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Help with ping, winipcfg, and other network commands.

Help with ping, winipcfg, and other network commands.


Issue:
Help with ping, winipcfg, and other network commands.

Cause:
It may be necessary to utilize utilities such as ping, winipcfg, tracert, etc to help identify and fix
network related issues.

Solution:
Below is a listing of the various network related commands used in MS-DOS, Windows, Linux, Unix, and
other operating systems. Each command includes additional information to what the command does, the
command's syntax, and miscellaneous information.

Note: If you are not the root or admin of a computer, it is possible for these commands to be disabled or
revoked.

Arp
Finger
Hostname
Ipconfig
Pathping
Ping
Nbtstat
Net
Netstat
Nslookup
Route
Tracert / Traceroute
Whois
Winipcfg

ARP
Display or manipulate the ARP information on a network device or computer.

Additional information about the MS-DOS arp command can be found here.

FINGER
The finger command available in Unix / Linux variants allows a user to find sometimes personal information
about a user. This information can include the last time the user logged in, when they read their e-mail,
etc... If the user creates a .PLAN or other related file the user can also display additional information.

Unix / Linux and variant finger command information can be found here.

HOSTNAME

http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000444.htm[20/10/2009 6:32:29 ]
Help with ping, winipcfg, and other network commands.

The hostname command displays the host name of the Windows XP computer currently logged into.

Additional information about the MS-DOS hostname command can be found here.

IPCONFIG
Ipconfig is a MS-DOS utility that can be used from MS-DOS and a MS-DOS shell to display the network
settings currently assigned and given by a network. This command can be utilized to verify a network
connection as well as to verify your network settings.

Windows 2000 users should use this command to determine network information.

Additional information about ipconfig can be found here.

PATHPING
Pathping is a MS-DOS utility available for Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows XP users. This utility
enables a user to find network latency and network loss.

Additional information about the pathping command can be found here.

PING
Ping is one of the most commonly used and known commands. Ping allows a user to ping another network
IP address. This can help determine if the network is able to communicate with the network.

MS-DOS / Windows ping command and information can be found here.


Unix / Linux and variant ping command information can be found here.

NBTSTAT
The nbtstat MS-DOS utility that displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT.

MS-DOS / Windows nbtstat command and information can be found here.

NET
The net command is available in MS-DOS / Windows and is used to set, view and determine network
settings.

MS-DOS / Windows net command and information can be found here.

NETSTAT
The netstat command is used to display the TCP/IP network protocol statistics and information.

MS-DOS / Windows netstat command and information and be found here.


Unix / Linux netstat command and information and be found here.

NSLOOKUP
The nslookup MS-DOS utility that enables a user to do a reverse lookup on an IP address of a domain or
host on a network.

MS-DOS / Windows nslookup command and information can be found here.

http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000444.htm[20/10/2009 6:32:29 ]
Help with ping, winipcfg, and other network commands.

Unix / Linux nslookup command and information and be found here. Linux users may also be
interested in the host command that performs a similar task.

ROUTE
The route MS-DOS utility enables computers to view and modify the computer's route table.

MS-DOS route command information can be found here.

TRACERT / TRACEROUTE
The tracert command in MS-DOS / Windows or the traceroute command in Unix / Linux and variants is
another commonly used network command to help determine network related issues or slowdowns. Using
this command you can view a listing of how a network packet travels through the network and where it
may fail or slow down. Using this information you can determine the computer, router, switch or other
network device possibly causing your network issues.

MS-DOS / Windows tracert command and information can be found here.


Unix / Linux and variant traceroute command information can be found here.

WHOIS
The whois command available in Unix / Linux variants helps allow a user to identify a domain name. This
command provides information about a domain name much like the WHOIS on network solutions. In some
cases the domain information will be provided from Network Solutions.

Unix / Linux and variant whois command information can be found here.

WINIPCFG
The winipcfg command available in Windows allows a user to display network and network adapter
information. Here, a user can find such information as an IP address, Subnet Mask, Gateway, etc...

Windows winipcfg command and information can be found here.

NOTE: Windows 2000, Windows XP and above users do not have winipcfg. Instead, use ipconfig.

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Root
Computer help
Dictionary Index
News 1. Also known as an admin, administrator, and gatekeeper this account
Q&A is a super user on a computer and/or network and has complete control Category:
What's new over it. When referring to a Unix / Linux computer this user is often Dictionary
known as root and on a Windows computer and network this user is
Tools often referred to as an administrator. However, each of these terms is Related Pages:
interchangeable.
E-mail this page R - Definitions
Print Preview
Edit this page Information about determining if an account has administrator
rights on document CH001093. Resolved
Ads by Google See document CH001096 for additional information about why you
Root may not be able to log into the administrator account. Were you able
Additional information about giving a Windows account to locate the
Linux Commands
administrative rights on document CH001097. answer to your
RedHat Linux
See our su or super user command page for additional information questions?
Desktop Linux
on this Linux command.
Yes
2. The highest level in a directory hierarchy. For example, in MS-DOS, No
the root of the primary hard disk drive would C:\.

Additional information and help with MS-DOS can be found on our


MS-DOS help page.
Users in the Microsoft recovery console can set the current
directory to the system root directory by using the systemroot
command.

Also see: Administrative, BOFH, Full rights, Hierarchical file system,


Home, Moderator, Op, Power user, Remote admin, Security definitions,
Sysop
Windows XP & Vista Fix AD Management
Speed Up Your PC & Reduce Crashes. Reset Password, Home Folder, Exchange
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t l d l

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Address Resolution Protocol - ARP

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ARP
Computer help
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News Short for Address Resolution Protocol, ARP is a protocol used with the
Q&A IP protocol for mapping a 32-bit Internet Protocol address to a MAC Category:
What's new address that is recognized in the local network specified in RFC 826. Dictionary
Once recognized, the server or networking device returns a response
Tools containing the required address. Related Pages:
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Additional information about the MS-DOS ARP command can be A - Definitions
Edit this page found on our MS-DOS ARP command page.
See our Linux / Unix arp command page for additional information Resolved
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MS-DOS arp command help

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Microsoft DOS arp command
Computer help
Dictionary Index
News Quick links Availability
Q&A Category:
What's new About arp The arp.exe command is an MS-DOS
Availability external command accessed
Tools Syntax through the C:\Windows or Companies:
Examples C:\Winnt\System32 directory and Microsoft
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is available in the below
Edit this page About arp Microsoft operating systems. Related Pages:
Operating systems
Ads by Google Displays, adds and removes arp Windows 95
information from network Windows 98 Resolved
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devices. Windows ME
Static IP
Windows NT Were you able
CMD EXE
Windows 2000 to locate the
Windows
Windows XP answer to your
Windows Vista questions?
Windows 7
Yes
No

Syntax

ARP -s inet_addr eth_adr [if_addr]


ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr]
ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr]

-a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If


inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified
computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries
for each ARP table are displayed.
-g Same as -a
inet_addr Specifies an Internet address.
-N if Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr.
addr
-d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr.
-s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical
address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes
seperated by hyphens. The entry is permanent.

http://www.computerhope.com/arphlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:33:34 ]
MS-DOS arp command help

eth_addr Specifies a physical address


if_addr If present, this specifies the Internet address of the interface whose address
translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable
interface will be used.

Examples

arp -a

Interface 220.0.0.80

Internet Address Physical Address Type


220.0.0.160 00-50-04-62-F7-23 static

The Physical Address or MAC address as shown above in the format aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff is the
unique manufacturer identification number. This number should always be a unique address.

An example of how to change the above IP address 220.0.0.160 to 220.0.0.161 in this case
would be:

arp -s 220.0.0.161 00-50-04-62-F7-23

If an IP address has already been assigned to the specific network adapter it is not possible
to change that assigned IP address to a new address. In addition, networks italicizing DHCP,
BOOTP or RARP will automatically assign the card an IP address, therefore, this command
would not be utilized.

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Linux and UNIX finger command.

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answer to your
Win XP finger [-b] [-f] [-h] [-i] [-l] [-m] [-p] [-q] [-s] [-w] [username] questions?

-b Suppress printing the user's home directory and Yes


shell in a long format printout. No

-f Suppress printing the header that is normally


printed in a non-long format printout.
-h Suppress printing of the .project file in a long
format printout.
-i Force "idle" output format, which is similar to short
format except that only the login name, terminal,
login time, and idle time are printed.
-l Force long output format.
-m Match arguments only on user name (not first or
last name).
-p Suppress printing of the .plan file in a long format
printout.
-q Force quick output format, which is similar to short
format except that only the login name, terminal,
and login time are printed.
-s Force short output format.
-w Suppress printing the full name in a short format
printout.

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/ufinger.htm[20/10/2009 6:33:54 ]
Linux and UNIX finger command.

Examples

finger -b -p ch - Would display the following information about the


user ch.

Login name: admin In real life: Computer Hope


On since Feb 11 23:37:16 on pts/7 from domain.computerhope.com
28 seconds Idle Time
Unread mail since Mon Feb 12 00:22:52 2001

Related commands

ac
passwd
who
whois

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MS-DOS ipconfig help and information

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Microsoft DOS ipconfig command
Computer help
Dictionary Index
News Quick links Availability
Q&A Category:
What's new About ipconfig The ipconfig.exe command is an MS-DOS
Availability external command and is
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Windows 2000 and XP syntax operating systems. Microsoft
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Examples
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settings currently assigned and Windows 7 to locate the
CMD EXE
given by a network. This answer to your
command can be utilized to questions?
verify a network connection as
well as to verify your network Yes
settings. No

Windows 95, 98, and ME syntax

Display detailed
/All
information.

/Batch [file] Write to file or


./WINIPCFG.OUT
/renew_all Renew all adapters.
/release_all Release all adapters.
/renew N Renew adapter N.
/release N Release adapter N.

Windows 2000 and XP syntax

ipconfig [/? | /all | /release [adapter] | /renew [adapter] | /flushdns | /registerdns |


/showclassid adapter | /setclassid adapter [classidtoset] ]

http://www.computerhope.com/ipconfig.htm[20/10/2009 6:34:44 ]
MS-DOS ipconfig help and information

/all Display full configuration information.


/release Release the IP address for the specified adapter.
/renew Renew the IP address for the specified adapter.
/flushdns Purges the DNS Resolver cache.
/registerdns Refreshes all DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names
/displaydns Display the contents of the DNS Resolver Cache.
/showclassid Displays all the dhcp class IDs allowed for adapter.
/setclassid Modifies the dhcp class id.

The default is to display only the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway for each
adapter bound to TCP/IP.

For Release and Renew, if no adapter name is specified, then the IP address leases for all
adapters bound to TCP/IP will be released or renewed.

For SetClassID, if no class id is specified, then the classid is removed.

Examples

To get your computers local network IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway typing
ipconfig alone will display this information as shown below. Keep in mind this is only your
local network information. If you're trying to determine your IP address used on the Internet
we suggest viewing our system information page.

ipconfig

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : hsd1.ut.comcast.net.


IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.201.245
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.201.1

To get all local network information for your computer use the /all switch as shown below,
followed by the results that would be seen when using this command.

ipconfig /all

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . : COMPUTERH1


DNS Servers . . . . . . . . : 123.45.67.8
111.111.111.1
111.111.111.1
Node Type . . . . . . . . . : Broadcast
NetBIOS Scope ID. . . . . . :
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . : No
NetBIOS Resolution Uses DNS : No

0 Ethernet adapter :

Description . . . . . . . . : PPP Adapter.


Physical Address. . . . . . : 44-44-44-54-00-00
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . : Yes
IP Address. . . . . . . . . : 123.45.67.802

http://www.computerhope.com/ipconfig.htm[20/10/2009 6:34:44 ]
MS-DOS ipconfig help and information

Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0


Default Gateway . . . . . . : 123.45.67.801
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.255
Primary WINS Server . . . . :
Secondary WINS Server . . . :
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . : 01 01 80 12:00:00 AM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . : 01 01 80 12:00:00 AM

1 Ethernet adapter :

Description . . . . . . . . : 3Com 3C90x Ethernet Adapter


Physical Address. . . . . . : 00-50-04-62-F7-23
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . : Yes
IP Address. . . . . . . . . : 111.111.111.108
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . : 111.111.111.1
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . : 111.111.111.1
Primary WINS Server . . . . :
Secondary WINS Server . . . :
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . : 11 16 00 12:12:44 AM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . :

ipconfig /displaydns

Running the above command would display all the DNS information.

ipconfig /flushdns

Delete all DNS entries.

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MS-DOS hostname command help

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Microsoft DOS hostname command
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Q&A Category:
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Domain Who Is
found on our hostname dictionary to locate the
CMD EXE
definition. answer to your
questions?

Yes
No

Syntax

hostname

sethostname: Use the Network Control Panel Applet to set hostname.


hostname -s is not supported.

Examples

hostname

Running the command would display the hostname for the computer.

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MS-DOS pathping command help

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Microsoft DOS pathping command
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Syntax

Windows 2000 Syntax

Usage: pathping [-n] [-h maximum_hops] [-g host-list] [-p period]


[-q num_queries] [-w timeout] [-t] [-R] [-r] target_name

Options:

-n Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.


-h maximum_hops Maximum number of hops to search for target.
-g host-list Loose source route along host-list.
-p period Wait period milliseconds between pings.
-q num_queries Number of queries per hop.
-w timeout Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.
-T Test connectivity to each hop with Layer-2 priority tags.

http://www.computerhope.com/pathping.htm[20/10/2009 6:36:19 ]
MS-DOS pathping command help

-R Test if each hop is RSVP aware.

Windows XP Syntax

Usage: pathping [-g host-list] [-h maximum_hops] [-i address] [-n]


[-p period] [-q num_queries] [-w timeout] [-P] [-R] [-T]
[-4] [-6] target_name

Options:

-g host-list Loose source route along host-list.


-h maximum_hops Maximum number of hops to search for target.
-i address Use the specified source address.
-n Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.
-p period Wait period milliseconds between pings.
-q num_queries Number of queries per hop.
-w timeout Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.
-P Test for RSVP PATH connectivity.
-R Test if each hop is RSVP aware.
-T Test connectivity to each hop with Layer-2 priority tags.
-4 Force using IPv4.
-6 Force using IPv6.

Examples

pathping computerhope.com

Tracing route to computerhope.com [204.228.150.3]


over a maximum of 30 hops:
0 Hope [192.168.120.101]
1 192.168.120.254
2 ...
Computing statistics for 50 seconds...

Source to Here This Node/Link


HopRTT Lost/Sent = Pct Lost/Sent = PctAddress
0 Hope [192.168.120.101]
0 0/100 = 0% |
0ms 0/ 100 = 0% 0/100 = 0% 192.168.120.254
1 100/100 = 100% |
--- 100/100 = 100%0/100 = 0% Hope [0.0.0.0]
2

Trace complete.

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MS-DOS ping command help

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Microsoft DOS ping command
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Additional information
Edit this page Windows 95 Related Pages:
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See our dictionary ping definition answer to your
for additional information. questions?

Yes
No

Syntax

ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS]
[-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]]
[-w timeout] destination-list

Options:
-t Pings the specified host until stopped.
To see statistics and continue - type Control-
Break;
To stop - type Control-C.
-a Resolve addresses to hostnames.
-n count Number of echo requests to send.
-l size Send buffer size.

http://www.computerhope.com/pinghlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:36:29 ]
MS-DOS ping command help

-f Set Don't Fragment flag in packet.


-i TTL Time To Live.
-v TOS Type Of Service.
-r count Record route for count hops.
-s count Timestamp for count hops.
-j host-list Loose source route along host-list.
-k host-list Strict source route along host-list.
-w timeout Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each
reply.

Examples

ping localhost

Pings the local host, this will allow you to see if the computer is able to send
information out and receive the information back. Note that this does not send
information over a network but may allow you to see if the card is being seen.

ping xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

Allows you to ping another computer where the x's are located are where you would
place the IP address of the computer you are attempting to ping. If this is not able to
complete, this should relay back an unsuccessful message, which could be an indication
of cable issues, network card issues, hub issue, etc.

ping computerhope.com

PING computerhope.com (204.228.150.3) 56(84) bytes of data.


64 bytes from www.computerhope.com (204.228.150.3): icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.267
ms

--- computerhope.com ping statistics ---


1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.267/0.267/0.267/0.000 ms

Additional information

Information about why pinging a website such as microsoft.com may not return a
response can be found on document CH001054.
See document CH001055 for additional information about determining the IP address of
a web page.
Ping a website or check if it's online through our free is it up utility.

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Unix Expert ping -s [-d] [-l] [-L] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-v] [ -i interface_address ] [-I questions?
interval] [-t ttl] host [packetsize] [count]
Yes
-d Set the SO_DEBUG socket option. No

-l Loose source route. Use this option in the IP


header to send the packet to the given host and
back again. Usually specified with the -R option.
-L Turn off loopback of multicast packets. Normally,
if there are members in the host group on the out-
going interface, a copy of the multicast packets
will be delivered to the local machine.
-n Show network addresses as numbers. ping normally
displays addresses as host names.
-r Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly
to a host on an attached network. If the host is
not on a directly-attached network, an error is
returned. This option can be used to ping a local
host through an interface that has been dropped
by the router daemon.
-R Record route. Sets the IP record route option,
which will store the route of the packet inside the
IP header. The contents of the record route will
only be printed if the -v option is given, and only
be set on return packets if the target host
preserves the record route option across echos, or
the -l option is given.

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/uping.htm[20/10/2009 6:36:40 ]
Linux and UNIX ping command help

-v Verbose output. List any ICMP packets, other than


ECHO_RESPONSE, that are received.
-i Specify the outgoing interface address to use for
interface_address multicast packets. The default interface address
for multicast packets is determined from the
(unicast) routing tables.
-I interval Specify the interval between successive
transmissions. The default is one second.
-t ttl Specify the IP time to live for unicast and
multicast packets. The default time to live for
unicast packets is set with ndd (using the
icmp_def_ttl variable). The default time to live for
multicast is one hop.
host The network host.
packetsize Specified size of packetsize. Default is 64.
count Amount of times to send the ping request.

Examples

ping computerhope.com - Would ping the host computerhope.com to


see if it is alive.

ping computerhope.com -c 1 - Would ping the host


computerhope.com once and return to the command line as shown
below.

PING computerhope.com (204.228.150.3) 56(84) bytes of data.


64 bytes from www.computerhope.com (204.228.150.3): icmp_seq=1
ttl=63 time=0.267 ms

--- computerhope.com ping statistics ---


1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.267/0.267/0.267/0.000 ms

Information about why pinging a website such as microsoft.com


may not return a response can be found on document CH001054.
See document CH001055 for additional information about
determining the IP address of a web page.
Ping a website or check if it's online through our free is it up
utility.

Related commands

host
ifconfig
netstat
rpcinfo
traceroute

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Linux and UNIX ping command help

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MS-DOS nbtstat command help

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TCP/IP connections using NBT. Windows XP
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Web Name answer to your
questions?

Yes
No

Syntax

NBTSTAT [ [-a RemoteName] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [interval] ]

-a (adapter status) Lists the remote machine's name table given its name
-A (Adapter status) Lists the remote machine's name table given its IP address.
-c (cache) Lists NBT's cache of remote [machine] names and their IP addresses
-n (names) Lists local NetBIOS names.
-r (resolved) Lists names resolved by broadcast and via WINS
-R (Reload) Purges and reloads the remote cache name table
-S (Sessions) Lists sessions table with the destination IP addresses
-s (sessions) Lists sessions table converting destination IP addresses to computer
NETBIOS names.
-RR (ReleaseRefresh) Sends Name Release packets to WINs and then, starts
Refresh
RemoteName Remote host machine name.

http://www.computerhope.com/nbtstat.htm[20/10/2009 6:36:49 ]
MS-DOS nbtstat command help

IP address Dotted decimal representation of the IP address.


interval Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds between each display.
Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics.

Examples

nbtstat -a 204.224.150.3
Local Area Connection:
Node IpAddress: [204.224.150.3] Scope Id: []
NetBIOS Remote Machine Name Table
Name Type Status
---------------------------------------------
HOPE4 <00> UNIQUE Registered
CHGROUP <00> GROUP Registered
HOPE4 <20> UNIQUE Registered
HOPE4 <03> UNIQUE Registered
CHGROUP <1E> GROUP Registered
CHGROUP <1D> UNIQUE Registered
..__MSBROWSE__. <01> GROUP Registered
ADMINISTRATOR <03> UNIQUE Registered
MAC Address = 00-00-00-00-00-00

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MS-DOS net command help

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Syntax we have listed each of net Windows Vista to locate the
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commands. For additional Windows 7 answer to your
information and examples, see questions?
our Syntax section.
Yes
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Syntax

Windows XP syntax
Windows 2000 syntax

Windows XP syntax

NET [ ACCOUNTS | COMPUTER | CONFIG | CONTINUE | FILE | GROUP | HELP | HELPMSG |


LOCALGROUP | NAME | PAUSE | PRINT | SEND | SESSION | SHARE | START | STATISTICS |
STOP | TIME | USE | USER | VIEW ]

NET ACCOUNTS Adjust account settings.

[/FORCELOGOFF:{minutes | NO}] [/MINPWLEN:length]


[/MAXPWAGE:{days | UNLIMITED}] [/MINPWAGE:days]
[/UNIQUEPW:number] [/DOMAIN]

NET COMPUTER Add other networked computers with Windows Domain Controller.

\\computername {/ADD | /DEL}

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

NET CONFIG Displays your current server and/or workgroup settings.

[SERVER | WORKSTATION]

NET CONTINUE Continues the use of service.

[service]

NET FILE Display opened shared files on the server.

[id [/CLOSE]]

NET GROUP Add, delete, view, and otherwise manage network workgroups.

[groupname [/COMMENT:"text"]] [/DOMAIN]


groupname {/ADD [/COMMENT:"text"] | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN]
groupname username [...] {/ADD | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN]

NET Add, delete, view, and otherwise manage network groups.


LOCALGROUP
[groupname [/COMMENT:"text"]] [/DOMAIN]
groupname {/ADD [/COMMENT:"text"] | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN]
groupname name [...] {/ADD | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN]

NET NAME Create or delete name used for messaging.

[name [/ADD | /DELETE]]

NET PAUSE Pause the specified network service.

[service]

NET PRINT Manage network print jobs.

\\computername\sharename
[\\computername] job# [/HOLD | /RELEASE | /DELETE]

NET SEND Sends messages to other users, computers, or messaging names on the
network. The Messenger service must be running to receive messages.

You can send a message only to an name that is active on the network.
If the message is sent to a username, that user must be logged on and
running the Messenger service to receive the message.

{name | * | /DOMAIN[:name] | /USERS} message

NET SESSION Display all sessions connected to the computer and deletes them if
specified.

[\\computername] [/DELETE]

NET SHARE Create and manage a local network share.

sharename
sharename=drive:path [/USERS:number | /UNLIMITED]

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

[/REMARK:"text"]
[/CACHE:Manual | Documents| Programs | None ]
sharename [/USERS:number | /UNLIMITED]
[/REMARK:"text"]
[/CACHE:Manual | Documents | Programs | None]
{sharename | devicename | drive:path} /DELETE

NET START Start the specified network service.

[service]

NET STATISTICS Display network statistics of the workstation or server.

[WORKSTATION | SERVER]

NET STOP Stop the specified network service.

service

NET TIME Display the time and date of another network computer.

[\\computername | /DOMAIN[:domainname] |
/RTSDOMAIN[:domainname]] [/SET]
[\\computername] /QUERYSNTP
[\\computername] /SETSNTP[:ntp server list]

NET USE Connects or disconnects your computer from a shared resource or


displays information about your connections.

[devicename | *] [\\computername\sharename[\volume] [password |


*]]
[/USER:[domainname\]username]
[/USER:[dotted domain name\]username]
[/USER:[username@dotted domain name]
[/SMARTCARD]
[/SAVECRED]
[[/DELETE] | [/PERSISTENT:{YES | NO}]]

NET USE {devicename | *} [password | *] /HOME

NET USE [/PERSISTENT:{YES | NO}]

NET USER Displays users on the computer and/or domain.

[username [password | *] [options]] [/DOMAIN]


username {password | *} /ADD [options] [/DOMAIN]
username [/DELETE] [/DOMAIN]

NET VIEW Displays a list of computers in a specified workgroup or the shared


resources available on a specified computer.

[\\computername [/CACHE] | /DOMAIN[:domainname]]


NET VIEW /NETWORK:NW [\\computername]

Windows 2000 syntax

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

NET CONFIG Displays your current workgroup settings.

NET CONFIG [/YES]

/YES Carries out the NET CONFIG command without


first prompting you to provide information or
confirm actions.
NET DIAG Runs the Microsoft Network Diagnostics program to test the hardware
connection between two computers and to display information about a
single computer.

NET DIAGNOSTICS [/NAMES | /STATUS]

/NAMES Specifies a diagnostic server name in order to avoid conflicts


when NET DIAG is used simultaneously by multiple users. This
option works only when the network uses a NetBIOS protocol.
/STATUS Enables you to specify a computer about which you want
network diagnostics information.
NET HELP Displays information about NET commands and error messages.

command /?
NET HELP [suffix]
NET HELP errornum

command Specifies the Microsoft NET command that you want


/? information about.
suffix Specifies the second word of the command you want
information about. For example, the suffix of NET VIEW is
VIEW.
errornum Specifies the number of the error message that you want
information about.
NET INIT Loads protocol and network-adapter drivers without binding them to
Protocol Manager. This command may be required if you are using a
third-party network-adapter driver. You can then bind the drivers to
Protocol Manager by typing NET START NETBIND.

NET INITIALIZE [/DYNAMIC]

/DYNAMIC Loads the Protocol Manager dynamically. This is useful


with some third-party networks, such as Banyan(R)
VINES(R), to resolve memory problems.
NET LOGOFF Breaks the connection between your computer and the shared resources
to which it is connected.

NET LOGOFF [/YES]

Carries out the NET LOGOFF command without first prompting


/YES
you to provide information or confirm actions.
NET LOGON Identifies you as a member of a workgroup.

NET LOGON [user [password | ?]] [/DOMAIN:name] [/YES]


[/SAVEPW:NO]

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

user Specifies the name that identifies you in your workgroup.


The name you specify can contain up to 20 characters.
password The unique string of characters that authorizes you to gain
access to your password-list file. The password can
contain up to 14 characters.
? Specifies that you want to be prompted for your password.
/DOMAIN Specifies that you want to log on to a Microsoft Windows
NT or LAN Manager domain. name Specifies the Windows
NT or LAN Manager domain you want to log on to.
/YES Carries out the NET LOGON command without first
prompting you to provide information or confirm actions.
/SAVEPW:NO Carries out the NET LOGON command without prompting
you to create a password-list file.

If you would rather be prompted to type your user name and password
instead of specifying them in the NET LOGON command line, type NET
LOGON without options.

NET PASSWORD Changes your logon password.

NET PASSWORD [oldpassword [newpassword]]


NET PASSWORD \\computer | /DOMAIN:name [user [oldpassword
[newpassword]]]

oldpassword Specifies your current password.


newpassword Specifies your new password. It can have as many as 14
characters.
computer Specifies the Windows NT or LAN Manager server on which
you want to change your password.
/DOMAIN Specifies that you want to change your
password on a Windows NT or LAN Manager domain.
Name Specifies the Windows NT or LAN Manager domain
on which
you want to change your password.
user Specifies your Windows NT or LAN Manager user name.

The first syntax line above is for changing the password for your
password-list file. The second syntax line above is for changing your
password on a Windows NT or LAN Manager server or domain.

NET PRINT Displays information about print queues and controls print jobs.

NET PRINT \\computer[\printer] | port [/YES]


NET PRINT \\computer | port [job# [/PAUSE | /RESUME | /DELETE]]
[/YES]

computer Specifies the name of the computer whose print queue


you want information about.
printer Specifies the name of the printer you want information
about.
port Specifies the name of the parallel (LPT) port on your
computer that is connected to the printer you want
information about.
job# Specifies the number assigned to a queued print job. You
can specify the below options.
/PAUSE Pauses a print job.
/RESUME Restarts a print job that has been paused.
/DELETE Cancels a print job.

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

/YES Carries out the NET PRINT command without first


prompting you to provide information or confirm actions.

When you specify the name of a computer by using the NET PRINT
command, you receive information about the print queues on each of
the shared printers that are connected to the computer.

NET SEND NET SEND {name | * | /DOMAIN[:name] | /USERS} message

Sends messages to other users, computers, or messaging names on the


network. The Messenger service must be running to receive messages.

You can send a message only to an name that is active on the network.
If the message is sent to a username, that user must be logged on and
running the Messenger service to receive the message.

name Is the username, computername, or messaging name


to send the message to. If the name is a
computername that contains blank characters, enclose
the alias in quotation marks (" ").
* Sends the message to all the names in your group.
/DOMAIN[:name]Sends the message to all the names in the workstation
domain. If name is specified, the message is sent to all
the names in the specified domain or workgroup.
/USERS Sends the message to all users connected to the server.
message Is text to be sent as a message.
NET SHARE NET SHARE sharename

sharename=drive:path [/USERS:number | /UNLIMITED]


[/REMARK:"text"]
[/CACHE:Manual | Automatic | No
]
sharename [/USERS:number | /UNLIMITED]
[/REMARK:"text"]
[/CACHE:Manual | Automatic | No
]
{sharename | devicename | /DELETE
drive:path}
NET START Starts services. NOTE: Services cannot be started from a command
prompt within Windows.

NET START [BASIC | NWREDIR | WORKSTATION | NETBIND | NETBEUI


| NWLINK] [/LIST] [/YES] [/VERBOSE]

BASIC Starts the basic redirector.


NWREDIR Starts the Microsoft Novell(R) compatible redirector.
WORKSTATION Starts the default redirector.
NETBIND Binds protocols and network-adapter drivers.
NETBEUI Starts the NetBIOS interface.
NWLINK Starts the IPX/SPX-compatible interface.
/LIST Displays a list of the services that are running.
/YES Carries out the NET START command without first
prompting you to provide information or confirm
actions.
/VERBOSE Displays information about device drivers and services
as they are loaded.

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

To start the workgroup redirector you selected during Setup, type NET
START without options. In general, you don't need to use any of the
options.

NET STOP Stops services. NOTE: Services cannot be stopped from a command
prompt within Windows.

NET STOP [BASIC | NWREDIR | WORKSTATION | NETBEUI | NWLINK]


[/YES]

NET STOP Stops the basic redirector.


BASIC Stops the basic redirector.
NWREDIR Stops the Microsoft Novell(R) compatible redirector.
WORKSTATION Stops the default redirector.
NETBEUI Stops the NetBIOS interface.
NWLINK Stops the IPX/SPX compatible interface.
/YES Carries out the NET STOP command without first
prompting you to provide information or confirm
actions.

To stop the workgroup redirector, type NET STOP without options. This
breaks all your connections to shared resources and removes the NET
commands from your computer's memory.

NET TIME Displays the time on or synchronizes your computer's clock with the
shared clock on a Microsoft Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT,
Windows 95, or NetWare time server.

NET TIME [\\computer | /WORKGROUP:wgname] [/SET] [/YES]

computer Specifies the name of the computer (time server)


whose time you want to check or synchronize your
computer's clock with.
/WORKGROUP Specifies that you want to use the clock on a computer
(time server) in another workgroup.
wgname Specifies the name of the workgroup containing a
computer whose clock you want to check or
synchronize your computer's clock with. If there are
multiple time servers in that workgroup, NET TIME uses
the first one it finds.
/SET Synchronizes your computer's clock with the clock on
the computer or workgroup you specify.
/YES Carries out the NET TIME command without first
prompting you to provide information or confirm
actions.
NET USE Connects or disconnects your computer from a shared resource or
displays information about your connections.

NET USE [drive: | *] [\\computer\directory [password | ?]]


[/SAVEPW:NO] [/YES] [/NO]
NET USE [port:] [\\computer\printer [password | ?]]
[/SAVEPW:NO] [/YES] [/NO]

NET USE drive: | \\computer\directory /DELETE [/YES]


NET USE port: | \\computer\printer /DELETE [/YES]
NET USE * /DELETE [/YES]

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

NET USE drive: | * /HOME

drive Specifies the drive letter you assign to a shared


directory.
* Specifies the next available drive letter. If used with
/DELETE, specifies to disconnect all of your
connections.
port Specifies the parallel (LPT) port name you assign to a
shared printer.
computer Specifies the name of the computer sharing the
resource.
directory Specifies the name of the shared directory.
printer Specifies the name of the shared printer.
password Specifies the password for the shared resource, if any.
? Specifies that you want to be prompted for the
password of the shared resource. You don't need to use
this option unless the password is optional.
/SAVEPW:NO Specifies that the password you type should not be
saved in your password-list file. You need to retype the
password the next time you connect to this resource.
/YES Carries out the NET USE command without first
prompting you to provide information or confirm
actions.
/DELETE Breaks the specified connection to a shared
resource.
/NO Carries out the NET USE command, responding with NO
automatically when you are prompted to confirm
actions.
/HOME Makes a connection to your HOME directory if one is
specified in your LAN Manager or Windows NT user
account.

To list all of your connections, type NET USE without options.

NET VER Displays the type and version number of the workgroup redirector you
are using.

NET VER

NET VIEW Displays a list of computers in a specified workgroup or the shared


resources available on a specified computer.

NET VIEW [\\computer] [/YES]


NET VIEW [/WORKGROUP:wgname] [/YES]

computer Specifies the name of the computer whose shared


resources you want to see listed.
/WORKGROUP Specifies that you want to view the names of the
computers in another workgroup that share resources.
wgname Specifies the name of the workgroup whose computer
names you want to view.
/YES Carries out the NET VIEW command without first
prompting you to provide information or confirm
actions.

To display a list of computers in your workgroup that share


resources, type NET VIEW without options.

http://www.computerhope.com/nethlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:37:08 ]
MS-DOS net command help

Examples

net use z: \\computer\folder

Map the Z: drive to the network path //computer/folder.

net send mrhope "There is hope!"

Send a text message to the computer with a host name of mrhope the message There
is hope!. Note: This command only works for Windows versions that support this
command.

Note: Many computers today have also disabled the messenger service, if this service is
disabled you will be unable to send/receive net send messages. Additional information
about how this service is disabled can be found on document CH0000519. If you need
this service enabled, follow the instructions on this page and choose to enable the
service instead of disabling it.

net config workstation

Display additional information about the network such as the computers name,
workgroup, logon domain, DNS, and other useful information.

net view \\hope

View the available computers and their shared resources you may use either of the
below commands. The first example displays available computers. The last command
would display the shared resources on the hope computer.

net localgroup

Display all groups currently setup on the computer you're running the command on.

net share

Display all network shares on your computer.

net share hope=c:\hope\files

Create a share called "hope" for the "c:\hope\files" directory.

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MS-DOS netstat command help

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Windows 7 answer to your
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No

Syntax

NETSTAT [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [interval]

-a Displays all connections and listening ports.


-e Displays Ethernet statistics. This may be combined with the -s option.
-n Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form.
-p proto Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto; proto may be TCP or
UDP. If used with the -s option to display per-protocol statistics, proto may be
TCP, UDP, or IP.
-r Displays the routing table.
-s Displays per-protocol statistics. By default, statistics are shown for TCP, UDP and
IP; the -p option may be used to specify a subset of the default.
interval Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds between each display.
Press CTRL+C to stop redisplaying statistics. If omitted, netstat will print the
current configuration information once.

http://www.computerhope.com/netstat.htm[20/10/2009 6:38:17 ]
MS-DOS netstat command help

Examples

netstat

Displays all local network information. Below is an example of what may be displayed.

Proto Local Address Foreign Address State


TCP hope:4409 www.computerhope.com:telnet ESTABLISHED
TCP hope:3708 multicity.com:80 CLOSE_WAIT
TCP hope:4750 www.google.com:80 CLOSE_WAIT

netstat 5

Running netstat with a number after the command will continue to run the command
until stopped. In this case netstat would be refreshed ever five seconds. To cancel press
CTRL + C.

Notice: Keep in mind that if you have network applications open, such as the browser you're
using to view this page, additional items will be listed when you run "netstat" and/or the
"netstat -a" command. So you may see items from Computer Hope in your list; if you want a
true listing of what is running in the background, close all programs and run the command.

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Linux and UNIX netstat command help

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netstat [-g | -m | -p | -s | -f address_family ] [-n] [-P protocol] Yes


No
netstat [ -i ] [ -I interface ] [ interval ]

netstat -r [-a] [-n] [-v ]

netstat -M [-n] [-s ]

netstat -D [ -I interface ]

-a Show the state of all sockets and all routing table


entries; normally, sockets used by server processes
are not shown and only interface, host, network,
and default routes are shown.
-n Show network addresses as numbers. netstat
normally displays addresses as symbols. This option
may be used with any of the display formats.
-v Verbose. Show additional information for the
sockets and the routing table.
-g Show the multicast group memberships for all
interfaces.
-m Show the STREAMS statistics.
-p Show the address resolution (ARP) tables.
-s Show per-protocol statistics. When used with the -M

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/unetstat.htm[20/10/2009 6:38:47 ]
Linux and UNIX netstat command help

option, show multicast routing statistics instead.


-i Show the state of the interfaces that are used for
TCP/IP traffic.
-r Show the routing tables.
-M Show the multicast routing tables. When used with
the -s option, show multicast routing statistics
instead.
-d Show the state of all interfaces that are under
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
control.
-D Show the status of DHCP configured interfaces.
-f imit statistics or address control block reports to
address_family those of the specified address_family, which can be
one of:

inet For the AF_INET address family


unix For the AF_Unix address family

-P protocol Limit display of statistics or state of all sockets to


those applicable to protocol.
- I interface Show the state of a particular interface. interface
can be any valid interface such as ie0 or
le0.

Examples

netstat

Displays generic net statistics of the host you are currently


connected to.

netstat -an

Shows all connections to the server including the source and


destination ips and ports if you have proper permissions.

netstat -rn

Displays routing table for all ips bound to the server.

netstat -an |grep :80 |wc -l

Display the amount of active connections on port 80. Removing


the pipe and wc command would display each connection.

netstat -natp

Display active Internet connections. See document CH001079 for


an example of output.

Related commands

ac
arp
ifconfig
route

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/unetstat.htm[20/10/2009 6:38:47 ]
Linux and UNIX netstat command help

rpcinfo

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Reverse DNS lookup

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Reverse DNS lookup
Computer help
Dictionary 1. Also known as reverse resolving and rDNS, Reverse DNS lookup is Index
News the process of looking up an IP address to resolve a hostname instead of
Q&A the other way around. This technique is often used to help diagnose Category:
What's new networking related issues or to determine where network data is going. Dictionary

Tools Users running Microsoft Windows could use the nslookup command to Related Pages:
perform a reverse lookup on an IP address and Linux users can use the
E-mail this page R - Definitions
Print Preview host command on nslookup.
Edit this page
Entering an IP address in our free is it up online utility will also Resolved
Ads by Google perform a reverse lookup on that IP address and also see if it's up.
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2. A reverse lookup is also a method of locating an address from a to locate the
IP to Location
phone number. Click here to pull up a search for sites offering phone answer to your
Domain It
number reverse lookups. questions?
Domain 24
Also see: DNS, Nameserver, Network definitions Yes
No
Windows XP & Vista Fix Phone Reverse Search
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Download a Free Registry Scan Now! or Phone Number. Accurate!
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MS-DOS nslookup command help

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Availability external command that is
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Windows 2000 CH000444
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user to look up an IP address of a Windows 7 Resolved
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domain or host on a network.
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Users who are using earlier to locate the
Unix Commands
versions of Microsoft Windows 95, answer to your
Windows 98, or Windows ME and questions?
need the options available with
the nslookup command will need Yes
to download an alternative, No
third-party program.

Syntax

Commands: (identifiers are shown in uppercase, [] means optional)

NAME print info about the host/domain NAME using default server
NAME1 NAME2 as above, but use NAME2 as server
help or ? print info on common commands
set OPTION set an option

all print options, current server and host


[no]debug print debugging information
[no]d2 print exhaustive debugging information
[no]defname append domain name to each query
[no]recurse ask for recursive answer to query
[no]search use domain search list
[no]vc always use a virtual circuit
domain=NAME set default domain name to NAME
srchlist=N1[/N2/.../N6]set domain to N1 and search list to N1,N2,
etc.

http://www.computerhope.com/nslookup.htm[20/10/2009 6:39:57 ]
MS-DOS nslookup command help

root=NAME set root server to NAME


retry=X set number of retries to X
timeout=X set initial time-out interval to X seconds
set query type (ex.
type=X
A,ANY,CNAME,MX,NS,PTR,SOA,SRV)
querytype=X same as type
class=X set query class (ex. IN (Internet), ANY)
[no]msxfr use MS fast zone transfer
current version to use in IXFR transfer
ixfrver=X
request
server NAME set default server to NAME, using current default server
lserver NAME set default server to NAME, using initial server
finger [USER] finger the optional NAME at the current default host
root set current default server to the root
ls [opt] DOMAIN [> list addresses in DOMAIN (optional: output to FILE)
FILE]
-a list canonical names and aliases
-d list all records
-t TYPElist records of the given type (e.g. A,CNAME,MX,NS,PTR etc.)
view FILE sort an 'ls' output file and view it with pg
exit exit the program

Examples

This command is often used to perform a reverse lookup on an IP address as shown in the
below example. The first section specifies the server and address of that server that provided
you with the domain name and IP address displayed in the second section.

nslookup 204.228.150.3

Server: ns.computerhope.com
Address: 1.1.1.1

Name: www.computerhope.com
Address: 204.228.150.3

nslookup

Running nslookup without specifying an IP address or domain name will s

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Linux and UNIX nslookup command help

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Dictionary Index
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Syntax
Tools Examples Companies:
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Edit this page
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About nslookup
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Queries a name server for a host or domain lookup.
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answer to your
Unix Chat nslookup [ - option ] ... host [ server ] questions?

all List the current settings Yes


No
d2 Set exhaustive debug mode on
nod2 Set exhaustive debug mode off
debug Set debug mode on
nodebug Set debug mode off
defname Set domain-appending mode on
nodefname Set domain-appending mode off
domain=string Establish the appendable domain
ignoretc Set it to ignore packet truncation errors
noignoretc Set it to acknowledge packet truncation errors
host Inquires about the specified host. In this non-
interactive command format, nslookup Does not
prompt for additional commands.
- Causes nslookup to prompt for more information,
such as host names, before sending one or more
queries.
server Directs inquiries to the name server specified here
in the command line rather than the one read from
the /etc/resolv.conf file. server can be either a

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/unslooku.htm[20/10/2009 6:40:33 ]
Linux and UNIX nslookup command help

name or an Internet address. If the speci- fied host


cannot be reached, nslookup resorts to using the
name server specified in /etc/resolv.conf.

Examples

This command is often used to perform a reverse lookup on an IP


address as shown in the below example.

nslookup 204.228.150.3

Server: 198.60.22.2
Address: 198.60.22.2#53

Non-authoritative answer:
3.150.228.204.in-addr.arpa name = www.computerhope.com.

Authoritative answers can be found from:


150.228.204.in-addr.arpa nameserver = ns.xmission.com.
150.228.204.in-addr.arpa nameserver = ns1.xmission.com.
150.228.204.in-addr.arpa nameserver = ns2.xmission.com.
ns.xmission.com internet address = 166.70.254.2
ns1.xmission.com internet address = 204.228.159.2
ns2.xmission.com internet address = 207.135.133.2

Related commands

dig
host
ping

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Linux / Unix host command and information

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answer to your
Unix Chat host [-aCdlnrTwv] [-c class] [-N ndots] [-R number] [-t type] [-W wait] questions?
[-4] [-6] {name} [server]
Yes
-a (all) option is equivalent to setting the -v option No
and asking host to make a query of type ANY.
-C host will attempt to display the SOA records for
zone name from all the listed authoritative name
servers for that zone. The list of name servers is
defined by the NS records that are found for the
zone.
-c instructs to make a DNS query of class class. This
can be used to lookup Hesiod or Chaosnet class
resource records. The default class is IN (Internet).
-d, -v Verbose output is generated by host when the -d or
-v option is used. The two options are equivalent.
They have been provided for backwards
compatibility. In previous versions, the -d option
switched on debugging traces and -v enabled
verbose output.
-l This makes host perform a zone transfer for zone
name. Transfer the zone printing out the NS, PTR
and address records (A/AAAA). If combined with -a
all records will be printed.
-i Specifies that reverse lookups of IPv6 addresses
should use the IP6.INT domain as defined in
RFC1886. The default is to use IP6.ARPA.

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/host.htm[20/10/2009 6:40:46 ]
Linux / Unix host command and information

-N Sets the number of dots that have to be in name


for it to be considered absolute. The default value
is that defined using the ndots statement in
/etc/resolv.conf, or 1 if no ndots statement is
present. Names with fewer dots are interpreted as
relative names and will be searched for in the
domains listed in the search or domain directive in
/etc/resolv.conf.
-R The number of UDP retries for a lookup can be
changed with the -R option. number indicates how
many times host will repeat a query that does not
get answered. The default number of retries is 1. If
number is negative or zero, the number of retries
will default to 1.
-r Non-recursive queries can be made via the -r
option. Setting this option clears the RD --
recursion desired -- bit in the query which host
makes. This should mean that the name server
receiving the query will not attempt to resolve
name. The -r option enables host to mimic the
behaviour of a name server by making non-
recursive queries and expecting to receive answers
to those queries that are usually referrals to other
name servers.
-T By default host uses UDP when making queries. The
-T option makes it use a TCP connection when
querying the name server. TCP will be
automatically selected for queries that require it,
such as zone transfer (AXFR) requests.
-4, -6 The -4 option forces host to only use IPv4 query
transport. The -6 option forces host to only use IPv6
query transport.
-t The -t option is used to select the query type. type
can be any recognised query type: CNAME, NS, SOA,
SIG, KEY, AXFR, etc. When no query type is
specified, host automatically selects an appropriate
query type. By default it looks for A records, but if
the -C option was given, queries will be made for
SOA records, and if name is a dotted-decimal IPv4
address or colon-delimited IPv6 address, host will
query for PTR records. If a query type of IXFR is
chosen the starting serial number can be specified
by appending an equal followed by the starting
serial number (e.g. -t IXFR=12345678).
-W, -w The time to wait for a reply can be controlled
through the -W and -w options. The -W option
makes host wait for wait seconds. If wait is less
than one, the wait interval is set to one second.
When the -w option is used, host will effectively
wait forever for a reply. The time to wait for a
response will be set to the number of seconds given
by the hardware's maximum value for an integer
quantity.

Examples

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/host.htm[20/10/2009 6:40:46 ]
Linux / Unix host command and information

This command is often used to perform a reverse lookup on an IP


address as shown in the below example.

host 204.228.150.3

3.150.228.204.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer


www.computerhope.com.

Related commands

dig
nslookup
ping

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MS-DOS route command help and information

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Microsoft DOS route command
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Dictionary Index
News Quick links Availability
Q&A Category:
What's new About route The route.exe command is an MS-DOS
Availability external command that is
Tools Syntax available in the below Microsoft Companies:
Examples operating systems. Microsoft
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Edit this page About route Windows 95 Related Pages:
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similar to the Unix or Linux route Windows XP
Ping IP
command. Use the command to Windows Vista Were you able
Identify IP
manually configure the routes in Windows 7 to locate the
IP Trace
the routing table. answer to your
questions?

Yes
No

Syntax

ROUTE [-f] [-p] [command [destination] [MASK netmask] [gateway] [METRIC metric] [IF
interface]

-f Clears the routing tables of all gateway entries. If this is used in conjunction
with one of the commands, the tables are cleared prior to running the
command.
-p When used with the ADD command, makes a route persistent across boots of
the system. By default, routes are not preserved when the system is
restarted. When used with the PRINT command, displays the list of registered
persistent routes. Ignored for all other commands, which always affect the
appropriate persistent routes. This option is not supported Windows'95.
command
command One of these:

PRINT Prints a route


ADD Adds a route
DELETE Deletes a route

http://www.computerhope.com/routehlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:41:20 ]
MS-DOS route command help and information

CHANGE Modifies an existing route destination

destination Specifies the host.


MASK Specifies that the next parameter is the 'netmask' value.
netmask Specifies a subnet mask value for this route entry. If not specified, it defaults
to 255.255.255.255.
gateway Specifies gateway.
interface the interface number for the specified route.
METRIC Specifies the metric, ie. cost for the destination.

All symbolic names used for destination are looked up in the network database file
NETWORKS. The symbolic names for gateway are looked up in the host name database file
HOSTS.

If the command is PRINT or DELETE. Destination or gateway can be a wildcard, (wildcard is


specified as a star '*'), or the gateway argument may be omitted.

If Dest contains a * or ?, it is treated as a shell pattern, and only matching destination routes
are printed. The '*' matches any string, and '?' matches any one char. Examples: 157.*.1,
157.*, 127.*, *224*.

Diagnostic Notes:
Invalid MASK generates an error, that is when (DEST & MASK) != DEST.
Example> route ADD 157.0.0.0 MASK 155.0.0.0 157.55.80.1 IF 1
The route addition failed: The specified mask parameter is invalid.
(Destination & Mask) != Destination.

Examples

Examples:

> route PRINT

MASK 255.0.0.0 157.55.80.1 METRIC 3 IF 2


>route ADD 157.0.0.0 ^mask ^gateway ^metric ^Interface
^destination

If IF is not given, it tries to find the best interface for a given


gateway.

> route PRINT


> route PRINT 157* .... Only prints those matching 157*
> route DELETE 157.0.0.0
> route PRINT

One way to use this would be as follows: You can't ping the server that you are connecting
to, but you know the ip address to be 127.16.16.10

>route PRINT

Interface List
0x1 ........................... MS TCP Loopback interface
0x2 ...00 14 a4 c3 44 20 ...... Xircom CardBus Ethernet 10/100 Adapter
0x3 ...00 b0 d0 43 55 a5 ...... 3Com EtherLink PCI
0x4 ...00 01 b0 8f 8f 80 ...... NdisWan Adapter

http://www.computerhope.com/routehlp.htm[20/10/2009 6:41:20 ]
MS-DOS route command help and information

Active Routes:
Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface Metric
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 127.16.8.14 127.16.8.14 1
127.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 1
127.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 127.16.8.14 127.16.8.14 1
127.16.8.14 255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 1
192.168.50.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 2
192.168.50.65 255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 1
192.168.50.255 255.255.255.255 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 1
224.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 127.16.8.14 127.16.8.14 1
224.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 1
255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 1

** notice that no gateway for the current ip goes to 255.255.255.0, so it must be added. Now
do the below command.

>route ADD 127.16.0.0 MASK 255.255.255.0 <your current ip from winntcfg or winipcfg>
METRIC 1

**Then do the below command:

>route print

Active Routes:
Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface Metric
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 127.16.8.14 127.16.8.14 1
127.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 1
127.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 127.16.8.14 127.16.8.14 1
** 127.16.0.0 255.255.255.0 127.16.8.14 127.16.8.14 1
127.16.8.14 255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 1
192.168.50.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 2
192.168.50.65 255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 1
192.168.50.255 255.255.255.255 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 1
224.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 127.16.8.14 127.16.8.14 1
224.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 1
255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 192.168.50.65 192.168.50.65 1

**Notice the ** ip address gives me the default gateway.

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MS-DOS tracert command help

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What's new About tracert The tracert.exe command is an MS-DOS
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Tools Syntax available in the below Microsoft Companies:
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The tracert command is used to Windows 98 Operating Systems
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amount of hops required for that Windows 2000 Resolved
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packet to get to its destination. Windows XP
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Windows Vista Were you able
Users with Microsoft Windows to locate the
Windows 7
2000 and Windows XP who need answer to your
additional information network questions?
latency and network loss should
also consider using the pathping Yes
command. No

Syntax

tracert [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-j host-list] [-w timeout] target_name

Options:

-d Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.


-h maximum_hops Maximum number of hops to search for target.
-j host-list Loose source route along host-list.
-w timeout Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.

Examples

Below is an example when we used tracert on www.computerhope.com. As you can see in


the below example, we had a very short list and time to get to its destination because of the
location we are.

tracert computerhope.com

http://www.computerhope.com/tracert.htm[20/10/2009 6:41:43 ]
MS-DOS tracert command help

1169 ms190 ms160 msslc1-tc.xmission.com [166.70.1.20]


2159 ms160 ms190 mscisco0-tc.xmission.com [166.70.1.1]
3165 ms189 ms159 mswww.computerhope.com [166.70.10.23]

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Linux and UNIX traceroute command help

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answer to your
Repair Unix traceroute [-d] [-F] [-I] [-n] [-v] [-x] [-f first_ttl] [-g gateway [-g questions?
gateway] | -r] [-i iface] [-m max_ttl] [-p port] [-q nqueries] [-s
src_addr] [-t tos] [-w waittime ] host [packetlen] Yes
No
-d Set the SO_DEBUG socket option.
-F Set the "don't fragment" bit.
-I Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams.
-n Print hop addresses numerically rather than
symbolically and numerically. This saves a
nameserver address-to-name lookup for each
gateway found on the path.
-v Verbose output. For each hop, the size and the
destination of the response packets is displayed.
Also ICMP packets received other than
TIME_EXCEEDED and UNREACHABLE are listed as
well.
-x Prevent traceroute from calculating checksums.
Note that checksums are usually required for the
last hop when using ICMP ECHO probes. See the -I
option.
-f first_ttl Set the starting ttl value to first_ttl, to override the
default value 1. traceroute skips processing for
those intermediate gateways which are less than
first_ttl hops away.
-g gateway Specify a loose source route gateway. The user can

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/utracero.htm[20/10/2009 6:42:00 ]
Linux and UNIX traceroute command help

specify more than one gateway by using -g for each


gateway. The maximum that can be set is 8.
-r Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly
to a host on an attached network. If the host is not
on a directly-attached network, an error is
returned. This option can be used to send probes to
a local host through an interface that has been
dropped by the router daemon.
-i iface Specify a network interface to obtain the source IP
address for outgoing probe packets. This is normally
only useful on a multi-homed host. The -s option is
also another way to do this. Note that this option
does not provide a way to specify the interface on
which the probe packets are sent.
-m max_ttl Set the maximum ttl used in outgoing probe
packets. The default is 30 hops, which is the same
default used for TCP connections.
-p port Set the base UDP port number used in probes. The
default is 33434. traceroute hopes that nothing is
listening on UDP ports (base+(nhops- 1)*nqueries) to
(base+(nhops*nqueries)-1)at the destination host, so
that an ICMP PORT_UNREACHABLE message will be
returned to terminate the route tracing. If
something is listening on a port in the default
range, this option can be used to select an unused
port range.nhops is defined as the number of hops
between the source and the destination.
-q nqueries Set the desired number of probe queries. The
default is 3.
-s src_addr Use the following address, which usually is given as
an IP address, not a hostname, as the source
address in outgoing probe packets. On multi-homed
hosts, those with more than one IP address, this
option can be used to force the source address to
be something other than the IP address traceroute
picks by default. If the IP address is not one of this
machine's interface addresses, an error is returned
and nothing is sent. When used together with the -i
option, the given IP address should be configured
on the specified interface. Otherwise, an error will
be returned.
-t tos Set the tos(type-of-service) in probe packets to the
specified value. The default is zero. The value must
be an integer in the range from 0 to 255. Gateways
along the path may route the probe packet
differently depending upon the tos value set in the
probe packet.
-w waittime Set the time, in seconds, to wait for a response to a
probe. The default is five (5) seconds.
host The network host.

Examples

traceroute computerhope.com - would display results similar to the

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/utracero.htm[20/10/2009 6:42:00 ]
Linux and UNIX traceroute command help

following:

traceroute to computerhope.com (166.70.10.23), 30 hops max, 40 byte


packets
1 198.60.22.1 (198.60.22.1) 2.303 ms 1.424 ms 2.346 ms
2 krunk3.xmission.com (198.60.22.6) 0.742 ms * 1.521 ms

Note: in this example because we are local to the address we are


tracerouting the amount of hops is very minimal. However, when
you traceroute computerhope.com you may hop more than we
do.

This command is very useful for distinguishing network / router issues.


If the domain does not work or is not available you can traceroute an
IP.

Related commands

netstat
ping

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Linux and UNIX whois command help

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Linux / Unix whois command
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Dictionary Index
News Quick links
Q&A Category:
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Syntax
Tools Examples Companies:
Related commands Click here
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Linux / Unix main page
Edit this page
Related Pages:
About whois
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Linux Commands
Internet user name directory service.
Were you able
Unix Expert
Syntax to locate the
Repair Unix
answer to your
Unix Chat whois [ -h host ] identifier questions?

-h host Host which holds the identification information. Yes


No
identifier Name or host you wish to identify

Examples

whois computerhope.com - doing a whois on computerhope.com, for


example, will list information similar to the following.

Whois Server Version 1.3

Domain names in the .com, .net, and .org domains can now be
registered
with many different competing registrars. Go to
http://www.internic.net
for detailed information.

Domain Name: COMPUTERHOPE.COM


Registrar: NETWORK SOLUTIONS, INC.
Whois Server: whois.networksolutions.com
Referral URL: www.networksolutions.com
Name Server: NS.XMISSION.COM
Name Server: NS2.XMISSION.COM
Name Server: NS1.XMISSION.COM
Updated Date: 21-jun-2000

>>> Last update of whois database: Thu, 22 Feb 2001 07:49:41 EST <<<

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/uwhois.htm[20/10/2009 6:42:09 ]
Linux and UNIX whois command help

The Registry database contains ONLY .COM, .NET, .ORG, .EDU domains
and
Registrars.

Related commands

who

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Winipcfg information and help

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Home WINIPCFG
Site map Information about the winipcfg command.
Computer help
Dictionary
News Index
Q&A Quick links Availability
What's new Category:
About winipcfg The winipcfg program is available Network
Tools Availability in:
Information Companies:
E-mail this page Windows 95 Microsoft
Print Preview ABOUT WINIPCFG Windows 98
Edit this page Windows ME Related Pages:
The winipcfg command allows a Windows NT
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Driver Version information such as the IP Windows 2000 and Windows XP
Free Drivers address, Subnet Mask, Default do not utilize this command. No specific drivers
IP Changer Gateway, DHCP Server, WINS Users using these operating for this topic.
WIN98 Drivers Server, etc... systems will need to use the
See Drivers Page
ipconfig command instead. for complete listing
of drivers.

INFORMATION
Resolved
To run the program, click Start / Run and type "winipcfg" in the run
line. This should open the winipcfg window similar to the below Were you able
picture. to locate the
answer to your
questions?

Yes
No

If more than one type of adapter is present in the computer, use the
drop down window to see the other adapters' information. In the above
information, we are displaying the PPP adapter's information, which
would be the Dialup or Modem Internet connection information. If you
were currently connected on the Internet, you should have a value

http://www.computerhope.com/winipcfg.htm[20/10/2009 6:42:32 ]
Winipcfg information and help

other than 0.0.0.0 for the IP address.

Clicking More Info will display all of the available network related
information. Below is an example of what is displayed when clicking
the More Info button and changing our adapter to our Network adapter.

As illustrated in the above picture, you can clearly see that displaying
more info will allow you to display much more valuable information
about the network. In the above example, we are displaying the 3Com
3C90x Ethernet Adapter on our Network Adapter card. As seen, we can
verify the IP address of the network card as well as any other pertinent
information about the network adapter.

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External command

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External command
Computer help
Dictionary A MS-DOS command that is not included in command.com. External Index
News commands are commonly external either because they require large
Q&A requirements and/or are not commonly used commands. Below are Category:
What's new examples of MS-DOS external commands currently listed in the Dictionary
Computer Hope database.
Tools Related Pages:
E-mail this page
Append Fasthelp Pathping Taskkill
Arp Fc Ping Telnet E - Definitions
Print Preview
Edit this page Assign Fdisk Power Tracert
At Find Print Tree Resolved
Ads by Google Attrib Format Reg Undelete
External Backup FTP Route Unformat Were you able
Cacls Gpupdate Runas Xcopy to locate the
Windows Repair
Chcp Graftabl Scandisk answer to your
ScanDisk
Chkdsk Help Scanreg questions?
Hard Drive
Chkntfs Hostname Setver
Choice Ipconfig Sfc Yes
Cipher Label Share No
Comp Loadfix Shutdown
Compact logoff Smartdrv
Convert Mem Sort
Debug Mode Subst
Defrag More Sys
Delpart Msav Systeminfo
Deltree Msbackup
Diskcomp Mscdex
Diskcopy Mscdexnt
Doskey Mwbackup
Dosshell Msd
Dumpchk Nbtstat
Edit Net
Edlin Netsh
Expand Netstat
Extract Nlsfunc
Nslookup
Many of the external commands are located in the Windows\system32 or
Winnt\system32 directories. If you need to locate the external file in
order to delete it, rename it or replace it, you can also find the file
through MS-DOS. Additional information about finding a file in MS-DOS
can be found on document CH000309.

Additional information with MS-DOS and information about each of


the commands can be found here.
Information about obtaining an external command for your version

http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/e/extecomm.htm[20/10/2009 6:56:55 ]
External command

of Windows / MS-DOS can be found on document CH000640.

Computer Hope cannot and will not provide any user with a
downloadable version of any of the above files. If you're looking for a
download, we suggest you look for alternative programs that perform
the same function as the above commands.

Also see: Internal command, Operating System definitions, Recovery


console command

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Domain Name System - DNS

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DNS
Computer help
Dictionary Short for Domain Name System or Domain Name Service, a DNS is an Index
News Internet or other type of network server that helps to point domain
Q&A names or the hostname to their associated IP address that was Category:
What's new introduced by Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel in 1984. If a domain Dictionary
name is not found within the local database, the server may query other
Tools domain servers to obtain the address of a domain name. Related Pages:
E-mail this page D - Definitions
Print Preview For example, when a user is accessing the Computer Hope domain a
Edit this page user would enter the easy to remember domain: computerhope.com.
When entered that domain name is looked up on a Domain Name System Resolved
Ads by Google to translate that name into an IP address that can be better understood
Domain DNS by computer, e.g. 69.72.169.241. Using that IP address the computers Were you able
can then find the computer containing the Computer Hope web page to locate the
DNS Check
and forward that information to your computer. answer to your
DNS Lookup
questions?
Domain 21
Without a computer or server that could resolve a domain name or
without the rights you'd have to know the IP address of each of the web Yes
pages or computers you wanted to access. No

See document CH001161 for additional information about changing


the DNS.
Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP users can view and manage their
DNS settings by using the ipconfig command.
To lookup DNS information in Linux / Unix use the host command.

Also see: A record, CNAME, DNS hijacking, Domain, Domain namespace,


Hosts file, MX record, Network definitions, Port, rDNS, SOA
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