# Assignment 1 of MTH401 (Fall 2006

)

Q.No:1
2
( 2 2) ( 2 ) 0 xy x y dx x x dy + + + + + = --------------(A)
Solution:

[ ]
( 2) 1( 2) ( 2) 0
( 1)( 2) ( 2) 0
( 2) ( 1)( 2)
( 1)( 2)
( 2)
1
.( 2) (1)
( 2)
( ) . ( )
( 1)
( )
( 2)
( ) 2
( ) 0
2
x y y dx x x dy
x y dx x x dy
x x dy x y dx
dy x y
dx x x
dy x
y
dx x x
dy
h x x g y
dx
suchthat
x
h x
x x
and
g y y
Solving g y
y
+ + + + + =
+ + + + =
+ = − + +
+ +
= −
+
+
= − + − − − − − − − − − −

+

=
+
= −
+
= +
=
+ 0
2 ( )
i.e. constant solution to the given (1).
y a
=
= − − − − − − − −

For nonconstant solution, separating variables in Eq. (1)

1
2 ( 2)
dy x
dx
y x x
+
= −

+ +

Integrating,

2
2
1
2 2
( 2) 1 (2 2)
( 2)
( 2) 2 2
dy x
dx
y x x
d y x
dx dy d y
y x x
+
= −
+ +
+ +
= − = +
+ +
∫ ∫
∫ ∫

2
2
2 2
1
1
2
2
2
1 ( 2 )
ln 2
2 2
1
ln 2 ln 2 ( 2 ) (2 2)
2
ln 2 ln( 2 ) ln
d x x
y
x x
y x x c d x x x dx
y x x c

+
⇒ + = −
+
⇒ + = − + + + = +
+ = + +

As ln ln m y ym =
And
1 2
ln ( ) c c say =

1
2
2
2
ln 2 ln ( 2 ) y x x c

+ = +

Taking antilog to base ‘e’ on both sides

1
2
2
2
2 ( 2 ) y x x c

⇒ + = +
So, exact explicit form is

2
2
2 ( ) ( )
2
c
y b where c c say
x x
= − − − − − − − =
+

Finally, combining both (a) & (b); so that solution (constant and
nonconstant) are

2
2
2
2
c
y
x x
y
¦
= −
¦
+ ´
¦
= −
¹

Q.No:2

2 2 2
( ) 0 x xy y dx x dy + + − =
Solution:

2 2 2
( ) 0 x xy y dx x dy + + − =

2 2 2
2 2
2
( )
( , ) (1)
x xy y dx x dy
dy x xy y
f x y
dx x
⇒ + + =
+ +
⇒ = = − − − − − − −

2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
0
Replace (1)
( )( )
( , )
tx x and ty y in
dy t x tx ty t y
dx t x
t x xy y
t x
t f x y
→ →
+ +
⇒ =
| | + +
=
|
\ ¹
=

⇒ Given diff.eq is homogeneous of degree zero.
Put solution put
( )
2 2 2
2
2
( )
(1)
1
(1, )
y
v
x
dy d
vx
dx dx
dv
v x
dx
dv x x vx v x
v x
dx x
v v
f v
=
⇒ =
= +
+ +
∴ ⇒ + =
= + +
=

( )
2
2
2
1
1 (2)
1
1
( ). ( )
dv
v x v v
dx
dv
x v
dx
dv
v
dx x
h x g v
+ = + +
⇒ = + − − − −− − −
= +
=

Where,

2
1
( ) ( ) 1 h x and g v v
x
= = +

For constant solution solving

2
2
For constant solution,
put ( ) 0
1 0
1
g v
v
v
v i
y
i
x
y ix
=
⇒ + =
⇒ = −
⇒ = ±
= ±
= ±

Which are imaginary.

Now separating variables in (2) to find nonconstant solutions;

2
2
(2)
1
;
1
dv dx
v x
Onintegrating
dv dx
v x
∴ ⇒ =
+
=
+
∫ ∫

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
1
tan ln
tan ln
tan ln
tan ln
v x c
v x c
y
x c
x
y x x c

= +
= +
= +
= +

i-e is the required real solution

Q.No:3

2 3 2
(2 cos 3 ) ( sin ) 0 (1) x y x y dx x x y y dy + + − − = − − − − −

Solution:

2
2
2 cos 3
2 sin 3
Here
M x y x y
M
x y x
y
= +

⇒ = − +

3 2
2
sin
3 2 sin
(1) .
N x x y y
N
x x y
x
M N
y x
is exact
= − −

= −

∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

L.H.S. of (1) is an exact differential i.e. there exist a function f(x,y) s.t.

2
3 2
2 cos 3 (2)
sin (3)
f
x y x y M
x
f
x x y y N
y

= + = − − − − − −

= − − = − − − − − −

Integrating (2) w.r.t. ‘x’,we get

2
( , ) 2 cos 3 ( ) f x y x y dx x y dx h y = + +
∫ ∫

Where h(y) is constant of integration w.r.t.’x’

2
2 3
( , ) (2cos ). (3 ) ( )
cos ( ) (4)
f x y y xdx y x dx h y
x y x y h y
= + +
= + + − − − −− −
∫ ∫

Now diff. w.r.t.’y’,we get

2 3
3 2 3 2
2
2
2 3
sin ( ) (3)
sin ( ) sin (Using value of N)
( )
( )
2
(2)
( , ) cos
2
f
x y x h y N from
y
x x y h y x x y y
h y y
y
h y
So required solution
y
f x y x y x y c

′ = − + + =

′ = − + = − −
′ ⇒ = −

⇒ =
∴ = + − =

Alternate Method:

2
2
2 cos 3
2 sin 3
Here
M x y x y
M
x y x
y
= +

⇒ = − +

3 2
2
sin
3 2 sin
(1) .
N x x y y
N
x x y
x
M N
y x
is exact
= − −

= −

∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

Therefore diff.eq: has solution given by

y-Constant
2
Students remember above formula
for the solution of exact Differential equati
( )
(2 cos 3 ) (
on
{
}
)
Mdx terms of N not containing x dy c
x y x y dx y dy c
+ =
+ + − =
∫ ∫
∫ ∫

2
2
2
2 3
(2cos ) 3
2
cos
2
y
y x dx y x dx c
y
x y yx c
+ − =
+ − =
∫ ∫

Assignment 2 of MTH401 (Fall 2006)

Maximum Marks 30
Due Date 26 October
2006
Assignment Weight
age 2%

Question 1 marks
10

1
' 4
3
3
. Check whether the differential equation y y x y either linear or bernoulli and also find its solution
x
− =
Solution:
1
4
3
3
(1) y y x y
x
′ − = −− − − − − −

It is a non-linear, Bernoulli’s equation when compared with
( ). ( ).
n
y P x y Q x y ′ + =

Such that
4
3 1
( ) ; ( ) ;
3
P x Q x x n
x
= − = =

1
3
(1) ; Dividing by y so

1
1
4
3 3
1
2
4
3 3
1
2
3 3
1
3
1
3
4
4
3
(1)
3
(2)
2
3
2
(1)
3
3
2
3 3
2
2 2
(2)
3
y y y y x
x
y y y x
x
dv dy
Put v y y
dx dx
v y y in
v y y
v v x
x
v v x
x

′ ⇒ − =
′ − = − − − − −
= ⇒ =
′ ′ =
′ ′ =
′ − =
′ ⇒ − = − − − − − −

i.e. linear diff.eq. in ‘v’ with
4
2 2
( ) ; ( )
3
p x q x x
x
= − =

So, integrating factor for (2) is
( )
2
( )
2
2ln
ln
2
2
2
4
3
2 2
2
3
2
3
3
2
. .
1
.(2); .
( . .) ( ) .
1 2 1
. ( . )
3
2
3
2
.
3 3
1 2
.
9
p x dx
dx
x
x
x
I F e
e
e
e
x
Multiplying it witheq suchthat it becomes exact
x
Thereforeits solutionis givenby
v I F q x I F dx c
y x dx c
x x
x dx c
x
c
y x c
x

=

=
=
=
=
=
= +

= +
= +
= +
= +

2
5 2
3
3
5 2
2
2
9
2
( )
9
.
y x cx
y x cx
Hencetheresult
= +
= +

Question 2
marks 10

Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of the curves
2
4 y cx = .
Solution:

2
4 y cx = ---------- (A)
Diff. w.t.r. ‘x’; we get
2
2
2
2 4
2
(1)
(1) .
1
2
2
2
. . .
1
2
1
2
1
ln
2
.
( )
,
x
D
c
x
D
c
x
c
dy
y c
dx
dy c
dx y
eq for theorthogonal family
dy
c
dx
y
y
c
dy y
dx c
i e Seperablelinear eq So
dy
dx
y c
Integrating
dy
dx
y c
y x D
c
y e
e e
y Ae B
Hence family of curv
− +

=
⇒ − − − − − −

= −
= −
= −
= −
= −
= − +
=
=
⇒ = − − − − −
∫ ∫
( ) ( ).
.
e A areorthogonal to family B
Hence the result

Question 3 marks 10

The population of a certain country is known to increase at a rate proportional to the number of
people presently living in the country. If after two years the population has doubled, and after
three years the population is 20,000, estimate the number of people initially living in the
country.

Solution:
Suppose that
0
P is initial population of country and P(t), the population at any time ‘t’ then
population growth is governed by the diff.eq.

0
0
0 0
2
(0.3457)
0
(1)
'
( ) (2)
(2) 2
(2) 2
2
2 ln(2)
ln 2
2
0.693147
2
0.3457
(2) ( ) (3)
2 ;
(3) 20, 000
kt
kt
k
t
dP
kP
dt
It s solutionis
P t P e
According to givencondition
P P
P P e
e
k
k
k
P t P e
According to nd condition
P Pu
= − − − − −
= − − − − −
=
∴ ⇒ =
⇒ =
⇒ =
⇒ =
=
=
∴ ⇒ = − − − −
=
(0.3457)(3)
0
1.03972
0
0 1.03972
(3)
(3)
20, 000
20, 000
7071.07
7071
t in
P P e
P e
P
e
P
=
=
=
=

i.e. initial population of community.
Hence the result.

Assignment 3 of MTH401 (Fall 2006)

Maximum Marks 30
Due Date 11
November 2006
Assignment Weight
age 2%

Question 1 marks
10
Find the Wronskian of the functions;
(2ln ) & (2ln ). x Cos x x Sin x
α α

Also find the values of ‘x’, for which above functions are linearly dependant and independent.
Solution:
Let
[ ] [ ]
1 2
' 1 1 ' 1 1
1 2
1 1
cos(2ln ) sin(2ln )
cos(2ln ) 2 sin(2ln ) ; sin(2ln ) 2 cos(2ln )
cos(2ln ) 2sin(2ln ) ; sin(2ln ) 2cos(2ln )
f x x and f x x
f x x x x f x x x x
x x x x x x
α α
α α α α
α α
α α
α α
− − − −
− −
= =
= − = +
= − = +

[ ] [ ]
1 2
1 2
' '
1 2
1 1
2 1 2 2 1 2
( , )
cos(2ln ) sin(2ln )
cos(2ln ) 2sin(2ln ) sin(2ln ) 2cos(2ln )
sin(2ln ) cos(2ln ) 2cos (2ln ) sin(2ln ) cos(2ln ) 2sin (2ln )
f f
Wronskian of both functions W f f
f f
x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
− −
− −
= =
=
− +
= + − −

=
2 1
2x
α−

Linear InDependence:

{ }
1 2
1 2
1 2
2 1
2 1
( , )
( , ) 0
.
. . ( , ) 0
2 0
0
0
0
As both f and f arederivableon
Sotheir W f f
Their linear independence
i e W f f
x
x
x
Functions arelinear independent x R
α
α

−∞ ∞

⇒ ≠

∴ ∀ ∈ −

Linear dependence:

1 2
2
1
1
1 2
2
1
1 2
1
1
1 2
1
cos(2ln ) sin(2ln ) 0 (1)
cos(2ln ) sin(2ln ); 0
.
(1) (2ln )
2ln ( ) 0
1
ln ( )
2
Taking
C x x C x x
C
x x x x C
C
Both functions arelinearly dependent if at least oneC or C is not zero
C
Now Cot x
C
C
x Cot C
C
C
x Cot
C
x
α α
α α

+ = − − − − −
= − ≠
⇒ − =
= − =
= −

1 2
1
1
( )
2
. . .
.
C
Cot
C
e
i e Exponential functionand defined for all real numbers
Functions arelinear dependent x R

=

⇒ ∀ ∈

Question 2
marks 10
Solve the IVP,
7 19 13 0; (0) 0, (0) 2 & (0) 12 y y y y y y y ′′′ ′′ ′ ′ ′′ + + + = = = = −
Solution:
Corresponding Auxiliary equation of differential equation is

3 2
7 19 13 0 m m m + + + =
By inspection, we can see that m = -1 be its one root.
So using the Synthetic Division Method,

11 7 19 13
0 1 6 13
1 6 13 0

− − −
Now, depressed equation is

[ ]
[ ]
2
3
1 2 3
1 2
2 3
1 2 3 2
6 13 0
6 36 52
2
6 16
2
6 4
2
3 2 , 3 2
cos 2 sin 2 (1)
1 (0) 0 (1)
(1) 0 (2)
. .(2);
3 cos 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 2
x x
x x x
m m
m
i
m i i
Solution is
y C e e C x C x
Put st condition y in
C C
Diff eq
y C e e C x C x e C x
− −
− − −
+ + =
− ± −
=
− ± −
=
− ±
=
= − + − −

= + + − − − − −
=
∴ ⇒ + = − − − − − −
′ = − − + + − +
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
3
/
1 2 3
1 2 3
3 3
1 2 3 2 3
3 3
2 3 2
cos 2 (3)
2 (0) 12;
2 3 0 0 2
3 2 2 (4)
(3) . . ' '
9 cos 2 sin 2 3 2 sin 2 2 cos 2
4 cos 2 4 sin 2 3 2 sin 2 2
x x x
x x
C x
Put nd condition y
it C C C
C C C
Differentiating wr t x
y C e e C x C x e C x C x
e C x C x e C x
− − −
− −
− − − − −
=
⇒ = − − + + +
− − + = − − − − −
′′ = + + − − +
+ − − − − +
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
3
//
1 2 3 2 3
1 2 3
3
2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
cos 2 (5)
3 (0) 12;
12 9 3 2 4 3 2
9 6 4 6
12 5 12 (6)
: (2), (4) &(6)
;
0; 0; 1
.(1) sin 2
x
C x
Put rd conditon y wehave
C C C C C
C C C C C
C C C
Solving eqs simultaneously
wehave
C C C
Eq i e the req y e x ui

− −− −
= −
− = + − + − −
= + − − −
− = + − − − − − − − −
= =
− =
=
⇒ . red solution

Question 3 marks 10
If the rate of spread of dengue virus is proportional to infected & non infected persons. Then
what will be number of infected persons after 2 weeks provided that a man carrying this virus,
come back to his community of 10000.Further it is provided that after one week, carriers
increase to 98.
Solution:

( )
(0) 1 { 0}
Assuming 10,000.
,
10,000 ; (0) 1
logistic
a man carries dengue virus initially enter community
x i e no of carrier at t
no one leaves from community of
So initial value problem is
dy
kt t x
dt
i e equation when comparing with
dP
∴ = − =
= − =

( )
0
0
0 0
10,000 10,000
( ) 10000 ,
'
( ) ; (0) 1
,
10,000 10,000
( ) (1)
9999 1 9999
,
at
kt kt
P a bP such that a k b k
dt
It s solution is given by
aP
P t Here P x
bP a bP e
So
k
x t
k e e
it is given that after one week

− −
= − = =
= = =
+ −
= = −−−−−
+ +

10,000(7 )
70,000
70,000
98
(7) 98
10000
(1) 98
1 9999
98 98(9999 ) 10,000
10000 98
98 9999
log,
10000 98
70,000 ln( ) ln
98 9999
1 10000 98
ln
70,000 98 9999
k
k
k
number of carriers i e
x
e
e
e
Taking anti we have
k e
k

| |
|
|
\ ¹
|
= −
=
∴ ⇒ =
+
+ =

=
×

− =
×

= −
×
10,000(0.0000656388)
0.0000656388
10000
(1) ( ) (2)
1 9999
, ;
14 (2)
(14) 4947.9 (14) 494 8 8
t
k
x t
e
So for after two weeks no of carriers
Put t in
x x

|
|
|
\ ¹
=
∴ ⇒ = −−−−
+
=
≈ ≅ ⇒

Assignment 4 of MTH401 (Fall 2006)

Maximum Marks 30
Due Date 11
November 2006
Assignment Weight
age 2%

Question 1 marks
10
Using the method of undetermined coefficient, find the appropriate form of particular
solution of differential equation;
( ) ( )
5 1 1 y y x Cosx x Sinx + = + + − ′
.
Solution:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1
1 0 1 0
2
1 0 1 0
( ) ( ).
( ) ( 1) sin
sin cos (2)
( ) ( 1) cos
sin cos
5 1 1 (1)
( ) ( 1)sin ( 1)cos
( ) x g x
g x x x is given as
C x C x D x D x
and for
g x x x is given as
E x E x F x F x
y y x Cosx x Sinx
g x x x x x
Let g x g
Here assumed solution for
+
= −
+ + + − − − −
= +
+ + + − −−
+ = + + − −−−− ′
= − + +
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
(3)
(2) &(3) . . . (1);
sin cos sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
;
p
p
p
i i i
Combining for R H S of we have particular solution as
y C x C x D x D x E x E x F x F x
y C E x C E x D F x D F x
y A x A x B x B x
Where
A C E i

= + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + +

= + + +
= + = 0,1
; 0,1
j j j
B D F j = + =

Hence the result.

Question 2
marks 10
Solve

3
y y Tan x ′′ + = .
By using method of variation of parameters.

Solution:
Associated auxiliary equation is
( )
2
1 2
1
1 2
2 2
1 0
cos sin
cos ; sin
cos sin
,
sin cos
cos sin
1
c
c
m
m i
y C x C x
Here
y x y x
x x
W y y
x x
x x
+ =
⇒ = ±
⇒ = +
= =
∴ =

= +
=

Now
4
1 3 3
3
2 2 3
4 3
' ' 1 2
1 2 3 2
4 3
1 2 3 2
2
2
2
0 sin
sin
cos tan cos
cos 0
sin
cos sin tan
sin sin
cos cos
sin sin
;
cos cos
tan .sin
(sec 1)sin
sec .sin sin
sec tan
x
x
W
x x x
and
x
x
W
x x x
So
W W x x
u u
W x W x
x x
u dx u dx
x x
x x dx
x x dx
x x dx x dx
x xd
= = −
= =

= = − = = −
⇒ = − ⇒ =
=
= −
= −
=
∫ ∫

∫ ∫
( )
1 2 1 2
4
2 3
1
1 2
1
cos
sec cos
Re
cos sin ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
sin
cos sin cos sin sec co
o
.
s
( )
c s
c p
x x
x x
quired solution is
y y y
C x C x y x u x y x u x
x
C x C x x dx x x
Here u x has very elongated approach for its solution Soit is not need to solve
x
x
+
= +

= +
= + + +
| |
= + + − + +
|
\ ¹

.

Hence the result.

However
1
u is calculated as

( )( )
( )( )
( )
.
i
4
1
3
2 2
2
2
3
3
3
3
1
2
nt
1 1
.
1
2
2ln (1)
,
.
II I
by egration b
Sin x
u dx
Cos x
Cos x Cos x
dx
Cos x Cosx
Sec x Secx Cosx dx
Sec x Secx Secx Cosx dx
Sec xdx Secxdx Cosxdx
Sec xdx Secx Tanx Sinx
Now
let I Sec xdx
Sec x Secx
= −
− −
= −
= − − −
= − − − +
= − + −
= − + + −
=
=

∫ ∫ ∫

⋯⋯⋯
( )
( )
2
2
3
1
1
1
. . .
. .
. 1
ln
2 ln
1
ln
2
y patrs
dx
Secx Tanx Tanx Secx Tanx dx
Secx Tanx Secx Tan xdx
Secx Tanx Secx Sec x dx
SecxTanx Sec xdx Secxdx
SecxTanx I Secx Tanx
I SecxTanx Secx Tanx
I SecxTanx Secx Tanx Pu
= −
= −
= − −
= − +
= − + +
= + +
= + + − − − −

∫ ∫

1
(1)
1
ln 2ln
2
1 3
ln
2 2
t in
u SecxTanx Secx Tanx Secx Tanx Sinx C
SecxTanx Secx Tanx Sinx
∴ = − + + + + − +

= − + + −

Question 3 marks 10
Find the expression for the motion of the mass, provided that a mass of 2kg is suspended from
a spring with a known spring constant of 10N/m & allowed to come to rest under no air
resistance. It is then set in motion by giving an initial velocity of 150 cm/sec.

Solution:

Equation of motion is
2
2
2
0 & .
5 0
5 0
5
( ) cos 5 sin 5 (1)
0 ; (0) 0
(1) 0
0
(1) ( ) sin 5 (2)
. . .
c
k
x x as motion goes under undamping no air resistance
m
d x
x
dt
Its auxilary equation is
m
m i
x t A t B t
At t x
A
A
x t B t
Differentiating wr t
+ =
∴ + =

+ =
⇒ = ±
∴ = + − − − − − − − −
= =
⇒ =
⇒ =
⇒ = − − − − − − − −
ɺɺ ∵
0
' ';
5 cos 5 (3)
0 ; (0) 150 / sec
(3) 150 5
150
0.6708
5
150
(2) ( ) sin 5
5
( ) (0.6708) sin 5
. . e .
t we obtained
dx
v B t
dt
At t v v cm
B
B
x t t
x t t
i e xpression for the motion
= = − − − −− − − −
= = =
∴ ⇒ =
⇒ = =
∴ ⇒ =
=

Hence the result.

Assignment 5 of MTH401 (Fall 2006)

Maximum Marks 30
Due Date 30 December
22, 2006
Assignment Weight
age 2%

Question 1 marks
10
For the motion described by the harmonic oscillator having displacement at time‘t’ given by

( )
,
7
( ) 6 1.816
6
x t Sin t = +
find the first value of time for which the mass passes through
Hint: Find the sign of velocity at different values of relevant t’s and then decide the
appropriate one.
Solution:

For spring mass system
1 2
1 2
( ) 0
( ) 0
7
sin(6 1.816) 0
6
6 1.816 ;
6 1.816 1 , 6 1.816 2 ,...... .
0.2209, 0.7445,.........
x t downword direction of motion
and
x t equilibrium position of particle
t
t n n Z
t t etc
t t
π
π π
+
> ⇒
> ⇒
⇒ + =
⇒ + = ∈
⇒ + = + =
= =

[ ]
[ ]
1
2
7
( ) sin(6 1.816)
6
7 cos(6 1.816)
7 cos 6(0.2209) 1.816 0
7 cos 6(0.7445) 1.816 0
, 0 0
at t
at t
Now
x t t
dx
t
dt
dx
dt
dx
dt
dx
For the first time through equilibrium position x from positive side and at this pos
dt
= +
= +

∴ = + <

= + >

| |
→ >
|
\ ¹
2
.
0 0.7445
0.7445
ition
dx
at t
dt
required value of time
| |
⇒ > =
|
\ ¹
∴ =
Hence the result.

Question 2
marks 10
For the harmonic oscillator under damped motion having position at time’t’given as

2
( ) 2 3 3 (1)
3
t
x t e Cos t Sin t

| |
|
|
\ ¹
= − − −−−−
find the time when the graph of the solution (1) touches the graph of exponential function

t
e

± .
Solution:
The graph of the solution
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
( ) 2cos3 sin3
3
' '
2
2cos3 sin3 1 ...........(1)
3
. . .
2
2 2 2 3
2cos3 sin3 2 cos3 sin3
3 3
2 2
2 2
3 3
t
t
x t e t t
touches the graph of e at those values of t for which
t t
Taking L H S
t t t t

= − −

±
− − = ±
| |

|
− | |
\ ¹
− − = − + − +
|
\ ¹
| | | |
− + − − + −
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
[ ]
[ ]
1
2 10 2 2 1
cos3 sin3
3 3 2 10 2 10
3 3
2 10 3 1
cos3 sin3
3 10 10
3 1
sin cos
10 10
3
tan 3
1
tan (3) 1.25
2 2 10
2cos3 sin3 sin .cos3 cos .sin3
3 3
2 10
.sin 3
3
2 10
3
t t
t t
Put and
t t t t
t
φ φ
φ
φ
φ φ
φ

− | |
= + −
|
\ ¹

= −

= =−
⇒ = =
= =
∴ − − = +
= +
= [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
1
sin 3 1.25
2 10
(1) sin 3 1.25 1
3
3
sin 3 1.25
2 10
3
3 1.25 sin 2
2 10
0.49 2
2 0.755
;
3
t
t
t
t n
n
n
t n Z
π
π
π

+
∴ ⇒ + = ±
+ = ±

+ = +

= +

= ∈

. Hence the result.

Question 3 marks 10
Find the general solution of non-homogeneous Euler –Cauchy equation

( )
2
4 ln x y xy y Sin x + + = ′′ ′ on the interval
( )
0,∞ .Also discuss why solution of
above equation does not exist on the compliment of the interval
( )
0,∞ .
Solution:
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
...........(1)
4 sin(ln ) .................(2) ;
;
ln ; ( 0)
, ( 1)
4 ln
t
We rewrite the equation in the form
d
x D xD y x where D
dx
Making transformation
x e
x t x
d
xDy D y x D y D D y D
dt
Then the given di
x y xy y Sin x
+ + = =
=
⇒ = >
| |
′ ′ ′ ′ ∴ = = − =
|
\ ¹
+ + = ′′ ′

( )
( )
' 2
1 2
1 4 sin
4 sin ..............(3)
.
(3)
cos 2 sin 2
;
c p
c
p
fferential equation is transformed into the equation
D D y D y y t
D y t
which is a differential equation coefficients
General solution of is given by
y y y
where y c t c t
For y
′ ′ ′ − + + =
+ =

= +
= +
( ) ( )
'
''
1
cos sin
sin cos ...............(4)
(4);
(3) 4 sin
cos sin 4 cos sin sin
3cos 3 sin sin
3 0 , 3
cos(
1
2
1
0
(2
ln
3
)
p
p
p p
c p
y A t B t
y A t B t
From
y y t
A t B t A t B t t
t B t t
where from we obtain
A B
A B
General solution of is
y y y
y c
= +
⇒ = − +
∴ ⇒ + =
⇒ − − + + =
⇒ + =
= =
⇒ = ⇒ =

=
=
+
( ) ] (
( )
2
0,
1
) sin(2ln ) sin(ln
, 0
0
)
3
ln
,
the complement of Set of all non positive real numbers
and the solution contain Set of all non positive real numbers
solution
x c x x
x wh
does not exists in the complement
ich is not defined for
of
∞ = −∞ = −

∴ ∞
+ +

Assignment 6 of MTH401 (Fall 2006)

Maximum Marks 30
Due Date 05
January 2007
Assignment Weight
age 2%

Question 1
mark 05+05
(a) Discuss the validity of the recursive relation;

2
3 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
c if n Evens
c if n Odds
c if n and n Odds

¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
¹
+ ∈
= ∈
> ∈
, to become the coefficients of
the power series solution;
n
n
n o
c x

=

of an ordinary differential equation (independent
variable’x’) by developing its corresponding sequence.
(b) Determine the singular points of the differential equation;

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
3 2
2 3 3 1 0 x x x y x x y x y − − + − − + = ′′ ′

Hence classify these points under regularity and irregularity.
Solution: (a)
2
3 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
For given recursive relation
c if n Evens
c if n Odds
c if n and n Odds

¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
¹
+ ∈
= ∈
> ∈

1
2 2 1
2
3 3(3) 1 8 8 4
2
4 2
2
4 4 2
2
5 3(5) 1 14 14 7
2
3(7) 1 20 2
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,........ :
1 1
2 1 1 1 1 2
3 1 1
( 1) 1 2 2 2 4
4 1 1 2 1 3
5 1 1
1 1 (
Put n to develop the progression
n c
n c c c
n c c c c c
c c
n c c c
n c c c c c
c c c

=
= ⇒ =
= ⇒ = + = + = + =
= ⇒ = = = + = +
= + + = + = + =
= ⇒ = + = + = + =
= ⇒ = = = + = +
= + = + =
0 10
2
5 10 5
2
5 5
1) 1 2
( 1) 2 3
3
0 3 . .
.
c
c c c
c c
i e false
recursive relation is invalid
+ + = +
= + + = +
⇒ = +
⇒ =

(b): For given differential equation

3 2 2 2
2
3 2 2 3 2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
( 2 3 ) ( 3) ( 1) 0
( 3) ( 1)
0
( 2 3 ) ( 2 3 )
( 3) ( 1)
0
( 3) ( 1) ( 3) ( 1)
1 1
0 .............(1)
( 1) ( 3) ( 1)
(1)
x x x y x x y x y
x x x
y y y
x x x x x x
x x x
y y y
x x x x x x
y y y
x x x x x
Computing with stand
′′ ′ − − + − − + =
− +
′′ ′ ⇒ + − =
− − − −
− +
′′ ′ + − =
− + − +
′′ ′ + − =
+ − +
2 2 2
. .
( ) ( ) 0
1 1
( ) ; ( )
( 1) ( 3) ( 1)
s
1 ; 0 ; 3
ard form i e
y P x y Q x y
P x Q x
x x x x x
Here ingularities are
x x x
′′ ′ + + =
∴ = = −
+ − +
= − = =

2
2 2
, :
1
1
( 1) ( ) .......( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1) ( ) ...............( )
( 3)
( ) 1 ( ) .
1 s
For regularities and irregularities we proceed as follows
For x
Taking x P x a
x x
x
x Q x b
x x
Here a is analytic at x but b is not analytic
x is irregular ingul
= −
+ =
+
− +
+ =

= −
⇒ = −
2
2
2
2
2
2
.
0
1
( ) . . 0
( 1)
1
( ) . . 0
( 3) ( 1)
0 s .
3
3
( 3) ( ) . . 3
( 1)
1
( 3) ( ) . . 3
( 1)
3
arity
For x
xP x i e analytic at x
x
x Q x i e also analytic at x
x x
x is regular ingularity
For x
x
x P x i e analytic at x
x x
x Q x i e also analytic at x
x x
x is re
=
= =
+

= =
− +
⇒ =
=

− = =
+

− = =
+
⇒ = s . gular ingularity

Hence tha result.

Question 2
marks 10
Using the power series method to find the general solution of the 2
nd
order homogeneous
differential equation
0 y y + = ′′ .

Solution:

Given differential equation is
0
0 1
1 1
1
1 2
, ;
0 ..........(1)
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
y c x c c x
So term by term differentiation of the proposed series solution yields
y nc x c nc x
y y
Assuimng that solution of given differential equation exists in the form
∞ ∞
= =
∞ ∞
− −
= =
= = +
′ = = +

+ = ′′
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
2
2
( 1)
n
n
n
y n n c x

=
′ = −

[ ]
2
0
2 1
2
0 0
2
0
. . (1)
( 1)
2; 0,1, 2,....... 1 2 ;
( 1)( 2)
( 1)( 2) (1);
(1) ( 1)( 2)
n n
n n
n n
k k
k k
k k
k
k k
k
k
L HS of
n n c x c x c
Put k n k n such that k in st and nd terms respectively
k k c x c x
k k c c x Put in
k k c
y y
y y
∞ ∞

= =
∞ ∞
+
= =

+
=
+

− + +
= − = =
+ + +
= + + +
∴ ⇒ + +
+ = ′′
+ = ′′
∑ ∑
∑ ∑

[ ]
{ }
2
0
0 1 1
0 1 1
2
2
0
, , ,......, , ,.... .
, , ,......, , ,.... .
; ( 1)( 2) 0
; 0,1, 2, 3,..........
( 1)( 2)
k
k
k
k k
k k
k
k k
k
k
c x
Set x x x x x is linearly independent
coefficient of x x x x x are all zero
for x k k c c
c
c k
k k
From iteration of t

=
+
+
+
+
+ =

⇒ + + + =
⇒ = − =
+ +

0 0
2
1 1
3
2
0 0 2
4
2
3 1 1
5
2 3
0 4 1
6
0
1.2 2!
1
2.3 3!
( 1) 1
2
3.4 2! 3.4 4!
( 1) 1
3
4.5 3! 4.5 5!
( 1) ( 1) 1
4
5.6 4! 5.6 6!
5
his recurrence relation it follows that
c c
k c
c c
k c
c c c
k c
c c c
k c
c c c
k c
k
= ⇒ = − = −
= ⇒ = − = −
− | |
= ⇒ = − = − − =
|
\ ¹
− | |
= ⇒ = − = − − =
|
\ ¹
| | − −
= ⇒ = − = − =
|
\ ¹
= ⇒
2 3
5 1 1
7
0 1
2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 2
2 3 4 0 0 0 1
0 1
( 1) ( 1) 1
6.7 5! 6.7 7!
;
........
( 1) ( 1) ( 1) ( 1)
2! 3! 4!
c c c
c
Above iteration leaves c and c arbitrary
required solution is given by
y c c x c x c x c x c x c x c x
c c c c
y c c x x x x
| | − −
= − = − =
|
\ ¹

= + + + + + + + +
− − − −
= + + + + +
3 3
2 6 7 0
1 1
2 4 6 3 5 7
0 1
( 1) ( 1)
........
5! 6! 7!
1 ...... ......
2! 4! 6! 3! 5! 7!
c
c x x c x
x x x x x x
c c x
− −
+ + +

= − + − + + − + − +

2 4 6
3 5 7
0 1
'
cos 1 ......
2! 4! 6!
sin ......
3! 5! 7!
cos sin
By Maclaurin s series
x x x
x
x x x
x x
y c x c x

= − + − +
= − + − +
∴ = +

Hence the result.

Question 3 marks 10
In question ‘2’find the two linearly independent solutions by the Euler’s method
(The Auxiliary equation method).Also
(a) Compare this general solution with power series solution and discuss which method is
more general and why?
(b) Explain the linear independence of the two solutions.

Solution:

For differential equation
[ ] [ ]
( ) ( )
2
2
2
0 .........(1)
(1) ( 1) 0
1 0 ( 0 )
cos sin cos sin
cos sin
cos sin ( )
mx
mx
mx
mx
mx
ix ix
y y
Put y e
y me
y m e
m e
m e x R
m i
required solution is given as
y Ae Be
A x i x B x i x
A B x Ai Bi x
y C x D x where C A B and D i A B
H

′′ + =
=
′ ⇒ =
′′ ⇒ =
∴⇒ + =
⇒ + = ≠ ∀ ∈
⇒ = ±

= +
= + + −
= + + −
= + = + = −

{ }
.
'
, , ,
ere both solution of power series and by auxilary equations method are identical
Power series method is more general than Euler s method because
it is applicable even when coefficients of y y y are transcendantal functions
but Eul
′′ ′
' . er s method holds for constant and polynomials coefficients

(b) Linear Independence:
Here two solutions are
2 4 6
1
3 5 7
2
1 ................ cos
2! 4! 6!
................ sin
3! 5! 7!
;
cos sin 0.................( )
sin cos 0 .........( )
( ) &( )
x x x
y x
x x x
y x x
For linear independance
Put A x B x a
Differentiating A x B x b
solving a b A B
= − + − + =
= − + − + =
+ =
⇒ − + =
⇒ = 0
. both solutions are linearly independent
=

Hence the result.

Assignment 7 of MTH401 (Fall 2006)

Maximum Marks 30
Question 1
mark 05+05

Show that differential equation
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 r x y q x p x y λ

+ + = ′ is equivalent to Legendre’s and Bessel’s differential
equation for suitable replacements of ( ), ( ), ( ) and r x p x q x λ .
Hint: Differentiate first term of given differential equation and compare
( ), ( ), ( ) r x p x q x and λ for Legendre’s and Bessel’s equations.
Solution:
Given differential equation is
[ ]
( )
2
2
( ) ( ) 0...........(1)
'
1 2 ( 1) 0..............(2)
(1) &(2) , ,
( ) 1
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
( ) ( ) q x p x y
Legendre s equation is given as
x y xy n n y
Comparing for coefficients of y y and y we have
r x x
r x y q x p x y
r x y r x y λ
λ

+ =
′′ ′ − − + + =
′′ ′
∴ = −

+ + = ′
⇒ + + ′′ ′ ′

( ) 2
( ) 0 ; ( 1) ; ( ) 1
(2) ' (1)
r x x
q x n n p x
Legendre s equation is special case of
λ
′ ⇒ = −
= = + =
∴ ⇒

2 2 2
2
, '
( ) 0
1
0 ..........(3)
Now Bessel s equation is
x y xy x v y
Dividing by x xy y x v y
x
′′ ′ + + − =
| |
′′ ′ ∴ ⇒ + + + − =
|
\ ¹

2
(1) &(3) , ,
1
( ) ( ) 1 ; ( ) ; ( ) ;
' (1).
Comparing for coefficients of y y and y we have
r x x r x q x x p x v
x
Hence Bessel s equation is also another special case of
λ
′′ ′
′ = ⇒ = = = − =

Question 2
marks 10
(a) For set of Legendre’s polynomials
{ }
( ); 0,1, 2,3
n
P x n = ,verify that
1
1
( ) ( ) 0,
n m
P x P x dx

=

provided that m n ≠
(b) Generate Legendre’s polynomials
5 4
( ) ( ) and P x P x using Rodrigue’s formula for
4,5 n =

Solution:
(a) As Legendre’s polynomials for 0,1, 2, 3, 4, r = ……are given as
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
0
1
2
2
3
3
1 1
2 3
1 1
1
2 3
1
1
5 3 3
1
1
6 4 4 2
1
( ) 1
( )
1
( ) 3 1
2
1
( ) 5 3
2
2, 3 2 3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
3 1 5 3
4
1
15 9 5 3
4
1 15 9 5 3
4 6 4 4 2
1
(0)
4
0
,
n m
P x
P x x
P x x
P x x x
Consider the case m n for as
P x P x dx P x P x dx
x x x dx
x x x x dx
x x x x
Similarly fo
− −

=
=
= −
= −
≠ ≠
∴ =
= − −
= − − +

= − − +

=
=
∫ ∫

0 1,1 2, 3 1 ., r all other cases like etc we have ≠ ≠ ≠

1
1
( ) ( ) 0
n m
P x P x dx

=

Hence verified.

(b)

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
4
4
2
4
4 4
4 3
4 4
2 2
4 3
3
3
2
3
3
6 2 2 2
3
'
1
( ) . 1 ...........(1)
2 !
4
1
( ) . 1 ...........(2)
2 4!
1 1
4 1 .2
8 3( ) (1) 3
n
n
n
n n
Rodrigues formula for Legendre s polynomials is
d
P x x
n dx
Put n
d
P x x
dx
d d d
Here x x
dx dx dx
d
x x
dx
d
x x x x
dx
= −
=
= −

− = −

= −

= − +

( )
2 3
3
7 5 3
3
4 2
4 2
4
4 2
4
7 5 3
3 3
(1) (1)
8 3 3
8 210 180 18 .............(3)
(2)
1
( ) .8 210 180 18
16.24
1
( ) 35 30 3
8
x x x x It is obtained by taking three times the derivatives of
d
x x x x
dx
x x
Put in
P x x x
P x x x
P
− + −

= − + −

= − +

∴ ⇒
= − +

= − +

( )
( )
( )
( )
5
5
2
5 5 5
2
5
2 1
5
5 4 3 2 2 3 4 5
0 8 6 4 2
5 5
5
2 10 8 6 4 2
5 5
5
5 10 10
5 (1);
1
( ) . 1 ...........(4)
2 5!
& 1
1 5 10 10 5 1
1 5 10 10 5 1
30240 3360
5
ut n in
d
P x x
dx
Here
By Binomial Theorm
a
a x b
x x x x x x
d d
x
b a a b
x x x x x
dx d
a b a b ab
x
x
b
=
= −
¦
¦
´
¦
¹
= =
− = − + − + −
∴ − = − + −
− = − + − +
=

+ −

3
5 3
5
5 3
5
5 3
5
10 8 6 4 2
5 10 10 5 1
0 7200
(4)
1
( ) . 30240 33600 7200
32.120
1
( ) .480 63 70 15
32.120
1
( ) 63 70 15
8
x x x x x It is obtained by taking five times the derivatives of
x x
Put in
P x x x x
P x x x x
P x x x x
− + − + −
+
∴ ⇒
= − +

= − +

= − +

Hence the result.

Question 3 marks 10
Solve, if possible, the following differential equation by either systematic elimination or by use
of determinants:

( ) ( )
( )
1 1 2
3 2 1
D x D y
x D y
+ + − =
+ + = −

Solution:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1 .( ) ;
3 6
3 1
________________________________________________
3 3 3 2
1 1 2 ..............( )
3 2 1.............( )
3 .( )&
1 3 1
1 1 2 1
D with eq b then subtracting
y
y
D D D
D x D y a
x D y b
Multplying with eq a
D x D
D x D D D
+
=
= −
− − −
− − + +
+ + − =
+ + = −
+ + −
+ + + + +
( )
( )
2
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
6 1
3 3 3 2 7
5 7
5 7..................(1)
'
5 0............( )
( ) 5 0
5 0 0
5
(1
mt
mt
mt
mt
mt
y
D D D y
D y
d y
y
dt
It s associated homogenous equation
d y
y c has solution
dt
y e
y me
y m e
c m e
m e
m i
For

= +

− − − − =

⇒ + = −
⇒ + = −
+ =
=
′ =
′′ =
∴ ⇒ + =
⇒ + = ≠
⇒ = ±

1 2
' ''
1 2
) cos 5 sin 5
0
7
(1) 5 7
5
7
( ) cos 5 sin 5 ..................( )
5
c
p p p
c p
y c t c t
Now assuimng
y A y y
A A
y y y
y t c t c t i
⇒ = +
= ⇒ = =
∴ ⇒ = − ⇒ = −
= +
⇒ = + −

( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 1 .( ) ;
2
3 1
________________________________________________
3 2 3 3 4 1
3 3
3 3........
( ); .( )&
2 1 2 1 2
1 1 2 1
D D with eq b then subtracting
y
y
D D D x
D x
d x
x
dt
For x t Multplying with eq a
D D x D D D
D x D D D
+ −
=
= −
− − −
+ + − + = −

⇒ + =
⇒ + =
+ + + + − +
− + − + −
2
3 4
' ''
3 4
..........(2)
'
3 0
3
cos 3 sin 3
0
(2) 3 3
1
( )
( ) cos 3 sin 3 1..................( )
, (
c
p p p
c p
It s auxilary equation associated tohomogenous equation is
m
m i
x c t c t
Assuming x B x x
B
B
x t x x
x t c t c t ii
Hence system
+ =
⇒ = ±
= +
= ⇒ = =
∴ ⇒ =
⇒ =
∴ = +
⇒ = + +
) &( ) ( ) &( ). i ii give required solution of a b

Assignment 8 of MTH401 (Fall 2006)

Maximum Marks 30
Due Date
27January 2007
Assignment Weight
age 2%
Question 1
mark 05+05

Verify that the vector ‘ X ’ is the solution of the given system

2
dx
x y
dt
dy
x
dt
= +
= −
where
1 4
3 4
t t
X e te
| | | |
| |
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
= +

.

Solution:
Given system is
2
2 1
1 0
.........(1)
dx
x y
dt
dy
x
dt
reducing the given system in matrix form
dx
x
dt
dy y
dt
x x
d
A
y y dt
X AX where assumig
= +
= −

⇒ =

⇒ =

′ ⇒ =

2 1 ( ) ( ) ( )
; ;
1 0 ( ) ( ) ( )
dx
x t x x t x t x
d
dt
A X X
y t y y t dy y t y dt
dt

′ ′

′ = = = = = = =

′ ′ −

( )
( )
1 4
( )
3 4
1 4
4
3 4 3 4
t t
t
t t
t t t
Here given vector is
X t X e te
e t
e te
X
e te e t

= = +

+ +
= =

− −

( )
( )
( ) { }
( ) { }
( )
( )
. . . ' '
1 4
1 4
3 4
3 4
1 4 4
3 4 4
4 5
..................(2)
4 1
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
Differentiating wr t t
d
e t
e t
d d
dt
X
d dt dt
e t
e t
dt
e t
X
e t
t
e
t

+
+
= =

+ +
′ =
− −

+
=

− −

( )
( )
. . . (1)
1 4
2 1
1 0
3 4
2 1 1 4
1 0 3 4
2 8 3 4
1 4
5 4
...............(3)
4 1
(2) &(3), .(1) . .
t
t
t
t
t
Now taking R H S of
e t
AX
e t
t
e
t
t t
e
t
t
e
t
From we conclude that eq i e X AX shows its validity f

+

=

+
=

− −

+ + −
=

− −

+
=

− −

′ =
1 4
3 4
.
t t
or given vector X e te
X is solution of given system

= +

Hence the result.

Question 2
marks 10
If the vectors ‘
1
1
1
t
X e
| |
=
|

\ ¹
’ and ‘
2
2 8
6 8
t t
X e te
| | | |
= +
| |

\ ¹ \ ¹
’ are the solutions of the system
X AX = ′ then determine whether these vectors form a fundamental set t R ∀ ∈ by
investigating their linear independence.
Solution:
Two vectors solutions
1 2
& X X form a fundamental set
{ }
1 2
, X X if
1 2
& X X are
linearly independent if Wronskian of
( )
1 2 1 2
& , 0 X X W X X = ≠ .
Thus we have to show that
( )
1 2
, 0 W X X ≠ for given vector solutions

( )
( )
1
2
1
1
2 8 2 8
6 8
6 8
1 4
2
3 4
t
t
t
t t
t t
t t
t
t
e
X e
e
e te
X e te
e te
e t
e t

= =

+
= = =

+
=

Wronskian of
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2 1 2
2
1 2
1 2
2 1 4
& ,
2 3 4
1 1 4
.2 2 3 4 1 4 8 0 ;
1 3 4
& .
& .
t t
t t
t t t t
e e t
X X W X X
e e t
t
e e e t t e t R
t
X X are linearly independant
X X form a fundamental system
+
= =
− −
+
= = − + + = ≠ ∀ ∈
− −

Hence the result.
Question 3 marks 10
Solve the following system of differential equations

4 5
2 6
dx
x y
dt
dy
x y
dt
= +
= − +

Solution:
Given system is

4 5
2 6
dx
x y
dt
dy
x y
dt
= +
= − +
it’s matrix form is
( )
4 5
2 6
................(1)
( ) 4 5
,
( ) 2 6
det 0
4 5
2 6
dx
x
dt
dy y
dt
x x
d
A
y y dt
X AX
x t
where X A coefficient of matrix
y t
Characteristic equation of coefficient matrix
A Iλ
λ

=

⇒ =

′ ⇒ =

= = =

− =

− −
( )( )
( )( )
2
2
0
4 6 10 0
6 4 10 0
10 24 10 0
10 34 0
10 100 136 10 6
5 3 .
2 2
i
i which are Eigenvalues
λ
λ λ
λ λ
λ λ
λ λ
λ
=
− − + =
⇒ − − + =
− + + =
− + =
± − ±
= = = ±

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
1
2
1
2
1 2
1 2
5 3
4 5 3 5
0 0
2 6 5 3
1 3 5 0
2 1 3 0
1 3 5 0 ..............(1)
2 1 3 0 ...................(2)
(
Eigen vector for i is given by
i
k
A I k
k i
k i
i k
i k k
k i k
It has trivial solution
λ
λ
= +
− +

− = ⇒ =

− − +

− −
⇒ =

− − −

⇒ − − + =
− + − =
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
1
2
0, 0)
,
3 1
(1)
5
, 5
3 1
5
. . 1 .
1 3
5 3
4 5 3 5
0 0
2 6 5 3
1 3 5
0
2 1 3
For nontrivial solution
i k
k
By inspection taking k
k i
k i e st Eigen vector
i
Eigen vector for i given as
i
A I k k
i
k i
i k
λ
λ
+
⇒ =
=
⇒ = +

⇒ =

+

= −
− −
− = ⇒ =

− − −

− +
⇒ =

− +

( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
1
2 1
2
1 3 5 0 ................(3)
2 1 3 0.................(4)
(3) &(4) (0, 0).
(4) 2 1 3 0
1 3
2
2 1 3
2
i k k
k i k
Again has trivial solution as For nontrivial solution
k i k
i k
k
By inspection taking k k i
nd Eigen vector k
⇒ − + + =
− + + =
⇒ − + + =
+
=
= ⇒ = +
∴ =
1
2
5 3
1 1
(5 3 )
2 2
1 3
2
5
1 3
1 3
2
t i
t i t
i
Consequently two solutions are
X k e e
i
i
X k e e
λ
λ
+

+
=

= =

+

+
= =

By superposition principle general solution is
( )
( )
( ) { }
( ) { }
1 1 2 2
(5 3 ) (5 3 )
1 2
(5 3 ) (5 3 )
1 2
(5 3 ) (5 3 )
1 2
5 3 3
1 2
5 3 3
1 2
5 1 3
1 3 2
5 1 3
( )
( )
1 3 2
( ) 5 1 3
( ) 1 3 2
5
i t i t
i t i t
i t i t
t i t i t
t i t i t
X c X c X
i
X c e c e
i
c e i c e
x t
y t
c i e c e
x t e c e i c e
and y t e c i e c e
Consider c
+ −
+ −
+ −

= +
+
= +

+

+ +

=

+ +

⇒ = + +
⇒ = + +
( ) ( )
{ } { }
{ } { }
[ ]
[ ] ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
5
5
5
1 2
5
3 4 1 2 3 4
, 1 3 , 1 3 , 2
( ) cos3 sin3 cos3 sin3
( ) cos3 sin3 cos3 sin3
( ) cos3 sin3
( ) cos3 sin3 , , ,
t
t
t
t
A i c B i c C c D
x t e A t i t B t i t
and y t e C t i t D t i t
x t e c t c t
and y t e c t c t where c A B c i A B c C D c i C D
= + = + = =
⇒ = + + −

⇒ = + + −

∴ = +
= + = + = − = + = −

Hence the result.