Modeling Multiphase, Multi-Component Fluid Flow in Complex Geological Rocks

Petroleum Reservoir Simulation

Khalid Aziz Engineering Resources Engineering

Reservoir and Facilities

El Shargi field, Occidental

Deepwater Challenge
• BP operated Thunder Horse field lies beneath some 6000m of mud, rock and salt, topped by 1900m of ocean • Reservoir at over 1200 bar and 135°C • Advanced wells are required

Motivation
• Development costs for typical oil fields are many billions of dollars • Every field is different • Development and operating actions are irreversible • Models are needed to develop “optimum” strategies • Annually around $10 billion spent on reservoir models, and it is increasing

0 0.0 400.0 will increase by 50% 300.0 of OOINP is recovered • Impact of technology can be huge (~30-70%) • Technology can also reduce environmental footprint Q u a d r illio n B T U Total World Energy 1990 2002 2003 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Year .0 • Only about 35% 100.0 600.0 200.0 • By 2030 energy demand 500.0 outpacing new discoveries 700.Growing Energy Demand • Energy demand is 800.

UGS Estimates • About half the reserves of conventional oil have been produced • Unconventional oil much harder to recover .

We are not likely to be free of oil soon! • 85 million barrels/day now • 120 million barrels/day by 2030 .

Outline • What is reservoir simulation? • Underlying equations and solution techniques • Use .

) .Reservoir Simulation Gringarten. cores. well tests. seismic. outcrops. 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells. etc.

Optimization and Control (Decisions) .Data to Decisions Geosciences Engineering Simmodels Geomodels Data Collection. Interpretation and Integration History Matching and Predictions Analysis.

multiphase flow – Poorly understood fluid mechanics – Thermodynamic complexity • Complex wells and reservoir well interactions – Multiphase flow Stanford VI reservoir model 6 million nodes – Castro et al. • Strong connections to facilities and surroundings .Characteristics of the System • Complex and generally unknown geology • Multicomponent.

• • • • 10-5 10-4 Many sources Many scales (10-5 to 108 cm) Sparse Not always reliable 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 Data Simulation Cells Geological Model Cells Well Test Core Data Well Log Seismic Data Thin Sections Upscaling Downscaling Hamdi Tchelepi Pipat 2006 .

Process • Build one or more geological descriptions on a fine scale • Upscale to a computational grid • Establish boundary conditions and choose development and operating strategies • Solve appropriate equations describing flow • Predict reservoir performance • Maximize or minimize some objective function • Estimate uncertainty .

2001 .GeoModel and Upscaling • Optimum level of and techniques for upscaling to minimize errors • Gridding and upscaling are interconnected Gurpinar.

2001 Prevost 2003 Wolfsteiner et al.Gridding • Honor geology • Preserve numerical accuracy • Be easy to generate Gurpinar. 2002 . 2001 Castellini..

Equations • Mass balance for each component in the system in each block (CVFD) • Additional Constraints • Wells and Facilities • Large number of non-linear equations OGJ .

Simulator Equations ∑∑ l p nn mc ..phase c . pi pi ) i Flow Rate into Block i from Connected Blocks l Flow Rate out of Block i through Well w in i Accumulation Rate in Block i p . ..i − ∑∑ w p w mc .+1 − M c .component i l .pl+1 .pni +1 = ∑ ( Δt 1 p n n M c .

p . p λ pT .Definitions • Flow Rate mc . T = α Δx kr .l − Φ p .i ⎡ Φ p . p = ρ p yc .i ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ • Mass Accumulation • Rock φ = φ [1 + c R ( p − p o M c . p = ωc .i = ( ϒ c . p = V (φ S pω c . p ωc . p )l . p l . λ p = μp . p ) o )] kA ϒ c .

.+p1 − M cn. but expensive Partially implicit (IMPES. .pl+1 . p )l ..Methods of Solution ∑∑ l p nn mc .pl+i1 .. IMPEC) cheaper Adaptive implicit is generally the optimum approach .i − ∑∑ w p wn mc . p ) Δt 1 i i p i Flow Rate into Block i from Connected Blocks l Flow Rate out of Block i through Well w in i Accumulation Rate in Block i nn mc . = ( ϒ c .i ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ n +1 i l • • • • Explicit impractical Fully implicit most robust.pi +1 = ∑ ( M cn.i n .n +1 ⎡Φ p .l − Φ p .

equations and alignment • All primary variables or a subset treated implicitly . X s ) = 0 ⎩ ⎩ • Appropriate variables.General Formulation Non-linear equations set: F (X ) = 0 primary secondary Rewrite it as: ⎧ Fp ( X p . X s ) = 0 ⎪ ⎧ p: ⎨ ⎨ s: ⎪ Fs ( X p .

Equations • Number of equations per block varies from 3 to around 10 (nc) • Number of blocks hundred thousand to several million (nb) • Optimum time step is selected automatically • Number of nonlinear equations to be solved every timestep: nc x nb • Equations are linearized using Newton’s method • Typical problems take about 3 iterations per timestep. difficult problems may not converge .

Linearized Equations 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 200 400 600 800 nz = 74960 1000 1200 1400 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎤ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ → ⎟ ⎜ → ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ • ⎜ X ⎟ = −⎜ R ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ From Jiang 2006 .

Multi-level Sparse Block Matrix 0 200 400 • R ~ reservoir • F ~ facilities and wells 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 nz = 74960 1000 1200 1400 RR FR RF FF RW1 RW2 From Jiang 2006 .

Create one or more images of the reservoir based on available data 2. Select time step 5. Create a grid 4.Process 1. or Some constraint is violated 7. Go to 3 and continue until • • Desired time is reached. Go to 2 . Iteratively solve equations to advance solution 6. Set objectives 3.

Block-Based Linear Solvers • Block Solvers – GMRES & BiCGstab – CPR – BILU(0) – BILU(k) From Jiang 2006 (from IML) • Multi-Level Block Preconditioners .

Performance of Block Solvers 9 components. solver time 18 15 Speedup Factor 14.9 8. 100x100x5 grid (FIM).6 From Jiang 2006 .3 1 PGMRES+ ILU 12 9 6 3 0 BGMRES+ BILU PGMRES+ CPR(ILU) BGMRES+ CPR(BILU) 1.

Other Complications • • • • • Fractured Systems Mutiphase flow in wells and facilities Complex recovery processes Unconventional resources Geomechanics .

Modeling Fractures Image source: http://210.42.35.jpg From: Bin Gong 06 • Most reservoirs are fractured • Modeling individual fractures is neither possible or desirable • Usually dual media approach is used .8/ybs/images/jcz/lar7.

after Warren & Root.Dual Porosity Model Real fractured system Idealized sugar-cube model matrix fracture matrix block fracture (Aziz & Settari. 1979. 1963) From: Bin Gong 06 Main transport through fractures Flow between matrix and fracture is modeled by transfer functions Number of equations doubles .

Enhancements to Dual Porosity Models Matrix Fracture From: Bin Gong 06 • May allow flow between matrix blocks • Subgrid matrix blocks .

Modeling Fine Scale Features • Explicitly model major faults and fractures • Near well modeling Karimi Fard 2006 .

Discrete Feature Model Features are represented as interfaces between matrix control volumes Matrix Fracture Karimi Fard 2006 .

Treatment of Intersections Fractures Grid domain Computational domain Connectivity list Modified connectivity list Intermediate control-volume Star-Delta transformation Karimi Fard 2006 .

Well Model in Reservoir Simulator • Predicting pressure drop in wellbores is an important component • Wellbore flow model needs to be simple. continuous. and differentiable .

Gas-Liquid Flow in Pipes Horizontal Flow Stratified Smooth Flow Stratified Wavy Flow Elongated Bubble Flow Slug Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Bubble Flow Bubble Flow Slug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Figures from Shoham (1982) .

Modeling of Complex Processes • Limited ability to model processes involving – Fast phase changes – Chemical reactions (in situ upgrading) – Unstable fronts • Unconventional Resources .

Rock Deformation Coupled Geomechanics and Fluid Flow K L⎤ ⎡ Δtδ ⎤ ⎡F ⎤ Geomechanics Simulator ⎡ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ LT E⎥ ⎢Δ P ⎥ R Flow Simulator ⎣ ⎦⎣ t ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ .

Subsidence in North Adriatic From ENI .

General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) Design field SimMaster belonging inheritance core concepts facilities solvers reservoir other surfac stdwell mswell wells wellgroup … grid fluid rock smart wells From Jiang 2006 .

Object Oriented Design field SimMaster SimMaster SimMaster facilities surfac stdwells mswells wells solvers reservoir grid rock …… facilities surfac stdwells mswells wells solvers reservoir grid rock …… facilities surfac stdwells mswells wells solvers reservoir grid rock …… smart wells smart wells smart wells reservoir 1 From Jiang 2006 reservoir 2 reservoir 3 .

Concluding Remarks • There have been continuous improvements in simulation techniques over the past 50 or so years • Many challenges remain to make reservoir simulators more accurate. efficient and robust • Benefits can be huge .

Acknowledgements • Based on the work of many students and colleagues • Supported by SUPRI-B and SUPRI-HW consortia. and the new Smart Fields Consortium (SUPRI-SFC) • Additional support from DOE and several oil companies .

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