NASA Daily News Summary For Release: Sept.

30, 1999 Media Advisory m99-202 Summary: MARS CLIMATE ORBITER TEAM FINDS LIKELY CAUSE OF LOSS BATTERY ACID CHEMICAL FOUND ON JUPITER'S MOON EUROPA Video File for Sept. 30, 1999 ITEM 1 - SULFURIC ACID ON EUROPA (THIS ITEM WILL FIRST AIR AT 3:00 PM) ITEM 2 - BRAIN CANCER SURGERIES SUCCESSFUL USING SPACE-AGE PROBES ITEM 3 - 1999 ANTARCTIC OZONE "HOLE" NEARS PEAK (replay) ITEM 4 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGES OF GRAND VIEW OF THE BIRTH OF "HEFTY" STARS IN 30 DORADUS (replay) ITEM 5 - EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS: COLLAPSED STRUCTURE SIMULATION (replay) ITEM 6 - MARS CLIMATE ORBITER ANIMATION FROM MARS 98, LAUNCH FOOTAGE OF MARS CLIMATE ORBITER, AND ANIMATION OF MARS POLAR LANDER - (replay) ******** MARS CLIMATE ORBITER TEAM FINDS LIKELY CAUSE OF LOSS A failure to recognize and correct an error in a transfer of information between the Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft team in Colorado and the mission navigation team in California led to the loss of the spacecraft last week, preliminary findings by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory internal peer review indicate. The peer review preliminary findings indicate that one team used English units (e.g., inches, feet and pounds) while the other used metric units for a key spacecraft operation. This information was critical to the maneuvers required to place the spacecraft in the proper Mars orbit. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Doug Isbell 202/358-1753.

Contact at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA: Mary Hardin 818/354-5011. Contact at Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, CO: Joan Underwood 303/971-7398. For full text, see: ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1999/99-113.txt -------BATTERY ACID CHEMICAL FOUND ON JUPITER'S MOON EUROPA Sulfuric acid--a corrosive chemical found on Earth in car batteries--exists on the frozen surface of Jupiter's icy moon Europa. The new findings, from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, are reported in the Oct. 1 issue of the journal Science. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Doug Isbell 202/358-1753. Contact at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA: Jane Platt 818/354-5011. A digital image depicting sulfuric acid on Europa is available on the World Wide Web at: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ For full text, see: ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1999/99-112.txt ---------If NASA issues additional news releases later today, we will email summaries and Internet URLs to this list. Index of 1999 NASA News Releases: http://www.nasa.gov/releases/1999/index.html ******* Video File for Sept. 30, 1999 ITEM 1 - SULFURIC ACID ON EUROPA (THIS ITEM WILL FIRST AIR AT 3:00 PM) Sulfuric acid--a corrosive chemical found on Earth in car batteries--exists on the frozen surface of Jupiter's icy moon Europa. The new findings are from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and

are reported in the Oct. 1 issue of the journal Science. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Doug Isbell 202/358-1753. Contact at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA: Jane Platt 818/354-5011. ITEM 1a - SULFURIC ACID ON EUROPA TRT :10

This image of Europa, as seen by the near infrared mapping spectrometer on NASA's Galileo spacecraft, shows the distribution of frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon. The brightest, most yellow regions have the highest concentration of frozen sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. ITEM 1b - RIDGES, SPOTS AND ICY PLAINS ON EUROPA This mosaic shows many of the features of Jupiter's moon Europa observed by the Galileo spacecraft. Brown, linear ridges could be frozen remnants of cryovolcanic activity. Dark spots are seen, along with an older, smoother, bluish surface composed of almost pure water ice. The dark, brownish spots may contain mineral salts in high water content. ITEM 1c - EUROPA/GALILEO FLYBY ANIMATION Animation depicts Galileo's closest planned flyby of Europa. TRT :45 TRT :25

ITEM 2 - BRAIN CANCER SURGERIES SUCCESSFUL USING SPACE-AGE PROBES Description - Light emitting diodes developed for plant experiments aboard NASA's Space Shuttle are being used for the first time to remove cancerous brain tumors. Doctors at the Medical College of Wisconsin have performed two successful cancer surgeries using light emitting diodes (LEDs). Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Michael Braukus 202/358-1979. Contact at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL: Steve Roy 205/544-0034. ITEM 2a - B-ROLL TRT 4:24

ITEM 2b - INTERVIEW

TRT 1:27

Dr. Harry Whelan, Neurologist, Milwaukee Children's Hosptial

ITEM 3 - 1999 ANTARCTIC OZONE "HOLE" NEARS PEAK (replay) The latest images from NASA show the depleted region of ozone commonly known as the ozone "hole" has continued to grow and will likely reach its peak 1999 size during the next two weeks. Scientists are closely monitoring ozone levels in Antarctica after observing record low levels of ozone in 1998. The Antarctic "ozone hole" develops each year between late August and early October. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Lynn Chandler 301/286-5562. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz 202/358-1730. Digital Images are available on the Web at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/~gshirah/toms/ Item 3a - 1999 ANTARCTIC OZONE "HOLE" EMERGES AND EVOLVES TRT :36 New images from NASA show the depleted region of ozone commonly known as the "ozone hole" is again emerging over Antarctica. The latest images show that region of depleted ozone exceeds 9 million square miles (21 million square kilometers). Lower concentrations of ozone are shown in purple. Higher concentrations in yellow and red. The Antarctic "ozone hole" develops each year between late August and early October Item 3b - AN UNUSUAL SIDEKICK TRT :25

Scientists also observed a smaller region of depleted ozone that evolved outside of the primary ozone "hole" between Sept. 17 and Sept. 20. Such "mini-holes" are not unusual in this area in August, but this one was unusually large and unusually late. "Mini-holes" form when vertical motion brings ozone-poor air up into the stratosphere where ozone is normally high. Item 3c - 1998 OZONE "HOLE" LARGEST EVER TRT :25

The 1998 Antarctic ozone "hole" was the largest ever observed. Data from the satellites show that ozone depletion reached a record size of 10.5 million square miles (27.3 million square kilometers) on Sept. 19, 1998. Scientists believe the unusually cold stratospheric temperatures contributed to the record size of the "hole." Item 3d - OZONE TRENDS TRT :14

Yearly comparison of ozone levels in Antarctic. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Though ozone "holes" of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists expect to see a reduction in ozone losses as levels of ozone-destroying Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are gradually reduced. Item 3e - HOW OZONE PROTECTS TRT :16

Ozone protects the Earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation. The ozone molecule is split into one free oxygen atom and one molecule of ordinary oxygen. The free oxygen usually reacts with another oxygen molecule to reform the ozone molecule. Item 3f - OZONE DESTRUCTION TRT :33

Scientists say this year's abnormally cold Antarctic winter contributed to the ozone "hole" by activating more destructive chlorine. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) lead to destruction of the protective ozone molecules located in the stratosphere. Chlorine atoms liberated from CFCs steal oxygen atoms, thus destroying the protective ozone molecule. One chlorine atom can destroy many thousands of ozone molecules over its lifetime in the stratosphere. The ozone "hole" appears because of the normally very cold Antarctic winter conditions. Item 3g - STRATOSPHERE ANIMATION TRT :09

Most atmospheric ozone is found in the stratosphere--in a thin layer six to 18 miles above the Earth's surface. The term "ozone hole" is used to describe a large area of intense ozone depletion that occurs over Antarctica during late August through early October and typically breaks up in late November. Ozone is a molecule that shields life on Earth from the harmful effects of

the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. Item 3h - TOMS SATELLITE TRT :24

The measurements were obtained this year using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard NASA's Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) satellite. Item 3i - OZONE SCIENTISTS - B-ROLL TRT :33

Scientists and others have a keen interest in ozone depletion, given that the increased amounts of ultraviolet radiation that reach the Earth's surface because of ozone loss have the potential to increase the incidence of skin cancer and cataracts in humans, harm some crops, and interfere with marine life.

ITEM 4 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGES OF GRAND VIEW OF THE BIRTH OF "HEFTY" STARS IN 30 DORADUS (replay) Images taken in infrared and visible light by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope recount a vivid story of the turbulent birthing process of massive stars. Contact at Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD: Donna Weaver 410/338-4493. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage 202/358-1547. Digital images are available on the Web at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/33/pr-photos.html Item 4a - VIDEO ZOOM OF STILL IMAGES OF THE 30 DORADUS NEBULA The Hubble Space Telescope has revealed intense bursts of starbirth in 30 Doradus within the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here radiation from massive stars incubates thousands of fledgling stars hidden in dust clouds and columns like those of the Eagle Nebula. (Animation: Bryan Preston) Item 4b - STILL IMAGES and SOURCES TRT :15 TRT :23

Large Magellanic Cloud (Credit: Anglo-Australian Observatory/Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and David Malin)

Item 4c - 30 DORADUS REGION

TRT :15

(Credit: Anglo-Australian Observatory/Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and David Malin) Item 4d - HST WFPC2 CAMERA MOSAIC OF VISIBLE LIGHT IMAGES TRT :15 OF THE 30 DORADUS NEBULA (Credit: NASA and John Trauger and James Westphal (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA)) Item 4e - HST NICMOS INSTRUMENT INFRARED VIEWS OF 30 DORADUS EAST AND WEST FIELDS (Credit: NASA and Nolan Walborn (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD) and Rodolfo Barba (La Plata Observatory) Item 4f - INTERVIEW TRT :15 TRT :15

Dr. Nolan Walborn (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD) Dr. Walborn comments on the significance of the observation.

ITEM 5 - EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS: COLLAPSED STRUCTURE SIMULATION (replay) In observance of Earthquake Preparedness Month, news reporters are invited to participate in a Collapsed Structure Simulation on Wednesday, Sept. 29, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. Contact at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA: Michael Mewhinney 650/604-3937, 604-9000. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Michael Braukus 202/358-1979. Item 5a - B-ROLL TRT 3:46

Shows rescue teams working their way through a simulated collapsed structure to rescue a simulated victim.

Item 5b - INTERVIEW

approx. TRT 4:00

Robert Dolci, Director, Emergency Services, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA

ITEM 6 - MARS CLIMATE ORBITER ANIMATION FROM MARS 98, LAUNCH FOOTAGE OF MARS CLIMATE ORBITER, AND ANIMATION OF MARS POLAR LANDER - (replay) Mars Climate Orbiter video file: - animation - launch footage - hardware footage Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Doug Isbell 202/358-1753. Contact at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA: Mary Hardin 818/354-5011. ITEM 6a - MARS CLIMATE ORBITER ANIMATION Animation shows the launch of the Mars Climate Orbiter, rocket separation, the establishment of orbit and mapping of Mars. ITEM 6b - MARS CLIMATE ORBITER B-ROLL Cleanroom activities, hardware at KSC in 1998. ITEM 6c - MARS CLIMATE ORBITER LAUNCH AT CAPE CANAVERAL TRT - 3:03 Launch of the Delta rocket on December 11,1998 that carried the Mars Climate Orbiter into space. ITEM 6d - MARS POLAR LANDER ANIMATION Animation of the Mars Polar Lander entry, descent, landing and surface operation. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Doug Isbell 202/358-1753. Contact at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA: Diane TRT 2:46 TRT - 2:23 TRT - 6:11

Ainsworth 818/354-0850.

********** Unless otherwise noted, ALL TIMES ARE EASTERN. ANY CHANGES TO THE LINE-UP WILL APPEAR ON THE NASA VIDEO FILE ADVISORY ON THE WEB AT ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/tv-advisory/nasa-tv.txt WE UPDATE THE ADVISORY THROUGHOUT THE DAY. The NASA Video File normally airs at noon, 3 p.m., 6 p.m., 9 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. Refer general questions about the video file to NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Ray Castillo, 202/358-4555, or Elvia Thompson, 202/358-1696, elvia.thompson@hq.nasa.gov During Space Shuttle missions, the full NASA TV schedule will continue to be posted at: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/nasatv/schedule.html For general information about NASA TV see: http://www.nasa.gov/ntv/ ********** Contract Awards Contract awards are posted to the NASA Acquisition information Service Web site: http://procurement.nasa.gov/EPS/award.html ********** The NASA Daily News Summary is issued each business day at approximately 2 p.m. Eastern time. Members of the media who wish to subscribe or unsubscribe from this list, please send e-mail message to: Brian.Dunbar@hq.nasa.gov **********

end of daily news summary