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CHAPTER 4

Knowledge and Understanding

TRUE/FALSE
1. A schema is a set of associations linked to a concept.
Ans: T
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2. Similar to the U.S., European couples traditionally prefer diamond engagement rings.
Ans: F
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3. Marketers do not want their brands to have salience.


Ans: F
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4. A brand image is a subset of associations that reflect what a brand stands for and how favorably it is viewed.
Ans: T
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5. A brand image represents all associations linked to the brands schema.


Ans: F
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6. AFLAC increased its brand recognition among Americans to 99 percent after introducing the white duck as
its mascot.
Ans: F
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7. If Oreo Cookies were to introduce Oreo Ice Cream, this would be a brand extension.
Ans: T
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8. A brand extension can cause confusion about what the brand stands for.
Ans: T
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9. Consumers that have a strong positive image of a brand prior to the brand suffering a crisis were likely to
suffer more image damage then a brand where consumers had a negative image association.
Ans: F
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10. Louis views Coke as a better example of a soft drink than Dr. Pepper; this is an example of graded structure.
Ans: T
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11. According to categorization theory, prototype is an experimental product that is tested in the market.
Ans: F
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12. The dairy section of a supermarket is considered a subordinate category with shelves for cheese, milk,
yogurt, etc.
Ans: F
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13. A brand can be a member of both a taxonomic and a goal-derived category.


Ans: T
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14. Tyler is trying to decide where to go to lunch in 15 minutes. His choice will probably be based on a high
level of construal.
Ans: F
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15. Japanese women incorrectly categorized Good Housekeeping magazine as a magazine for housemaids. This
is an example of the wrong schema being introduced.
Ans: F
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16. In the United Kingdom a movie that is considered a bomb at the box office is considered a success.
Ans: T
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17. Western consumers associate the color white with purity and cleanliness, but Asian countries perceive the
color white to signify death.
Ans: T
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18. Juxtaposed imperatives are headlines that contain two sentences placed next to each other.
Ans: T
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MULTIPLE CHOICE
19. ______________ is information we already have in memory.
a. Knowledge content
b. Knowledge structure
c. Elaboration
d. Categorization
e. Cognitive attention
Ans: a
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20. Categorization is when consumers


a. label or identify an object.
b. perceive that an object exists.
c. attend to an object.
d. sort through their objects.
e. elaborate on an emotion.
Ans: a
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21. ______________ is the way in which knowledge is organized.


a. Knowledge content
b. Knowledge structure
c. Elaboration
d. Categorization
e. Cognitive attention
Ans: b
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22. Comprehension is
a. the understanding of what has already occurred.
b. the acknowledgement of how items should be categorized.
c. memories of past events and their meaning.
d. knowing how to process information to be used later.
e. the process of using prior knowledge to understand what has been categorized.
Ans: e
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23. A schema is
a. the set of negative emotions associated with an image.
b. the set of positive emotions associated with an image.
c. the set of associations linked to a concept.
d. an affective network.
e. the memories associated with being cheated.
Ans: c
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24. Categorizing involves relating what we perceive in our external environment to


a. incoming stimuli.
b. outgoing stimuli.
c. affect.
d. what we already know.
e. attachments of an affective nature.
Ans: d
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25. Associations linked with schemas can be described along the all the following dimensions except
a. favorability.
b. salience.
c. attractiveness
d. uniqueness.
e. abstractness.
Ans: d
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26. Both hamburgers and Ronald McDonald may come to mind when a consumer thinks about McDonalds.
While other fast food restaurants serve hamburgers, Ronald McDonald is ____________________ to
McDonalds.
a. unique
b. salient
c. abstract
d. favorable
e. ubiquitous
Ans: a
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27. Brawny paper towels recently introduced a new Brawny Man who is the epitome of the strong, sensitive,
caring, gentle, thoughtful man. Through this character, Brawny is trying to establish a
a. cognitive schema.
b. brand personality,
c. affect-driven schema.
d. brand extension.
e. brand cognition.
Ans: b
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28. We might always retrieve the association of Golden Arches when we hear the McDonalds name. The
association that McDonalds works to make its packaging environmentally friendly may only be retrieved
if someone starts talking about the environment. This is best thought of as an example of associations linked
with a schema that vary due to
a. uniqueness.
b. favorability.
c. perceptions.
d. size.
e. salience.
Ans: e
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29. Associations can vary in ______________; that is, the extent to which they are also related to other
concepts.
a. uniqueness
b. favorability
c. perceptions
d. size
e. salience
Ans: a
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30. Joshua likes ice cream a lot, likes cake somewhat, but does not like cookies at all. This is an example of
schemas that vary by
a. uniqueness.
b. favorability.
c. perceptions.
d. size.
e. salience.
Ans: b
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31. A schema for ourselves is known as a


a. personality image.
b. personality schema.
c. self-schema.
d. schematic self.
e. personal association.
Ans: c
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32. A brand image is a
a. neural impression of the sound or visual part of a brand and logo.
b. subschema of brand equity.
c. cognition of brand icons.
d. subset of associations that are the most salient and make the brand different from other brands in
the category.
e. subcognition of branding.
Ans: d
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33. If our ____________ of Coke is favorable, it may include such associations as tastes great and picks me
up.
a. subschema
b. product category schema
c. cognition
d. brand image
e. subcognition
Ans: d
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34. The brand personality framework includes all of the following personality types except
a. sincerity.
b. excitement.
c. competence.
d. sophistication.
e. indulgence.
Ans: e
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35. Home Depot is personified as a down-home, honest, thrifty, helpful, working-class man. This is an example
of a(n)
a. personality schema.
b. product category schema.
c. cognitive schema.
d. affective personal schema.
e. brand personality.
Ans: e
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36. The feminine personality of Whirlpool helps identify which styles and colors will be most appealing to
buyers. The company now uses female voice-overs in its ads to align the advertising with the brands
personality more closely. This is an example of a company
a. adding a brand extension.
b. adding a line extension.
c. creating a new brand image.
d. extending associations that are linked with the brand.
e. elaborating on a brand personality.
Ans: e
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37. Marketers must create schemas when products are
a. new.
b. complicated.
c. cobranded.
d. too elaborate.
e. extended.
Ans: a
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38. Ford recently sold the rights to use the Mustang brand on a mens cologne. This is an example of
a. co-branding.
b. product extension.
c. franchising.
d. licensing.
e. brand salience.
Ans: d
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39. The Tropical Delights Company started a series of ads showing people eating its ice cream in a variety of
exotic tropical settings. Their ad campaign is best thought of as an attempt to ___________ the offering.
a. remind consumers of
b. position
c. persuade consumers of the superiority of
d. extend the brand of
e. extend the line of
Ans: b
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40. Marketers can position a company, product, brand, store, or service as different from others by creating
associations that are
a. soothing and relaxing.
b. exciting and thought provoking.
c. unique to the entity and salient.
d. similar in content to the object in different product or store categories.
e. customized to each individual.
Ans: c
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41. A marketing strategy in which two companies brand names are presented together on a single product is
known as a(n)
a. brand extension.
b. marketing merger.
c. image merger.
d. brand alliance.
e. dual image.
Ans: d
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42. The Disney Company has decided to sell its rights to Donald Duck to an overseas firm to manufacture a line
of clothing. This is best known as
a. a legal transformation.
b. a brand extension.
c. a brand association.
d. licensing.
e. a product association.
Ans: d
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43. An important consequence of brand extensions is that consumers often


a. diminish their set of associations with the new product.
b. develop a lower set of expectations for the new product due to the associations they carried from
the original product.
c. are able to create an entirely new brand personality.
d. are able to create an entirely new brand image that is different from the image of the original
product.
e. transfer associations and affect from the original brand schema to the brand extension.
Ans: e
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44. A danger of too many brand extensions is that


a. the associations that are transferred to the new product will be too strong.
b. motivation to process the brand image will be too high.
c. it will be impossible to create a new brand name.
d. it can dilute, not elaborate, the original brand image.
e. there will be too many associations linked with the original brand name.
Ans: d
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45. Originally the brand name Mountain Dew referred to illegally produced alcohol (moonshine) and their ads
depicted Willie the Hillbilly exclaiming Yahoo, Mountain Dew. Now Mountain Dews ad feature
actors participating in extreme sports. This is an example of repositioning a brand by changing consumers
a. subordinate categorization.
b. graded structures.
c. product prototypes.
d. objective comprehension.
e. schema for the brand.
Ans: e
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46. You know that when you enter a fancy, expensive restaurant that you wait to be seated, speak in a quiet
voice, and leave a tip. These are all parts of your ____________________ for fine dining.
a. script
b. brand image
c. salient behavior
d. behavioral intensions
e. graded structure
Ans: a
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47. Sprint has begun sponsoring the NASCAR cup series of automobile races. By associating its name with
NASCAR, Sprint is trying to
a. change consumers schema for automobile racing.
b. change consumers schema for NASCAR.
c. strengthen and develop Sprints existing brand personality.
d. increase attendance at NASCAR events.
e. All of the above are correct.
Ans: c
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48. For many Americans, the town of Goa in India may have a schema, but the problem is that most travelers
a. would have few associations linked with this town.
b. would have too many associations linked with this town.
c. are able to transfer associations from other places to this town.
d. would be unable to develop associations linked to this town.
e. would have associations that are salient and unique to the area.
Ans: a
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49. After doctors discovered that children who took aspirin for viral infections could develop deadly Reyes
syndrome, St. Joseph brand aspirin repositioned their product for adults. This is an example of a company
a. reducing clutter for brand image.
b. reducing elaboration for a brand.
c. protecting its brand image.
d. creating a new brand name.
e. reducing attention time and increasing processing efficiency.
Ans: c
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50. Lipton replaced the image of its founder Sir Thomas J. Lipton with a trendier tea drinking character. This is
an example of replacing the __________ to change the brand schema.
a. brand symbol
b. brand extension
c. line extension
d. image elaboration
e. elaboration
Ans: a
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51. By associating its brand with a traditional symbol of masculinity, the cowboy, Marlboro successfully
changed the image of the brand from a womens to a mens cigarette. This is an example of
a. elaborating a schema using verbal stimuli.
b. changing a schema using nonverbal stimuli.
c. elaborating a schema using nonverbal stimuli.
d. changing a schema using verbal stimuli.
e. extending associations that were linked to the brand.
Ans: b
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52. A(n) _________ is a special type of schema that represents knowledge of a sequence of events.
a. association
b. link
c. script
d. role
e. sequential schema
Ans: c
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53. Scripts are best at helping marketers to better understand how consumers
a. process information at one point in time.
b. remember information at one point in time.
c. buy and use an offering.
d. feel about an brand.
e. feel about an ad.
Ans: c
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54. A(n) _________ is simply an orderly classification of objects with similar objects in the same category.
a. category script
b. object script
c. product schema
d. object schema
e. taxonomic category
Ans: e
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55. Although we might have separate schemas for Coke, Pepsi, Diet Coke, and so on, these schemas might be
clustered in one category because they are all soft drinks. This is an example of a(n)
a. taxonomic category.
b. object script.
c. product schema.
d. object schema.
e. category script.
Ans: a
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56. Category members vary in how well they represent a category. This is known as
a. taxonomic categorization.
b. representative heuristic.
c. graded structure.
d. affective structure.
e. cognitive structure.
Ans: c
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57. As the early industry leader, the iPod became an example in consumers minds for portable digital music
players. It is a
a. taxonomic representative.
b. category ideal.
c. structured taxonomic ideal point.
d. prototype.
e. maxima.
Ans: d
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58. Two factors that would determine whether something is regarded as a prototypical category include the
frequency with which an object is encountered as a category member and
a. solid association content.
b. type of schema.
c. hierarchically graded structure.
d. schematic extensions.
e. shared associations.
Ans: e
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59. The frequency with which an object is encountered as a category member, such as Coca-Cola as a cola,
often makes it a
a. prototype.
b. taxonomic representative.
c. category ideal.
d. premium brand.
e. maxima.
Ans: a
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60. When the goal is to appeal to a broad segment of consumers, one strategy is for a company entering a
product category to
a. position the brand separately from the other brands.
b. position the brand close to the category prototype.
c. increase the number of associations with the product category.
d. change the brand name.
e. create an entirely new set of associations for the brand.
Ans: b
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61. It is difficult for manufacturers of healthy food to convince consumers that their products taste good
because healthy food and lack of taste are
a. prototypes.
b. exemplars.
c. correlated attributes.
d. line extensions.
e. loss leaders.
Ans: c
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62. Hierarchically structured categories range from _________ as the broadest to _________ in the middle to
_________ as the finest level of categorization.
a. subordinate / basic / superordinate
b. basic / subordinate / superordinate
c. basic / superordinate / subordinate
d. superordinate / subordinate / basic
e. superordinate / basic / subordinate
Ans: e
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63. Bose originally had difficulty in convincing consumers that they manufactured a high quality sound system
because consumers thought only large speakers could product high quality sound. Bose had to change
consumers
a. stereotypes.
b. assimilated associations.
c. correlated attributes.
d. infernal inferences.
e. salient attributes.
Ans: c
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64. Starbucks coffee and Arrowhead bottled water are both members of the beverage category. Although they
have a few common associations, they also have many that are different. Beverages are an example of a
__________ level of categorization.
a. overarching
b. basic
c. exemplary
d. superordinate
e. subordinate
Ans: d
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65. The difference between diet and nondiet soft drinks is a fine one. This can be considered a(n) __________
level of categorization.
a. overarching
b. basic
c. exemplary
d. superordinate
e. subordinate
Ans: e
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66. The superordinate level is the __________ level of categorization in a hierarchical structure.
a. most specific
b. subordinate
c. superior
d. taxonomic
e. broadest
Ans: e
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67. As we move from superordinate to subordinate levels,


a. more attributes are used to describe the objects.
b. fewer attributes are used to describe the objects.
c. the associations become simpler.
d. the cognitive structure becomes simpler.
e. the associations become weaker.
Ans: a
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68. Consumers typically categorize objects at the


a. subordinate level.
b. basic level.
c. superior level.
d. taxonomic level.
e. superordinate level.
Ans: b
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69. Competitive positioning is often made at the


a. superior level.
b. basic level.
c. subordinate level.
d. taxonomic level.
e. superordinate level.
Ans: e
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70. For promotion, creating subordinate categories helps marketers determine
a. the attention level of viewers.
b. the motivation of viewers to watch the advertisements.
c. the length of advertisements.
d. what attributes should be emphasized to ensure correct categorization.
e. the speed of recall of brand names.
Ans: d
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71. In a grocery store, there is a dairy section. Within this section, there are sections for yogurt, cheese, milk,
and so on. This is best thought of as an example of the use of _________ within the retail environment.
a. feature displays
b. schemas
c. correlated attributes
d. prototypes
e. hierarchical structure
Ans: e
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72. Although objects may have very different features, they can be assigned to the same category by individuals
if
a. they serve the same consumer goals.
b. they are part of different but interesting schemas.
c. they are in the same taxonomic category.
d. some are in basic and some are in superordinate categories.
e. all are in superordinate categories.
Ans: a
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73. Expensive wine, caviar, and desserts that are served to guests can be marketed similarly. This is an example
of using ____________ to assign products to the same category.
a. taxonomic categories
b. goal-derived categories
c. correlated attributes
d. hierarchical structures
e. prototypical structures
Ans: b
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74. Members of goal-derived categories may actually be a reflection of the set of objects that
a. are recalled.
b. are recognized.
c. consumers choose from when making consumption decisions.
d. are prototypes.
e. are hierarchical in nature and affect our consumption decisions in the same way.
Ans: c
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75. All of the following might be variations in knowledge content and structure across cultures except that
a. differences may exist in the nature and strength of associations linked to a concept.
b. category prototypes and members may vary across cultures.
c. cultural groups may vary considerably in what they regard as relevant category members.
d. different cultures may have different goal-derived categories.
e. response rates may vary across cultures.
Ans: e
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76. Experts may base category membership on __________, whereas nonexperts may base category
membership on __________.
a. benefits / attributes or similarity in appearance
b. attributes or similarity in appearance / benefits
c. attributes or similarity in appearance / recall
d. attributes or similarity in appearance / goals
e. recall / goals
Ans: a
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77. In the US, breakfast often consists of bacon and eggs, however in New Zealand, one can order canned
spaghetti on toast for breakfast in most restaurants. This is an example of
a. different cultures having different members in goal-derived categories.
b. culture affecting consumers taxonomic product categories
c. cultural differences in comprehension.
d. varying degrees of consumer expertise affecting product choice.
e. really bad taste.
Ans: a
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78. Michael paid attention to a television ad and perceived that it was a life insurance commercial, but this
alone was not sufficient to influence his decision. He must also __________ what he saw.
a. be aware of
b. have a high level of attention for
c. comprehend
d. visualize
e. feel for
Ans: c
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79. Whether consumers categorize increasingly sophisticated notebook computers as computers,


telecommunications equipment, or consumer electronics will affect
a. how they are positioned and define their competition.
b. memory for the product.
c. the level of brand loyalty.
d. the level of brand awareness.
e. disposal of the product.
Ans: a
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80. If marketers of furniture categorize their brand as a recliner, but Buddy wants a sofa, he may not think of
this brand to suit his needs because
a. it is categorized in such a way that it will be not part of his consideration and choice.
b. it is categorized in such a way that the scheme is too elaborate.
c. it is categorized in such a way that he would not be satisfying to Buddy.
d. the categorization makes it difficult for Buddy to comprehend.
e. Buddy has not developed a category for this brand.
Ans: a
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81. Seeing a Mini Cooper car with a spoiler and racing stripes might prompt elaboration because we are more
motivated to process information that
a. we have distaste for.
b. we have trouble categorizing.
c. includes a brand name.
d. includes too much visual stimuli.
e. has too many different segments.
Ans: b
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82. ______________ reflects the extent to which consumers accurately understand or have learned what is
stated in a message.
a. Attentive understanding
b. Objective comprehension
c. Subjective comprehension
d. Associational motivation
e. Motivational attention
Ans: b
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83. ______________ reflects what we think we know and whether or not these meanings were intended by the
sender.
a. Attentive understanding
b. Objective comprehension
c. Subjective comprehension
d. Associational motivation
e. Motivational attention
Ans: c
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84. Both Goodyear and Goodrich used to advertise at the Super Bowl. Unfortunately, when consumers see the
word Good on a blimp at the Super Bowl, they think about Goodyear, not Goodrich. This is an example
of how __________ can be a waste of advertising dollars.
a. retrieval errors
b. encoding errors
c. affective effects
d. misspelling
e. miscomprehension
Ans: e
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85. Low-context cultures


a. downplay the importance of contexts in television advertising.
b. are impoverished in their history and experience, limiting schemas.
c. agglutinate words together, impoverishing the number of uses.
d. separate the words and meanings of communication from the context in which they appear.
e. are linguistically simple.
Ans: d
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86. Many consumers infer that the bottled drinks Smirnoff Ice and Bacardi Silver contain vodka and rum, when
in fact both contain a malt alcoholic beverage. This is an example how inferences about brand names can
lead to
a. miscomprehension.
b. subjective comprehension.
c. subjective reassurance.
d. objective comprehension.
e. correlated attributes.
Ans: a
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87. When Sunlite dishwashing liquid was introduced to the market, its label showed a picture of a lemon and
stated that it contained 10% real lemon juice. To stimulate consumer trial, Sunlite sent out thousands of free
samples to consumers. Afterward approximately 80 people were treated in poison centers in the US because
they drank the samples. This is an example of
a. misinterpretation.
b. objective comprehension.
c. subjective comprehension.
d. miscomprehension.
e. consumer stupidity.
Ans: d
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88. If consumers see a cow and a milk pitcher on a label, they may think that the product contains real dairy
ingredients. This is an example of a subjective comprehension that is based on a(n) ______________ from
the product label.
a. linguistic misunderstanding
b. objective comprehension
c. motivational understanding
d. basic level categorization
e. inference
Ans: e
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89. Talphs Supermarket. Nobody gives you more. This is best thought of as an example of
a. an incomplete comparison.
b. juxtaposed imperatives.
c. implied superiority.
d. multiple comparisons.
e. incomplete superiority.
Ans: a
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90. Join Flab Watchers! Lose Weight Today! This is best thought of as an example of
a. an incomplete comparison.
b. juxtaposed imperatives.
c. implied superiority.
d. multiple comparisons.
e. incomplete superiority.
Ans: b
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SHORT ANSWER / ESSAY


91. Where does categorization fit into the consumer processing of product information?
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92. Compare and contrast knowledge content and knowledge structure.


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93. Describe your schemas for five different types of cars. How could these schemas be structured?
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94. Are the associations linked with schemas important for marketers? Why or why not?
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95. Along what dimensions can we describe the associations linked with schemas? Give some examples.
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96. Describe a brand that has a personality matching each of the personality types in the framework. Why are
these brand personalities important?
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97. You have just been assigned as product manager for a new widget that has been developed. Why would
creating a schema for this widget be important? What are some factors that need to be considered?
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98. How can marketers use brand extensions? Give an example.


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99. How do marketers develop schemas?


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100. Why and how would marketers need to change, rather than elaborate, on a schema?
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101. Scripts can help marketers add value to their services. How do they do this?
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102. Compare and contrast the ways in which the information in taxonomic categories can be structured. Give
examples of each.
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103. What are the strategy implications of knowing which product is the prototype within a product category?
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104. Several factors affect whether something is regarded as a prototypical category member. Describe these
factors.
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105. Taxonomic categories are structured hierarchically. Outline this structure and its implications for marketers.
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106. How are goal-derived categories different from taxonomic categories?


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107. Give an example of a goal-derived category and the products it might contain.
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108. Discuss how a consumers culture can influence his/her knowledge structure and content.
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109. What are the factors that can lead to the comprehension or miscomprehension of marketing
communications?
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110. How is subjective comprehension different from objective comprehension and why is this difference
important for marketers?
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AACSB: Analytic