SUMMARY The story is about a brilliant scientist, Dr.

Henry Jekyll, who after ten years of devious research discovered a drug which he tested on himself and enabled him to have a split personality as Dr. Jekyll who was his good self and Mr. Edward Hyde as his evil self. The only person who knew of his discovery was Dr Lanyon who later died as he could not bear keeping the ugly secret. Although, his experiment was a success but trouble was in store for him when Hyde became too powerful for him to control. His secret was revealed to Mr. Utterson, his lawyer, after he killed himself in his laboratory. THEMES Good versus evil Good vs. evil is basically the novel¶s biggest theme. More specifically, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is easily viewed as an allegory about the good and evil that exist in all men and about our struggle with these two sides of the human personality. In this book, then, the battle between good and evil rages within the individual. The question is which is superior. Since Hyde seems to be taking over, one could argue that evil is stronger than good. However, Hyde does end up dead at the end of the story, perhaps suggesting a weakness or failure of evil. The big question, of course, is whether or not good can be separated from evil, or whether the two are forever intertwined. Friendship and loyalty Friendship in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde serves to drive the plot forward. Aside from human curiosity, Mr. Utterson is compelled to uncover the mystery of the evil man because of his friendship with Dr. Jekyll. In trying to unravel the secret, his many friendships deliver crucial pieces of information. In this sense, friendship acts as both a motivator and an enabler. As for the friendship between Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll, it is certainly not as unconditional as the loyalty Mr. Utterson bears for Dr. Jekyll. Instead, it is fraught with competition, anger, and eventually an irreconcilable quarrel. We see that friendships can be ruined by differences of opinion. Appearances Appearances figure in the novel both figuratively and literally. Dr. Jekyll definitely wants to keep up a well-respected facade, even though he has a lot of unsavory tendencies. In a literal sense, the appearances of buildings in the novel reflect the character of the building¶s inhabitants. Dr. Jekyll has a comfortable and well-appointed house but Mr. Hyde spends most of his time in the ³dingy windowless structure´ of the doctor¶s laboratory. Other disreputable quarters of London are described as well, the stomping ground of Mr. Hyde. Lies and deceit (Hypocrisy) In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the plot is frequently driven forward by secrecy and deception; Mr. Utterson does not know the relationship between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and he wants to find out. Also, by omitting the scenes of Mr. Hyde¶s supposedly treacherousness, Stevenson allows our imaginations to run to wild and eerie places

The duality of human nature Man by nature has good and bad sides. Man is always struggling with these forces to create a balance. If one is stronger than the other, the stronger will overcome the weaker side. Dr Jekyll realizes the existence of both sides in a person thus separate the two sides which ultimately leads him to a tragic end. It is unwise for him to temper with nature. Repression Repression is indisputably a cause of troubles in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The repression here is that of Victorian England: no sexual appetites, no violence, and no great expressions of emotion, at least in the public sphere. Everything is sober and dignified, and you are really not supposed to be happy. The more Dr. Jekyll¶s forbidden appetites are repressed, the more he desires the life of Mr. Hyde, and the stronger Mr. Hyde grows. This is clearly demonstrated after Dr. Jekyll¶s twomonth hiatus from donning the visage of Mr. Hyde; Dr. Jekyll finds that the pull to evil has been magnified after months of repression. Science In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, science becomes a cover and justification for supernatural activities. Dr. Jekyll supposedly derives his potion in some sort of scientific manner as opposed to finding a magical amulet or something that releases evil as you might find in other stories. Dr. Jekyll¶s brand of science, however, turns towards the ³transcendental´ (supernatural) while Dr. Lanyon prefers a more traditional set of scientific notions. This disagreement causes an irreparable rift in their relationship, especially after Dr. Lanyon witnesses Dr. Jekyll¶s transformation with his own eyes. Curiosity In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, curiosity drives the characters to seek knowledge. This curiosity is either suppressed or fulfilled in each character. Curiosity lacks any negative connotation; instead, characters who do not actively seek to unravel the Jekyll and Hyde mystery may be viewed as passive or weak. Finally, the characters¶ curiosities are, to some degree, transferred over to the reader; we seek to solve the puzzle along with Mr. Utterson. Violence This novel details two crimes of violence against innocent and helpless citizens: first, a little girl, and second, an elderly man. The violence in the novel centers on Mr. Hyde, and raises the question as to whether or not violence is an inherent part of man¶s nature. Crime and punishment Mr. Hyde committed various atrocities in London which included deliberately trampling on a little girl and later murdering Sir Danvers Carew. At first, he was able to evade the law by transforming back to Dr. Jekyll. Nevertheless, after his brutality towards Sir Danvers was witness by Dr. Jekyll¶s female servant, who could identify him, Mr. Hyde decided to commit suicide rather than face the law. Thus, his punishment was death by his own hand. Religion

God and Satan figure prominently in this text, as well as many general references to religion and works of charity. As part of their intellectual lives, the men in the novel discuss various religious works. One sign of Mr. Hyde¶s wickedness, for example, is his defacing Dr. Jekyll¶s favorite religious work. Mr. Hyde is also frequently likened to Satan. Women and femininity Most female characters in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are passive and weak. The first female we see is a young girl mowed over by Mr. Hyde. Although she is ³not much the worse, more frightened´, she still kicks up an incredible fuss and a large group of people come to her aid. The next woman we see is via a maid¶s narrative of Sir Carew¶s murder. After witnessing the murder, she faints, awakening long after the murderer is gone. She is a passive spectator. There is much speculation as to the reasons for the absence of females in the story; one particularly compelling argument is that women function as moral bedrocks in most Victorian novels. They are supposed to be beacons of good moral influence. In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde therefore, women may have unnecessarily complicated the story. PLOT Introduction The scene of Mr Hyde trampling a little girl on a street in London is seen by Richard Enfield and the incident is told to Mr Utterson. Conflict Hyde kills Sir Danvers Carew. Later, Hyde is nowhere to be found. The mystery is deepened when Mr. Guest finds similarities between Jekyll and Hyde¶s handwriting. Climax Poole and Utterson break down the laboratory door and discover Hyde¶s body. Resolution Dr Lanyon¶s letter to Utterson reveals the truth. Ending The full statement and confession of Jekyll. CHARACTERS 1. Dr Jekyll y Intelligent: creates a potion to transform himself into a wicked person. y Secretive: leads a double life and has many secrets even his friends do not know of. y Respectable: a respectable gentleman with impeccable social status. y Risk-taker/Daring: tries the new potion on himself despite not knowing of its side-effect would be. y Remorseful: regrets over the evil deed that he has done. y Hypocritical: wants to be respected in the society but still wants to do wicked things in secret. y Careful: carries out his preparations with great care until his death.

2. Mr Hyde y Evil, wicked, violent and ruthless: tramples a little girl without feeling of guilt. He kills when people anger him. He kills Sir Danver Carew and strikes a woman who offers him a box of matches. y Rude: speaks rudely to Enfield, Dr. Grant and Mr. Utterson y Cowardly: agrees to pay compensation to the little girl after confronted by Enfield. 3. Mr Utterson y Trustworthy & Reliable: sticks to his professional code of honour by not betraying his clients¶ trust. y Determined: determines to protect Jekyll whom he thought is being blackmailed by Hyde. y Brave/Courageous: dares to find out the relationship of Jekyll and Hyde. He tears down the laboratory door when sensing Jekyll must have been in danger. y Concerned and caring: always worries about Jekyll¶s safety and has been trying to safe Jekyll from Hyde. y Loyal: shows lots of concerns over Jekyll after he learns about the unpleasantness of Hyde. He tries in every mean to help Jekyll. He does not reveal about the truth about Hyde is actually Jekyll after Jekyll¶s death to protect his friend¶s reputation. y Patient & Persistent: waits many days for Hyde to appear so he can talk to him. y Calm/Steady, Practical & Sensible: does not make rash and hasty decision. He checks all the evidence before making conclusion. y Compassionate: feels sorry for Jekyll and is not judgmental over Jekyll¶s death. y Well organised and conventional: Keeps to his routine. He goes for Sunday walks with his nephew, Enfield. 4. Dr Lanyon y Loyal & Trustworthy/Dependable: helps Jekyll by obtaining the drugs he needed. He keeps Jekyll¶s secret as requested. y Weak: his health worsen because he can no longer carry the burden of Jekyll¶s secret. He dies. 5. Poole y Loyal: serves Jekyll for 20 years. y Dutiful: obeys Jekyll¶s orders although disagree of his master¶s action. y Observant & Alert: notices the strange events in the household and able to describe the things he sees in Jekyll¶s laboratory and the strange behaviour of his master in detail to Utterson. 6. Richard Enfield y Brave & Courageous: dare to confront Hyde on the little girl¶s trampling incident. y Fair & Just: insists that Hyde pay compensation to the little girl¶s family. y Responsible: makes sure that the little girl¶s family receives the compensation from Hyde.

7. Mr. Guest y Trustworthy: able to keep secrets as ordered by Mr Utterson. y Observant: notices the similarity between Jekyll and Hyde¶s handwriting SETTING Location: 1 On the street of London. 2 Dr. Jekyll¶s house 3 Mr. Hyde¶s house in Soho 4 Dr. Lanyon¶s house on Cavendish Square 5 Mr Utterson¶s house and office. Time: 19th century during the Victorian age. Social Setting: Rich and educated upper class (the scientist, doctors and lawyers) and the lower working class ( the servants, housekeeper and clerks). POINT OF VIEW 1st person¶s point of view: In Chapter 12, Dr. Lanyon¶s letter revealed Dr Jekyll¶s secret. In Chapter 13, Dr. Jekyll¶s statement revealed the whole truth. 3rd person¶s point of view: The author uses Mr Utterson as his narrator where he is all-knowing. The author knows everything about the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in this story. It is used throughout Chapter 1 -11. LANGUAGE & STYLE Similes a. «as quiet as the grave « (p.7) b.«as empty as a church «(p.8) c. «like the devil himself«(p.16) d.«a voice like a dog¶s snarl«(p.19) e. «like a flock of frightened sheep. (p.73) Metaphors a. «with the speed of an angry cat«(p.9) b.«light on his feet«(p.9) c. The air was full of hate! (p.14) Imagery a. «rain blow after blow upon him«(p.10) b.«exploded in anger «(p.16) Personification a. «a blind forehead of dirty wall «(p.18) b.«a sleeping city «(p.31) Flashback a. Chapter 9: Utterson reads the statement/letter from Dr. Langon who describes what he has encountered from Dr. Jekyll.

b.Chapter 10: Utterson reads the letter from Dr. Jekyll after his death. The letter describes the doctor¶ MORAL VALUE y Be loyal and faithful y True friendship should be valued y Be morally upright y Show kindness and concern y Be helpful y Be trustworthy y Believe in hope or have confident y Be courageous y Be repentant/Should not play with God¶s creation. y Do not dabble with the unknown y Control one¶s negative side y Persevere y Put personal and integrity and honour first