NASA Daily News Summary For Release: Oct.

6, 1999 Media Advisory m99-206 Summary: ANNUAL DEPLETION OF ANTARCTIC OZONE RESULTS ARE IN: 'OZONE HOLE' SMALLER THAN LAST YEAR STARRY BULGES YIELD SECRETS TO GALAXY GROWTH Video File for Oct. 6, 1999 ITEM 1 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPACE SCIENCE UPDATE VIDEO FILE: HUBBLE FINDS SECRETS OF GALAXY GROWTH ITEM 2 - 1999 ANTARCTIC "HOLE" SMALLER THAN LAST YEAR ITEM 3 - SECOND-EVER ASTEROID MOON SPOTTED ITEM 4 - RAIN SLOWS AS FIRES FLARE--BIOMASS BURNING AND THE WEATHER (TRMM SATELLITE) (replay) ********** ANNUAL DEPLETION OF ANTARCTIC OZONE RESULTS ARE IN: 'OZONE HOLE' SMALLER THAN LAST YEAR A NASA satellite has shown that the area of ozone depletion over the Antarctic--the well-known ozone "hole"--is a bit less in 1999 than it was last year. This year's study found that an ozone "low" had formed between New Zealand and Antarctica on Sept. 17. This sort of ozone low, commonly referred to as a "mini-hole," is a result of the redistribution of ozone by a large weather system. The slightly decreased size of the ozone "hole" from last year is not an indication of the recovery of Antarctic ozone levels. The current year-to-year variations of size and depth of the ozone "hole" depend primarily on the variations in meteorological conditions. These measurements were obtained between mid-August and early October using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

(TOMS) instrument aboard NASA's Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) satellite. NASA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Since the discovery of the ozone "hole" in 1985, TOMS has been a key instrument for monitoring ozone levels over the Earth. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz 202/358-1730. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Cynthia O'Carroll 301/614-5563. Digital Media: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov For full text, see: ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1999/99-116.txt ---------STARRY BULGES YIELD SECRETS TO GALAXY GROWTH NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is uncovering important new clues to a galaxy's birth and growth by peering into its heart--a bulge of millions of stars that resemble a bulbous center yolk in the middle of a disk of egg white. Hubble astronomers are trying to solve the mystery of which came first: the stellar disk or the central bulge? Two complementary surveys by independent teams of astronomers using Hubble show that the hubs of some galaxies formed early in the Universe, while others formed more slowly, across a long stretch of time. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage 202/358-1547. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Nancy Neal 301/286-0039. Contact at Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD: Ray Villard 410/338-4514. Digital Media: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html and http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/34/pr-photos.html For full text, see: ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1999/99-107.txt

---------If NASA issues additional news releases later today, we will email summaries and Internet URLs to this list. Index of 1999 NASA News Releases: http://www.nasa.gov/releases/1999/index.html ******** Video File for Oct. 6, 1999 ITEM 1 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPACE SCIENCE UPDATE :40 HUBBLE FINDS SECRETS OF GALAXY GROWTH NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is uncovering important new clues to a galaxy's birth and growth by peering into its heart--a bulge of millions of stars that resemble a bulbous center yolk in the middle of a disk of egg white. Hubble astronomers are trying to solve the mystery of which came first: the stellar disk or the central bulge? Two complementary surveys by independent teams of astronomers using Hubble show that the hubs of some galaxies formed early in the Universe, while others formed more slowly, across a long stretch of time. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage 202/358-1547. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Nancy Neal 301/286-0039. Contact at Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD: Ray Villard 410/338-4514. TRT

ITEM 2 - 1999 ANTARCTIC "HOLE" SMALLER THAN LAST YEAR 7:25 The latest images from NASA show the depleted region of ozone commonly known as the ozone "hole--is a bit smaller in 1999 than it was last year. Scientists are closely monitoring ozone levels in Antarctica after observing record low levels of ozone in 1998.

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The Antarctic "ozone hole" develops each year between late August and early October. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Cynthia O'Carroll 301/614-5563. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz 202/358-1730. ITEM 2a - 1999 ANTARCTIC OZONE "HOLE" Time lapse images show evolution of the 1999 Antarctic ozone hole which covered 9.8 million square miles on Sept. 15. The record area of Antarctic ozone depletion of 10.5 million square miles was set on Oct. 3, 1998. The Antarctic "ozone hole" develops each year between late August and early October ITEM 2b - A UNUSUAL SIDEKICK This year's study found that an ozone "low" had formed between New Zealand and Antarctica on Sept. 17. This sort of ozone low, commonly referred to as a "mini-hole," is a result of the redistribution of ozone by a large weather system. The "minihole" moved eastward along the rim of the Antarctic ozone "hole" for a number of days after Sept. 17. ITEM 2c - 1998 OZONE "HOLE" LARGEST EVER The 1998 Antarctic ozone "hole" was the largest ever observed. Data from the satellites show that ozone depletion reached a record size of 10.5 million square miles on Sept. 19, 1998. Scientists believed the unusually cold stratospheric temperatures contributed to the record size of the "hole". ITEM 2d - OZONE TRENDS Yearly comparison of ozone levels in Antarctic. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Though ozone "holes" of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists expect to see a reduction in ozone

losses as levels of ozone destroying CFCs are gradually reduced. ITEM 2e - HOW OZONE PROTECTS Ozone protects the Earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation. The ozone molecule is split into one free oxygen atom and one molecule of ordinary oxygen. The free oxygen usually reacts with another oxygen molecule to reform the ozone molecule. ITEM 2f - OZONE DESTRUCTION Scientists say this year's abnormally cold Antarctic winter contributed to the ozone "hole" by activating more destructive chlorine. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) lead to destruction of the protective ozone molecules located in the stratosphere. Chlorine atoms liberated from CFCs steal oxygen atoms, thus destroying the protective ozone molecule. One chlorine atom can destroy many thousands of ozone molecules over its lifetime in the stratosphere. The ozone "hole" appears because of the normally very cold Antarctic winter conditions. ITEM 2g - STRATOSPHERE ANIMATION Most atmospheric ozone is found in the stratosphere--in a thin layer 6 to 18 miles above the Earth's surface. The term "ozone hole" is used to describe a large area of intense ozone depletion that occurs over Antarctica during late August through early October and typically breaks up in late November. Ozone is a molecule that shields life on Earth from the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. ITEM 2h - TOMS SATELLITE The measurements were obtained this year using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard NASA's Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) satellite. ITEM 2i - OZONE SCIENTISTS - B-ROLL Scientists and others have a keen interest in ozone depletion,

given that the increased amounts of ultraviolet radiation that reach the Earth's surface because of ozone loss have the potential to increase the incidence of skin cancer and cataracts in humans, harm some crops, and interfere with marine life. Digital Images at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/~gshirah/toms/

ITEM 3 - SECOND-EVER ASTEROID MOON SPOTTED An international team of astronomers led by William Merline of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, CO, has discovered the second small moon of asteroid ever seen, circling around asteroid 45 Eugenia. Supported by funding from the National Science Foundation and NASA, the team used the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope on Mauna Kea, HI, to spot the rocky object. The first asteroid moon was discovered in 1993, in an image of asteroid Ida sent by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Contact at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, CO: Maria Martinez, 210/522-3305. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Doug Isbell 202/358-1753. Credit: NASA/NSF/Southwest Research Institute ITEM 3a - MOVIE Time-lapse movie of five frames of the small moon orbiting the asteroid. ITEM 3b - GRAPHIC Graphic of the asteroid and its moon. ITEM 3c - RAW IMAGE Non-processed image of the asteroid (center) and its moon (at about 10-11 o'clock position).

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ITEM 4 - RAIN SLOWS AS FIRES FLARE--BIOMASS BURNING AND THE WEATHER (TRMM SATELLITE) (replay) Using data collected from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, scientists now have conclusive proof that forest fire smoke inhibits rainfall. Research conducted over parts of Indonesia during some of that country¹s most severe forest fires showed strong signs of rainfall inhibition in areas that were blanketed with smoke. Areas comparatively free of smoke particles produced rain normally. This research is vital in understanding how global precipitation affects the weather; tropical rainfall accounts for nearly two thirds of energy necessary to power atmospheric circulation. This study helps researchers quantify the phenomena, helping to better assess human impacts on the weather, both for discrete regions of the planet as well as globally. Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz 202/358-1730. Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Allen Kenitzer 301/286-2806.

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ITEM 4a - HOW SMOKE INHIBITS RAINFALL: NORMAL CONDITIONS TRT :10 Under normal conditions, tropical clouds swell with water droplets. Those droplets have a tendency to clump together, thus increasing their weight relative to the surrounding cloud. As they coalesce, they fall out of the cloud as rain. ITEM 4b - HOW SMOKE INHIBITS RAINFALL: SMOKY CONDITIONS TRT :08 In areas of concentrated biomass burning, water condenses around tiny particles of smoke, called nuclei. These nucleated drops tend not to clump together, remaining trapped in the clouds, inhibiting rainfall. From space, heavily nucleated clouds appear brighter due to the fact that there are more free floating, smaller water particles available to reflect and scatter light.

ITEM 4c - HOW SMOKE INHIBITS RAINFALL: COMPARISON OF :18 CONDITIONS In this animation, compare the two systems side by side. You can see how the rain-producing cloud on the left is composed of larger water droplets, making it easier for them to coalesce and fall out as precipitation. On the right, notice how the smaller, nucleated particles tend to remain apart, without forming larger drops. This smoke-affected cloud will not produce rain.

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ITEM 4d - INHIBITED RAIN IN BORNEO: SATELLITE DATA CONFIRMS OBSERVATIONS The Indonesian island of Borneo falls directly in the observational path of the research instruments. By measuring the amount of smoke and other aerosols above a given region, and matching that data with measurements regarding specific amounts of rainfall, researchers have concluded a distinct cause and effect relationship between aerosols and rainfall. ITEM 4e - SATELLITE DATA DISSOLVE SEQUENCE Readings from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite measured aerosol levels above Borneo throughout February 1998. Immediately following, a sequence of color-coded images appears over the Borneo map. Red represents fires and hot spots. Clouds and smoke appear next, overlaid on the entire image. Note the heavy stripes of smoke toward the right and upper right of the image. Light blue notes concentrations of water droplets, while dark blue marks areas with precipitation. Notice how there are no indications of rain near the island hot spots and smoky regions. Finally, we show the map as a composite image of the various data sets. ITEM 4f - TRMM SATELLITE ANIMATION TRT :24 TRT 1:08

The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite measures tropical rainfall in a band around the Earth stretching 35 degrees north and south of the equator. The instrument uses several instruments to detect rainfall, including radar, microwave imaging, and lightning sensors. TRMM data is available to

researchers around the world; it is managed by a team at NASA¹s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. ITEM 4g - INTERVIEW/SOUNDBITES Dr. Christian Kummerow, TRMM Project Scientist TRT 1:37

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