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Chapter 4: Job Analysis

Multiple Choice

1. _____ is the procedures through which one determines the duties associated with positions and
the characteristics of people to hire for those positions.
a. Job description
b. Job specification
c. Job analysis
d. Job context
e. None of the above
(c; easy; p. 112)

2. The information resulting from job analysis is used for writing _____.
a. job descriptions
b. work activities
c. work aids
d. job context
e. performance standards
(a; easy; p. 112)

3. Which of the following types of information can be collected via a job analysis?
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. performance standards
d. job context
e. all of the above
(e; moderate; p. 112)

4. Information regarding job demands such as lifting weights or walking long distances is
included in the information about _____ an HR specialist may collect during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context
(b; moderate; p. 112)

5. Information regarding how, why, and when a worker performs each activity is included in the
information about _____ an HR specialist may collect during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context
(a; moderate; p. 112)

6. Information regarding the quantity or quality levels for each job duty is included in the
information about _____ an HR specialist may collect during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context

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(d; moderate; p. 112)

7. Information regarding job-related knowledge or skills and required personal attributes is


included in the information about _____ an HR specialist may collect during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. human requirements
d. performance standards
e. job context
(c; moderate; p. 112)

8. Information regarding matters such as physical working conditions and work schedule is
included in the information about _____ an HR specialist may collect during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context
(e; moderate; p. 112)

9. There are _____ steps in doing a job analysis.


a. three
b. four
c. five
d. six
e. ten
(d; easy; p. 113)

10. Deciding how to use the resulting information is the _____ step in doing a job analysis.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(a; moderate; p. 113)

11. The first step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(a; moderate; p. 113)

12. Reviewing relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and
job descriptions is the _____ step in doing a job analysis.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(b; moderate; p. 113)

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13. The second step in conducting a job analysis is _____.
a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(b; moderate; p. 113)

14. Selecting representative positions to use in the job analysis is the _____ step in the process.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(c; moderate; p. 114)

15. The third step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(c; moderate; p. 114)

16. Collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human
traits and abilities needed to perform the job is the _____ step in the job analysis process.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(d; moderate; p. 114)

17. The fourth step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(d; moderate; p. 114)

18. Verifying the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her
immediate supervisor is the _____ step in the job analysis process.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(e; moderate; p. 114)

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19. The fifth step in conducting a job analysis is _____.
a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. verifying the job analysis information
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(c; moderate; p. 114)

20. Developing a job description and job specification is the _____ step in the job analysis process.
a. second
b. third
c. fourth
d. fifth
e. sixth
(e; moderate; p. 114)

21. The final step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(e; moderate; p. 114)

22. A(n) _____ shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job being analyzed.
a. organization chart
b. process chart
c. value chain
d. job preview
e. job description
(b; moderate; p. 114)

23. Which term refers to a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the
job?
a. job specification
b. job analysis
c. job report
d. job description
e. job context
(d; moderate; p. 114)

24. A _____ summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting
the job done.
a. job specification
b. job analysis
c. job report
d. job description
e. job context
(a; moderate; p. 112)

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25. Which of the following is included in the job specifications?
a. personal qualities
b. traits
c. skills
d. required background
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 114)

26. Which of the following methods is used to gather job analysis data?
a. interviews
b. questionnaires
c. observation
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; moderate; p. 115)

27. Who is interviewed by managers collecting job analysis data?


a. individual employees
b. groups of employees with the same job
c. supervisors who know the job
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; moderate; p. 115)

28. Which of the following is not an advantage of using interviews to collect job analysis data?
a. it is simple to use
b. some information may be exaggerated or minimized
c. it is quick to collect information
d. it can identify uncommon, but important activities
e. it can be used to explain need for job analysis
(b; moderate; p. 115)

29. Interviews often include questions about _____.


a. supervisory responsibilities
b. job duties
c. education
d. experience
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 116)

30. In addition to identifying the specific duties associated with a job, a job analysis should also
seek to identify the _____.
a. length of time an employee has held the position
b. order of importance
c. frequency of occurrence
d. all of the above
e. b and c only
(e; difficult; p. 117)

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31. For which of the following jobs is direct observation not recommended to collect data used in
a job analysis?
a. assembly-line worker
b. accounting clerk
c. engineer
d. receptionist
e. salesperson
(c; difficult; p. 117)

32. A _____ is the time it takes to complete a job.


a. job specification
b. work cycle
c. work week
d. shift
e. none of the above
(b; moderate; p. 117)

33. The average cycle time is a(n) _____.


a. minute
b. hour
c. day
d. week
e. it depends on the specific job
(e; easy; p. 117)

34. When a worker changes what he or she would normally do because they are being watched,
_____ has occurred.
a. proactivity
b. reactivity
c. cycling
d. diverting
e. none of the above
(b; moderate; p. 117)

35. Which two data collection methods are frequently used together?
a. direct observation and interviewing
b. questionnaires and direct observation
c. interviewing and questionnaires
d. diaries and interviewing
e. most are used individually
(a; difficult; p. 117)

36. Jane records every activity she participates in at work along with time in a log. This approach
to data collection for job analysis is based on _____.
a. diaries
b. interviews
c. direct observation
d. questionnaires
e. supervisor verification
(a; easy; p. 117)

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37. Which of the following is considered a qualitative approach to job analysis?
a. position analysis questionnaire
b. interviews
c. Department of Labor approach
d. functional job analysis
e. all are qualitative approaches
(b; difficult; p. 117)

38. Which of the following is considered a quantitative approach to job analysis?


a. interviews
b. diaries
c. Department of Labor Procedure
d. direct observation
e. questionnaires
(c; difficult; p. 117)

39. What form of data collection involves recording work activities in a log?
a. interviews
b. diaries
c. direct observation
d. questionnaires
e. none of the above
(b; easy; p. 117)

40. Which of the following is not one of the basic activities included in a position analysis
questionnaire?
a. performing skilled activities
b. being physically active
c. operating equipment
d. processing information
e. all are included in a position analysis questionnaire
(e; moderate; p. 122)

41. The _____ assigns a quantitative score to each job based on its decision-making, skilled
activity, physical activity, equipment operation, and information-processing characteristics.
a. Department of Labor Procedure
b. position analysis questionnaire
c. functional job analysis
d. log approach
e. all of the above
(b; moderate; p. 122)

42. Which quantitative job analysis technique can be conducted online?


a. position analysis questionnaire
b. Department of Labor Procedure
c. functional job analysis
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(a; difficult; p. 122)

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43. Which of the following is included in a functional job analysis?
a. the extent to which specific instructions are necessary to perform the task
b. the extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to perform the task
c. the mathematical ability required to perform the task
d. the verbal and language facilities required to perform the task
e. all of the above
(e; moderate; p. 124)

44. Most job descriptions contain sections that cover _____.


a. job summary
b. standards of performance
c. working conditions
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; easy; p. 125)

45. One uses information from the _____ to write a job specification.
a. job summary
b. job identification
c. job description
d. standards for performance
e. job advertisement
(c; moderate; p. 125)

46. What type of information is contained in the job identification section of a job description?
a. job title
b. job summary
c. relationships statement
d. major functions or activities
e. all of the above
(a; difficult; p. 128)

47. FLSA status is located in the _____ section of a job description.


a. job summary
b. job identification
c. relationships
d. responsibilities and duties
e. none of the above
(b; moderate; p. 128)

48. The _____ classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs.
a. Department of Labor Procedure
b. Job analysis
c. Standard Occupational Classification
d. Federal Professions Classification System
e. None of the above
(c; easy; p. 129)

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49. Under the _____, the individual must have the requisite skills, educational background, and
experience to perform the jobs essential functions.
a. SOC
b. DOL
c. ADA
d. FCC
e. SIC
(c; moderate; p. 130)

50. Which section of a job description should define the limits of the jobholders authority, direct
supervision of other personnel, and budgetary limitations?
a. job identification
b. job summary
c. relationships
d. responsibilities and duties
e. pay levels
(d; moderate; p. 129)

51. When is an employer required to make a reasonable accommodation for a disabled


individual?
a. any time a disabled individual applies for a position
b. employers are only encouraged to make reasonable accommodations
c. when a disabled individual has the necessary skills, education, and experience to perform
the job, but cant because of the jobs current structure
d. when it would present an undue hardship
e. when the job function is essential
(c; moderate; p. 130)

52. Job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation,
are called _____.
a. essential job functions
b. job requirements
c. primary job activities
d. work activities
e. all of the above
(a; easy; p. 130)

53. The job specification takes the job description and answers the question, _____?
a. What human traits and experience are required to do this job well
b. When will the supervisor be completely satisfied with a workers work
c. What are the four main activities making up this job
d. How many other employees are available to perform job functions
e. What are the performance standards for the job
(a; difficult; p. 132)

54. When filling jobs with untrained people, the job specifications may include _____.
a. quality of training
b. length of previous service
c. previous job performance
d. physical traits
e. all of the above
(d; moderate; p. 132)

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55. Which of the following work behaviors is considered generic or important to all jobs?
a. industriousness
b. intelligence
c. experience
d. morality
e. motivation
(a; moderate; p. 133)

56. All of the following work behaviors are considered generic or important to all jobs except
_____.
a. thoroughness
b. attendance
c. experience
d. schedule flexibility
e. industriousness
(c; moderate; p. 133)

57. _____ means assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of
activities they perform.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Job adjustment
(d; easy; p. 138)

58. _____ means systematically moving workers from one job to another.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Job adjustment
(a; easy; p. 138)

59. ______ means redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to
experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Job adjustment
(b; easy; p. 138)

60. Who argued that the best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities for challenge and
achievement into their jobs via job enrichment?
a. Adam Smith
b. Frederick Taylor
c. Frederick Herzberg
d. Abraham Maslow
e. Milton Friedman
(c; moderate; p. 138)

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61. _____ refers to broadening the responsibilities of the companys jobs, and encouraging
employees not to limit themselves to whats on their job descriptions.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Dejobbing
(e; easy; p. 139)

62. Dejobbing can be described as _____.


a. assigning workers additional work at the same level
b. redesigning jobs to increase opportunities for responsibility
c. moving workers from one job to another
d. encouraging employees not to limit themselves to whats on their job descriptions
e. focusing workers on highly specialized jobs
(d; moderate; p. 139)

63. Job enrichment can be described as _____.


a. assigning workers additional work at the same level
b. redesigning jobs to increase opportunities for responsibility
c. moving workers from one job to another
d. encouraging employees not to limit themselves to whats on their job descriptions
e. focusing workers on highly specialized jobs
(b; moderate; p. 138)

64. Jack works at a Hilton hotel. Some weeks he works in catering but he also works in
housekeeping, and in reservations periodically. This is an example of _____.
a. job enlargement
b. job rotation
c. job enrichment
d. dejobbing
e. job specialization
(b; easy; p. 138)

65. The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic
improvements in performance is called _____.
a. job redesign
b. reengineering
c. process engineering
d. job enlargement
e. outsourcing
(b; easy; p. 139)

66. Describing the job in terms of the measurable, observable, and behavioral competencies
necessary for good job performance is called a _____.
a. competency-based job analysis
b. Department of Labor Procedure
c. functional job analysis
d. SOC classification system
e. none of the above
(a; easy; p. 140)

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67. Competency analysis focuses on _____.
a. what is accomplished
b. how work is accomplished
c. when work is accomplished
d. who accomplishes the work
e. where the work is accomplished
(b; difficult; p. 140)

68. Traditional job analysis focuses on _____.


a. what is accomplished
b. how work is accomplished
c. when work is accomplished
d. who accomplishes the work
e. where the work is accomplished
(a; difficult; p. 141)

69. Job competencies are always _____.


a. measurable
b. observable
c. based on goals
d. both a and b
e. all of the above
(d; easy; p. 141)

70. When a supervisor bases an employees training, appraisals, and rewards on the skills and
competences he or she needs to achieve his or her goals, the supervisor is using _____.
a. competency analysis
b. traditional analysis
c. performance management
d. functional systems management
e. none of the above
(c; moderate; p. 141)

True/ False

71. Job analysis produces information used for writing job descriptions and job specifications. (T;
easy; p. 112)
72. The information gathered during a job analysis is primarily used for listing what jobs entail
and what kind of people to hire for the job. (T; easy; p. 112)
73. A process chart shows the organization-wide division of work, how the job in question relates
to other jobs, and where the job fits in the overall organization. (F; moderate; p. 114)
74. Conducting the job analysis is the sole responsibility of the HR specialist. (F; moderate; p.
112)
75. The interview is the most widely used method for identifying job duties and responsibilities.
(T; easy; p. 116)
76. Job analysis is often a prelude to changing a jobs pay rate. (T; moderate; p. 115)
77. Interviews used for job analysis typically follow an unstructured format. (F; easy; p. 115)
78. After completing an interview, the data should be verified with the workers immediate
supervisor. (T; moderate; p. 116)
79. Observation as a data collection method in a job analysis is most appropriate for jobs entailing
a lot of mental activity. (F; easy; p. 117)
80. Employers may provide employees pocket dictating machines and pagers to record activities at
random times of the work day. (T; moderate; p. 117)

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81. Qualitative approaches are more appropriate than quantitative approaches when one seeks to
compare jobs for pay purposes. (F; moderate; p. 117)
82. No significant differences exist between the functional job analysis method and the DOL
method. (F; moderate; p. 123)
83. The Department of Labor Procedure identifies performance standards and training
requirements for a job. (F; difficult; p. 123)
84. There is no standard format for writing a job description. (T; moderate; p. 125)
85. The FLSA status section of a job description permits quick identification of a job as exempt or
nonexempt from overtime and minimum wage provisions. (T; moderate; p. 128)
86. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that organizations have job descriptions
that list the essential functions of the jobs. (F; difficult; p. 130)
87. The statistical analysis method for job specifications is more defensible than the judgmental
approach because equal rights legislation forbids using traits that cant distinguish between
high and low job performers. (T; moderate; p. 132)
88. The early work of Frederick Taylor supports the recent trend of dejobbing. (F; difficult; p.
138)
89. Job enlargement refers to redesigning jobs in a way that increases responsibility and
achievement. (F; moderate; p. 138)
90. Job rotation is another term for dejobbing. (F; easy; p. 138)
91. Boundaryless organizations use teams and other mechanisms to make boundaries more
permeable. (T; moderate; p. 139)
92. In reengineered situations, workers tend to become collectively responsible for overall results
rather than being individually responsible for just their own tasks. (T; difficult; p. 139)
93. Job analysis experts are concerned that in high performance work environments in which
employers need workers to seamlessly move from job to job and exercise self-control, job
descriptions based on lists of job-specific duties may actually inhibit the flexible behavior
companies need. (T; moderate; p. 140)
94. Organizations define competencies in the same way. (F; moderate; p. 140)
95. Functional-based job analysis means describing the job in terms of the measurable, observable,
behavioral competencies that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well. (F;
difficult; p. 140)
96. Competency-based job analysis is more job-focused than traditional job analysis. (F; difficult;
p. 140)
97. Competency analysis focuses on how the worker meets the jobs objectives or actually
accomplishes the work. (T; moderate; p. 140)
98. Performance management means basing employee training, appraisals, and rewards on the
skills and competencies he or she needs to achieve his or her goals. (T; moderate; p. 141)
99. A jobs required competencies might include general competencies, leadership competencies,
and technical competencies. (T; moderate; p. 141)
100. Employee attitude is at the heart of a companys performance management process. (F;
moderate; p. 141)

Essay/ Short Answer

101. Explain how job analysis provides information useful in recruitment and selection,
compensation, and performance appraisal. (moderate; p. 112)

Answer: Job analysis provides information for recruitment and selection by laying out what
the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This
information helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. Job analysis
information is also crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate
compensation. A performance appraisal compares each employees actual performance with

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his or her performance standards. Managers use job analysis to determine the jobs specific
activities and performance standards.

102. List the steps in conducting a job analysis. (moderate; p. 113-114)

Answer: There are six steps in doing a job analysis. Step 1 is to decide how one will use the
information. Step 2 is to review relevant background information such as organization charts,
process charts, and job descriptions. Step 3 is to select representative positions. Step 4 is to
analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working
conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Step 5 is to verify the job
analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate
supervisor. Step 6 is to develop a job description and job specification.

103. Explain how a job analysis typically involves a joint effort by an HR specialist, the worker,
and the workers supervisor. (moderate; p. 115)

Answer: The HR specialist might observe and analyze the job and then develop a job
description and specification. The supervisor and worker may fill out questionnaires listing the
subordinates activities. The supervisor and worker may then review and verify the job
analysts conclusions regarding the jobs activities and duties.

104. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews to collect job analysis data?
(moderate; p. 115)

Answer: Interviews are relatively simple and quick way to collect data. Skilled interviewers
can gather information that might otherwise go undiscovered. Some activities might occur
only occasionally or be more informal in nature. Interviews can discover these types of
activities. The interview also offers an opportunity to explain the need for a job analysis. The
biggest drawback is the chance for information to be distorted either to outright falsification or
honest misunderstanding.

105. Explain the advantage of using a position analysis questionnaire to analyze a job. (difficult; p.
118)

Answer: The advantage of the PAQ is that it provides a quantitative score or profile of any job
in terms of how that job rates on five basic activities: 1) having decision-making/
communication/ social responsibilities, 2) performing skilled activities, 3) being physically
active, 4) operating vehicles/ equipment, and 5) processing information. Its real strength is in
classifying jobs. Jobs can then be compared quantitatively.

106. Describe the procedure used by the Department of Labor for job analysis. (difficult; p. 123)

Answer: A set of basic activities called worker functions describes what a worker can do with
respect to data, people, and things. Each worker function gets an importance level. Then the
highest combination would be used to identify the job, since this is the highest level that a job
incumbent would be expected to attain. The job ends up with a numerical score. One can group
jobs with similar scores together.

107. How is a functional job analysis different from the Department of Labor Procedure?
(moderate; p. 124)

Answer: A functional job analysis is similar to the DOL method, but differs in two ways. First,
functional job analysis rates the job not just on data, people, and things, but also on four more

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dimensions: the extent to which specific instructions are necessary to perform the task; the
extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to perform the task; the mathematical
ability required to perform the task; and the verbal and language facilities required to perform
the task. Second, functional job analysis also identifies performance standards and training
requirements.

108. When is a job function essential? (moderate; p. 130)

Answer: A job function is essential when it is the reason the position exists or when the
function is so specialized that the firm hired the person doing the job for his or her expertise or
ability to perform that particular function. Essential job functions are the job duties that
employees must be able to perform.

109. What job-related behaviors are considered generic and important to all jobs? (moderate; p.
130)

Answer: Regardless of the job, the following work behaviors are important to all jobs:
industriousness, thoroughness, schedule flexibility, attendance, off-task behavior (reverse),
unruliness (reverse), theft (reverse), and drug misuse (reverse).

110. What are the five steps for establishing job specifications based on statistical analysis?
(difficult; p. 134)

Answer: Step 1: Analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance. Step 2: Select
personal traits like finger dexterity that you believe should predict successful performance.
Step 3: Test candidates for these traits. Step 4: Measure these candidates subsequent job
performance. Step 5: Statistically analyze the relationship between the human trait and job
performance.

111. Explain the difference between job enlargement and job enrichment. (easy; p. 138)

Answer: Job enlargement means assigning workers additional same-level activities to increase
the number of activities they perform. Job enrichment means redesigning jobs in a way that
increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement,
growth, and recognition.

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