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A detailed presentation on the derivation of Legendre polynomials, as they are used in mathematics. Some applications to quantum mechanics are discussed as motivation for why exact solutions are good to have on hand.

A detailed presentation on the derivation of Legendre polynomials, as they are used in mathematics. Some applications to quantum mechanics are discussed as motivation for why exact solutions are good to have on hand.

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SPLASH! AT CORNELL

SPECIAL POLYNOMIALS

CHIRAG BHARADWAJ

2016

Mathematics is a foreign language.

BRIDGING THE GAP

How can we overcome an overwhelming sea of

symbols and extract meaning?

How can we use these abstract notions to model

real-life phenomena and make meaningful

connections?

How can we help change the world by developing

new insights and conducting original research?

ABOUT ME

From Flushing, NY

Went to high school in Princeton, NJ

Junior at Cornell University

B.Sc., Computer Science

B.Sc., Electrical and Computer Engineering

Mathematics is one of my side interests!

Other than that, just like you:

19 years old

Interested in learning

Love helping others and teaching (probably)

ABOUT ME

From Flushing, NY

Went to high school in Princeton, NJ

Relevant math classes I took in high school:

AP Calculus-AB, BC

Multivariable calculus, linear algebra

Differential equations, complex analysis

Real analysis (two semesters)

Abstract algebra*

What we will cover today is related to differential equations

*I only scratched a very small surface of this

ABOUT ME

From Flushing, NY

Went to high school in Princeton, NJ

Relevant math classes I took in high school:

AP Calculus-AB, BC

Multivariable calculus, linear algebra

Differential equations, complex analysis

Real analysis (two semesters)

Abstract algebra*

What we will cover today is related to differential equations

*I only scratched a very small surface of this

OVERVIEW

200+ slides

120 minutes to get a quick introduction to some

interesting polynomials in mathematics

If time permits, we may discuss applications of these

polynomials in physics

Pace: very rapid!

We only have 120 minutes (and thats pushing it)

Holism vs reductionism: age-old question/answer

BACKGROUND

I will assume complete familiarity with a few things:

How to solve single-variable differential equations

Separation of variables

Initial conditions and initial-value problems

Calculus of a single variable (power series, etc.)

Things I do not expect you to have seen before:

Multivariable calculus

Other coordinate systems (cylindrical, spherical, generalized)

Kronecker delta, Levi-Civita symbol, group theory

The gamma function

BACKGROUND

Dont worry if you dont understand everything!

The idea is to gain exposure to unfamiliar math

Not everything you see here will be immediately

useful in your high school mathematics

Unless you take a second-year differential

equations class (beyond the introductory material)

This is a challengeget ready to be splashed!

GOALS

What we will cover today:

Special polynomials that are orthogonal in nature

Polynomials in the solution space of differential

equations that allow complex modeling with a

relatively simple closed form

Formalisms and higher-order ideas

Applications to standard models (physics, etc.)

GOALS

What we will cover today:

?

GOALS

What we will cover today:

y = mx + b

GOALS

What we will cover today:

1

X

y(x) = c j xj

j=0

GOALS

What we will cover today:

s

2` + 1 (` m)! m

Y`m (, ') = P` (cos)ejm'

4 (` + m)!

THE BEGINNING

What is a differential equation?

Mathematical equation relating a function with its

derivative(s)

Function from complex numbers to complex

numbers: fun : C ! C

Notation clarification: fun : dom(fun) cod(fun)

Here, dom(fun) and cod(fun) represent the

domain and codomain, respectively

THE BEGINNING

What is a differential equation?

Mathematical equation relating a function with its

derivative(s)

Function from complex numbers to complex

numbers: fun : C ! C range(fun)

Notation clarification: fun : dom(fun) cod(fun)

Here, dom(fun) and cod(fun) represent the

domain and codomain, respectively

CODOMAIN VS. RANGE

codomain

domain

range

range(fun) cod(fun)

EXAMPLES

Some examples of differential equations that you

may or may not have encountered:

Easy:

dy

=x

dx

Medium:

2

d y

+ ky = sin x

dx2

Hard:

@2u @2u @2u

+ + = 0

@x2 @y 2 @z 2

SOLVING A SIMPLE ONE

It is usually not too bad to solve the easy ones:

dy

=x

Z dx Z

dy = xdx

2

x

y + c1 = + c2

2

2

x

y= + (c2 c1 )

2

2

x

y= +c

2

SOLVING A SIMPLE ONE

More formally, we state the solution as follows:

The solution to the first-order differential equation

dy

=x

dx

over the real numbers is the function y : R ! R, where

y is defined as follows:

x2

yc : x 7! +c

2

[

y= yc

c2R

SOLVING A SIMPLE ONE

More formally, we state the solution as follows:

The solution to the first-order differential equation

dy

=x

dx

over the real numbers is the function y : R ! R, where

y is defined as follows:

2

x mapping

yc : x 7! +c

2

[

y= yc set of all possible ycs

c2R

SOLVING A SIMPLE ONE

More precisely, note that y is actually a function class:

2

x

yc : x 7! +c

2

y:R!R

[

y= yc

c2R

SOLVING A SIMPLE ONE

In general, solutions to elementary differential

equations will be function classes, not just functions

In other words, they form solution spaces

Initial conditions or boundary conditions will specify

which function within this class is the exact solution

Textbook terminology: general v specific solution

[

y= yc

c2R

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

What about a harder differential equation, like this?

d2 y

2

+ ky = sin x

dx

This one requires us to make some assumptions. Let

us first solve a simpler problem, i.e. homogeneous:

d2 y

+ ky = 0

dx2

We note that this seems to be some relationship that

suggests that the second derivative is related to the

original function

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

Functions that have somewhat similar properties:

y = ex = exp(x)

y = sin x

y = cos x

Conjecture: the solution is of the general form y = Aesx

Then, we can rewrite the differential equation as a

simple quadratic equation to solve:

As2 esx + kAesx = 0

sx 2 s2 + k = 0

Ae (s + k) = 0

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

Functions that have somewhat similar properties:

y = ex = exp(x)

y = sin x can rewrite in

y = cos x terms of exp

Conjecture: the solution is of the general form y = Aesx

Then, we can rewrite the differential equation as a

reduction

simple quadratic equation to solve:

exp is non-zero

As2 esx + kAesx = 0 use Zero Factor Property

sx 2 s2 + k = 0

Ae (s + k) = 0

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

Solving this equation when the contracted wave-

number k is positive requires complex numbers:

2

s +k =0

p

s = j k

Since there are two values of s, there are two

fundamental solutions that span the solution space:

p p

y1 = Aej k

y2 = Be j k

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

Any linear combination of these fundamental

solutions should also work (i.e. superposition), so:

y = c 1 y 1 + c 2 y2

p p

j k j k

= c1 Ae + c2 Be

ej k

+e j k

ej k

+e j k

c1 Aej k

+ c2 Be j k

= (c1 A + c2 B) (c1 A c2 B)

2 2j

= (c1 A + c2 B) cos k (c1 A c2 B) sin k Eulers identity

= a1 cos k + a2 sin k Renaming constants

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

Any linear combination of these fundamental

solutions should also work (i.e. superposition), so:

y = c 1 y 1 + c 2 y2

p p

j k j k

= c1 Ae + c2 Be

ej k

+e j k

ej k

+e j k

c1 Aej k

+ c2 Be j k

= (c1 A + c2 B) (c1 A c2 B)

2 2j

= (c1 A + c2 B) cos k (c1 A c2 B) sin k Eulers identity

= a1 cos k + a2 sin k Renaming constants

alpha-equivalence

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

Any linear combination of these fundamental

solutions should also work (i.e. superposition), so:

y = c 1 y 1 + c 2 y2

p p

j k j k

= c1 Ae + c2 Be

ej k

+e j k

ej k

+e j k

c1 Aej k

+ c2 Be j k

= (c1 A + c2 B) (c1 A c2 B)

2 2j

= (c1 A + c2 B) cos k (c1 A c2 B) sin k Eulers identity

= a1 cos k + a2 sin k Renaming constants

homomorphisms

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

We now use this easier solution to solve the HARDER

one by finding the solution that incorporates the RHS

We assume that there is a nonhomogeneous

solution of the form Y = A sin x + B cos x (why?)

Then, we can rewrite the differential equation:

d2 Y

2

+ kY = sin x

dx

A sin x B cos x + kA sin x + kB cos x = sin x

(kA A 1) sin x + (kB B) cos x = 0

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

We need each coefficient to vanish, so we have that

1

B vanishes, and A =

k 1

Then, we can put together everything to get

sin x

Y =

k 1

Then, the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous

parts can be superimposed to get the particular sol.:

y = yhom + Y

p p sin x

= a1 cos k + a2 sin k +

k 1

A SLIGHTLY HARDER ONE

This method can be generalized to harder problems

The idea of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous

components is related to the Superposition Theorem

Solving the nonhomogeneous part the way we did is

through the method of undetermined coefficients

Other methods: variation of parameters, guessing,

the calculus of variations, etc.

THE REAL QUESTION

What happens when we have a differential equation

of the harder form shown below?

2 2 2

@ u @ u @ u

+ + = 0

@x2 @y 2 @z 2

several variables, not just one like before!

u(x, y, z)

THE REAL QUESTION

The differential equation shown below is actually

VERY important in physical and dynamical systems

2 2 2

@ u @ u @ u

+ + = 0

@x2 @y 2 @z 2

Example of an elliptic partial differential equation

General theory of solutions = potential theory

Solution set applicability: fluid dynamics, statics, etc.

WHAT WE ARE DOING TODAY

This leads us to the featured topic for today:

solving three very important differential equations

These differential equations are as follows:

!

2

2 d y dy m2

(1 x ) 2 2x + A y=0

dx dx 1 x2

2

d y dy

x 2 + ( + 1 x) + ny = 0

dx dx

!

@2u @2u @2u

k + + + s u(x, y, z) = 0

@x2 @y 2 @z 2

WHAT WE ARE DOING TODAY

The canonical solutions to these differential equation

generalizations are orthogonal, hypergeometric, and

spatially-symmetric functions special polynomials

!

2

2 d y dy m2

(1 x ) 2 2x + A y=0

dx dx 1 x2

2

d y dy

x 2 + ( + 1 x) + ny = 0

dx dx

!

@2u @2u @2u

k + + + s u(x, y, z) = 0

@x2 @y 2 @z 2

WHAT WE ARE DOING TODAY

The canonical solutions to these differential equation

generalizations are orthogonal, hypergeometric, and

spatially-symmetric functions special polynomials

!

2

2 d y dy m2 GENERALIZED

HYPERGEOMETRIC (1 x ) 2 2x + A y=0 LEGENDRE

dx dx 1 x2 EQUATION

2 GENERALIZED

d y dy

ORTHOGONAL x 2 + ( + 1 x) + ny = 0 LAGUERRE

dx dx EQUATION

!

@2u @2u @2u GENERALIZED

SPHERICAL k + + + s u(x, y, z) = 0 LAPLACE

@x2 @y 2 @z 2 EQUATION

WHAT WE ARE DOING TODAY

It turns out that the generalized Laplace equation is

the form that the Schrdinger equation takes on

i.e. we can solve physics problems using math!

Interestingly, we can solve the differential equation

directly for certain cases

More incredibly, the solutions are all polynomials!

more on this soon !

@2u @2u @2u GENERALIZED

SPHERICAL k + + + s u(x, y, z) = 0 LAPLACE

@x2 @y 2 @z 2 EQUATION

A NOTE

Nobody seems to cover these results in sufficient

(relative to what

detail anywhere online they are used for)

The results themselves are not exciting, and the

process is quite tedious (but fun and engaging)

Why publish well-known results? Just cite them!

Poor mentality for initial understanding assumes

students can fill in the gaps

Today: Helping everybody fill in those easy gaps

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

But how do functions of several variables even work?

Just like single-variable functions:

f (x, y) = x2 + y 2

2 2

f (3, 4) = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25

Total application, sometimes called application

Not like single-variable functions:

2 2 2 2 2 2

f (x, 0) = x + 0 = x f (1, y) = 1 + y = 1 + y

Partial application

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Concept naturally extends to three-dimensions:

u(x, y, z) = sin x + 3 cos(y 2 z)

Need some new techniques

We will explore them as we proceed

Keep an open mind, and stay critical!

Traces:

f (x) = u(x, 0, 0) = sin x g(y) = u(0, y, 0) = 3 cos(y 2 ) h(z) = u(0, 0, z) = 3 cos z

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

You are probably used to a linear coordinate system:

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

You are probably used to a linear coordinate system:

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

You are probably used to a linear coordinate system:

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

You are probably used to a linear coordinate system:

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

You are probably used to a linear coordinate system:

z

(x,y,z)

(0,y,0)

y

(x,0,0)

(x,y,0)

x

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

But what about curvilinear coordinate systems?

(0,y) (x,y)

(0,0) (x,0)

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

But what about curvilinear coordinate systems?

(r, )

r

(0,0)

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

Converting between the systems:

(0,y) (r, )

p x

r= x2 + y2 cos = x = r cos

r r

y y

1

= tan

x (0,0) (x,0) sin = y = r sin

r

polar angle

POLAR COORDINATES

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

Converting between the systems:

(0,y) (r, )

r

(0,0) (x,0)

POLAR COORDINATES

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

Converting between the systems:

(0,y) (r, )

r

(0,0) (x,0)

POLAR COORDINATES

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

But what about curvilinear coordinate systems?

z

(, , ')

'

y

r

x

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

But what about curvilinear coordinate systems?

z

r = sin '

Alternative way '

to draw this x = r cos = sin ' cos

y y = r sin = sin ' sin

r

p p

= r2 + z 2 = x2 + y 2 + x2

y

x = tan 1

' = cos 1

z

x

azimuthal angle

SPHERICAL COORDINATES

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

But what about curvilinear coordinate systems?

z

(, , ')

'

y

r

SPHERICAL COORDINATES

DETOUR: SPHERICAL COORDINATES

But what about curvilinear coordinate systems?

z

(, , ')

'

y

r

SPHERICAL COORDINATES

SOME SYMBOLS

We define the scalar Laplacian operator as follows:

2 2 2

@ @ @

r2 = + +

@x2 @y 2 @z 2

Thus, when applied to a function, the Laplacian is

2 2 2

2 @ u @ u @ u

r u= 2

+ 2 + 2

@x @y @z

We can then write differential equations like this:

2

r u=0

variables, whose solutions are functions u(x,y,z)

WARM-UP

Lets now try to solve a differential equation with a

different technique: separation of many variables

We will warm-up with a 2D example, in which we

solve a partial differential equation

Twist: The solution is a function of two variables

@u @u

=k

@t @x

u(x, t) =?

WARM-UP

Problem: no simple integration technique like earlier

Solution: Assume a form that simplifies life for us

For example, let us assume that the variables of u are

separable, i.e. there are functions X(x) and T(t) so:

u(x, t) = X(x)T (t)

If we use this, we can reduce the partial differential

equation down to the following expression:

0 0

X(x)T (t) = kX (x)T (t)

WARM-UP

We can now actually separate the variables to both

sides to factor the expression, as shown below:

0 0

X (x) T (t)

k =

X(x) T (t)

In other words, the LHS is a function of x and the

RHS is a function of t

The only way this is possible for two independent

types is if both functions are equivalent to a constant

0 0

X (x) T (t) the negative sign

k = = const. = c

X(x) T (t) is intentional here

WARM-UP

This leads to two single-variable differential

equations to solve:

0 0 c

kX (x) = cX(x) X (x) + X(x) = 0

k

0 0

T (t) = cT (t) T (t) + cT (t) = 0

These have some pretty basic solutions:

c

kx

ct

X(x) = Ae T (t) = Be

constants c, K

c( x

k +t) c( x

k +t)

u(x, t) = ABe = Ke determined by

initial conditions

THE CRUX

We will use a slightly more complicated version of

this concept to solve a 3D version of separation

We begin our lesson by examining the following DE:

@ ~2 @ 2

j~ = 2

+V

@t 2m @x

This is a partial differential equation that is quadratic

in space and linear in time*

The solution has complex components in general

Dont worry about other variables/constants: ~, m, V

*this phrase has a very different meaning in computer science

THE CRUX

@ ~ @

2 2

j~ = 2

+V

@t 2m @x

This is called the Schrdinger wave equation

The solution is called a wave function

We will separate this into two differential equations

and then generalize this

First step: Assume the separable form (x, t) = (x)T (t)

dT ~ d2 2

j~ (x) = 2

T (t) + V (x)T (t)

dt 2m dx

ASIDE: NOTATION

We will start omitting the arguments to the functions,

since in reality, we are describing functions without

application (strictly speaking, of course)

In other words, we will write this:

dT ~ d2 2

j~ = T +V T its just cleaner!

dt 2m dx 2

dT ~ d

2 2

j~ (x) = 2

T (t) + V (x)T (t)

dt 2m dx

THE CRUX

We can now divide through by T to get:

1 dT ~2 1 d 2

j~ = 2

+V

T dt 2m dx

As before, this must be equal to a constant due to

independence in variables, so we call this constant E

We end up with the following:

1 dT ~2 1 d 2

j~ = + V = E

T dt 2m dx2

dT E jE ~ d

2 2

= T = T +V =E

dt j~ ~ 2m dx 2

THE CRUX

The T one is quite simple to solve (proof omitted):

dT E jE

= T = T

dt j~ ~

jEt/~

T (t) = Ae

The one is not so easy

Before we proceed, lets extend it to a 3D-form:

~2 @2 @2 @2

2

+ 2

+ +V =E

2m @x @y @z 2

spacetime

This implies a solution (x,y,z), and overall (x,y,z,t)

IN OTHER WORDS

Our essential goal is to solve the PDE shown below:

~2

@ 2

@ 2

@ 2

+ + + (V E) = 0

2m @x2 @y 2 @z 2

k r2 + s

Which is of the form =0

2 2 2

@ @ @

k + + +s =0

@x2 @y 2 @z 2

Laplace equation! But how do we solve this?

IN OTHER WORDS

Tempting: Separation of variables right away!

The wise and experienced differential-equation

solvers say no!

It is actually better to convert everything into

spherical coordinates first and then separate all

the resulting variables the derivatives are

the ugly part

Time to do the mapping:

x = sin ' cos y = sin ' sin z = cos '

SPHERICAL MAPPING

The general form of the differential equation is

2 2 2

s

+ + + =0

x2 y2 z2 k

us first compute first derivatives via the Chain Rule:

= + + = + +

x x x x y y y y

= + +

z z z z

SPHERICAL MAPPING

Let us develop explicit values for these derivatives:

2x sin cos

= = = sin cos

x 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2

z cos cos

sin = 2

= 2

sin cos = sin cos

x x

sec = = 2 sin2 cos2

=

x x2 sin cos2

cos sin

= cos =

x x sin

SPHERICAL MAPPING

Let us develop explicit values for these derivatives:

= sin sin

y

cos

= sin

y

cos

=

y sin

SPHERICAL MAPPING

Let us develop explicit values for these derivatives:

= cos

z

cot

=

z

=0

z

SPHERICAL MAPPING

Let us develop explicit values for these derivatives:

cos sin

= sin cos cos

x sin

cos cos

= sin sin sin +

y sin

cot

= cos +

z

SPHERICAL MAPPING

We find the second derivatives similarly (omitted):

2 2 2

2

= 2x

+ 2y

+ 2z

2 2 2

1 1 2 1

= 2

+ 2 2

+ 2 2 2

+ + 2

cot

sin

2

1 2 1 1

= 2

+ 2 sin + 2 2 2

sin sin

SPHERICAL MAPPING

We can now rewrite the time-independent equation:

2

1 2 1 1 s

2

+ 2 sin + 2 2 2

+ =0

sin sin k

( , , ) = R( )Y ( , )

Here, R() is the radial solution, and Y(, ) defines a

class of functions called the spherical harmonics

We will split up Y(, ) further soon!

SPHERICAL MAPPING

We can now rewrite the time-independent equation:

2

1 2 1 1 s

2

+ 2 sin + 2 2 2

+ =0

sin sin k

( , , ) = R( )Y ( , )

Here, R() is the radial solution, and Y(, ) defines a

class of functions called the spherical harmonics

any solution in this space has

We will split up Y(, ) further soon! a linear sum of angular and

radial component structures!

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

We now plug in (, , ) = R()Y(, ):

2

Y d 2 dR R 1 d Y 1 Y s

2 d

+ 2

sin + 2 2

+ RY = 0

d sin d sin k

We can now expand this equation and separate all

the R terms from all the Y terms

We will do this on the next slide (buy more space)

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

Multiply through by 2 and divide by RY:

2

1 d 2 dR 1 1 d Y 1 Y s 2

+ sin + 2 2

+ =0

Rd d Y sin d sin k

2

1 d 2 dR s 2 1 1 d Y 1 Y

+ = sin + 2 2

Rd d k Y sin d sin

and how can they even be equal?

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

They are both constants! Lets call this constant as A:

2

1 d 2 dR s 2 1 1 d Y 1 Y

+ = sin + 2 2

=A

Rd d k Y sin d sin

function of function of and const.

2

1 1 d Y 1 Y

sin + 2 2

= A

Y sin d sin

1 d 2 dR s 2

+ =A

Rd d k

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

They are both constants! Lets call this constant as A:

2

1 d 2 dR s 2 1 1 d Y 1 Y

+ = sin + 2 2

=A

Rd d k Y sin d sin

function of function of and const.

2

1 1 d Y 1 Y

Well tackle this sin + 2 2

= A

Y sin d sin

1 d 2 dR s 2

+ =A Put aside until later (too tedious)

Rd d k

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

Solving the first one isnt easy either!

Its a partial differential equation in two variables

Time to whip out separation of variables AGAIN

Well call the functions () and () this time

Lets first bring the equation to a canonical form:

Y( , )= ( ) ( )

2

d Y Y 2

sin sin + 2

= AY sin

d

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

We can now separate the terms from the terms:

2

d d d 2

sin sin + 2

= A sin

d d d

d d d2 2

sin sin + = A sin

d d d 2

1 d d 1d 2

2

some other

sin sin + 2

= A sin constant

d d d

1 d d 2 1 d2

sin sin + A sin = = B

d d d 2

some constant

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

Again, we end up with two equations to solve:

1 d d 2

sin sin + A sin =B

d d

1 d2 eigenvalue

2

=B problem

d

The solution () to the first equation is called the

polar solution, and the solution () to the second

equation is called the azimuthal solution

NOMENCLATURE

That might have been confusing!

Isnt polar supposed to be using , like in polar

coordinates? The trick is in the measurement point:

NOMENCLATURE

zenith

point

pole

observer N

h

horizon azimut

NOMENCLATURE

zenith

point

pole

observer N

h

horizon azimut

THE AZIMUTHAL EQUATION

We can solve the azimuthal equation pretty easily by

assuming a solution of the form () = Ces

This is just our standard assumption for any second-

order ordinary differential equation

d2

+ B = 0 exp > 0, so

d 2

2 s s we can divide

Cs e + BCe = 0

through by it

s 2

Ce (s + B) = 0

s2 + B = 0

THE AZIMUTHAL EQUATION

The solution now depends on the nature of B:

Case 1: B > 0

Case 2: B = 0

Case 3: B < 0

Are these all possible? Are the solutions different if

we assume different values of B?

As it turns out, no

Lets prove that now!

CASE 1

In this case, we have B > 0, i.e. we can write B = m2

for some m, as m2 > 0 by definition (subtlety)

Then, we can proceed as follows:

2 2

s +m =0 jm jm

= c1 e + c2 e

s = jm

Interesting: We have a

jm boundary condition on

1 =e

jm

2 =e

We cannot wrap around

the horizon twice, i.e. we

1 = c1 1 + c2 2

can traverse at most 2! radians

CASE 1

In this case, we have B > 0, i.e. we can write B = m2

for some m, as m2 > 0 by definition (subtlety)

Then, we can proceed as follows:

2 2

s +m =0 jm jm

= c1 e + c2 e

s = jm

Interesting: We have a

jm boundary condition on

1 =e

jm

2 =e

( +2 )= ( )

1 = c1 1 + c2 2 pedantry: mod 2)

CASE 1

Lets use this boundary condition to simplify things:

jm +2 mj jm 2 mj

( + 2 ) = c1 e + c2 e

2 mj jm 2 mj jm

= c1 e e + c2 e e

( ) = c1 ejm + c2 e jm

e2 mj

=e 2 mj

=1

This essentially gives us conditions on the value of m

We now whip out Eulers identity to help us here

CASE 1

Recall: e = cos + j sin

j

2 mj

e = cos 2 m + j sin 2 m = 1

2 mj

e = cos 2 m j sin 2 m = 1

Add the two equations together to get the condition:

2 cos 2 m = 1 + 1 = 2

cos 2 m = 1

only if = 0, 2), -2), 4), -4), etc. Thus, m is an integer!

CASE 1

The solution is then just () = Cejm for some C

We can let m range over both positive and

negative numbers (m > 0, m < 0)

Note that we do NOT allow m = 0 (as B 0!)

We still keep a constant C out front, as it is some

combination of c1 and c2

CASE 2

This case is quite simple, really (and special):

2

s =0

s=0

However, if we look at this carefully, this is just the

same as the solution from Case 1, but with m = 0

Thus, we can loop the solutions together into one:

( ) = Cejm m R

CASE 3

This case actually cannot happen, but lets show why

Assume B < 0, i.e. B = -m2 for some m

Then, the differential equation is pretty easy to solve:

s2 m2 = 0 m m

= c1 e + c2 e

s = m

2 m m 2 m m

=e m ( + 2 ) = c1 e e + c2 e e

1

=e m ( ) = c1 em + c2 e m

2

= c1 + c2 2 m 2 m m=0

1 1 2 e =e =1

CASE 3

However, m = 0 is a contradiction, as then B = 0, but

we know that B < 0!

It follows that this case cannot happen, i.e. B 0

THE AZIMUTHAL EQUATION

Having accounted for the trichotomy, we actually

have a very interesting solution to this equation:

( ) = Cejm

Moreover, m must be an integer!

We say that m is quantized

That is, m takes on integer multiples of some

principal value, which in this case is 1

THE AZIMUTHAL EQUATION

Having accounted for the trichotomy, we actually

have a very interesting solution to this equation:

( ) = Cejm

Moreover, m must be an integer!

Because this is the azimuthal equation and m is

quantized, we can call m a quantum number of

In fact, m is the azimuthal quantum number

THE POLAR EQUATION

Now, time to solve the harder of the two equations:

1 d d 2

sin sin + A sin =B

d d

solving the azimuthal equation, so we have:

1 d d 2 2

sin sin + A sin =m

d d

THE POLAR EQUATION

Bringing this equation to canonical form, we have:

d d

sin sin + A sin2 = m2

d d

2

2 d d 2 2

sin 2

+ sin cos + (A sin m ) =0

d d

2 2

d cos d m

2

+ + A 2 =0

d sin d sin

x = cos

THE POLAR EQUATION

Lets rewrite the equation, noting that the change of

variable gives some new function y(x), not ():

d d dx d

= = sin

d dx d dx

d2 d d d d 2 d2 d

= = sin = sin cos

d 2 d d d dx dx2 dx

2 d2 d cos d m2

sin cos + sin + A 2 =0

dx2 dx sin dx sin

THE POLAR EQUATION

Another step and we are at the canonical form:

2 d2 d m2

sin 2 cos + A 2 =0

dx2 dx sin

sin = 1 cos2 = 1 x2

Thus, the overall differential equation becomes this:

subtle: 2 2

d y dy m note:

transform (1 2

x ) 2 2x + A y=0

dx dx 1 x2 = y(cos )

() to y(x)

THE POLAR EQUATION

2 2

2 d y dy m

(1 x ) 2 2x + A y=0

dx dx 1 x2

A = l(l+1)

equation that we discussed earlier!

It is actually called associated Legendre equation

We need to find solutions to this equation (hopefully

they are polynomial, so things are kept simple)

How can we find solutions to such a difficult ODE?

ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE EQUATION

2 2

2 d y dy m

(1 x ) 2 2x + A y=0

dx dx 1 x2

easier version of this problem first: m = 0

2

2 d y dy

(1 x ) 2 2x + Ay = 0

dx dx

Less intimidating, but still not easy to solve

LEGENDRE EQUATION

We want polynomial solutions, so let us assume one:

2 3 n

y = a0 + a1 x + a2 x + a3 x + = an x

n=0

constants an so that we can find the polynomial

We need to plug this series solution back into the

differential equation and develop a condition

This condition will actually be a recurrence relation

LEGENDRE EQUATION

We first need to find the derivatives as series:

dy n 1

= nan x

dx n=0

d2 y n 2

= n(n 1)an x

dx2 n=0

(1 x2 ) n(n 1)an xn 2

2x nan xn 1

+A an xn =0

n=0 n=0 n=0

LEGENDRE EQUATION

Now comes a round of algebra:

n 2 n n n

n(n 1)an x n(n 1)an x 2 nan x + A an x = 0

n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0

n(n 1)an xn 2

+ (( n2 + n)an xn 2nan xn + Aan xn ) = 0

n=0 n=0

n(n 1)an xn 2

+ (A n(n + 1))an xn = 0

n=0 n=0

left-most term to make things easier here

LEGENDRE EQUATION

Some clever trick that helps us: re-indexing!

n 2 n 2

n(n 1)an x = n(n 1)an x

n=0 n=2

n

= (n + 2)(n + 1)an+2 x

n=0

Thus, the equation ends up becoming this:

n=0 n=0

LEGENDRE EQUATION

trivial

solution

Grouping everything together, we have:

((A n(n + 1))an + (n + 2)(n + 1)an+2 )xn = 0

n=0

However, we cannot have x = 0, as this leads to y = 0

Thus, we must have that the inner terms vanish!

(A n(n + 1))an + (n + 2)(n + 1)an+2 = 0

n(n + 1) A

an+2 = an

(n + 1)(n + 2)

LEGENDRE EQUATION

We need the solution to be a finite polynomial

To achieve this, we need to ensure that the series

terminates, i.e. there is some number l such that y is at

th

most an l -degree polynomial

Moreover, we want the least such l, i.e. the least-

upper bound of the polynomial (tightest-fitting)

Formally, we can state this as such: There exists an l

such that al = 0 (and thus al+2 = 0, al+4 = 0, etc.)

LEGENDRE EQUATION

Then, because al = 0, we see that the following holds:

( + 1) A

a = a 2 =0

( + 1)( + 2)

This is exciting! It tell us a lot of things:

A is also an integer (the product of two integers)

Is it true that the solution y ends up quantized on l?

What is the nature of y? captures rotational symmetry,

so magnetic quantum number

LEGENDRE EQUATION

We need to ensure that the series actually does

converge, so we will apply the ratio test here:

sn+2

lim <1

n sn

th

lim n

= lim x = lim x2

n an x n (n + 1)(n + 2) n n+2 (n + 1)(n + 2)

= |1 0| x2 = x2 < 1

LEGENDRE EQUATION

However, recall that x = cos , so we end up with:

cos2 <1

This is equivalent to saying the following:

1 < cos <1

Then, because 1 cos 1 usually, we see that we

essentially permit all values of except for 0 and )

These are the poles in the spherical coordinates:

This has to do with complex analysis: singularities!

LEGENDRE EQUATION

The solution to the Legendre equation is going to

depend on l, so let us denote it as y = Pl(x)

We want to have an orthonormal basis for the

fundamental solution space spanned by Pl(x)

Translation: Pl(1) = 1 to make it of unit size

Also, it is important to denote the degree of Pl(x):

Pl(x) is at most an lth-degree polynomial!

NORMALIZATION

Why normalize the solutions?

The solutions Y(, ) are the spherical harmonics

Characterize the direction/shape of solutions

Radial solution characterizes length/outward

projection of solutions

Direction vectors should be of unit length

RECURRENCE RELATION

We need to re-factorize the recurrence relation:

n(n + 1) ( + 1)

an+2 =

(n + 1)(n + 2)

2 2

n +n

=

(n + 1)(n + 2)

n2 2

+n

=

(n + 1)(n + 2)

(n + )(n )+n

=

(n + 1)(n + 2)

(n + + 1)(n )

=

(n + 1)(n + 2)

RECURRENCE RELATION

Then, we know that the following is true:

a +2 =a +4 = = 0

P (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + a x + a +1 x

+1

+a +3 x

+3

+

However, we know that Pl(x) is at most an l -degree th

a +1 =a +3 = = 0

RECURRENCE RELATION

There are two possible cases:

Either Pl(x) has zeroes for all even-subscript

coefficients, or it has them for all odd-subscripts

Mathematically speaking:

Pl(x) is either an even or odd-degree polynomial!

Another concise way of saying this:

a0 = 0, is odd Cascade the base-case

through the rest of

a1 = 0, is even the coefficients

CASE ANALYSIS

We want to break this up into two arguments

We will consider odd-degree and even-degree

polynomials separately:

l is odd

l is even

CASE 1: IS ODD

We have that a0 = 0 by implication

As a result, half the terms drop out!

We end up with the following result:

1

2

3 2n+1

P (x) = a1 x + a3 x + + a x = a2n+1 x

n=0

We also know that (l1)/2 has to be an integer

l is odd, so l = 2k+1, i.e. (2k+11)/2 = 2k/2 = k ( )

CASE 1: IS ODD

Let us step through the recursion:

(2n 1 + + 1)(2n 1 ) (2n + )(2n 1 )

a2n+1 = a2n 1 = a2n 1

(2n 1 + 1)(2n 1 + 2) 2n(2n + 1)

(2n 3 + + 1)(2n 3 ) (2n + 2)(2n 3 )

a2n 1 = a2n 3 = a2n 3

(2n 3 + 1)(2n 3 + 2) (2n 1)(2n 2)

(2n + )(2n 1) (2n + 2)(2n 3) (2 + )(1 )

a2n+1 = a1

2n(2n + 1) (2n 1)(2n 3) (3)(2)

n 1

(2n + 2k)(2n (2k + 1))

k=0

a2n+1 = 2n

a1

(k + 1)

k=0

CASE 1: IS ODD

Simplification:

n 1

(2n + 2k)(2n (2k + 1))

k=0

a2n+1 = 2n

a1

(k + 1)

k=0

n 1

(2n 2k + )(2n 2k 1)

k=0

= 2n

a1

(k + 1)

k=0

n 1

a1

= (2n 2k + )(2n 2k 1)

(2n + 1)!

k=0

CASE 1: IS ODD

Solving the subproblem:

n 1

(2n 2k + )(2n 2k 1)

k=0

n 1 n 1

= (2n 2k + ) (2n 2k 1)

k=0 k=0

=RS

We now separately figure out what R and S are

i.e. this is actually algebraic separation of variables

CASE 1: IS ODD

Lets first find R and then do a similar process for S:

This will actually be quite challenging (i.e. tedious)

We will need to cover some extra things first

Exponential distributions and the gamma function

Having this setup will be useful when figuring out

how to simplify R

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

This is a detour!

Consider the following definition:

t 1 x

(t) = x e dx

0

This is actually a complete definition, in that we have

no simpler form in general!

But there are cases to consider!

t is discrete!

t is continuous?

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

The case of t being discrete (i.e. an integer):

1 1 x x

(1) = x e dx = e dx

0 0

x

= e 0 integration

=0 ( 1) = 1 by parts

(t) = xt 1

e x

dx = xt 1

e x

|0 + (t 1) xt 2

e x

dx

0 0

(t 1) 1 x

= ( 0 + 0) + (t 1) x e dx

0

= (t 1) (t 1)

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

The case of t being discrete (i.e. an integer)

We now have an inductive definition:

(1) = 1

(t) = (t 1)(t 1)

As a result, we really see that (t) = (t 1)!

This is exciting! yes, by a process

called analytic

Natural extensions? continuation

Does this extend to continuous t, negative t, etc.?

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

Some more cases that we will need to make use of:

The case of t = 1/2 will be particularly important

We use it as a basis to define the Gamma function

over half-integer intervals!

Turns out that (t) = )

Proof?

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

1 1

1 x 1

x

= x 2 e dx = x 2 e dx

2 0 0

1

x 1 3

x

= x 2 e |0 x 2 e dx

2 0

1 3

x

= x 2 e dx

2 0

1

x( )

1

1 x

= 2 e dx

2 0

1 1

=

2 2

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

We can iteratively repeat this process:

1 1 1

=

2 2 2

1 3 3

=

2 2 2

3 5 5

=

2 2 2

..

.

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

We can iteratively repeat this process:

1

1 1 = ???

= 2 2

2 2

3 2 1 4 1

= =

2 3 2 3 2

5 2 3 8 1

= =

2 5 2 15 2

7 2 5 16 1

= =

2 7 2 105 2

..

.

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

Similarly for positive half-integers:

1

= ???

3 1 1 2

=

2 2 2

5 3 3 3 1

= =

2 2 2 4 2

7 5 5 15 1

= =

2 2 2 8 2

..

.

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

The basis value of half-integer Gamma function:

1 1

x

= x 2 e dx

2 0

u2

= 2e du

0

u2

=2 e du

0

u2

= e du

=I

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

2 u2 v2

I = e du e dv

u2 v 2

= e dudv

2

r2

= e rdrd

0 0

2

r2

= d re dr

0 0

1

=2 0

2 1

=I=

= 2

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

We can use this basis to find a general formula:

.. 1

. =

2

7 16 3 1

= =

2 105 2 2

5 8 5 3

= =

2 15 2 4

3 4 7 15

= =

2 3 2 8

1 ..

= 2 .

2

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

1 ( 2)n

n = n 1

2

(2k + 1)

k=0

n

( 2)n (2k)

k=0

= n

k

k=0

n 1

( 2)n 2n k

k=0

=

(2n)!

( 4)n n!

=

(2n)!

THE GAMMA FUNCTION

n 1

(2k + 1)

1 k=0

+n =

2 2n

n

k

k=0

= n

2n (2k)

k=0

(2n)!

= n 1

2n 2n k

k=0

(2n)!

= n

4 n!

ADEQUATELY PREPARED

We can now find R and S using the gamma function:

n 1 n 1

R= (2n 2k + ) S= (2n 2k 1)

k=0 k=0

n 1 n 1

n n +1

=2 n k+ =2 n k

2 2

k=0 k=0

n n +1

( 2) 2 ( 2) 2

= = +1

2 n 2 n

ADEQUATELY PREPARED

We can now find R and S using the gamma function:

n 1 n 1

R= (2n 2k + ) S= (2n 2k 1)

k=0 k=0

n 1 n 1

n n +1

=2 n k+ =2 n k

2 2

k=0 k=0

n n +1

( 2) 2 ( 2) 2

= = +1

2 n 2 n

n +1

4 2 2

RS = +1

2 n 2 n

CASE 1: IS ODD

And now, we return to our original problem:

a1

a2n+1 = RS

(2n + 1)!

n +1

4 2 2

= +1

a1

2 n 2 n (2n + 1)!

1

2

1 (2 2n)! 2n

P (x) = x

a1 = 2l is the 2 n=0

n!( n)!( 2n)!

normalization

constant here

CASE 2: IS EVEN

We can actually model this case using the other one!

Note that if l is even, then instead of (l 1)/2, we

need to raise it to the next integer: (l 1)/2

We then combine both into a single case:

1

2

normalization 1 (2 2n)! 2n

P (x) = x

factor 2 n!( n)!( 2n)!

n=0

n=0

LEGENDRE EQUATION

1

Notice the following boundary condition: n =

2

We notice that there are two possible cases:

1 1

2n 2 2n 2

x =x 2 x =x 2

( 1)

=x =x

=x =1

odd terms even terms

! (2 2n)! 2 2n

= =

n!( n)! n !( 2n)!

LEGENDRE EQUATION

We can now introduce the following:

(2 2n)! 1 (2 2n)!

=

n!( n)!( 2n)! n!( n)! ( 2n)!

! !(2 2n)!

=

n!( n)! ( 2n)!

2 2n

=

n

LEGENDRE EQUATION

And now, lets rewrite the actual polynomial solution:

1

2

1 (2 2n)! 2n

P (x) = x

2 n=0

n!( n)!( 2n)!

1

2

1 2 2n 2n

factoring = x

2 n due to limits

the binomial n=0

on n = (l-1)/2

coefficient 22 +n 1

= 2 xn

2 n=0

n

+n 1

2 n

=2 x

n=0

n

LEGENDRE EQUATION

And now, lets rewrite the actual polynomial solution:

1

2

1 (2 2n)! 2n

P (x) = x

2 n=0

n!( n)!( 2n)!

1

2

1 2 2n 2n

factoring = x

2 n due to limits

the binomial n=0

on n = (l-1)/2

coefficient 22 +n 1

= 2 xn

2 n transform

n=0

+n 1

2 n

=2 x

n=0

n

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

We now have a solution to the Legendre equation!

2

2 d y dy

(1 x ) 2 2x + ( + 1)y = 0

dx dx

weights y(x) = c P (x)

=0

of Legendre polynomials

+n 1

2 n

P (x) = 2 x

n=0

n

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

What do these actually evaluate to?

1 1

0 0 2 0 0! 2 !

P0 (x) = 2 x = (1) 1 (1) = 1

0 0 0! 0! 0! 2 !

1 1

1 1 0 0 1 2 1 1! 0! 1! 2 !

P1 (x) = 2 x + x =2 (1) + 1 (x)

0 1 1 1 0! 1! 1! ( 1)! 1! 0! 1! 2 !

1 3

2 ! 2

ad nauseam, ad infinitum = 2(0) + 1 (2x) =2 1 x

2 !

Is there a cleaner way? 2

2!

41 1! this is why we

normalization is built-in =2 x=x

introduced it!

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

What do these actually evaluate to? ( 1)! =

1 1

0 0 2 0 0! 2 !

P0 (x) = 2 x = (1) 1 (1) = 1

0 0 0! 0! 0! 2 !

1 1

1 1 0 0 1 2 1 1! 0! 1! 2 !

P1 (x) = 2 x + x =2 (1) + 1 (x)

0 1 1 1 0! 1! 1! ( 1)! 1! 0! 1! 2 !

1 3

2 ! 2

ad nauseam, ad infinitum = 2(0) + 1 (2x) =2 1 x

2 !

Is there a cleaner way? 2

2!

41 1! this is why we

normalization is built-in =2 x=x

introduced it!

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

Another method of finding these Legendre

polynomials is by using a generating function

Requires use of power series and Taylor expansions

It turns out that the following is true:

1

= P (x)t

1 2xt + t2 =0 (|t| < 1)

this function about 0 form the Legendre polynomials

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

We can use the generating function to develop a

general recursive method for finding polynomials!

1

= P (x)t

t 1 2xt + t2 t

=0

x t

= P (x)tn 1

(1 2xt + t2 )3/2 =1

x t

= (1 2xt + t2 ) P (x)t 1

1 2xt + t2 =1

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

We can use the generating function to develop a

general recursive method for finding polynomials!

(x t) P (x)t = (1 2xt + t2 ) P (x)t 1

=0 =1

+1 1 +1

xP (x)t P (x)t = P (x)t 2x P (x)t + P (x)t

=0 =0 =1 =1 =1

1 +1

(2 + 1)xP (x)t = P (x)t + ( + 1)P (x)t

=0 =1 =1

(2 + 1)xP (x) = P 1 (x) + ( + 1)P +1 (x)

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

We can generate a list of the Legendre polynomials:

L0 (x) = 1

L1 (x) = x

1 3 2

L2 (x) = + x

2 2

3 5 3

L3 (x) = x+ x

2 2

3 15 2 35 4

L4 (x) = x + x

8 4 8

15 35 3 63 5

L5 (x) = x x + x

8 4 8

..

.

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

We can generate a list of the Legendre polynomials:

L0 (x) = 1

L1 (x) = x

1 3 2

L2 (x) = + x

2 2

3 5 3

L3 (x) = x+ x

2 2

3 15 2 35 4

L4 (x) = x + x

8 4 8

15 35 3 63 5

L5 (x) = x x + x

8 4 8

..

.

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

All of that lovely machinery

we still never ended up solving the actual polar

equation, as we still need to solve the associated

Legendre equation!

How can we apply what we know already?

Some type of undetermined coefficients?

Varying the parameters?

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

All of that lovely machinery

we still never ended up solving the actual polar

equation, as we still need to solve the associated

2

d y dy m2

Legendre equation! (1 2

x ) 2 2x + A y=0

dx dx 1 x2

How can we apply what we know already?

Some type of undetermined coefficients?

Varying the parameters?

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

m2 y

We have a term of the form perhaps we

1 x2

could get rid of the pesky denominator?

One idea is to have (1 x ) built into y

2

2

Thus, we would need m/2 of these terms:

2 m/2 undetermined

y = (1 x ) as of yet

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

m2 y

We have a term of the form perhaps we

1 x2

could get rid of the pesky denominator? random reminder:

we had x = cos

One idea is to have (1 x ) built into y

2

2

Thus, we would need m/2 of these terms:

2 m/2 undetermined

y = (1 x ) as of yet

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

Once we introduce this substitution for a possible

solution, we want to actually determine the w(x) term

We can do this by rewriting the differential equation:

d 2 m/2

y = (1 x ) w

dx

2 m/2 m 2 m 1

= (1 x ) w + (1 x ) 2 w ( 2x)

2

m

2 1

= (1 x ) 2 ((1 x2 )w mxw)

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

Once we introduce this substitution for a possible

solution, we want to actually determine the w(x) term

We can do this by rewriting the differential equation:

d dy

y =

dx dx

m 2 m

2 2 2 m

1

= 1 (1 x ) 2 (1 x )w mxw + (1 x ) 2 (1 x2 )w 2xw mxw mw

2

2 m

2 m 2 m

= (1 x ) 2 1 (1 x )w 1 mxw + (1 x2 ) 2 w (1 x2 )(m + 2)xw (1 x2 )mw

2 2

equation into one we can solve to find w(x)

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

Note: Because x = cos , and we said that 0 or ),

we can see that we are not allowing x = 1

This is good, because it means that y = (1 x2)m/2 can

never be 0, i.e. we have a non-trivial solution

This is why we had that restriction imposed earlier!

2

2 d y dy m2

(1 x ) 2 2x + A y=0

dx dx 1 x2 reduces

to

(1 x2 )w 2(m + 1)xw + ( ( + 1) m(m + 1))w = 0

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

How can we solve this new equation for w?

Let us return to the original Legendre equation!

2

(1 x ) 2x + ( + 1) = 0

Let us now differentiate m times, as discussed earlier:

(1 x2 ) (m+2)

2x (m+1)

+ ( + 1) (m)

2mx (m+1)

m2 (m)

m (m)

=0

(1 x2 ) (m+2)

2(m + 1)x (m+1)

+ ( ( + 1) m(m + 1)) (m)

=0

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

But this is precisely what we wanted, with w = m

Thus, we see the following relationship plays out:

The solution to the associated Legendre equation

involves one part of a solution to the regular one

and one part of an adjustment term (1 x2)m/2

dm

w(x) = m [P (x)]

dx

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

And so we have the aptly-named associated

Legendre polynomials!

We see that the solutions depend on both m and l,

so we will denote these as y(x) = Plm(x)

m

d

Plm (x) = (1 x2 )m/2 m [Pl (x)]

dx

Recall that the original differential equation had a m2

term in it thus, sign of m makes no difference:

m m this symmetry in m

Pl (x) = Pl (x)

is really helpful!

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

To properly extend this idea, we realize that we

cannot differentiate a negative number of times if m

is negative, so we impose a constraint:

m 2

|m| d|m|

Pl (x) = (1 x ) 2 [P l (x)]

dx|m|

We now also realize that differentiation loses the

phase of the solution, i.e. the relative sign:

m m 2

|m| d|m|

Pl (x) = ( 1) (1 x ) 2 [P l (x)]

dx|m|

THE ASSOCIATED EQUATION

Notice that if |m| > l, then the derivative goes to 0, as

Pl(x) is at most an l -degree polynomial!

th

or l m l

This is a restriction you may have seen before!

Physics

Chemistry

Exciting!!

THE POLAR EQUATION

We thus have our complete solution to the polar

equation that we had initially set out to solve

Encountered many obstacles along the way

Learned about many other functions :)

m m

( ) = P (x) = P (cos )

2 degrees of freedom in l and m, so 2D graph?

THE POLAR EQUATION

z z z

1 cos sin

z z z

1

(3 cos2 1) 3 sin cos 3 sin2

2

THE SPHERICAL HARMONICS

The polar equations solutions seem to describe 2D

symmetry quite well

We just need to tack on the azimuthal equations

rotational symmetry in the third dimension now:

m jm m quantized

Y ( , ) = ce P (cos )

solutions

These are called the spherical harmonics

Note that this is true up to a normalization constant,

which we leave undetermined, as it just scales radii

THE SPHERICAL HARMONICS

y

x

Y00 ( , )

THE SPHERICAL HARMONICS

z z

z

y y

y x x

x

Y1 1 ( , ) Y10 ( , ) Y11 ( , )

THE SPHERICAL HARMONICS z

z

Y2 2 ( , ) Y21 ( , )

y y

x x

z z

y

x

Y20 ( , )

y y

x x

Y2 1 ( , ) Y22 ( , )

THE RADIAL EQUATION

So we never ended up solving the radial equation!

Many possible solutions/polynomial functions

Each one varies with nature of V(r)

a.k.a. potential function

hence potential theory uses of this material

Requires some more foresight, Frobenius method

is not enough by itself

Advanced polynomials Laguerre, Chebyshev

THE RADIAL EQUATION

So we never ended up solving the radial equation!

It turns out that the spherical harmonics

themselves characterize wide variety of problems

The mark that changes the problem is the

potential function V(r)

2

Ze

For example, we could set V (r) = for H-atoms

4 0r

That is, we have a precise* model of a hydrogen

atom using the functions we learned about today!!

*up to the perturbation theory and fine structure of H-atoms

KEY POINTS

Takeaway:

How to use mathematical tools you already have

to solve new and interesting problems

Using mathematical ideas to model physical

phenomena and shape/adapt to the situation

Being clever when it is necessary

QUESTIONS?

If you have any questions, feel free to reach out!

My email address is cb625@cornell.edu

May take some time to reply though

We are all busy students!

Check out my website: chiragbharadwaj.com

I wish you the best of luck with future math studies!

Did this class interest you? Consider a math major or minor at

university! Talk to mathematicians and join research community

Take a related class at high school through local colleges

Think ahead, plan for a little while, even if youre still young

THE FUTURE

THE FUTURE

FALL 2016

SPLASH! AT CORNELL

ADVANCED POLYNOMIALS

CHIRAG BHARADWAJ

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