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Coastal Manual

Prepared by DEP and CZM staff


Reviewed by DEP Legal staff
Technical Advisory Committee
Kristin Andres, Chatham Conservation
Commission
Gary Clayton, Mass Audubon
George Hall, Anderson & Kreiger LLP
Cheryl Hapke, U.S. Geological Survey
Stan Humphries, LEC Environmental Consultants,
Inc.
David Pancoast, Ipswich Conservation
Commission
Purpose of the Manual

Improve consistency
Provide technical guidance for Commissions
Ensure public health, safety and welfare are
addressed in project design
Coastal Manual
Does not provide standard operating procedures for
Conservation Commissions
Does not cover protection of WPA interests other
than storm damage prevention and flood control.
Appendix G has references for additional information.
The manual does not replace the WPA and its
regulations.
Contents
Chapter 1: Resource Area Delineations
Chapter 2: Resource Area Functions
Chapter 3: Performance Standards for Project Review
Chapter 4: Selected Scenarios:
From Principle to Practice
Appendices:
Glossary
Useful data sources
Technical specifications for delineating primary frontal
dunes
Policy 92-1 for Coastal Banks, Measuring slope on a coastal
bank
Using an engineers scale, references
Document Availability
DEP website, under Wetlands Guidance:
Main document
Resource delineation checklists
CZM website, under StormSmart Coasts:
Main document
Resource delineation checklists
Adjudicatory and other court decisions
The state website is going through major
changes web links in the document will
break. CZM will fix the links after the website
upgrade is complete.
Importance of Datums

Commissions should ensure that all surveys and plans


reference or be adjusted one consistent vertical datum.
See text box on Page 1-81 for more information.

Photo: CZM
Coastal Beach / Coastal Dune
Boundary

Photo 1.3 Gloucester, Coffins Beach


Beach / Dune Boundary

Photo: 1.4 Scituate, Humarock Beach


Coastal Beach Typical Project:
Repair Existing Groin
Coastal Beach Typical Project:
Repair Existing Groin

Photo: DEP
Coastal Beach Typical Project:
Repair Existing Groin

Photo: DEP Harwich


Coastal Beach Typical Project:
Sediment Management
Bypassing

Source: Google Sandwich


Coastal Beach Typical Project:
Sediment Management
Backpassing

Source: Google Edgartown


Coastal Beach Typical Project:
Mixed Sediment Issues

Photo: CZM Gosnold


Coastal Beach Activities

Grading, scraping, and seaweed


removal are activities that can
decrease the volume and change the
beach.
Coastal Dune Delineation
Ocean Pond

Figure 1.4
Figure 1.4
Coastal Dune Delineation
Secondary Dunes

Salisbury Beach
Coastal Dune Delineation

Photo: CZM Scituate


Coastal Dune Delineation
Coastal Dune Delineation
Tapering coastal dunes where do they end?
Veneers are they coastal dunes?
To be considered a coastal dune under the
Regulations, the landform must meet the
definition:
located landward of a coastal beach,
consisting of sediments that were deposited by wind
action or storm overwash, and
exhibiting a hill, mound, or ridge topography.
Coastal Dune Delineation

Viewing a subsurface profile illustrates more clearly


where dune sediments that overlie glacial material are
part of the overall landform and where they are not part
of the hill, mound or ridge of sand. Figure 1.5 Profile B
Coastal Dune Delineation

The windblown sediments landward of the coastal dune


in this example are a constant thickness, not part of the
hill, mound or ridge. They are a veneer.
Figure 1.5 Profile A
Coastal Dune Delineation
Methodology:
Define the thickness and characteristics of the
surface and subsurface sediment layers and
the method of deposition (windblown, wave
deposited, glacial or artificial fill)
Take multiple transects from the coastal beach
landward across the site.
Use auger, shovel, corer or machine to determine
the characteristics and thickness of the surface and
subsurface sediment layers.
The depth of analysis needed will depend on the
height of the dune and the depth to underlying
materials.
Coastal Dune Delineation
Dune sediments are
typically rounded and
well sorted. Dunes
often have obvious
layers.
It is helpful to look at
the range of sediments
on the fronting beach
to put the subsurface
sediments landward of
the beach in context.

Photo: 1.11
Coastal Dune Delineation

Photo: 3.2, DEP

In contrast to dunes, glacial sediments are relatively


unsorted and unstratified.
In some cases, there may be a clear difference in color of
the dune sediments vs. glacial. It is not unusual to see
development of a soil profile in coastal dunes.
Coastal Dune Delineation

Source: Google Ipswich


Coastal Dune Delineation

Figure 1.10
Coastal Dune Delineation
Coastal Dune Delineation
Bottom of the core Top of the core
Coastal Dune Function:
Developed Areas

Photo: 1.8
Coastal Dune Function
Coastal Dune Function
Coastal Dune Typical Project
Coastal Dune Typical Project
Coastal Dune Erosion and Scour

Photos: FEMA: Erosion, Scour and Foundation Design (2009)


Coastal Dune Foundation Design:
Erosion and Scour
Coastal Dune
Typical
Project
Avoid solid
slabs or
decking at
grade under
elevated
buildings.
Reduce
impacts to
vegetative
cover.
Coastal Dune Typical Project

Photos: CZM
Impacts of Sturdy Drift Fencing:
Larger posts = increased scour around them
Fence interferes with sediment flow along shoreline
Fence can cause a wind tunnel effect, increasing erosion
More metal marine debris when damaged.
Coastal Dune Typical Project:
Sand Fencing

Thin wood slats


and twisted wire
preferred
Site landward of
reach of waves
Avoid plastic and
metal
Coastal Dune Typical Project

Solid structures
Interfere with the ability of the
dune to move landward or
laterally
Change the form of the dune
Coastal Dune Typical Project:
Alternatives to Fencing
Coastal Dune Function

Figure 2.2
Dune Delineation: Primary Dunes
The regulations state that
all coastal dunes on
barrier beaches and the
coastal dune closest to the
coastal beach (primary
dune) are per se
significant to storm
damage prevention and
flood control.
Primary Dune Definition
Amended in 2014 to provide a definition and boundary
description of the primary dune to further clarify the
importance of delineating this landform
a continuous or nearly continuous mound or ridge of
sediment with relatively steep seaward and landward
slopes immediately landward and adjacent to the beach
and subject to erosion and overtopping from high tides
and waves during coastal storms. The Primary Frontal
Dune is the dune closest to the beach. The inland limit of
the Primary Frontal Dune occurs at the point where there
is a distinct change from a relatively steep slope to a
relatively mild slope.
Coastal Dune Delineation:
Find the inland limit of the primary dune

MHW

MHW
Primary Dune Definition
Primary frontal dune means a
continuous or nearly continuous
mound or ridge of sand with
relatively steep seaward and
landward slopessubject to Geological science
erosion and overtopping from
high tides and waves during
major coastal storms. Defensible &
Repeatable
The inland limit of the primary
frontal dune occurs at a point
where there is a distinct change
Quantitative analysis
from a relatively steep slope to
a relatively mild slope.
Primary
Dune
Delineation

Figure 1.3
OCEAN
Ridge Type
Primary Dune
Primary
Dune
Delineation

POND

Figure 1.4
OCEAN

Mound Type
Primary Dune
Primary Dune Delineation
Topographic Data Source - LIDAR

Figure C1
Primary Dune Delineation:
Artificial Alterations
Primary Dune Delineation

Figure C4
Primary Dune Delineation:
Check Smoothing
Raw vs. smoothed elevation data.

elevation (m)
4

0
250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0

-1

distance from shore (m)

Figure C2
Primary Dune Delineation:
Is selected point micro or macrotopography?
0.08 10

9
0.06

8
0.04
7
second derivative slope

0.02
6

elevation (m)
0 5

4
-0.02

3
-0.04
2

-0.06
1

-0.08 0
225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0

distance from shore (m)


Primary Dune Delineation
Macro v. Microtopography
Macrotopography
Large-scale changes caused by natural forces
Primary dunes, secondary dunes, washover
fans, etc.
Microtopography
A building or other anthropogenic structures
including driveways, patios, paths, roads,
retaining walls
Vegetation
Is not indicative of the larger landform
Primary Frontal Dune Delineation:
Artificial alterations
Primary Frontal Dune
Delineation:
Groundtruth all points

10
?
9

elevation (m)
5

0
225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0

distance from shore (m)


Primary Dune Delineation:
Look for Consistency Alongshore
Marsh
Ocean

Dunes
Delineating Primary Dunes
Primary dune delineation methodology based on
geological processes, topography, and a mathematical
analysis.
Methodology was peer reviewed by a panel of coastal
geologists, FEMA technical consultants, FEMA staff and
others.
Tzitzenikos Decision found primary dune delineation
methodology relied on by MassDEP provided best available
information and was effective in delineating the landward toe
of the primary dune because it captured the entire dune
structure.
Full delineation methodology provided in Appendix C for consultants.
Review guidelines for Commissions included the Coastal Dune
section in Chapter 1.
Coastal Bank Delineation

Plymouth
Coastal Bank Delineation
Coastal Engineering Structures

Photo: CZM Scituate


Coastal Bank Delineation
Human Alterations

Photo: DEP Wellfleet


Coastal Bank Delineation:
Information Required for Project Review
The applicant should:
Map coastal bank on a plan to a scale of not
greater than 1 inch = 50 feet.
Include a plan view and at least one
representative transect through the landform
being delineated showing the slope profile.
Specify the linear distance of the transect and the
location of the transect.
Indicate which of the diagrams in DEP Policy 92-1
they believe is representative of the site.
Coastal Bank Delineation
Consider the overall landform, not microtopography or
artificial alterations.
The flat area at the top of a revetment, footpaths,
driveways, and other artificial alterations are not
considered changes in slope of the landform.
Keep in mind that there can be multiple coastal banks
on a site.
Commissions should:
Check FEMA flood zone and base flood elevation(s).
Use a ruler and make their own determination of the
slope for the site.
Verify the delineation with a field visit to make sure it is
representative of the overall slope of the landform.
Figure
1.11 Approximate Scale: 1=20
Coastal Banks: Typical Projects
When is a New Coastal Engineering Structure Needed?

Photo: CZM Nantucket


Coastal Bank
Identify the causes
of erosion
Coastal Banks: Runoff Control
Remove and reduce impervious
surfaces
Maintain vegetative buffers
Capture & infiltrate runoff
Regrade to redirect water away
from shoreline
Minimize maintained lawn areas
Avoid irrigation

StormSmart Properties Fact Sheet #2: Controlling Overland Runoff to Reduce Coastal Erosion
Coastal Bank Review Guidelines
Proposed New Coastal Engineering Structures

Identify the degree of threat to the existing building


Was the building constructed prior to August 10, 1978?
Identify the long and short term erosion rates
Distance from the top of the bank to the building
Plymouth
Coastal Bank Review Guidelines
Proposed New Coastal Engineering Structures

Ensure that there are no other feasible


methods of protecting a pre-1978
building other than the proposed
coastal engineering structure
Eastham
Coastal Bank Typical Project:
Alternatives to Coastal
Engineering Structures:
Bioengineering

Coil rolls, natural fiber


blankets and erosion
control vegetation
were used to stabilize
this bank. Photo: DEP Falmouth
Figure 3.3
Alternatives to Structures:
Fringe Marsh Enhancement

Photo: Wilkinson Ecological Design Pleasant Bay


Alternatives to Structures:
Sacrificial Dunes

Photo: CZM Brewster


Alternatives to Before Nourishment

Structures:
Beach
Nourishment
Use clean,
compatible sediment
Mimic the existing
beach profile After Nourishment
Gravel and cobble
size sediment should
be rounded
Use upland source or
compatible dredge
material
Photos: Applied Coastal
Research & Engineering Winthrop
Alternatives to Structures:
Cobble Berm
Alternatives to Coastal Engineering
Structures: Move Landward

Photo: Marthas Vineyard Gazette


Coastal Bank Typical Project:
Repair/Replacement of Existing Structures
Design
considerations to
minimize impacts
Keep
structures as
far landward as
possible, but
dont over-
steepen
Use the
minimum
amount of fill
necessary for
structural
stability
Coastal Bank Typical Project:
Repair/Replacement of Existing Structures

Rough-faced,
sloping, rip rap
structures
dissipate wave
energy better
than vertical
flat-faced
structures
Avoid grout
between the
rocks
Coastal Bank Typical Project:
Repair/Replacement of Existing Structures
Design considerations
to minimize impacts:
Minimize end effects
on adjacent properties
by pulling the structure
back 15-20 from the
property line.
Transition to adjacent
properties to minimize
end effects.

Photos: top - CZM


bottom - Wilkinson Ecological Design
Repair/Reconstruction of
Seawalls and Revetments
Structures do not stop ongoing
beach erosion.
Break the cycle of bigger
structures.
Maintain the level of the beach
seaward of the structure.
Coastal Bank Typical Projects:
Mitigation

Photo: CZM Gloucester


Land Subject to Coastal Storm Flowage
Delineation: FEMA Flood Zones

Figure: FEMA
LSCSF Delineation: Coastal A Zones
Coastal A Zone - subset of the A Zone, separated
from the rest of the A Zone by the Limit of Moderate
Wave Action (LiMWA).
Currently no standards for this zone in WPA.
The complete, up-top-date LiMWA lines are only
available on the FEMA Flood Map Service Center as
part of the National Flood Hazard Layer.
To view the LiMWA, enter an addres in the search
function and select the Interactive Map icon.
Once in the viewer, select the Show Content of
Map icon in the upper left corner of the page to
open the contents menu.
See Delineating the LiMWA section on p. 1-82 and
Finding the LiMWA text box on p. 1-72.
https://msc.fema.gov
https://msc.fema.gov
FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (pdf)

Figure 1.13
Best Practices for Non-Structural Shore
Protection Techniques
StormSmart Properties
Fact Sheets:
How the technique
reduces storm damage
Limitations
Ways to minimize
impacts
Design considerations to
maximize effectiveness
Maintenance needed
Additional
information/resources
Dune Nourishment

Photo: CZM Sandwich


Erosion Control Vegetation

Photo: CZM Plymouth


Coastal Bank Erosion:
What to Look For

Photos: Wilkinson Ecological Design


Natural Fiber Blankets
Blankets stabilize soils
devoid of vegetation,
allowing plants time to get
established
Establish a stable slope
Salt-tolerant seed mix
scattered on bare soil
Use blankets made of
only natural fibers
Use bio-degradable
anchors
Photos: Wilkinson Ecological Design (bottom), Cape Organics (top)
During installation
Bioengineering:
Coir Rolls &
Vegetation
Cover rolls with natural
fiber blanket and sand
Plant a diverse
community of native,
salt-tolerant plants

One year later


Use duckbill anchors
anchored in compacted
sediment
Do NOT use Mirafi or other
filter fabric under/behind
rolls
Photos: Wilkinson Ecological Design
Site: Barnstable, MA
Before Bioengineering: Coir
Rolls & Vegetation
During Construction

10 Years later

Reflects less wave


energy than structures
Reduces erosion
Provide stability at the
toe of bank
Address invasives
Photos: New England Environmental Inc. Establish stable slope
Sand-Filled Coir Bags

Photo: Netco Inc.


Sand-Filled Coir Bags
Important Adjudicatory, Court
Decisions & DEP Policy

Adjudicatory and Court Decisions are


footnoted throughout the Manual
All decisions referenced in the Manual
are posted on CZM website
Summaries of cases presented in this
workshops are not currently included in
the Manual
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Peabody
Proposed new house on undeveloped lot on
primary dune in V-zone of barrier beach prohibited.
Would permanently alter 2000 sq ft of coastal dune
Removal of vegetation cannot be mitigated at alternative
location and can cause erosion elsewhere
Would interfere with landward or lateral migration of dune

Ocean

Site
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Peabody
All coastal dunes are likely to be significant to
storm damage prevention and flood control and all
coastal dunes on barrier beaches and coastal
dunes closest to beach are per se significant to
storm damage prevention (310 CMR 10.28(1))
Because dunes on barrier beaches and the
coastal dune closest to the beach are singled out
as intrinsically important to storm damage
prevention and flood control, they warrant greater
scrutiny.
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Peabody
Final Order upheld by Superior Court and
Massachusetts Appeals Court
Short term accretion and erosion support
conclusion of inherent dune instability
Dune accretion resulted from human
intervention
Previous structure on property was removed
in 1960 due to dune erosion
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
Kline and Policy Direction
20 feet of fill placed on top of a barrier beach in the
1870s.
Definition of dune states sediment deposited by artificial
means serving the purpose of storm damage prevention
and flood control. 310 CMR 10.28(2)

Site
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Kline
Does the fill function as a dune?
Two way exchange of sediment with beach
Landform can form and reshape in response to wind and
waves especially during a coastal storm
Landform can migrate landward or laterally
Decision found that artificial fill placed on the site was
functioning more like coastal bank than coastal dune.
Functions like a coastal bank if it is clearly landward of
the 100-year floodplain and storm water cannot wash
over the top of the landform and move sediments
landward.
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Frost
Site contained large dune on top of a Coastal Bank.
Is it a Coastal Dune subject to regulation under the Act?

Example only -
NOT the Frost Site
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Frost
Administrative Law Judge concluded that a dune
was a non-jurisdictional dune since it was
separated from the ocean by two wetland resource
areasa coastal beach and a coastal bank.
A dune must either border the ocean or border
another wetland resource area that borders the
ocean in order for it to be an area subject to
protection under the Act.
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction

Tzitzenikos
Located on
undeveloped
lot on the
primary frontal
Site
dune of a
barrier beach

Source: Google, Newbury


Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Hearing Officer found the project would not comply with
the Coastal Dune performance standards because it
would adversely impact:
(1) the ability of the waves to remove sand from the dune;
(2) the landward or lateral movement of the dune;
(3) the vegetative cover, destabilizing the dune; and
(4) the site's ability to further the interests of preventing storm
or flood damage
The primary dune methodology relied on by MassDEP
provided best available information and was effective in
delineating the landward toe of the primary dune
because it captured the entire dune structure
Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Tzitzenikos
Superior Court found that Hearing Officer did not
err by applying a federal standard to a state
requirement, but that states definition of primary
frontal dune was the same as federal standard
Superior Court found that the finding that the site
was within the primary dune was supported by
substantial evidence.
Superior Court found that the denial of the project
did not constitute an unconstitutional taking of a
private property
Bornstein Site Location

Site

Source: Google Barnstable


Important Adjudicatory Decisions
and Policy Direction
Bornstein
Site was a low relief bank located adjacent to
salt marsh behind a barrier beach
Hearing Officer found bank acted as both a
vertical buffer to wave action and as a source of
sediment
Hearing Officer found the Coastal Bank was a
sediment source regardless of the volume of
sediment it provided
Miramar Park Association

Source: Google Dennis


Important Adjudicatory, Court Decisions
and Policy Direction
Miramar Park Association
The Town proposed dredging of Swan Pond River,
with beneficial re-use of the sediments on updrift
public beaches
Superior Court decision found that the WPA
Regulations (10.27(4)(c) creates an ongoing
obligation for the Town to offset the adverse
effects of jetties trapping sediments to have a
bypass system to transfer sediments to the down
drift side of the inlet or periodically dredge and
provide nourishment to the down drift side.
Coastal Manual
Main document
Data checklists for
delineating resource
areas
Legal Decisions
referenced in the
Manual

NOTE: State website undergoing


major changes. Links in the
document will break.
Questions?