounding and bonding.
Further, the information in the chapter has been edited and rewritten to help with a subject
that many find very difficult to understand. As with all of the chapters in this handbook,
Chapter 5 is not intended to replace or be a substitute for the requirements of the current
NEC or OSHA regulations. Always use the most current standards and regulations when
designing, installing, and maintaining the grounding systems within a facility.
Chapter 6 has been extensively edited and contains newly written material. In addition
to the information first introduced in the third edition, Chapter 6 has been enhanced
with three new sections: the effect of maintenance on the arc-flash hazard, more detailed
and technical coverage on the value of a condition-based maintenance program, and the
importance of designing safety into the workplace. As always, readers of the fourth edition
should refer to other references for more detailed information on electrical maintenance.
One good source of detailed information is the InterNational Electrical Testing Association
(NETA), whose website is
Chapter 7 updates the third edition coverage of the consensus and mandatory standards
and regulations in the workplace. The specific information reprinted from OSHA has been
updated to the most recent versions as of the date of this publication. As before, readers
should always refer to OSHA publications, available at, for the most recent
Chapter 8 has been generally updated. Also, a new section on the use of automated
external defibrillators has been added to provide information on these extremely useful and
safe-to-use machines. The sections on pole-top rescue and CPR have also been edited
and brought up to date.
Chapter 9 provides recent injury and fatality statistics and updated medical evaluation
and treatment information.
Chapters 10 and 11 continue to be a valuable synopsis of low-voltage (Chapter 10)
and medium- and high-voltage (Chapter 11) safety. The reader may refer to these chapters
for quick coverage of key safety issues in electrical systems. Of course, Chapters 3, 4,
and 5 provide detailed information. Of particular interest to some might be the addition of
arc-fault circuit interrupters in Chapter 10.
Chapter 12 includes additional references to standards addressing human factors
considerations, as well as new information about electrical industry resources regarding
ergonomics and human performance.
)>> Preface)>> xix

In Chapter 13, in addition to a general edit and some minor error corrections, we have
added more detailed information on how to change the so-called electrical safety culture.
Electrical safety, like any human activity, has developed its own share of anecdotes, leg-
ends, and so-called urban myths. This culture is often based on assumptions that are not
valid. Chapter 13 provides some information on how to change that culture.
Chapter 14 contains new, in-depth information about how adult learners should be
trained. We provide a comparison of the four most common ways of training adults
classroom presentations, computer-based training (CBT), Internet (Web-based) training
(WBT), and simple video training. The other sections of the chapter have been edited and
clarified in some cases.

John Cadick, P.E.

Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M.D., M.P.A.
Dennis K. Neitzel, C.P.E.
Al Winfield