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**Numeracy Posters Index
**

1 Measurements : Converting Weights 2 Measurements: Converting Units of Length 3 Measurements: Converting m/mm 4 Time: 5 Time : 6 Ratio: 24 hour clock system Calculating lengths of time Using Ratios to solve problems

7 Direct Proportion 8 Rounding Round numbers to 1 decimal place 9 Order of Priority 10 Finding a percentage 11 Finding the Percentage Increase 12 Decrease by a Percentage 13 Increase by a Percentage 14 Changing a Fraction to a Percentage 15 Working out percentages without calculators 16 Working out a percentage with the calculator 17 Speed Distance Time Questions 18 Drawing Bar Charts Read information from Pie Charts Construct Pie Charts 19 Pie Charts 20 Pie Charts 21 Averages

Measurements Converting Units of Mass

1 kg= 1000g x1000 Kilogramme (kg) grams (g) Ö1000

Example 1 : Convert 2kg to g : Convert 4.6kg to g : Convert 3000g to kg : Convert 650g to kg : 2 x 1000 = 2000 g 4.6x 1000 = 4600 g 3000 Ö 1000 = 3 kg 650 Ö 1000 = 0.65 kg

**Measurements Converting Units of Length
**

Kilometres (km)

x1000

1 km= 1000m 1m = 100cm 1cm = 10mm

metres (m)

x100 x10

Ö1000 Ö100

centimetres (cm)

Ö10

Example 1 Convert 2m to cm : Convert 4km to m : Convert 34cm to mm : Convert 50cm to m :

millimetres (mm)

2 x 100 = 200 cm 4 x 1000 = 4000 m 34 x 10 = 340 mm 50 Ö 100 = 0.5 m

Measurements

**Converting between metres and millimetres
**

metres (m) Ö100 centimetres (cm) Ö10 x100 x10

1m = 1000mm

millimetres (mm)

metres (m)

centimetres (cm)

x1000

Ö1000

millimetres (mm)

Example 1 Convert 2m to mm : Convert 3.34m to mm : 2 x 1000 = 2000 mm 3.34 x 1000 = 3430 m

Convert 4000mm to m : 4000 Ö 1000 = 4 m Convert 7800mm to m : 7800 Ö 1000 = 7.8 m

Time

Converting between the 24 hour and 12 hour clock systems

**12/24 Hour Clock
**

midnight 1 am 2 am 3 am 4 am 5am 6 am 7 am 8 am 9 am 10 am 11 am

0000

0100

0200

0300

0400

0500

0600

0700

0800

0900

1000

1100

midday

1 pm

2 pm

3 pm

4 pm

5 pm

6 pm

7 pm

8 pm

9 pm

10 pm

11 pm

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

2100

2200

2300

all 24 hour clock times have 4 digits To go from 12 hour clock to 24 hour clock just add 12 to the pm hours: Example 1 8 pm becomes 2000 1830

6:30 pm becomes

To go from 24 hour clock to 12 hour clock just subtract 12 from the hours (if it is greater than 12) Example 2 2000 becomes 1730 becomes 8 pm 5:30 pm

Time

**Calculating lengths of time
**

Find the time difference between 09 46 hrs and 12 32 hrs

2 hours 32 mins

Example 1 :

14 mins

0946

1000

1100

1200

1232

**Total Time = 2 hours + 14 mins + 32 mins = 2 hours + 46 mins Example 2 :
**

13 mins

**Find the time difference between 02 47 hrs and 05 49 hrs
**

2 hours 49 mins

0247

0300

0400

0500

0549

Total Time = 2 hours + 13 mins + 49 mins = 2 hours + 62 mins = 2 hours + 1 hour + 2 mins = 3 hours + 2 mins

Ratio

Using Ratios to solve problems

**Ratios can be used to compare different quantities Example 1
**

The recipe for humous is as follows

Write the ratio of chickpeas to olives

2 garlic cloves, 4 tablespoons of chick peas, 3 tablespoons of olives , 5 ml of Tahina paste and 4 tablespoons of olive oil

Chickpeas: olives

4:3 Ratios can be used to solve problems Example 2

A chef makes more humous than normal. If he uses 16 tablespoons chickpeas. How many olives will he need to use?

chickpeas olives

x4 4 16 3 12 x4

The chef will need 12 tablespoons of olives

Direct Proportion

Example 1 If it costs 85p for 5 Mars bars, what is the cost of 3 Mars bars ? Find the cost of one !

Cost of 1 mars bar : Cost of 3 mars bars :

85 ÷ 5 = 17 p 17 x 3 = 51p

Example 2 Three nights at Marton Manor Hotel cost £165. How much would five nights cost ? Find the cost of one !

Cost of 1 night :

£165 ÷ 3 = £55

Cost of 5 nights : £55 x 5 = £275

Rounding

**Round numbers to 1 decimal place 7 .2 3 cm
**

1st decimal place 2nd decimal place

7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.40

7.20

7.21

7.22

7.23

7.24

7.25

7.26

7.27

7.28

7.29

7.30

7.2cm 7.24 7.24 is nearer to 7.2

7.3cm

7.4cm 7.38 7.38 nearer to 7.4

The rules for rounding to 1 decimal place are: If the 2nd decimal place is 4 or less - leave 1st decimal place as it is If the 2nd decimal place is 5 or more - add 1 to 1st decimal place Example : Round the numbers to 1 decimal place (a) 9.04 9.0 (1d.p) (c) 24.25 24.3 (1d.p) (b) 18.08 18.1 (1d.p) (d) 12.73 12.7 (1d.p)

Order of Priority

Brackets then Multiply or Divide then Add or Subtract Example 1 3+4x6 = 3 + 24 = 27 Example 2 3+4x6+8

Multiply = 3 + 24 + 8 then add

= 35

Example 3 18 ÷ 6 + 3 x 4 =3+3x4 = 3 + 12

Carry out Steps Divide 18 ÷ 6 = 3 then multiply 3 x 4 = 12 then add 3 + 12 = 15

= 15

Finding a percentage

Example 1

I got 30 out of 70 in my English test. What is my percentage mark?

30 x 100% 70 = 42.85…% Step 2 Then multiply your answer by 100% = 43% Step 3 Round sensibly Step 1 Divide 30 by 70

Does your answer make sense? Check by working out 50%

**Finding the Percentage Increase
**

Example 1 The volume of dough increased from 50cm3 to 74cm3 due to the effect of yeast. Work out the % increase

Step 1 Work out the increase.

74 – 50 = 24

Step 2 Divide the increase by = 24 x 100% the starting volume. 50 Step 3 Multiply your answer = 48% by 100%

Does your answer make sense?

Decrease by a Percentage

Example 1 After boiling a liquid (500ml) for 5 minutes the amount of liquid has been reduced by 8%. Work out the new amount.

Step 1 Divide 8 by 100 Step 2 Multiply your answer by 500 Step 3 Subtract your answer from 500

8 x 500 100 =40ml 500 – 40 =460ml

Does your answer make sense? Work out 10% mentally. Alternative method: Decrease by 8% = means a multiplier of 0.92 New volume = 500 x 0.92 = 460ml

Increase by a Percentage

Example 1

The volume of dough increased by 18% due to the effect of yeast. At the start the volume of dough was 26cm3. Work out the new volume of dough.

**Step 1 Divide 18 by 100 Step 2 Multiply your answer
**

by 26 to 26

18 x 26 100 =4.68cm3 26 + 4.68 =30.68cm3

Step 3 Add your answer

Does your answer make sense? Work out a 20% increase mentally. (i.e. 10% and double) Alternative method: Increase by 18% = means a multiplier of 1.18 New volume = 26 x 1.18 = 30.68cm3

**Changing a Fraction to a Percentage
**

Example 1

Change 1 to a percentage 8

Step 1 Divide 1 by 8

100%

1 =0.125 8

Step 2 Multiply your answer 0.125 x100% =12.5%

Does your answer make sense?

**Working out a percentage without the calculator The 10% Route Example 1
**

Work out 65% of £46 10% = 4.60 50%= 23.00 5% = 2.30 65% = £29.90

85%:

10% +5% 15%

100% -15% 85%

45%:

10% 20% 40% 5%

40% +5% 45%

17 ½% = 10% +5% +2 ½%

Working out a percentage with the calculator Example: Work out 65% of £46?

= 65 x 46 100 Step 2 Multiply your answer =£29.90 by 46 Step 1 Divide 65 by 100

Does your answer make sense? Work out 50%.

**Speed Distance Time Questions
**

Use the formula triangle !

To remember the formula Cover up the letter you need to find out

Example 1 A car travels at a speed of 40m.p.h for 3 hours What distance does it travel?

S = 40 m.p.h D=? T = 3 hours

D=SxT = 40 x 3 = 120 miles

Example 2 A lorry travels a distance of 150km in 2 hours 30mins What speed did it travel at?

S=? D = 150km T = 2hrs 30mins = 2.5 hours

S = D ÷T = 150 ÷2.5 = 60 m.p.h

**Drawing Bar Charts
**

Example : How do I draw a bar chart? Step 1 Draw and label the axes

Freq.

Step 2 Mark an even scale on the vertical axes. Mark numbers on the lines Step 3 Complete the graph by drawing in bars of the correct height. Each bar should have equal width. Step 4 Give the graph a title

Plastic Paper Type

Freq.

Plastic Paper Type

Freq.

Plastic Paper Type

Quantities of Litter

Freq.

Plastic Paper Type

•Use a sharp pencil and a ruler •Colour the bars in

Pie Charts

**Read information from Pie Charts
**

Hint : The angles in a pie chart all up to 360º Example 1 A survey of pupils favourite sport was done. 300 pupils were asked

Pie Charts are used to display all types of information

l al tb oo F

Ru gb y

S quas h

o 108o 90 36o o 54 72o

This is number of pupils asked

How many pupils liked football ? The angle for football is 108º. The total angle is 360º. Number liking football = 108 x 300 360 = 108 Ö 360 x 300 = 90

y cke C ric Ho ke Ice t

Pie Charts

Example 1

**Construct Pie Charts
**

A survey of pupils favourite sport was done. 300 pupils were asked

Favourite Sport Rugby Football Cricket Ice Hockey Squash 75 90 45 60 30

Pie Charts are used to display all types of information

The results are shown in the table Display the results in a pie chart To get the angle for Football Number liking football = 90 Total number asked Angle= 90 x 360 300 = 90 = 108º = 300

Ö 300 x 360

l al tb oo F

Ru gb y

S quas h

o 108o 90 36o o 54 72o

y cke C ric Ho ke Ice t

Averages

There are 3 types of Averages. Which one are you trying to find out?

Mean: this is usually what people think of as average Median: this is the middle number Mode: this is the number that appears most often

Example 1 Look at the following ages of children attending an after school club 5, 3 , 7, 6, 7 a)Find the mean

**Add up the numbers = 5 + 3 + 7 + 6 + 7 = 28 Divide this total by how many numbers are in the list so Mean = 28 ÷ 5 = 5.6
**

b)Find the median

**Rewrite list in order 3 ,5 ,6, 7, 7 Middle number Median = 6
**

c)Find the mode

3 ,5 ,6, 7, 7

Mode = the number which appears most often Mode = 7 ( as it appears twice in list)

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