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A "Cyclonic Storm" or a "Cyclone" is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. The word "Cyclone" is derived from the Greek, word "Cyclos" meaning the coils of a snake. To Henri Peddington, the tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea appeared like the coiled serpents of the sea and he named these storms as "Cyclones". Cyclones are intense low pressure areas - from the centre of which pressure increases outwards- The amount of the pressure drop in the centre and the rate at which it increases outwards gives the intensity of the cyclones and the strength of winds. Cyclones in the Indian Seas Cyclones form in certain favourable atmospheric and Oceanic conditions. There are marked seasonal variations in their places of origin, tracks and attainment of intensities. These behaviours help in predicting their movements. Cyclones affect both the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. They are rare in Bay of Bengal from January to March. Isolated ones forming in the South Bay of Bengal move west north westwards and hit Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka coasts. In April and May, these form in the South and adjoining Central Bay and move initially northwest, north and then recurve to the northeast striking the Arakan coasts in April and Andhra-Orissa-West Bengal-Bangla Desh coasts in May. Most
These may again intensify into cyclonic storms. They generally form in southeast Arabian Sea and adjoining central Arabian Sea in the months of May. Post monsoon (October-December) storms form mostly in the south and the central Bay. Pre and Post-monsoon storms are more violent than the storms of the monsoon season. they generally move northwest north and then recurve northeast affecting GujaratMaharashtra coasts. They are explained in the following paragraphs: . October. Some of the cyclones that originate in the Bay of Bengal travel across the peninsula. weaken and emerge into Arabian Sea as low pressure areas. Most of the storms in Arabian Sea move in west-north-westerly direction towards Arabian Coast in the month of May and in a northerly direction towards Gujarat Coast in the month of June. a few. also move west north westwards towards Arabian coast. In other months. Life span of a severe cyclonic storm in the Indian seas averages about 4 days from the time it forms until the time it enters the land. February and March and are rare in April. August and September.September) storms develop in the central and in the North Bay and move west-north-westwards affecting Andhra-Orissa-West Bengal coasts. Cyclones do not form in Arabian sea during the months of January. which cause destruction.of the monsoon (June . November and December and in east central Arabian Sea in the month of June. Destruction caused by Cyclones There are three elements associated with a cyclone. however. July. recurve between 150 and 18O N affecting Tamil Nadu-Andhra Orissa-West Bengal-Bangla Desh coasts.
Floods and coastal inundation due to storm surges pollute drinking water sources causing outbreak of epidemics. Heavy and prolonged rains due to cyclones may cause river floods and submergence of low lying areas by rain causing loss of life and property. the Government have strengthened the Meteorological Department. Machilipatnam. relief operations for distress mitigation become difficult. 3. Past history indicates that loss of life is significant when surge magnitude is 3 metres or more and catastrophic when 5 metres and above Cyclone Operation in India For cyclone forecast and advance warning. These. resulting in loss of life and property. sea water inundates low lying areas of coastal regions drowning human beings and live. as a result. The most destructive element associated with an intense cyclone is storm surge. It may be mentioned that all the three factors mentioned above occur simultaneously and. eroding beaches and embankments. A storm surge is an abnormal rise of sea level near the coast caused by a severe tropical cyclone.. generate storm surges. etc. destroying vegetation and reducing soil fertility. Visakhapatnam. by providing Cyclone Surveillance Radars at Calcutta.stock. Very strong winds may damage installations. therefore. dwellings.1. communication systems. So it is imperative that advance action is taken for relief measures before the commencement of adverse weather conditions due to cyclones. trees. in turn. Paradeep. 2. Cyclones are associated with high-pressure gradients and consequent strong winds. Madras and Karaikal in the east coast .
Bombay and Bhuj in the west coast. Cyclone operations are being done by the Meteorological Department through the Area Cyclone Warning Centres (ACWC) and the Cyclone Warning Centres (CWC).S. Visakhapatnam. and U. Distinct advantage of these pictures is due to their very High Resolution in all the 5 channels.H.V. ACWC at Calcutta and Madras and the CWC at Bhubaneswar and Visakhapatnam are responsible for cyclone forecasting in the Bay of Bengal. Since April 1. Satellite pictures received by the Meteorological Data Utilisation Centre (M. Satellite picture receiving (APT) equipments at Delhi.D. .R.R.C.A.S. ACWC at Madras and Bombay and CWC at Ahmedabad are responsible for the cyclones in the Arabian Sea .S.and at Cochin.1 km) in 5 channels as also T.R. At this Centre very High Resolution Cloud pictures (Resolution 1. data (Tiros Information Processor) are being regularly received and are being archived in Magnetic Tapes.the National Forecast Centre or the WEATHER CENTRAL at Pune being the coordinator.P. Hard copies of the pictures in 2 or 3 channels are being obtained regularly.I. 1982 A. Calcutta and Guwahati are receiving satellite pictures of the cyclones from the polar-orbiting Satellites of the U.) at New Delhi are further disseminated to all the forecasting Offices through Radio Facsimile. (Advance very High Resolution Radio-meter) ground receiving equipment is operative at New Delhi.Q. Further improvements in the cyclone tracking and forecasting have taken place after the Meteorological application programme of the Indian Geo-Stationary Satellite INSAT-LB has become operational since October 1983. Bombay. Computerised Operational Advisory Forecasts on cyclone movements are being issued by the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) division of the Department at the H. Monitoring of the cyclone by taking hourly pictures has helped the forecaster to improve his skill in issuing the timely warnings to the public. Office at New Delhi. Goa.U. Pune. Madras.
when the cyclone is nearer to the coast. Cyclone warnings issued to the Chief Secretaries. Cyclone warnings in appropriate formats are being disseminated to the various warnees (More). in two stages whenever any coastal belt is expected to experience heavy rains. Specialised researches on storm surges relating to surge height to storm intensity are done at the H.Q. The second stage warning known as the "CycloneWarning" is issued 24 hours in advance. Both cyclone "Alert" and "Warning" messages are passed to the AIR stations for repeated broadcast. The first stage warning known as the "Cyclone Alert" is issued 48 hours in advance of the expected commencement of the adverse weather over the coastal areas.e. gales and tidal waves in association with a cyclonic storm or depression expected to intensify into a cyclonic storm. Office at New Delhi.. the average error in the predictions of the storm centre for a 24-hour forecast is about 200 km. Researches on scientific and operational aspects of Cyclones are being carried out at the Cyclone Warning Research Centre (CWRC) at Madras. the Relief Commissioners and the District Collectors of the maritime states are the very basic information for cyclone distress prevention and mitigation.Storm surge advisories are being issued to the ACWC/CWC by the Northern Hemispheric Analysis Centre (NHAC) at the H. However. the Meteorological Department has to depend mostly on the Telecommunication channels of the Post . These are disseminated under "Two Stage Warning Scheme" i. Office at New Delhi.Q. they are requested to broadcast cyclone warnings at hourly or half-hourly intervals. It will be seen from the table that for dissemination of cyclone warnings. It may be mentioned here that with the present knowledge about the cyclones and with the available aids.
to the governments of the maritime states to set up "Cyclone Distress Mitigation Committee" (CDMC) in the respective states with the objective of preventing loss of life and minimizing damage to properties.and Telegraph Department consisting of landline telegrams. the cyclone warnings are directly sent to the users through INSAT.. Telex. dykes. which would help them to take appropriate action even in the case of not receiving the addressed warnings due to delay or failure of communications. Disaster Prevention and Preparedness (a) National The Govt. afforestation along the coastal belts and improvement of drainage facilities. which is capable of circumventing failure of traditional communication Systems. Concerned warnees have also been advised to monitor the cyclonewarning bulletin on the AIR during cyclone seasons. construction of wind breaks. of India suggested in 1969. India Meteorological Department has been including some of the vital information like port signal advices in the cyclone warning bulletin issued to the AIR. etc. INSAT based Cyclone Warning Dissemination System (CWDS) for south Andhra and north Tamil Nadu coasts was made operational. Teleprinter. Under this scheme. An advance warning will not be effective unless the public is enlightened about the . During l987. CDMCs are to plan the communication systems in the state for quick dissemination of Meteorological warnings and prevention measures. Telephone. Such facilities have now been extended to all other cyclone prone areas. bunds. connecting roads for evacuation of people. Prevention measures include construction of storm shelters. flood storage reservoirs.
Maldives. Burma. The WMO/ESCAP panel has a technical support unit (TSU) and its office is rotated every four years and is at present located in Dhaka in Bangladesh. The present members of WMO/ESCAP panel on Tropical cyclone are Bangladesh. a Tropical Cyclone Project (TCP) with the objective of assisting the member countries to increase their capabilities to detect and forecast the approach and landfall of the tropical cyclones. CDMCs have also. the storm surges. (b) International The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has established in 1972. One such plan that is in operation for assisting the countries adjoining the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is the panel on the tropical cyclones of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Economic and Social Council for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP). India. audiovisual materials. forecast the flooding arising from the cyclones and to develop schemes to organize and execute disaster prevention and preparedness measures. Pakistan. Sri Lanka and Thailand. programmes for generating public awareness through information pamphlets. . evaluate and forecast.destructive features and the actions to be taken by them to avoid sufferings. brochures. therefore. talks and discussions over the radio and television. cyclone preparedness meetings.
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