# Assignment # 01

Question 1: Marks=10
Solve the initial value problem
2
( ) 2 (0) 2
dy
y x y x with y
dx
+ = = −

Solution:
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
1 2
.
2
1
int
2
1
ln 1 (1)
2
0 2
2 0 (1)
2
ln 0 1
2
2 (1)
ln 1 2
2
2ln 1 4
ln 1 4
ln 1 4
y x dy xdx
It can be seperable form
x
ydy dx
x
Taking egral both sides
x
ydy dx
x
y
x c
y
putting y and x in eq
c
c put in
y
x
y x
y x
y x
+ =
=
+
=
+
= + + →
= −
= − =

= + +
=
= + +
= + +
= + +
= + +
∫ ∫

Question 2: Marks=10
Solve the D.E ( 1) ( 3 5) x y dy x y dx − − = + −

Solution:

3 5
1
omogeneous
omogeneous
3 3 5
1
3 5 0 1 0
1 2
dy x y
dx x y
The equation is neither separable nor h
The equation is reduce to h
putting
x X h dx dX
y Y k dy dY
dy dY
dx dX
dY X Y h k
dX X Y h k
now h k and h k
solving both k and h
dY
+ −
=
− −
= + ⇒ =
= + ⇒ =
=
+ + + −
=
− + − −
+ − = − − =
= =

2 2
2
3
(1)
omogeneous
(1)
3 1 3
1
1 3
1
1 3 1 2
1 1
var
1
2 1
X Y
dX X Y
the aboveequation is h
putting Y vX in
dY dv
v X
dX dX
dv X vX v
v X
dX X vX v
dv v
X v
dX v
dv v v v v v
X
dX v v
Separable iable
v dX
dv
v v X
+
= →

=
= +
+ +
+ = =
− −
+
= −

+ − + + +
= =
− −

=
+ +

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
1
2 2 1
2 2 2
1
2 2 1
1 2 2
2 2 1
1
1 1
ln 2 1 ln
2 1
1
ln 1 ln
1
1
ln 1 ln
1
ln ln
ln ln
ln ln ln
ln
v
dX
dv
X v v
v
dX
dv
X v v
v dv dX
dv
v v X
v
v v X c
v
v X c
v
Y
X c
Y
X
X
Y X X
X c
X Y X
X X
X c
X Y X Y
X
X X Y X c
X Y
X
X
X Y
− + −
− =
+ +
− + −
− =
+ +
+
− + =
+ +
+
− + + − = +
+
− + − = +
+
− + − = +
+
+
− − = +
+
− = +
+ +
− + − = +
+
+
+
∫ ∫
∫ ∫ ∫
( 2)
ln 2 1
2 1
2 4
ln 3
3
Y c
x
x y c
x y
x
x y c
x y
+ =

+ − + − =
− + −

+ + − =
+ −

Question 3: Marks=10

In the given problem determine, whether the given equation is exact. If exact, solve
3 2 2
6 (4 9 ) 0 xy dx y y x dy + + =
Solution:
( )
3 2 2
3 3 2 2
2 2
3 2 3
6 4 9 0
6 , 4 9
18 , 18
int tan
6 3
t
xy dx y y x dy
M xy N y y x
M N
xy xy
y x
M N
y x
Sothe differentail equationis exact
Now egrating M withrespect to x and taking yterms as cons t
Mdx xy dx x y
In egrate N with respect to y for te
+ + =
= = +
∂ ∂
= =
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
= =
∫ ∫
3 4
2 3 4
,
4
3
rms involving y alone
y dy y
Hencethe general solution is
x y y c
=
+ =

Question 4:
Marks=10
Solve (by using I.F method)
4 3 2 4 2 2
(2 2 ) ( 3 ) 0
y y
xy e xy y dx x y e x y x dy + + + − − =
( )
( )
4
4 3
4 3 2
2 4 2 2
4 2
4 2 4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
1
4
ln
:
2 2
2 8 6 1
3
2 2 3
2 2 3 2 8 6 1
2 2
4 2 2 1
4
2 2 1
. .
y
y y
y
y
y
x
y x
y y y
x y
y
y
y
dy
y y
Solution
M xy e xy y
M xy e xy e xy
N x y e x y x
N xy e xy
M N
N M
xy e xy xy e xy e xy
M xy e xy y
xy e xy
y y xy e xy
I F e e
| |

|
|
\ ¹
= + +
= + + +
= − −
= − −

− − − − − −
=
+ +
− + +

= =
+ +

= = =
4
1
y

Multiplying I.F. by both side of given equation
( ) ( )
4 3 2 4 2 2
4 4
2
2
3 2 4
3
2
2
3
1 1
2 2 3 0
2 1 3
2 0
2 1
2 0
y y
y y
y
y
xy e xy y dx x y e x y x dy
y y
x x x
xe dx x e dy
y y y y
Theequation is exact
x
xe dx
y y
x x
x e c
y y
+ + + − − =
| | | |
+ + + − − =
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
| |
+ + =
|
\ ¹
+ + =

ASSIGNMENT 02

Question 1:

Solve the differential equation and mention the name of type of this D.E
2
ln .
dy
x y x y
dx
+ =

:
Thisis a "Bernoulli"equation
Solution

2
Given eq.can be written as
ln
(1)
Comparing with general Bernoulli Eq.
( ) ( )
n
dy y x
y
dx x x
dy
P x y Q x y
dx
+ = − − − − − −
+ =

1 1
weget
1 ln
( ) , ( )
2
thus wesubstitute
n
x
P x Q x
x x
n
v y y
− −
= =
=
= =

2
Eq.(1) becomes
ln
(2)
dv dy
y
dx dx
dv v x
dx x x

= −
− = − − − −− − −

1
ln
ln
1
2 2
Now this Eq. is linear Eq.
Integratingfactor of this linear D.Eis
( )
( )
Multiply Eq.(2) by U(x)
1 ln
dx
x
x
x
U x e e
U x e x
dv v x
x dx x x

= =
= =
− = −

1
2
1
2
ln
( )
integrating bothside w.r.t x.
ln
integrating byparts
d x
x v
dx x
x
x v dx
x

= −
= −

1
2
1
1
ln 1
[ ]
ln 1
ln 1
Re var
ln 1
1
ln 1
x
x v dx C
x x
x
x v C
x x
v x Cx
verting back tooriginal iable
y x Cx
y
x Cx

= − − + +
= + +
= + +
= + +
=
+ +

Question 2:
Solve the D.E by using an appropriate substitution
cos( ) x y dy dx + =
:
taking derivative w.r.t x.
1 1
sogiven D.Ebecomes
cos [ 1] 1
cos cos 1
cos 1 cos
cos
1 cos
1
1
1 cos
solution
Let x y u
dy du dy du
dx dx dx dx
du
u
dx
du
u u
dx
du
u u
dx
u
du dx
u
du dx
u
+ =
+ = => = −
− =
− =
= +
=
+
| |
− =
|
+
\ ¹

2
2
2
Since, 1 cos =2cos
2
So above Eq. becomes
1
1-
2cos
2
1
1 sec
2 2
integrating
tan
2
Reverting back tooriginal variable
tan
2
tan( )
2
u
u
du dx
u
u
du dx
u
u x c
u x y
x y
x y x c
or
x y
y c
+
| |
|
=
|
|
\ ¹
| |
− =
|
\ ¹
− = +
= +
+
+ − = +
+
= +

Question 3:
Find an equation of orthogonal trajectory of the curve
2 2 2
x y c + =

2 2 2
:
Differentiate it w.r.t 'x' tofind theDE.
2 2 0
2
2
write down the DE for the orthogonal family
1
( )
this is linear as well as a separable DE. Find the integrating factor.
(
x y c
solution
dy
y x
dx
dy x
dx y
dy x
dx y
dy y
x
dx x
y
u
+ =
+ =

=
= −
= − =

1
1
)
which gives thesolution
. ( )
( )
This represents family of straight lines through origin.
dx
x
x e
x
y u x m
or
m
y mx
u x
y mx

= =
=
= =
=

ASSIGNMENT NO. 3

Question 1: Marks=10
Determine whether the following functions are linearly dependent or independent using Worskian determinant.
2 2
( ) 9cos(2 )
( ) 2cos 2sin
f x x
g x x x
=
= −

Solution:
2 2
2 2
( ) 9cos(2 )
( ) 18sin(2 )
( ) 2cos 2sin
2(cos sin )
2cos(2 )
( ) 4sin(2 )
9cos(2 ) 2cos(2 )
( ( ), ( ))
18sin(2 ) 4sin(2 )
f x x
f x x
g x x x
x x
x
g x x
x x
W f x g x
x x
=
′ = −
= −
= −
=
′ = −
=
− −

( ) ( ) 36 cos(2 ) sin(2 ) 36 cos(2 )sin(2 )
0
x x x x = − +
=

Thus functions f(x) and g(x) are linearly dependent functions.

Question 2: Marks=10
a) Suppose that

1 2 1 2
sin(2 )
cos(3 ) sin(3 ) , c and c are constants
p
c
y t
y c t c t
=
= +

Find whether y
p
is a particular solution and y
c
is the complementary function of following non-homogenous differential equation.
9 5sin(2 ) y y t ′′ + =

Solution:
sin(2 )
2cos(2 )
4sin(2 )
Then
9 4sin(2 ) 9sin(2 ) 5sin(2 )
Hence
sin(2 ) is a particular solution of given non-homogenous equation
p
p
p
p p
p
y t
y t
y t
y y t t t
y t
=
′ =
′′ = −
′′ + = − + =
=

Now
1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2
cos(3 ) sin(3 ) , c and c are constants
3 sin(3 ) 3 cos(3 )
9 cos(3 ) 9 sin(3 )
c
c
c
y c t c t
y c t c t
y c t c t
= +
′ = − +
′′ = − −

( )
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
Then
9 9 cos(3 ) 9 sin(3 ) 9 cos(3 ) sin(3 )
9 cos(3 ) 9 sin(3 ) 9 cos(3 ) 9 sin(3 )
0
c c
y y c t c t c t c t
c t c t c t c t
′′ + = − − + +
= − − + +
=

Thus y
c
is the complementary function of given non-homogenous differential equation.

b) Let
1
x
y e = is a solution of the following differential equation
2 0 y y y ′′ ′ − + =
What is its second solution and general solution?
Solution:
1
x
y e =
2 0 y y y ′′ ′ − + =
Compare it with
( ) ( ) 0 y P x y Q x y ′′ ′ + + =
Then
( ) 2
( ) 1
P x
Q x
= −
=

The second solution is given by
( )
2 1 2
1
P x dx
e
y y dx
y

1
1
1

=
Put values
( 2)
2 2
( )
dx
x
x
e
y e dx
e
− −

1
1
1

=

2
2
dx
x
x
e
e dx
e

1
1
1

=

2
2
x
x
x
e
e dx
e

1
1

=

x
e dx =

x
xe =
Hence general solution of given differential equation is
1 1 2 2
y c y c y = +
1 2
x x
y c e c xe = +

Question 3: Marks=10
Let
1
y x = is a solution of the following differential equation
2
0 x y xy y ′′ ′ − + =
Find its second solution using REDUCING ORDER METHOD.
Solution:
1
y x =
Let
2 1
( ) ( ) y x u x y =
Then
2
y ux =
2
y u x u ′ ′ = +
2
2 y u x u ′′ ′′ ′ = +
Put in given differential equation
2
2 2 2
0 x y xy y ′′ ′ − + =
2
( 2 ) ( ) 0 x u x u x xu u xu ′′ ′ ′ + − + + =
3 2
0 u x x u ′′ ′ + =
1
0 u u
x
′′ ′ + =
If we take w u′ = then
1
0 w w
x
′ + = ------------(1)
It is first order linear equation, whose integrating factor is
1
ln
dx
x
x
e e x

= =
Multiply equation (1) by integrating factor
0 xw w ′ + =
( )
0
d xw
dx
=
1 1
, where is constant of integration xw c c =
Put value of w
1
xu c ′ =
1
c
u
x
′ =
Integrate with respect to x
1 2 2
= ln , where is constant of integration u c x c c +
Since
2
y ux = , so
( )
2 1 2
ln y x c x c = +
Choosing c
1
=1 and c
2
= 0
2
ln y x x =
Hence general solution is
1 2
, where A and B are constants y Ay By = +
ln y Ax Bx x = +

Question 4: Marks=10
Solve
3
3 4
x
y y e

′′ ′ + =
Solution:
Given differential equation is
3
3 4
x
y y e

′′ ′ + =
Associated homogenous differential equation is
3 0 y y ′′ ′ + =
Put
mx
y e =
mx
y me ′ =
2 mx
y m e ′′ =
Substituting in the give differential equation, we have
2
3 0
mx mx
m e me + =
2
( 3 ) 0
mx
m m e + =
Since x e
mx
0 ∀ ≠ , the auxiliary equation is
2
3 0 m m + =
( 3) 0 m m+ =
0, 3 m = −
Thus complementary function, y
c
, is
3
1 2
x
c
y c c e

= +

Next we find a particular solution of the non-homogeneous differential equation.

Particular Integral
The input function
3
( )
x
g x e

=
Since
3x
Ae

is present in
c
y
.
Therefore, it is a solution of the associated homogeneous differential equation
3 0 y y ′′ ′ + =
To avoid this we find a particular solution of the form
3x
p
y Axe

=
We notice that there is no duplication between
c
y and this new assumption for
p
y
3 3
3
3
( 3 1)
x x
p
x
y Axe Ae
Ae x
− −

′ = − +
= − +

3 3 3
3 3
3
y 9 3 3
9 6
(9 6)
x x x
p
x x
x
Axe Ae Ae
Axe Ae
Ae x
− − −
− −

′′ = − −
= −
= −

Substituting in the given differential equation

3
3 3 3
3 4
(9 6) 3 ( 3 1) 4
9 6 9 3 4
3 4
4
3
x
p p
x x x
y y e
Ae x Ae x e
Ax A Ax A
A
A

− − −
′′ ′ + =
− + − + =
− − + =
− =

=

So particular solution of given differential equation is
3 3
4
3
x x
p
y Axe xe
− −

= =
Hence, general solution is
3 3
1 2
4
3
c p
x x
y y y
c c e xe
− −
= +
= + −

ASSIGNMENT 04

Question 1: Marks=10
a) Find the differential operator that annihilates the following function.
( ) 1 sin f x x = +

Solution:
1 2
1
1
1
1
( ) 1 sin
Let ( ) 1 , ( ) sin
Since ( ) is a constant so it vanishes after first differentiation. i-e
( ) (1) 0
So D is the annihilator operator of ( ).
As we know that for functions
co
n x
f x x
y x y x x
y x
Dy x D
y x
x e
α −
= +
= =
= =
( ) ( )
1
2 2 2
1
2
s
or
sin
the annihilator operator is
2
where , are real numbers and n is non-negative integer.
So for ( ) sin , compare it with sin
0 , 1 , 1 0 1
So annihilator oper
n x
n x
x
x e x
D D
y x x x e x
n n
n
α
α
β
β
α α β
α β
β
α β

− + +
=
= = − = ⇒ =
( )
( )
2
1
2 2 2
2
ator of ( ) is
1 1
Therefore 1 annihilates the function ( ) 1 sin
y x
D D
D D f x x
+ = +
+ = +

Check:

( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3
3
2
3 2
2
1 1 sin 1 sin
1 sin 1 sin (1)
Now
1 sin (1) (sin ) cos
1 sin 1 sin (cos ) sin
1 sin 1 sin ( sin ) cos
Putting values in equation (1)
1 1 sin
D D x D D x
D x D x
D x D D x x
D x D D x D x x
D x D D x D x x
D D x D

+ + = + +

= + + + − − − − − − −
+ = + =
+ = + = = −

+ = + = − = −

+ + =

( ) ( )
3
1 sin 1 sin
cos cos
0
x D x
x x
+ + +
= − +
=

NON-HOMGENOUS LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION:
A non-homogeneous linear differential equation of order n is an equation of the form
) (
0 1
1
1
1
x g y a
dx
dy
a
dx
y d
a
dx
y d
a
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +

The coefficients
n
a a a , , ,
1 0
… can be functions of x or constants. ( ) g x is non zero function of x.
A second order, linear non-homogeneous differential equation is
2
2 1 0 2
( )
d y dy
a a a y g x
dx dx
+ + =

There are two common methods for finding particular solutions of linear non-homogeneous differential equations:
1. Undetermined Coefficients
2. Variation of Parameters.

Undetermined Coefficients:
The method of undetermined coefficients developed here is limited to non-homogeneous linear differential equations

That have constant coefficients, and
Where the function ) (x g has a specific form.

So either we use
• Undetermined Coefficients-Superposition approach
or
• Undetermined Coefficients-Annihilator Operator Approach
two things must be kept in mind.
1. Non-homogeneous linear differential equation has constant coefficients. That is, in following equation
1
1 1 0 1
( ) (*)
n n
n n n n
d y d y dy
a a a a y g x
dx dx dx

− −
+ + + + = − − − − − ⋯
The coefficients
n
a a a , , ,
1 0
… are constants.
2. This method is applicable for only those values of ( ) g x , which have finite family of derivatives. That is, functions
with the property that all their derivatives can be written in terms of just a finite number of other functions. For
example

( ) sin
( ) cos
( ) sin
( ) cos
( ) sin
iv
g x x
g x x
g x x
g x x
g x x
=
′ =
′′ = −
′′′ = −
=

And the cycle repeats. Notice that all derivatives of ( ) g x can be written in terms of a finite number of functions. [In this case,
they are sin x and cos x, and the set {sin x, cos x} is called the family (of derivatives) of ( ) sin g x x = .]
This is the criterion that make equation (*) susceptible to the method of undetermined coefficients.
Here's an example of a function that does not have a finite family of derivatives
Its first four derivatives are
2
2
4 2 2
4 2 3
( ) tan
( ) sec
( ) 2sec tan
( ) 2sec 4sec tan
( ) 16sec tan 8sec tan
iv
g x x
g x x
g x x x
g x x x x
g x x x x x
=
′ =
′′ =
′′′ = +
= +

Notice that the nth derivative ( n ≥ 1) contains a term involving tan
n-1
x, so as higher and higher derivatives are taken, each one
will contain a higher and higher power of tan x, so there is no way that all derivatives can be written in terms of a finite number
of functions. The method of undetermined coefficients could not be applied if ( ) tan g x x = . So just what are the Following
table gives the list of functions ( ) g x whose derivative families are finite.

Nonzero Functions with a Finite Family of Derivatives
Function Family
k {1}
( k: a constant)

x
n
{ x
n
, x
n−1
,… x, 1}
( n: a nonnegative integer)

e
kx
{ e
kx
}
sin kx {sin kx, cos kx}
cos kx {sin kx, cos kx}
a finite product of any of the preceding types {all products of the individual family members}

If these restrictions do not apply to a given nonhomogeneous linear differential equation, then a more powerful method of
determining a particular solution is needed: the method known as variation of parameters.

In view of above discussion, we can easily answer the given questions.

b) Decide whether the given equations are linear non-homogenous differential equations and the method of undetermined
coefficients can be applied to find a particular solution of the given equations. Do not solve the equations, just give a short reason

2
2 5 cos
t t
y y y t te t e ′′ ′ − + = −
This is a non-homogeneous linear differential equation . Since the coefficient of y is not constant, the method of undetermined
coefficients cannot be applied to find a particular solution of the given equation.

2
3 4
sin
t
t
y y y t e
t
′′ ′ + − = −
Here
2
2
( )
sin
( ) cos
t
t
t
g t t e
t
g t t ect t e
= −
= −

This is a non-homogeneous linear differential equation . Since cosec(t) does not have finite derivative family, so the method of
undetermined coefficients cannot be applied to find a particular solution of the given equation.

2
2 2
t
t
t
y y y te
e
′′ ′ + + = −
This is a non-homogeneous linear differential equation. The method of undetermined coefficients can be applied to find a particular
solution of the given equation.

c) Does the differential operator
4
( 1) D− annihilate the function
3 x
As we know, the differential operator ( )
n
D α − annihilates the function
1 n x
x e
α −
.
In the function
3 x
x e ,
n -1 = 3 , n = 4
α = 1
Thus
4
( 1) D− annihilates the function
3 x
x e .

Question 2: Marks=10
Solve the following differential equation using UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENT-Annihilator Operator Approach.
3
4 12 2 3 y y y x x ′′ ′ − − = − +

Solution:
( )
3
2 3
2
2
2 6
1 2
3
4 12 2 3
4 12 2 3 (1)
Auxillary equation is
4 12 0
6 2 12 0
( 6) 2( 6) 0
( 2)( 6) 0
2, 6
(2)
Now input function, g(x), is given by
g(x) =2 3
x x
c
y y y x x
D D y x x
m m
m m m
m m m
m m
m
y c e c e
x x

′′ ′ − − = − +
− − = − + − − − − − − − − − −
− − =
− + − =
− + − =
+ − =
= −
= + − − − −− − −
− +

As we know that
1. The polynomial function

1
1 1 0

+ + +
n
n
x c x c c ⋯
can be annihilated by finding an operator that annihilates the highest power of . x
2. The differential operators
D,
2
D ,
3
D , … ,
4
D
are respective annihilator operators of the following functions
… , , , ), constant a (
3 2
x x x k
Use these results. Since in g(x) highest power of x is 3, so
4
D is the annihilator operator. That is,
[ ] ( )
4 4 3
g(x) = 2 3 0 D D x x − + =
Thus we can write equation (1) as
( ) ( )
4 2 4 3
4 12 = 2 3 0 D D D y D x x − − − + =
( )
4 2
4 12 0 D D D y − − =
( )
6 5 4
4 12 0 (3) D D D y − − = − − − − − − −
This is homogenous differential equation of order 6.
Its auxillary equation is
6 5 4
4 12 0 m m m − − =
( )
4 2
4 12 0 m m m − − =
4
( 2)( 6) 0 m m m + − =
0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 6 m = −
Thus the general equation of homogenous equation (3) is
2 3 2 6 x x
y A Bx Cx Dx Ee Fe

= + + + + +
Compare the right hand side with equation (2)
2 6 x x
Ee Fe

+ are in
c
y
So particular integral of given non-homogenous differential equation can be written as
2 3
p
y A Bx Cx Dx = + + +
2
2 3
p
y B Cx Dx ′ = + +
2 6
p
y C Dx ′′ = +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2 3 3
2 2 3 3
2 3 3
4 12 2 6 4 2 3 12 2 3
2 6 4 6 12 12 12 12 12 2 3
12 4 2 12 8 6 12 12 12 2 3
p p p
y y y C Dx B Cx Dx A Bx Cx Dx x x
C Dx B Cx Dx A Bx Cx Dx x x
A B C B C D x C D x x x x
′′ ′ − − = + − + + − + + + = − +
= + − − − − − − − = − +
= − − + + − − + + − − − = − +

Compare coefficients.
12 2
1
6
D
D
− =
= −

12 12 0
0
1
6
C D
C D
C
− − =
+ =
=

12 8 6 1
Put values of C and D
1
9
B C D
B
− − + = −
= −

12 4 2 3
Put values of B and C
5
27
A B C
A
− − + =
= −

Thus

2 3
5 1 1 1
27 9 6 6
p
y x x x = − − + −

General solution is

2 6 2 3
1 2
5 1 1 1
27 9 6 6
x x
y c e c e x x x

= + − − + −

Question 3: Marks=10
Solve the following differential equation using VARIATION OF PARAMETERS method.
2
2
1
x
e
y y y
x
′′ ′ − + =
+

Solution:
( )
2
2
2
1 2
2
1
Auxillary equation is
m 2 1 0
1 0
1, 1
x
x x
c
e
y y y
x
m
m
m
y c e c xe
′′ ′ − + =
+
− + =
− =
=
= +

From the complementary function we consider,
1 2
( ) , ( )
x x
y x e y x xe = =
2
2
( , ) ( )
x x
x x x x x x
x x x
x
e xe
W e xe e e xe xe
e e xe
e
= = + −
+
=

Thus
1
( ) y x and
2
( ) y x are two linearly independent solutions.
Now compare given differential equation with the following equation.
( ) ( ) ( ) y P x y Q x y f x ′′ ′ + + =
Then
2
( )
1
x
e
f x
x
=
+

Now
1
2
0
1
x
x
x x
xe
W
e
e xe
x
=
+
+

2
2
1
x
xe
x

=
+

( ) ( )
( )
2
1
1
2 2 2
2
1
1 1
Integrate to get
1
ln 1
2
x
x
W xe x
u
W x e x
u x
− −
′ = = =
+ +
= − +

2
2
0
1
x
x
x
e
W
e
e
x
=
+

2
2
1
x
e
x
=
+

( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 2 2
1
1 1
x
x
W e
u
W x e x
′ = = =
+ +

1
2
Integrate to get
tan ( ) u x

=

So,
( )
1 1 2 2
2 1
ln 1 tan ( )
2
p
x
x
y u y u y
e
x xe x

= +
= − + +

Thus, general solution is
( )
2 1
1 2
ln 1 tan ( )
2
c p
x
x x x
y y y
e
c e c xe x xe x

= +
= + − + +

Question 4: Marks=10
A 16 lb object stretches a spring
8
9
feet . There is no damping and external forces acting on the system. The spring is initially
displaced 6 inches upwards from its equilibrium position and given an initial velocity of 1 ft/sec downward. Find the displacement at
any time t.
(NOTE: Use feet as the unit of measurement.)

Solution:
Weight of an object = 16 lb
Acceleration due to gravity = g = 32ft/sec
2
Spring stretch =
8
9
ft
We can find the mass of an object, m, by following equation
16 1
slugs
32 2
W mg
W
m
g
=
=
= =

Spring stretch =
8
9
ft
Find value of spring constant ,k , using Hooke’s Law
k =
16 9 16 144
18 lb/ft
8
8 8
9
W
s
×
= = = =

Let x(t) is the displacement at any time t.
Then the equation of Simple Harmonic Motion is
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
18
2
1
18 0
2
36 0 (1)
Auxillary equation is
m 36 0
36
6
d x
m kx
dt
d x
x
dt
d x
x
dt
d x
x
dt
m
m i
= −
= −
+ =
+ = − − − − − − − − − −
+ =
= −
= ±

General solution of homogenous differential equation (1) is
1 2
( ) cos(6 ) sin(6 ) (2) x t c t c t = + − − − − − − −
Since the initial displacement is 6 inches, that is -0.5 ft, and the initial velocity is 1 ft/sec, the initial conditions are
(0) 0.5 ft , (0) 1 ft/sec x x′ = − =
At t = 0, equation (2) becomes
1 2 1
(0) cos(0) sin(0) x c c c = + =
Apply initial condition, (0) 0.5 ft x = − , to get value of
1
c
1
0.5 c = −
Differentiate equation (2)
1 2
1
2
2 2
( ) 6 sin(6 ) 6 cos(6 )
Since 0.5
( ) 3sin(6 ) 6 cos(6 )
For t =0
(0) 3sin(0) 6 cos(0) 6
x t c t c t
c
x t t c t
x c c
′ = − +
= −
′ = +
′ = + =

Apply initial condition, (0) 1 ft/sec x′ = , to get value of
2
c
2
1
6
c =
Put values of
1
c and
2
c in equation (2)
1
( ) 0.5cos(6 ) sin(6 )
6
x t t t = − +

Assignment # 05

Question#01: Interpret and solve the initial value problem

2
2
/
5 4 0
(0) 1 , (0) 1
d x dx
x
dt dt
x x
+ + =
= =

Solution.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
Comparing the given differential equation (1) and (2).
5 4 0 (1)
The general equation of the free damped motion
2 0 (2)
see that
5
, 4
2
so that,
0
Therefore, the probl
d x dx
x
dt dt
d x dx
w x
dt dt
we
w
w
λ
λ
λ
+ + = →
+ + = →
= =
− >
em represents the over-damped motion of a mass on a spring.
Inspection of the boundary conditions.
x(0) = 1, x (0) = 1
reveals that the mass starts 1 unit below the equilibrium position with a downward
ve

locity of 1 ft/sec.

( )( )
( )
2
2
2
mt mt 2 mt
2
2
4
1 2
Now we have o solve the D.E
5 4 0
put,
x=e , e , e
Then the auxiliary equation is
m 5 4 0
4 1 0
1, 4
Thus the solution of the differential equation is:
x t
t
t
d x dx
x
dt dt
we
dx d x
m m
dt dt
m
m m
m m
c e c e
− −
+ + =
= =
+ + =
+ + =
= − = −
= +
( )
( )
( )
( )
4
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
x t 4
apply the boundary conditions.
x 0 1 .1 .1 1
x 0 1 4 1
,
1
4 1
,
5 2
,
3 3
Therefore, solution of the initial value problem is
x t
t
t t
c e c e
c c
c c
thus
c c
c c
solving above two equations we can get
c c
− −
′ = − −
= ⇒ + =
′ = ⇒ − − =
+ =
− − =
= = −
=
4
5 2
3 3
t t
e e
− −

Question#02
Solve the initial value problem
2
2
2
/
0
cos
(0) 0 , (0) 0
.
o
d x
w x F t
dt
with x x
where F is constt
γ + =
= =
Solution.

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
1 2
0
,
0
( )
mt mt
c
d x
w x FCos t
dt
The complementary function is
Associated equation is
d x
w x
dt
x e x m e
Then auxiliary equation is
m w
m wi
Thus complementary solution is
x t C Coswt C Sinwt
For particular solution we ass
γ
°
+ =
+ =
′′ = =
+ =
= ±
= +
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
int
( )
p
p
p
p p
p p
ume
x t ACos t BSin t
x t A Sin t B Cos t
x t A Cos t B Sin t
x w x A Cos t B Sin t Aw Cos t Bw Sin t
x w x A w Cos t B w r Sin t
Putting o ginven differential equation
A w C
γ γ
γ γ γ γ
γ γ γ γ
γ γ γ γ γ γ
γ γ γ
γ
= +
′ = − +
′′ = − −
′′ + = − − + +
′′ + = − + −

2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
1 2 2 2
1
2 2
( )
( ) ; ( ) 0
( ) ( )
( )
0
( )
( )
p
os t B w Sin t FCos t
Comparing Coefficients
A w F B w
F
x t Cos t
w
Hence the general solution of the differential equation is
F
x t C Coswt C Sinwt Cos t
w
x t C wSin
F
A B
w
ο
ο
ο
γ γ γ γ
γ γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
°
°
+ − =
− = − =
=

= + +

′ = −
= =

2 2 2
1 2 2 2
1 2 2
1 2 2
( )
(0) 0
(0) .1 .0 .1
0
F
wt C wCoswt Sin t
w
Now we apply boundary value condition
x
F
x C C
w
F
C
w
F
C
w
ο
ο
ο
ο
λ
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
+ −

=
= + +

= +

= −

Now x′ (0) =
1 2 2 2
.(0) .1 .(0)
F
C w C w
w γ
°
− + −

0 = w C
2

0
2
= ⇒ C
2 2 2 2
( ) ( )
The solution of initial value is
F F
x t Coswt Cos t
w w
γ
γ γ
° °
= − +
− −

Question#03 Solve by using (
t
x e = )

2
2 2
2
4 4 3 sin(ln( )) , 0
d y dy
x x y x x where x
dx dx
− + = − <

Solution.

Consider the associated homogeneous equation
2
2
2
4 4 3 0
d y dy
x x y
dx dx
− + =
The differential equation can be written as:

2
2 2
4 4 3 0
(4 4 3) 0
x y xy y
x D xD y
′′ ′ − + =
− + =

Where
( )
2
2
2
2 2
,
ln( )
1
t
d d
D D
dx dx
Put
x e then t x
Let
xD
xD
= =
− = = −
= ∆
= ∆ ∆ − = ∆ − ∆

2
2 2
2 2
(4 ( 1) 4 3) sin
(4 4 4 3) sin
(4 8 3) sin
t
t
t
y e t
y e t
y e t
∆ ∆− − ∆ + =
∆ − ∆ − ∆+ =
∆ − ∆ + =
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
2
2
Hence the auxiliary equation is
4 8 3 0
4 6 2 3 0
2 2 3 1 2 3 0
2 3 2 1 0
2 3 0 2 1 0
2 3 2 1
3 1
2 2
3 1
,
2 2
∆ − ∆+ =
∆ − ∆ − ∆+ =
∆ ∆− − ∆ − =
∆ − ∆− =
∆ − = ∆− =
∆ = ∆ =
∆ = ∆ =
∆ =

1 3
2 2
1 2
1 3
2 2
1 2
1 3
2 2
1 2
( (
( (
) )
) )
c
t t
c
c
x x
t t
y c e c e
y c e c e
y c c
+
+
− + −
=
=
=

Now for particular solution.
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
1
sin
4 8 3
sin
.sin
4 2 8 2 3
1
. sin
4 16 16 8 16 3
1
. sin
4 8 3
1
sin
.
4 8 3
8 1 sin 8 1 sin sin
. . .
8 1 8 1 8 1 64 1
1 sin
.
t
p
t
p
t
t
t
t t t
t
y e t
u g shifting theorm
e
y t
e t
e t
putting
t
e
t t t
e e e
t
e
=
∆ − ∆ +
=
∆ + − ∆+ +
=
∆ + ∆+ − ∆− +
=
∆ + ∆+
∆ = −
=
− + ∆+
∆ + ∆+
= = =
∆ − ∆− ∆+ ∆ −
∆ +
=
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
1 3 2
2 2
1 2
8 1 sin
. . 8 1 sin 8cos sin
64 1 65 65 65
8cos ln( ) sinln( ) , ln( )
65
( ( 8cos ln sin ln
65
) )
t t
t
c p
t
e e
e t t t
x
x x t x
y y y
x
x x x x y c c
∆ +
= = − ∆+ = − +
− − −
= − − + − = −
= +
− + − − − + − =

Assignment No. 6

Q#01:- Find solution of the D.E(differential equation)

/
1 y y + =

in the form of a powers series in x.
/
n
n
n=0
' n-1
n
n=1
'
n-1 n
n n
n=1 n=0
n+1 n
n=0 n=0
1 0
1 0
n+1 n
1
y = c x
. . .
y c nx
1
c nx c x =1
Put n=n+1
(n+1)c c 1
c +c 1
1 c
(n+1) c +c
n n
y y
Let
Diff wr t x
y y
or x x
Equating the co efficient liketerms
c
and

∞ ∞
∞ ∞
+ =
=
+ =
+
+ =

=
= −
=

∑ ∑
∑ ∑
n+1 n
0
1
c c
n+1
n=1,2,3... put
= −

0 0 1
2 1 0
0 2
3
0
4
2
3 0
0 0 0
(1 ) 1
c 1
2 2 2!
1
3 3!
1
4!
...
...
...
( 1)
( 1) ( 1) ...
2! 3!
c c c
where c c
c c
c
c
c
Thus the required solution is
c x
y c c x c x
− −
= − = − = = −
− −
= = −

=

= − − + − − +

Q#02:- Whether 5 x = ± are singular points of the equation?
2 2 / / /
( 25) ( 5) 0 x y x y y − + − + =

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
- 25 - 5 0
- 25 - 5 5
- 5 1
0
- 5 5 - 5 5
1 1
0
- 5 5 - 5 5
1
- 5 5
1
- 5 5
5 sin int - 5
x y x y y
Dividing the equation by x x x
x
y y y
x x x x
y y y
x x x x
where
P x
x x
Q x
x x
x is regular gular po beacuse power of x in P x
′′ ′ + + =
= +
′′ ′ + + =
+ +
′′ ′ + + =
+ +
=
+
=
+
= ( )
( )
1 2.
-5 sin int 5 2.
is and in q x is
x is an irregular gular po beacuse power of x in P x is = +

Q#03:- Find the general solution of the equation
/ / /
4 0 x y y y + − =

( By using Frobenius method.)

/ / /
4 0 x y y y + − =
Let
0
n r
n
n
y c x

+
=
=

( ) ( ) ( )
/ / /
1 1
0 0 0
4 0
1 4 0
n r n r n r
n n n
n n n
x y y y
n r n r c x n r c x c x
∞ ∞ ∞
+ − + − +
= = =
+ − =
+ + − + + − =
∑ ∑ ∑

( )
2
1
0 0
4 0
n r n r
n n
n n
n r c x c x
∞ ∞
+ − +
= =
+ − =
∑ ∑

( )
2
2 1 1
0
0 0
4 0
r n n
n n
k n
x r c x n r c x c x
∞ ∞
− −
= =

+ + − =

∑ ∑

( )
{ }
2
2 1
0 1
0
1 4 0
r k
k k
k
x r c x k r c c x

+
=

+ + + − =

2
0 r = , so the indicial roots are equal
&
1 2
0 r r = =
( )
2
1
1 4 0 0,1, 2,....
k k
k r c c k
+
+ + − = =
( )
1 2
4
0,1, 2,...
1
k
k
c
c k
k
+
= =
+

( )
1 0 2
0
4
!
n
n
n
y c x
n

=
=

To obtain the 2
nd
linearly independent solution we set:
0
1 c =
( )
( )
( )
1
2 1 1 2 2
1 2 3
1
16
1 4 4 ...
9
dx
x
e
y y x dx y x dx
y x
x x x x
| |

|
\ ¹

= = =
| |
+ + + +
|
\ ¹
∫ ∫

( )
1
2 3
16
1 8 24 ...
9
dx
y x
x x x x
=
| |
+ + + +
|
\ ¹

( )
2 3
1
1 1472
1 8 40 ...
9
y x x x x dx
x
| |
= − + − +
|
\ ¹

( )
2
1
1 1472
8 40 ...
9
y x x x dx
x
| |
= − + − +
|
\ ¹

( )
2 3
1
1472
ln 8 20 ...
27
y x x x x x

= − + − +

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
1 1 2 1 1
1472
ln 8 20 ...
27
c y x c y x x y x x x x
| |
= + + − + − +
|
\ ¹

Assignment # 07

Q#01 :- Solve the Bessel function in terms of
7
2
sin cos x and x of the J
Solution:

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 1
5
2
5 5 5
1 1
2 2 2
3 7 5
2 2 2
7 5 3
2 2 2
5
2
3 / 2
7
2
C o n s i d e r t h a t
2
5
2
2
5
5
(1)

3 s i n 2 2 2
( . c o s ) s i n
s i n 2 2
( ) . c o s
(1)
5
v v v
t a k i n g v
v
J x J x J x
x
A s f o r
J x J x J x
x
J x J x J x
x
J x J x J x
x
w e k n o w
x
J x x x
x x x x x
x
J x x
x x x
T h e n e q u a t i o n b e c o m e s
J x
π π π
π π
− +
=
− +
+ =
+ =
+ =
= − − − − −
= − −
= −
=
2
2 3 2 3 2 s i n
[ 1 s i n . ( c o s ) ] c o s
x
x x x
x x x x x x
x
π π π
| |
| |
− − − −
| |
\ ¹
\ ¹

Q#02 :- Find the general solution of the given differential equation on( 0, ∞)
2
2 2
2
16 16 (16 1) 0
d y dy
x x x y
dx dx
+ + − =
Solution:
The Bessel differential equation is

2
2 2 2
2
( ) 0
d y dy
x x x v y
dx dx
+ + − = -----(1)

2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2
16 16 (16 1) 0
16.
1
( ) 0
16
1
( ( ) ) 0 (2)
4
d y dy
x x x y
dx dx
Dividing by
d y dy
x x x y
dx dx
d y dy
x x x y
dx dx
+ + − =
+ + − =
+ + − = − − − −

Comparing (1) and (2) , we get
2
1 1
16 4
v v = ⇒ = ±
so the general solution is
1 1 2 1
4 4
( ) ( ) y c J x c J x

= +

Q#03 :-
Reduce the third order equation
/ / / / / /
3 9 6 cos y y y y t = − − + + to the normal form
solution:-
/ / / / / /
/ / / / / /
3 9 6 cos
3
1 1
3 2 cos
3 3
int var
y y y y t
Dividing by
y y y y t
Now roduce the iables
= − − + +
= − − + +
1
/
2
/ /
3
/ /
1 2
/ / /
2 3
/ / / /
3
/
3 1 2 3
1 1
3 2 cos
3 3
y x
y x
y x
x y x
x y x
x y
x x x x t
=
=
=
= =
= =
=
= − − + +

Assignment No. 8
Question#01: Find the eigen values and eigen vectors of the following matrix
1 2 2
2 1 2
2 2 1
A
− | |
|
= −
|
|
− −
\ ¹

solution.

3 2
2
12
2
1 2 2
2 1 2 0
2 2 1
exp .
3 9 5 0
sin .
1, 4 5 0
1, 1, 5
5
4 2 2
5 2 4 2
2 2 4
2 4 2
4 2 2
2 2 4
2 4 2
0 6 6
0 6 6
A I
After ansion
By u g synthetic division
For
A I
R
R
λ
λ λ
λ
λ λ λ
λ λ λ
λ λ
λ
− −
− = − − =
− − −
− + + + =
= − − − =
= − = −
=
− −

− = − −

− − −

− −

= − −

− − −

− −

= − −

− −

1 3 1
1 2 3
3 2
2 ,
1 2 1
1 1 1
0 1 1 , ,
2 6 6
0 1 1
1 2 1
0 1 1
0 0 0
R R R
R R R
R R
+ +
− −

= − −

− −

= −

1
2
3
1 2 3
2 3 2 3
2 3
1
1
( 5 ) 0
1 2 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
2 0
0
,
0
1
1
1
A I v
x
x
x
x x x
x x x x
x a x a
x
a
v a a
a
− =
− −

=

− − =
+ = ⇒ − =
= = −
=

=

− −

2 1 3 1
1 2 3
1 2 3
1
2 2 2
( 1) 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
0 0 0 ,
0 0 0
2 2 2 0
, ,
For
A I
R R R R
x x x
x a x b x a b
λ = −

− − = −

− −

= − +

+ − =
= = = +

1
2
3
1 0
0 1
1 1
x a
x b
a b x
a b

=

+

= +

Question#02
Solve the homogeneous system of differential equations
2
dx
x y
dt
dy
x y
dt
= +
= − −

solution.
The given system can be written in matrix form
1
1
1 2 2 1
1 2
1
1 1
2 1
1 1
0
2 1
exp
1 1
( ) 0
2 1
(1 ) 0 (1 )
1 (1 )
1
1
dx
x
dt
dy y
dt
A I
After ension
i
For i
k i
A I K
i k
i k k k i k
choose k then k i
k
i
λ
λ
λ
λ
λ
λ
| |
|
| || |
= |
| |
− −
| \ ¹\ ¹
|
\ ¹

− = =
− − −
= ±
= −
+ | | | |
− = =
| |
− − +
\ ¹\ ¹
= + + = ⇒ = − +
= = − +
| |
=
|
− −
\ ¹

1
1
1 2 2 1
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
1 1
( ) 0
2 1
(1 ) 0 ( 1)
1 ( 1)
1
1
1 1
,
1 1
1 1
1 1
it it
it it
For i
k i
A I K
i k
i k k k i k
choose k then k i
k
i
X e X e
i i
X C e C e
i i
λ
λ

=
− | | | |
− = =
| |
− − −
\ ¹\ ¹
= − + = ⇒ = −
= = −
| |
=
|

\ ¹
| | | |
= =
| |
− − −
\ ¹ \ ¹
| | | |
= +
| |
− − −
\ ¹ \ ¹