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DENSITY AND URBAN FORM UD / 2012 / SPA

READING
MRIGANKTHEMAYANK
Urban Form (morphology)

Study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and
transformation.

Understanding of spatial structure and character of a


metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the
patterns of its component parts and the process of its
development.

Analysis of physical structures at different scales as


well as patterns of movement, land use, ownership or
control and occupation.

The study of urban tissue, or fabric, as a means of


discerning the underlying structure of the built landscape.
Tools and theories for urban form
The tools for analyzing Urban Morphology have some theories like: Space syntax,
Figure and Ground etc. Three Theories of Urban Spatial Design:
1. Figure and Ground
2. Linkage theory
3. Place Theory
DENSITY

INFRASTR-
LAYOUT
UCTURE
URBAN
FORM

TRANSPORT LANDUSE
Concept of Density

The concept of density in urbanism is frequently used to describe the


relationship between a given area and the number of certain entities in that
area. These entities might be people, dwellings, services, or floor space.
It is a formula for managing city growth. However, it is possible to suppose that
this is a quite reductionist way of approaching the issue of density, since it is a
broad and complex concept.

DENSITY

PRESCRIPTIVE DESCRIPTIVE

Urban density used to describe a Urban density used as a norm in


built environment. the process of planning and
designing the city.
Concept of Density
DECEPTIVELY COMPLEX CONCEPT WITH A NUMBER OF INTER-
RELATED DIMENSIONS.
OBJECTIVE SUBJECTIVE

SPATIALLY BASED SOCIAL INTERPRETATION

NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN A
GIVEN AREA INDIVIDUAL DEPENDENT

EXAMPLE CANNAUGHT PLACE, WHILE THE


REPORTED DENSITY MAY BE LOW, THE PERCIEVED
DENSITY AND EXTENT OF CROWDING MAY BE VERY
HIGH

COMPLEXITIES OF DENSITY
1. Difficult to measure
2. The logic of density and its implications for urban form in different scales of
analysis
3. Conditions subjective and qualitative
CULTURAL DIMENSION

People live is considered as relative. Example, Current English housing policy


states that new residential building should be at a minimum of 30 dwellings/ha
which for some may be an unacceptably high density (DCLG, 2006). In Hong
Kong however, a minimum of ten times that density would be considered low.
Density as a measurement

Residential density
number of people (population density) or the amount of housing (accommodation
density) in a specified area of land.

Five Density measures

FAR Floor area / Site area


GC Building footprint / Site area
SOS Open space area / Site area
OSR Open space area / Floor area
SCR Open space area X Floor area / Site area2 = SOS X FAR

FAR - Urban morphology


People/Hectare - Regional planners and geographers

The measurement methods are:


1. Population and dwelling density
2. Land use intensity
3. Coverage
4. Building height
5. Spaciousness
Illustration of city form
Factors included
FAR
GC
OS
OSR
SCR

SAME DENSITY IN DIFFERETN LAYOUTS WITH VARYING GC AND CONSTANT FAR


Illustration of city form

IDENTICAL FAR OF 1 AND GC .2

IDENTICAL FAR OF 1 AND GC .4


Illustration of city form

RESIDENTIAL DENSITY OF FOUR DIFFERENT URBAN FORMS


Population Density & Morphology
Density (person/km2) (Source - Urban Age)

DELHI (PEAK DEN. 96460) MUMBAI (PEAK DEN. 101066) KOLKATA (PEAK DEN. 78355) BANGALORE (PEAK DEN. 75169)
(IINNER AREA 19636) (INNER AREA 34348) (INNER AREA 20483) (INNER AREA 18225)
(ADMINISTRATIVE AREA 9340) (ADMINISTRATIVE AREA27378) (ADMINISTRATIVE AREA 24454) (ADMINISTRATIVE AREA 19040)
Density is largely driven
by topographical
constraints and the
Skyline of Mumbai

location of public
transport and other
infrastructure, but also
by each citys inherited
traditions of urban
planning and
development.

While high density is sometimes associated exclusively with poor


and overcrowded urban environments, it can also enable a higher
quality of life and reduce the environmental impact of cities by
facilitating walking and cycling. In doing so, high density urban
areas can enhance a citys vitality and make the provision of
public transport and other amenities more viable.
Skyline of Delhi Skyline of Kolkata
Urban Planning and development Density is largely driven by
rule define the skyline topographical constraints

Density is not necessarily indicative of a particular morphology


Skyline of Bangalore
Urban Planning and development rules
define the skyline
Population Density representation

Bandra Kurla, Mumbai

Pudong, Shanghai

Downtown Manhattan
Population growth trend
In the 1990s, Indias population grew by a dramatic 23%, but this fast growth was
outpaced in the main cities. In Delhi the number of residents jumped by 70%,
although this was partly due to a boundary change and Bangalore grew by 38%.
Mumbais population grew by 21%, falling back slightly on its relative position.

In contrast Kolkatas population was almost flat, at least by Indian standards, at


4% growth. Projections suggest population growth nationwide will continue but at
a reduced rate of 14% to 2010, with growth in Bangalore pull ahead of that in
Delhi and other cities.
1950 2007 2020
Mumbai 2,857,000 18,963,000 23,931,000
Delhi 1,369,369 16,671,894 23,705,710
Kolkata 4,513,496 14,827,582 18,799,710
Bangalore 745,999 6,963,832 9,531,009
New York 12,338,471 19,040,493 20,369,956
Shanghai 6,066,000 14,986,000 18,464,000
London 8,361,000 8,567,000 8,618,000
Mexico city 2,883,000 19,957,000 22,185,000
Johannesburg 900,000 3,420,000 3,741,000

Berlin 3,351,757 3,405,954 3,435,579


Density Major cities

(Source - Urban Age)


Density Major cities

(Source - Urban Age)


Density patterns

VERY HIGH DENSITIES IN THE LOWER DENSITY DEVELOPMENT


CENTRES OF MUMBAI AND SHANGHAI PATTERNS OF BERLIN AND
LONDON
LIMITED AREAS OF HIGH DENSITY IN NEW YORK, CONSTRAINTS OF
AROUND A DOWNTOWN IN WATERWAYS DRIVE DENSITIES
JOHANNESBURG IN THE MIDST OF A THAT RISE TO A SPIKE IN
VERY LOW-DENSITY SPRAWL MANHATTAN AND PARTS OF THE
BRONX, BROOKLYN AND QUEENS
SAO PAULO MEXICO
DENSITY PATTERN SIMILAR SKYLINE IS CONSISTENTLY LOW
SKYLINE IS DOMINATED BY HIGH RISE. MULTICENTERED
MULTICENTERED

Similar density profiles shows how high-rise buildings do not necessarily


create higher density in comparison to more tightly planned low-rise
development

URBAN FORM AND DENSITY ARE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS.


Extremes of wealth and poverty as shown
here on the edge of the Paraispolis favela,
So Paulo,represent deep inequalities in the
Moving in the city
(Source - Urban Age)
Delhi Bangalore

Mumbai
New York London Mexico

Kolkata Shanghai Johannesburg Berlin


(Source - Urban Age)

All cities under study have a higher Human Development Index (HDI) than their national data.
The HDI score combines life expectancy, literacy rate, educational enrolment ratio with its per
capita Gross Domestic Product to provide a snapshot of the quality of life in each city.
Density as a planning tool - India
INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF URBAN PLANNING
Mostly ignored in India
Has led to further sprawls
No one size fits all where density is concerned
Indian cities need to see what fits their requirement
Socio-economic characteristics of density have an important role to play in
India
Master Plans do not incorporate density as a tool for development,
large programs like JNNURM are promoting densification of inner core
Resulting policy gaps needs to be addressed

QOL IMPROVES AS DENSITY INCREASES TILL A TIPPING POINT;


Moderate to high density neighborhoods are more likely to have better
access to services and facilities; they are also more likely to feel more secure.
Density patterns have a strong linkage to income distribution.
Higher income category populations prefer to stay away from city center in low
to moderate density areas
Lower income category prefer to stay near city center
Master plan analysis
Issues related to various densities
Low density issues

large regions with low density development is considered to be


unsustainable as it results in
urban sprawl,
involves high infrastructure costs,
stretches the resources of social services and facilities.
It reduces the economy of public transport systems and dwellers tend to
rely on private car use with resulting increases in emissions, fumes, loss
of air quality, and in a way or other it results in social isolation.
The sprawl and greater
urban footprint associated
with low density
development can also put
pressure on the natural
environment, threatening
existing eco systems and
bio-diversity, and can impact
on the use of productive land Typical lot configurations for low density (12.5 dwellings/ha)
for agricultural purposes. Source: Development Code Precinct Planning, The Growth Centres
Medium density issues
Housing types associated with medium density housing development can cater
for the needs of a range of demographic and socio-economic profiles.
The increase in density effectively results in
lower costs per unit of producing dwellings, as well as a more efficient use of
scarce land resources, infrastructure and social services and facilities.
lack of private open space is normally can be countered by creating communal
open spaces or parks to offer recreational opportunities and amenities for
dwellers.
Denser development
where dwellings are placed
and residents live in close
proximity to each other in
tighter spaces brings with it
issues that are less
common in low density
development issues such
as privacy, adequacy of
private open space, solar
access (natural light),
Typical lot configuration for medium density (20.69 dwellings/ha)
issues of parking etc. Source: Development Code Precinct Planning, The Growth Centres
High density issues

In order to achieve the total requirement of land, high density development plays
vital role and hence more open area within the built fabric and agricultural
land can be protected.
High density development close to activity centres and public transport
routes represents the most efficient use of urban resources. It generates
the smallest ecological footprint of all three density types.
High density development generates similar issues to medium density
development, although, at a much more intense scale.
The issues of privacy, solar access and car parking can be dealt with in
the design of buildings; and lack of private open space can be resolved by
provision of communal open space and parks.
With high density development, bulk and height of buildings, create
hindrance for open space around it and other buildings nearby, and spaces
between buildings are issues that can be dealt with by appropriate siting
and the arrangement of buildings blocks.
To achieve the best outcome, the planning and layout of the blocks in the
master planning stage must ensure appropriate block sizes,
configurations and orientation to allow future buildings to be designed
and sited on these blocks to optimum effect.

Another issue associated with high density development is the increase in


opportunity for anti-social behavior and crime due to increased
population density, increased unrecognizability and higher
concentration of different social mixes.

The planning and layout of the area must be developed such that all blocks
face towards streets or public open spaces.

Typical lot configuration for high density (38.55 dwellings/ha)


Source: Development Code Precinct Planning, The Growth Centres Commission
Analysis
Comparison of FAR regulations
Case - Mumbai FAR regulations
FAR across cities
Pune
Gurgaon
Bangalore
Mumbai
Delhi
Noida
Chennai
Shanghai
Manhattan
New York
0.0 10.0 20.0
Mumbai FSI values are very different from most major cities around the world. In
Mumbai FSI values are:
Very low
Not differentiated between commercial and residential
Uniform over very large areas
not reflecting the difference in accessibility around train stations
not linked to land market values
Choice of appropriate densities

We can make some conclusion on basis of different density studies to establish our
choices of using suitable density.

Higher residential densities should be located near activity centres and along
public transport routes to maximize access and convenience to services.

Medium density should be assigned to locations of high amenity, which may


coincide with activity centres or neighbourhood parks, such as open space
corridors, nature reserves, lake/ water side, as well as in close proximity to public
transport routes.

The remaining residential areas can be allocated to lower density housing forms,
with the lowest density located at the fringes of a city bordering non-urban areas.

The choice of locations for different densities is also influenced by the site
topography. Slopes of greater than 20% are generally not considered suitable for
medium density development due to excessive retaining requirements adding to extra
costs.
A LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN RELATION TO HOUSING DENSITY

Residential development should be designed with the existing environment

a) Density and zoning: distribution of facilities in an area have implications on


its intensity of use and utility.

b) Density and land consumption: land is a finite resource. Increasing


density in an area conserves land.

c) Density and transport: high density encourages commercial


development, and job opportunities. The need for the car decreases as
services, amenities and employment are brought closer to home.

Clustered communities promotes higher transit ridership and shorter trip


lengths between home, work and social activities.
Sustainability and Role of density

DENSITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS


Higher densities and effective redevelopment can reduce public costs. Compared to
lower density developments, higher density compact neighbourhoods can reduce both
the capital and operating costs for police, fire, waste collection and disposal, water
supply, sanitary and storm sewers.

DENSITY AND COMMUNITY INTERACTION


Lower density developments encourage dispersed land use patterns and often reduce
community interaction by increasing the distance from the home to work, services,
friends and family. High density residential neighbourhoods facilitate a greater mix of
land uses, which encourages young children, youth, adults and elderly people to move
out and interact without having to go too far away from home. High density housing
increases the amount of public space available by building on less land.

DENSITY AND HOUSING MIX/ TYPE


Increased density facilitate the development of a greater mix of housing form.
Graph showing comparitive cost percentages of This comparison of Energy Use by House
land and infrastructure development Type (assuming Equal Floor Area and
Orientation) shows the importance of
120
Density to
Sustainable Development
100
100

80
80
Cost of infrastructure Energy
60
deve.
60
Cost of land

40 40
20 20
0 0 Detached End of Top Floor Centre of Centre
Apartment Single- family unit
House Terrace Flat Terrace Floor Flat
House House