assignment of management concept and practices

Submitted to: prof. shaifali Tripathi

Submitted by: Saurabh Kumar Agrawal Mba 1st SEM Section: A

Q.1-: Explain of the principle contribution F W Taylor to the development of management thought? Ans: Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856–March 21, 1915), widely known as F. W.
Taylor, was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants. Taylor was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era. Taylor believed that the industrial management of his day was amateurish, that management could be formulated as an academic discipline, and that the best results would come from the partnership between a trained and qualified management and a cooperative and innovative workforce. Each side needed the other, and there was no need for trade unions.

Scientific Management and Frederick Winslow Taylor
By far the most influential person of the time and someone who has had an impact on management service practice as well as on management thought up to the present day, was F. W. Taylor. Taylor formalized the principles of scientific management, and the fact-finding approach put forward and largely adopted was a replacement for what had been the old rule of thumb. He also developed a theory of organizations which altered the personalized autocracy which had only been tempered by varying degrees of benevolence, such as in the Quaker family businesses of Cadbury's and Clark's. Taylor was not the originator of many of his ideas, but was a pragmatist with the ability to synthesize the work of others and promote them effectively to a ready and eager audience of industrial managers who were striving to find new or improved ways to increase performance. At the time of Taylor's work, a typical manager would have very little contact with the activities of the factory. Generally, a foreman would be given the total responsibility for producing goods demanded by the salesman. Under these conditions, workmen used what tools they had or could get and adopted methods that suited their own style of work.

A feature of Taylor's work was stop-watch timing as the basis of observations. managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks." . leaving them to train themselves. Later he turned his attention to shoveling coal. were papers on incentive schemes. Scientific method. he advocated. A piece rate system on production management in shop management. could be applied to all problems and applied just as much to managers as workers.W.) he was able to design shovels that would permit the worker to shovel for the whole day. In his own words he explained: "The old fashioned dictator does not exist under Scientific Management. in 1909. F. and later. Principles of Scientific Management. To follow. This work. Taylor's contributions to scientific management By 1881 Taylor had published a paper that turned the cutting of metal into a science. However. greatly contributed to the analysis of work design and gave rise to method study. In so doing. 4. he started to break the timings down into elements and it was he who coined the term 'time study'. Taylor's uncompromising attitude in developing and installing his ideas caused him much criticism. (from 'rice' coal to ore. and his studies on the handling of pig iron. he published the book for which he is best known.Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles: 1. unlike the early activities of Perronet and others. he reduced the number of people shoveling at the Bethlehem Steel Works from 500 to 140. and the standards developed are equitable. The man at the head of the business under Scientific Management is governed by rules and laws which have been developed through hundreds of experiments just as much as the workman is. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of Scientifically select. so that the the tasks. of that worker's discrete task" (Montgomery 1997: 250). train. in 1895. 2. By experimenting with different designs of shovel for use with different material. 3. and develop each employee rather than passively Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers.

clearing floors of obstacles. and even relocating workstations resulted in increased productivity for short periods of time. The term was coined in 1955 by Henry A. each group taking over the work for which it is best fitted instead of the former condition in which responsibility largely rested with the workers.Objectives of Scientific Management The four objectives of management under scientific management were as follows: • • • The development of a science for each element of a man's work to replace the old rule-ofthumb methods. systems of abstract rules and impersonal relationships between staff. Although illumination research of workplace lighting formed the basis of the Hawthorne effect. The development of a spirit of hearty cooperation between workers and management to ensure that work would be carried out in accordance with scientifically devised procedures. training and development of workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves as best they could.[1][2] not in response to any particular experimental manipulation. other changes such as maintaining clean work stations. The workers' productivity seemed to improve when changes were made and slumped when the study was concluded. Q. It was suggested that the productivity gain was due to the motivational effect of the interest being shown in them. Hawthorne Works had commissioned a study to see if its workers would become more productive in higher or lower levels of light. .2-: What are the major findings of Hawthorne experiment? Examine their significance for the practice managers? Ans: Elton Mayo's Hawthorne Experiments Findings The Hawthorne effect is a form of reactivity whereby subjects improve an aspect of their behavior being experimentally measured simply in response to the fact that they are being studied. The scientific selection. Landsberger[3] when analyzing older experiments from 1924-1932 at the Hawthorne Works (a Western Electric manufacturing facility outside Chicago). Thus the term is used to identify any type of short-lived increase in productivity History The term gets its name from a factory called the Hawthorne Works. Self-evident in this philosophy are organizations arranged in a hierarchy. The division of work between workers and the management in almost equal shares.[6] where a series of experiments on factory workers were carried out between 1924 and 1932.

but when they received six 5-minute rests. returning to the first condition (where output peaked). mainly due to Elton Mayo. even if the variable was just a change back to the original condition. Only occasionally are the rest of the studies mentioned." (There was a second relay assembly test room study whose results were not as significant as the first experiment. Then the researchers spent five years measuring how different variables impacted the group's and individuals' productivity. and then changing to two 10-minute breaks (not their preference). not individual production giving two 5-minute breaks (after a discussion with them on the best length of time). The participants were asked about supervisory practices and employee morale. The results proved that upward .[10] In the lighting studies. One interpretation.) Interviewing Program The workers were interviewed in attempt to validate the Hawthorne Studies. Researchers concluded that the workers worked harder because they thought that they were being monitored individually. they had a supervisor who discussed changes with them and at times used their suggestions. being treated as special (as evidenced by working in a separate room). experimenters chose two women as test subjects and asked them to choose four other workers to join the test group. Some of the variables were: • • • • changing the pay rules so that the group was paid for overall group production. shortening it more (output per hour went up. providing food during the breaks shortening the day by 30 minutes (output went up). working as a group. light intensity was altered to examine its effect on worker productivity. and having a sympathetic supervisor were the real reasons for the productivity increase. This measuring began in secret two weeks before moving the women to an experiment room and continued throughout the study. Changing a variable usually increased productivity.Evaluation of the Hawthorne effect continues in the modern era. Researchers hypothesized that choosing one's own coworkers. they disliked it and reduced output. Productivity increased. but overall output decreased). Relay assembly experiments In one of the studies.This effect was observed for minute increases in illumination.[citation needed] was that "the six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment. Output was measured mechanically by counting how many finished relays each dropped down a chute. Together the women worked in a separate room over the course of five years (1927-1932) assembling telephone relays. However it is said that this is the natural process of the human being to adapt to the environment without knowing the objective of the experiment occurring.[7][8][9]Most industrial/occupational psychology and organizational behavior textbooks refer to the illumination studies. In the experiment room.

The workers feel pleased that their ideas are being heard. Workers apparently had become suspicious that their productivity may have been boosted to justify firing some of the workers later on.described and classified administrative management roles and processes then became recognized and referenced by others in the growing discourse about management. productivity decreased because the men were afraid that the company would lower the base rate.a comprehensive theory of administration . Bank wiring room experiments The purpose of the next study was to find out how payment incentives would affect group productivity.3-: List the Fayol’s principle of management? Ans: Fayol (1841-1925) Functions and Principles of Management Henri Fayol. These cliques developed informal rules of behavior as well as mechanisms to enforce them. when bosses asked questions. He then moved into research geology and in 1888 joined. Comambault as Director.communication in an organization creates a positive attitude in the work environment. Lloyd Warner between 1931 and 1932 on a group of fourteen men who put together telephone switching equipment. The cliques served to control group members and to manage bosses. was little unknown outside France until the late 40s when Constance Storrs published her translation of Fayol's 1916 “Administration Industrielle et Generale ". He is frequently seen as a key. The surprising result was that productivity actually decreased. Q. Comambault was in difficulty but Fayol turned the operation round.[11] The study was conducted by Mayo and W. Detailed observation between the men revealed the existence of informal groups or "cliques" within the formal groups. His . even if they were untrue. His theorizing about administration was built on personal observation and experience of what worked well in terms of organization. Fayol's career began as a mining engineer. The researchers found that although the workers were paid according to individual productivity. early contributor to a classical or administrative management school of thought (even though he himself would never have recognized such a "school"). On retirement he published his work . clique members gave the same responses. a French engineer and director of mines. These results show that workers were more responsive to the social force of their peer groups than to the control and incentives of management.

Thereby he can be more productive. along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its function. adherence to rules and values no enterprise could prosper. . Employees must obey. but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management play their part by providing good leadership. The right to issue commands. Fayol laid down the following principles of organization (he called them principles of management): Specialization/Division of Work. The idea is that an 1. Discipline.aspiration for an "administrative science" sought a consistent set of principles that all organizations must apply in order to run properly. A principle of work allocation and specialization in order to concentrate activities to enable specialization of skills and understandings. 2. 3. Authority.standards. Fayol was a key figure in the turn-of-the-century Classical School of management theory. Specialization allows the individual to build up experience. This is very like. Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. A manager should never be given authority without responsibility--and also should never be given responsibility without the associated authority to get the work done. The generalization about discipline is that discipline is essential for the smooth running of a business and without it . consistency of action. Unity of Command. He saw a manager's job as: • • • • • planning organizing commanding coordinating activities controlling performance Notice that most of these activities are very task-oriented. more work focus and efficiency. 4. and to continuously improve his skills. rather than people-oriented.

Fayol's work . 5. Centralization for Fayol is essential to the organization and a natural consequence of organizing.even where we are involved with team and matrix structures which involve reporting to more than one boss . Centralization (or Decentralization).a unitary where the reasons for organizational activities and decisions are in some way neutral and reasonable.employee should receive instructions from one superior only.or being accountable to several clients. Unity of command does not exist without unity of direction but does not necessarily flows from it. Payment is an important motivator although by analyzing a number of possibilities. This issue does not go away even where flatter. cabinet consensus with agree purposes and objectives and one plan for a group of activities) is clear. 7. 8. This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its personnel.is frequently centralized-decentralization!!! The modes of control over . The unity of command idea of having one head (chief executive. Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system. The general principle is that levels of compensation should be "fair" and as far as possible afford satisfaction both to the staff and the firm (in terms of its cost structures and desire for profitability/surplus). Subordination of individual interest to the general interest: Management must see that the goals of the firms are always paramount. This would spark a lively debate about who decides that the interests of the organization as a whole are. Remuneration. This is essential to ensure unity and coordination in the enterprise. devolved organizations occur. 6. the other Y and the subordinate is caught between the devil and the deep blue sea. One boss may want X.assumes a shared set of values by people in the organization . Unity of Direction. This generalization still holds . Ethical dilemmas and matters of corporate risk and the behavior of individual "chancres" are involved here. Decentralization . Fayol's line was that one employee's interests or those of one group should not prevail over the organization as a whole. People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a single plan. The basic concern is that tensions and dilemmas arise where we report to two or more bosses.

in principle and practice.the actions and results of devolved organizations are still matters requiring considerable attention. Treating employees well is important to achieve equity. Initiative. its purposes and values. Scalar chain (Line of Authority). But lateral communication is also fundamental. . instructions and actions should be understandable and understood. able to predict the organizations behavior towards them. anxiety provoking. An insecure tenure and a high rate of employee turnover will affect the organization adversely. A hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. 12. Equity. Basically an organization "should" provide an orderly place for each individual member .who needs to see how their role fits into the organization and be confident. rules. The latter is achieved through organization and selection. Both material order and social order are necessary. Thus policies. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization. as long as superiors know that such communication is taking place. Equity. Employees work better if job security and career progress are assured to them. 13. zeal. The scalar chain of command of reporting relationships from top executive to the ordinary shop operative or driver needs to be sensible. The level of generalization becomes difficult with this principle. clear and understood. Order. The former minimizes lost time and useless handling of materials. Even though it may well involve a sacrifice of ‘personal vanity’ on the part of many managers. fairness and a sense of justice "should” pervade the organization . 11. 10. Stability of tenure promotes loyalty to the organization. Time is needed for the employee to adapt to his/her work and perform it effectively. 9. In running a business a ‘combination of kindliness and justice’ is needed. enthusiasm and energy are enabled by people having the scope for personal initiative. It should not be over-stretched and consist of too-many levels. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Orderliness implies steady evolutionary movement rather than wild. At all levels of the organizational structure. Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. unpredictable movement.

A formal set of rules was bound into the hierarchy structure to insure . dissatisfaction with work. He further suggests that: “real talent is needed to coordinate effort. Max Weber (1947) expanded on Taylor's theories. Management must foster the morale of its employees. While Taylor's scientific management theory proved successful in the simple industrialized companies at the turn of the century. 3) closely supervise workers. and use reward and punishment as motivators.4-: a) Distinguish between classical & neo classical theory? b) Human relation theory & scientific mgmt? ans: a) Classical Organization Theory Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. Frederick Taylor (1917) developed scientific management theory (often called "Taylorism") at the beginning of this century. people second" has left a legacy of declining production and quality. His theory had four basic principles: 1) find the one "best way" to perform each task. loss of pride in workmanship. Initially. bureaucratic theory. Taylor was able to find the right combinations of factors that yielded large increases in production. Here Fayol emphasizes the need for building and maintaining of harmony among the work force. and a near complete loss of organizational pride. The focus was on establishing clear lines of authority and control. It recognized the importance of division of labor and specialization. The philosophy of "production first. and administrative theory. and reward each one’s merit without arousing possible jealousies and disturbing harmonious relations”. use each person’s abilities. Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of power. team work and sound interpersonal relationships.Esprit de Corps. Taylor was very successful at improving production. Q. and then carefully scrutinizing each component of the production process. By analyzing each task individually. 14. His methods involved getting the best equipment and people. and 4) the task of management is planning and control. and stressed the need to reduce diversity and ambiguity in organizations. 2) carefully match each worker to each task. encourage keenness. It represents the merger of scientific management. it has not faired well in modern companies.

1990. they found that any change had a positive impact on productivity. An organization might continually involve itself in the latest management fads to produce a continuous string of Hawthorne effects. p. The shortcomings of classical organization theory quickly became apparent. While manipulating conditions in the work environment (e. individual growth. The emphasis was on establishing a universal set of management principles that could be applied to all organizations. 1933). thus squelching creativity." (p. Neoclassical theory displayed genuine concern for human needs. principles of management) was formalized in the 1930's by Mooney and Reiley (1931).stability and uniformity. Classical management theory was rigid and mechanistic. Writing in 1939.g. Uris (1986) referred to this as the "wart" theory of productivity. The Hawthorne experiment is quite disturbing because it cast doubts on our ability to evaluate the efficacy of new management theories. "The implication is plain: intelligent action often delivers results" (Uris. Weber also put forth the notion that organizational behavior is a network of human interactions. 1986. Administrative theory (i. and motivation. p. Pascale believes that the Hawthorne effect is often misinterpreted. Its major deficiency was that it attempted to explain peoples' motivation to work strictly as a function of economic reward. Illinois (Mayo. Neoclassical Organization Theory The human relations movement evolved as a reaction to the tough. It is a "parable about researchers (and managers) manipulating and 'playing tricks' on employees. 225). The most serious objections to classical theory are that it created overconformity and rigidity. 103) Erroneous conclusions are drawn because it represents a controlling and manipulative attitude toward workers. One of the first experiments that challenged the classical view was conducted by Mayo and Roethlisberger in the late 1920's at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne. where all behavior could be understood by looking at cause and effect. It addressed many of the problems inherent in classical theory. Barnard (1968) proposed one of the first modern theories of organization by defining organization as a system of consciously coordinated .. authoritarian structure of classical theory. Nearly any treatment can make a wart go away--nearly anything will improve productivity.e. "The result is usually a lot of wheel spinning and cynicism" (Pascale. The act of paying attention to employees in a friendly and nonthreatening way was sufficient by itself to increase output.. intensity of lighting). 103).

but the human relations movement supported their existence. Organizational success was linked to the ability of a leader to create a cohesive environment. Scientific management aimed at the growth of the organization but paid little attention to the . instead of the hierarchical power structure of the organization. the informal group was now the basis of organization. Taylor’s avoided ‘informal groups’. Simon (1945) made an important contribution to the study of organizations when he proposed a model of "limited rationality" to explain the Hawthorne experiments. passive and a being that worked only for monetary rewards and ‘the one best way’ to achieve organizational goals was to maintain as much rationality as possible. The most important aspect of Simon's work was the rigorous application of the scientific method. The theory stated that workers could respond unpredictably to managerial attention. While under the human relations movement. Taylor. Barnard.activities. and Simon shared the belief that the goal of management was to maintain equilibrium. But the human relations movement believed that the existence of such informal groups would facilitate the communication and cooperation among members and would help achieve organizational goals. Reductionism. He stressed in role of the executive in creating an atmosphere where there is coherence of values and purpose. The reason was that scientific management portrayed the worker as mechanical. quantification. He proposed that a manager's authority is derived from subordinates' acceptance.e. Mayo. it might be most appropriate to think of Barnard as a transition theorist. the function of the leader was to facilitate cooperation and coordination among the employees while providing assistance and opportunities for their ‘personal growth and development’ and was to be seen as “an agent for intra and inter group communication”. While the Human Relations Movement stressed a concern for Relationships (people) i. Roethlisberger. Barnard's theory contains elements of both classical and neoclassical approaches. The function of the leader under scientific management was to set work criteria and enforce them on the workers and was to be seen as the figure of high authority. it considered the individual worker to be the basic unit of Organization. Since there is no consensus among scholars. and deductive logic were legitimized as the methods of studying organizations. The emphasis was on being able to control and manipulate workers and their environment. Weber.e. b) Scientific mgmt The scientific management movement emphasized a concern for task (output) i.

5-: Outline the major contributions of Rensis Likert. Therefore. The four systems is a result of the study that he has done with the highly productive supervisors and their team members of an American Insurance Company. the human relations movement held that the satisfaction of the worker was its main objective. Human relation theory While the human relations movement aimed at organizational growth. eventually other individuals in the academic realm were included such as superintendents. Later on. According to Taylor. Likert revised the systems to apply to educational settings. Their revision was initial intended to spell out the roles of principals. involvement. He developed his eponymous Likert Scale and the linking pin model. While. According to Mayo. “satisfied workers are motivated workers and therefore effective workers”. In the 1960s Likert developed four systems of management which described the relationship. students. satisfaction of social wants of the workers like communication and the sense of acceptance was the driving force of the organization. Q. he and Jane G. and parents. administrators. the worker under scientific management was an ‘economic man’. the sole motivator for a worker was ‘monetary incentive’. Chesrer Bernard. the worker under the human relations movement was a ‘social man’. Therefore. yet maintaining the dedication to the individual growth of the worker. According to the human relations movement. and roles between management and subordinates in industrial settings. Scientific management treated the worker as a ‘human machine’ and used the differential system’ for motivation. and teachers. and Max Weber? Ans: Rensis Likert (pronounced 'Lick-urt') (1903–1981) was an American educator and organizational psychologist best known for his research on management styles.worker’s individual growth by exercising external control over the worker’s performance. .

This responsibility is motivational especially as subordinates are offered economic rewards for achieving organisational goals which they have participated in setting. subordinates are motivated by rewards and a degree of involvement in the decision making process. Although the information from subordinate to manager is incomplete and euphemistic. introduced the idea of the informal organization — cliques (exclusive groups of people) that naturally form within a company. There is lots of communication and subordinates are fully involved in the decision making process. However involvement is incomplete and major decisions are still made by senior management. Management will constructively use their subordinates ideas and opinions. There is no teamwork involved. The organisation will use fear and threats to make sure employees complete the work set. The subordinates do not participate in the decision making. 2. He felt that these informal organizations provided . who was president of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. However employees are motivated through rewards (for their contribution) rather than fear and threats.Exploitive authoritative system (I) In this type of management system the job of employees/subordinates is to abide by the decisions made by managers and those with a higher status than them in the organisation. Consultative system (III) In this type of management system. Subordinates comfortably express opinions and there is lots of teamwork. who are members of more than one team. Likert calls people in more than one group “linking pins”. There is a greater flow of information (than in a benevolent authoritative system) from subordinates to management. The organisation is concerned simply about completing the work. Information may flow from subordinates to managers but it is restricted to “what management want to hear”. decisions are made by those at the top of the organisation and management. 'Benevolent authoritative system (II)' Just as in an exploitive authoritative system. Employees throughout the organisation feel responsible for achieving the organisation’s objectives. Teams are linked together by people. Participative (group) system (IV) Management have complete confidence in their subordinates/employees.Chester Barnard.

Max Weber In the late 1800s. where specific rules were followed. Barnard felt that four factors affected the willingness of employees to accept authority: • The • The employees must understand the communication. • The employees feel that their actions will be consistent with the needs and desires of the other employees. Barnard felt that it was particularly important for managers to develop a sense of common purpose where a willingness to cooperate is strongly encouraged. • The employees feel that they are mentally and physically able to carry out the order.necessary and vital communication functions for the overall organization and that they could help the organization accomplish its goals. In other words. He believed that organizations should be managed impersonally and that a formal organizational structure. Max Weber disliked that many European organizations were managed on a “personal” family-like basis and that employees were loyal to individual supervisors rather than to the organization. Barnard's sympathy for and understanding of employee needs positioned him as a bridge to the behavioral school of management. 3. He is credited with developing the acceptance theory of management. the next school of thought to emerge. employees accept the communication as being consistent with the organization's purposes. He thought authority should be something that was part of a person's job and passed from . was important. which emphasizes the willingness of employees to accept that managers have legitimate authority to act. he didn't think that authority should be based on a person's personality.

Weber believed that all bureaucracies have the following characteristics: •A well-defined hierarchy. This nonpersonal. • Competence. etc. (Consider a political analogy: . All positions within a bureaucracy are structured in a way that permits the higher positions to supervise and control the lower positions.” These included: • A clearly defined (and documented) set of rules and procedures. • Division of labor and specialization. A bureaucracy needs to maintain complete files regarding all its activities. objective form of organization was called a bureaucracy. accounting. • Impersonal relationships between managers and employees. Weber also stipulated that authority in an organizational setting should be based on the office itself—not on the individual.” should be the basis for all decisions made in hiring.) • rank. There is a hierarchy based on management the company handbook. purchasing. • Records. job assignments. Standard operating procedures govern all organizational activities to provide certainty and facilitate coordination. Classical organization theory is the “B” in bureaucracy. and other written instruments of company policy • individual departments (sales. This clear chain of command facilitates control and order throughout the organization.individual to individual as one person left and another took over. Competence. This is the notion of A clear chain of command. This is Division of labor according to functional expertise. and promotions in order to foster ability and merit as the primary characteristics of a bureaucratic organization. not “who you know. Managers should maintain an impersonal relationship with employees so that favoritism and personal prejudice do not influence decisions. All responsibilities in an organization are specialized so that each employee has the necessary expertise to do a particular task. Weber defined the organization elements which comprised the “ideal bureaucracy. • Rules and regulations.

many aspects of Weber’s “ideal bureaucracy” are simply measures that ensure fairness and objectivity. 6: Management environment in future is going to be more challenging requiring high degree of professionalization from management? Ans: Management is that organ of the society which is given the responsibility of making the productive use of resources for the betterment of the society. . But critics of classical organization theory charged that it placed too much faith in the infallibility of rules and procedures. while ignoring important aspects of individual motivation. Promotions should go to those Professional managers. Their past executive powers were based on the office they held —not on their individual persons. The person (or other entity) who owns the who deserve who perform well on the job.) • Individual advancement based on merit. military or business. FUTUR CHALLENGES OF MANAGEMAENT: during the last 2 decades there has been a phenomenal growth in size and complexity of an organization in every field be it government. • company doesn’t necessarily possess the expertise needed to keep it running smoothly on a day-to-day basis. As you can see. educational. medical. Que. religions.Neither Gerald Ford nor Jimmy Carter would be empowered to declare war or veto a bill today. Modern manager have the responsibility to denise the management practices to meet the new challenges & make use of the opportunities for growth of the organization.

philosophy and core beliefs.You get the behavior you reward. 3. ·Corporate culture. Corporate. The job of management is not to motivate employees but to create a positive motivational climate where employees take responsibility for their own motivation and performance. If you want effective and productive employees you must see employee development as an investment and not a cost 8. 4. It is about a fundament trust and respect for people and treating them accordingly. Integrity and ethics must be the foundation for all of your decisions and actions. Here are the five biggest challenges today.There are ten fundamental premises that will determine your overall management success. One of the critical things to remember when dealing with people is: you get the behavior you reward. 6. 10. organization and department culture all flows from the top down. failure. They are. If the culture directly or indirectly rewards a certain type of attitude or behavior. dysfunction or whatever – any where in the organization – look up the ladder for the cause and down the ladder for the solution. validation and to feel important and to feel like they belong. 7. 2. You are responsible to your employees and not for them. When you have an issue. Growing a business is not hard and it should be fun for everyone. recognition. . 9. you are. What employees want to be motivated and performance driven is appreciation. Effective management is not about the latest fad or philosophy. policies and philosophy of a manager or the organization all eventually find their way into the attitudes and performance of almost everyone in the organization. The written and unwritten rules. 5. If you want to change behavior. Before we get to the five biggest challenges facing managers I thought I would give you the ten since thet are closely related. problem. you must first evaluate the culture that is in place that may be rewarding the type of behavior you are getting but don’t necessarily want. by your actions or inactions. probably reaffirming that these are acceptable. Everything that happens in an organization is the direct or indirect result of that organization’s culture. 1.

Technological environment 5.·Communication style. Failure to give them the feedback they need is to keep them in the dark regarding the assessment of their performance and how and where they need to improve. Physical environment The trends of these environments and there relevance for future managers are: 1. Changes in social environment Factors that shape social environment  Population explosion . One way to find out what your people believe is to conduct an anonymous survey of attitudes. Most organizations do a poor job of this at best. individual counseling sessions and bulletin boards all have one thing in common – they communicate information – some more effectively and timely than others. If these decisions are made without bottom-up feedback. you can guarantee that the outcome of the decisions will be less than desired or expected. Important area which would create challenges for management are: 1. emails. Employees want to know how they are doing – whether poorly or well. Rumors. hearsay. your customers or suppliers. ·Feedback mechanisms. memos. meetings. If communication in an organization is all topdown. you can be assured that you are not in touch with the realities of your organization. One of the biggest challenges managers face today is effectively communicating corporate direction with clarity and consistency to all employees who have a right and need to know. ·Organization direction. the marketplace. Economic environment 3. Many managers make decisions that other employees will either have to implement or that will affect them. ·Decision making. International environment 4. Political environment 6. perceptions and opinions. Social environment 2.

Changes in economic environment 3. Changes in physical environment 5. Changes in political environment 6. Education level  Leisure time  Public opinion 2. Changes in technological environment  Automation  Information technology 4. Changes in International environment .

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